食品科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (14): 175-182.doi: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190618-195

• 生物工程 • 上一篇    下一篇

酱香型白酒1轮次酿造细菌的菌群结构

胡小霞,黄永光,涂华彬,胡 峰,程平言,尤小龙   

  1. (1.贵州大学酿酒与食品工程学院,贵州省发酵工程与生物制药重点实验室,贵州 贵阳 550025;2.贵州茅台酒厂(集团)习酒有限责任公司,贵州 习水 564622)
  • 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-07-29
  • 基金资助:
    贵州省科技支撑计划项目(黔科合支撑[2017]2542);贵州省重点基金项目(黔科合基础[2017]1405); 贵州省科技平台及人才团队计划项目(黔科合平台人才[2016]5637); 贵州省科学技术厅重大专项(黔科合重大专项字[2015]6012);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合[2019]2169); 贵州大学引进人才项目(贵大人基合字(2016)38号)

Bacterial Diversity Structure during the First Round of Pile and Pit Fermentation of Moutai-flavor Baijiu

HU Xiaoxia, HUANG Yongguang, TU Huabin, HU Feng, CHENG Pingyan, YOU Xiaolong   

  1. (1. Key Laboratory of Fermentation Engineering and Biological Pharmacy of Guizhou Province, School of Liquor and Food Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China;2. Guizhou Moutai Brewry (Group) Xijiu Co. Ltd., Xishui 564622, China)
  • Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-07-29

摘要: 为进一步解析酱香型白酒传统固态发酵过程中复杂的微生物体系,采用高通量测序等方法对酱香型白酒1轮次堆积发酵和窖池发酵酒醅中的细菌菌群结构进行研究,结果表明堆积发酵过程的细菌多样性和丰富度均高于窖池发酵,进入窖池发酵阶段,细菌的多样性和丰富度呈现急剧大幅下降。在门和属水平上,堆积发酵检出的总细菌、主要细菌和优势细菌种类均比窖池发酵同比数据多;进入窖池发酵后,微生态很快就由复杂的多菌属生态结构演替为单一的乳酸杆菌属(Lactobacillus)为主导的生态结构。堆积发酵过程优势细菌属有乳酸杆菌属等13 个,其中乳酸杆菌属、埃希氏菌属(Escherichia-Shigella)和芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)占主导地位。窖池发酵阶段乳酸杆菌属占绝对主导地位。堆积和窖池发酵细菌属水平总丰度前25的物种之间绝大多数呈显著正相关,堆积发酵过程乳酸杆菌属对其生态内的其他菌属的抑制作用强于窖池发酵。研究结果揭示了酱香型白酒1轮次堆积和窖池发酵过程中的细菌菌群结构,为传统白酒固态发酵机制及产业发展奠定了科学基础。

关键词: 酱香型白酒, 高通量测序, 堆积发酵, 窖池发酵, 细菌菌群结构

Abstract: In order to further analyze the complex microbial system during the traditional solid-state fermentation process of Moutai-flavor Baijiu, we investigated the bacterial community structure in fermented grains from the first round of pile and pit fermentation by high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the diversity and richness of bacteria during pile fermentation were higher than those during pit fermentation. After the start of pit fermentation, the diversity and richness of bacteria showed a sharp decline. At the phylum and genus levels, the species of total bacteria, major bacteria and dominant bacteria during pile fermentation were more than those during pit fermentation, and after the start of pit fermentation, rapid microbial community succession occurred from the complex structure containing multiple bacteria to a homogenous one dominated by Lactobacillus. There were 13 dominant genera during pile fermentation, including Lactobacillus, Escherichia-Shigella and Bacillus. The dominant genus during pit fermentation was Lactobacillus. There were significant positive correlations among the top 25 most abundant genera during pile and pit fermentation. The inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus on other bacteria was stronger during pile fermentation than during pit fermentation. The results of this study lay a scientific foundation for understanding the mechanism of the traditional solid-state fermentation of Baijiu and promoting industrial development.

Key words: Moutai-flavor Baijiu, high-throughput sequencing, pile fermentation, pit fermentation, bacterial community structure

中图分类号: