Abstract In this study, the effects of capsaicinoid and salt concentration on the pure culture growth of lactic acid bacteria during the fermentation of chili pepper. The results showed the growth of Lactobacillus was inhibited by capsaicinoid. The minimum concentration of capsaicinoid for Lactobacillus was 0.133 mg/mL. At the concentration, the logarithmic phase of Lactobacillus was delayed 2 h, which increased with increasing capsaicinoid concentration. The number of Lactobacillus in culture medium was decreased by capsaicinoid. Meanwhile, the OD600nm decreased by 0.2 at the stationary phase. Moreover, capsaicinoid at a certain concentration could damage the cell structure of Lactobacillus as observed under transmission electron microscope.