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    Effects of different sterilization temperatures on flavor in Lamb Spine
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract467)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (813KB)(296)       Save
    The contents of free amino acids (FAA) and volatile flavor compounds of lamb spine for different sterilization temperatures (raw meat, unsterilized, 90 ℃, 105 ℃, 121 ℃) were detected and analyzed by amino acid analyzer, dynamic headspace sampling combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DHS-GC-MS) and electronic nose (E-nose). The results showed that 17, 16, 16, 16, and 16 free amino acids were detected in 5 groups of samples. Except for raw meat, the contents of TFAA and EAA were highest in samples sterilized at 105 ℃, and aspartic acid and glutamic acid with significantly higher content (P <0.05) than other sterilization temperature samples, which had important contributions to the overall taste of lamb spine. A total of 30, 40, 46, 45, and 47 volatile flavor compounds were detected, among which the highest content was found in unsterilized finished products, which were all reduced after sterilization. The total amount of volatile flavor contents in 105 ℃ sterilized samples was significantly higher (P<0.05) than 90 ℃ and 121 ℃ sterilized samples, which also had relatively high contents of various compounds and compounds with an OAV greater than 1. The samples with different sterilization temperature can be clearly distinguished by the electronic nose system. Combined with the results of sensory evaluation, the flavor of the 105 ℃ sterilized sample is the best and the score was the closest to that of unsterilized samples, which provides support for the industrial production of the lamb spine.
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    Effect of sterilization method on microbial diversity and quality of rice cake
    Tong-Hui SUN Jie CHEN li xueqin
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract335)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (848KB)(171)       Save
    In this study, rice cake was used as the research object. The influence of sterilization method on the microbial characteristics of rice cake was analyzed by the trend of the total number of colonies during storage. The 16S rDNA V3-V4 region was sequenced by Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing technology, further study the effects of sterilization methods on the richness and diversity of rice cake groups, and analyze the effects of sterilization methods on the quality of rice cakes by means of qualitative properties and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the total number of rice cake colonies with different sterilization methods increased with the storage time. The shelf life of the rice cakes in the water bath treatment group and the ethanol spray group was 15d and 12d respectively. It can be seen from the Alpha diversity analysis that sterilization methods are the richness and diversity of the rice cake group have great influence. Under the water bath treatment mode, the dominant bacteria are mainly Acinetobacter (40.49%), Pantoea (32.61%), Salmonella (12.33%); Under the genus Pantoea and Salmonella, the relative abundance decreased rapidly, and Acinetobacter (81.46%) and Microbacterium (10.74%) became the main dominant bacteria. The Young's modulus, firmness, toughness and masticatory power of the rice cake gradually increased with the storage time, and the elasticity, viscosity and sensory score showed a downward trend. The change trend of the ethanol spray group was more significant than that of the water bath treatment group. And the influence of the microbial flora structure diversity, water bath treatment is more suitable for fresh-keeping of rice cake, and can better maintain the quality of rice cake during storage.
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    Classification and Nomenclature Analysis of Artificial Meat and Specification Suggestions
    Shi-Lei Li Ying-Ying LI
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract328)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (1467KB)(191)       Save
    In the past few decades, with the rapid expansion of the global population and the unprecedented expansion of the middle-income population, the demand of human beings for meat products has shown an unprecedented rapid growth trend. Relying on the traditional breeding industry to meet the rapid growth of human consumption of meat products is facing increasingly severe challenges. Artificial meat is the most likely solution to the dilemma of human meat production and consumption. At present, artificial meat consists of two categories: one is artificial meat based on plant protein, which can simulate the appearance and taste of real meat products to the maximum extent, all of which are also known as plain meat, plant meat, simulated meat, etc.; the other is artificial meat based on biological tissue culture, which provides real animal protein for human beings because it can bypass animal feeding, also known as For cultivating meat, cultivating meat, in vitro meat or cleaning meat, etc. However, due to the rise of artificial meat industry, China's relevant terms, standards, laws and regulations are still in the stage to be formulated, resulting in the confusion of nomenclature related to artificial meat. In this review, the author combines the production technology, production process, social acceptance, Chinese tradition and Chinese interpretation of artificial meat, and puts forward the standard opinions on the naming of terms related to artificial meat in Chinese.
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    Rapid Detection of Cronobacter sakazakii using Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Combined with Lateral Flow Strip
    null
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract323)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (1699KB)(120)       Save
    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic food-borne pathogen that causes serious diseases in humans of different age groups, especially newborns and immunocompromised infants. In this study, recombinase polymerase isothermal amplification (RPA) cobined with lateral flow test strips (LF) was developed to quickly and reliably detect C. sakazakii. RPA amplification using the primers modified with biotin and digoxin produced large amount of double-stranded DNA products labeled with biotin and digoxin at each end. The products could interact with gold-labeled anti-digoxin antibody and streptavidin fixed on the LF, and finally showed visible results on the strip. RPA-LF method showed detection limit of 1.7×102 CFU/mL for C. sakazakii in pure culture and no cross-reactivity with other common pathogens. Performance of the RPA-LF for atrifically contaminated food samples was evaluated and the results showed that the detection limit was 1.7×100 CFU/g after 4 h or 6 h enrichment for different food types. In order to further evaluate the performance of the method developed in this study, 20 real food samples were detected by the RPA-LF and the national standard method simultaneously. The results showed that test results of the RPA-LF were in agreement with that of national standard method of China.
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    Optimization of culture conditions for γ-aminobutyric acid produced by Lactobacillus buchneri
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract301)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (780KB)(116)       Save
    Abstract: Two strains of high-yield γ-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus buchneri S37 and Lactobacillus buchneri J68, were screened from Chinese fermented vegetables, in order to further improve their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid, the fermentation conditions of the strains were optimized and optimize the nutritional ingredients added to the medium that significantly affect the yield of gamma-aminobutyric acid using response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions for the production of γ-aminobutyric acid by two Lactobacillus buchneri strains were: fermentation time 72 h, fermentation temperature 35℃, substrate concentration L-sodium glutamate (L-MSG) 400 mM, initial pH 5.0. under this condition, the yields of γ-aminobutyric acid of two Lactobacillus buchneri strains were 233.9 mM and 159.3 mM, respectively. Then, based on the optimal fermentation conditions, through single factor screening and response surface optimization, folic acid, L-cysteine and manganese chloride at the optimal level, the yields of γ-aminobutyric acid of two Lactobacillus buchneri strains finally can reach 312.6 mM and 251.2 mM, respectively, and the conversion rates were 78.2% and 62.8%, respectively. Lactobacillus buchneri S37 with higher GABA yield was selected for subsequent studies by significance analysis.
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    Analysis of Nutritional Composition and Aroma Compounds of Potato Rice Wine
    Ying-Zheng YAO
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract300)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (569KB)(122)       Save
    Potato rice wine were brewed from different proportions of fresh potatoes and glutinous rice, which nutritional compositions were determined, and the volatile aroma compounds were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to study the influence of fresh potato on nutritional compositions and aroma compounds of rice wine. The results showed that rice wine added with fresh potato, which greatly increased dietary fiber, vitamin C increased from 0 to 3.95 mg/100 g, alcohol raised from 0.64% to 3.34%, reduced sugar acid ratio and total amount of amino acids, but the amount of tryptophan was increased, and optimized the amino acid composition ratio of rice wine. A total of 61 aroma compounds were identified in all wine samples, the main aroma compounds were isoamylol, isobutanol, phenylethyl alcohol, hexanol, ethyl palmitate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl caprylate, acetic acid, hexanal, acetoin, β-caryophyllene, and 2-amylfuran. The kinds and relative contents of alcohols and esters in potato rice wine accounted for over 67% and 80%, respectively. The highest relative content was isoamylol and phenylethyl alcohol in 0~50% and 75% potato rice wine, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that add or not and content of potato had a great influence on the kind and relative content of aroma compounds. In general, proper addition of fresh potato (25%~50%) could help rice wine to balance nutritional compositions, improve taste and enrich aroma compounds.
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    Study on the metabolites characteristic of white tea compared with green tea, oolong tea and black tea based on the non-targeted metabolomics approach
    Xin-Lei LI Hong-zheng LIN Zhi-Long HAO Xin-Yi JIN
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract258)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (1568KB)(121)       Save
    To explore the metabolites characteristic of white tea and its process mechanisms, this study used UPLC-QTOF MS to detect, filtrate and identify differential products between white tea, green tea, black tea, and oolong tea which were all made from one bud with two or three leaves of two cultivars, Fuyun No.6 and Huangdan (Camellia sinensis). There were 152 and 148 differential compounds among four tea types have been filtered in Fuyun No.6 and Huangdan respectively. Total 33 important compounds in tea which belong to catechins or its derivate, anthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, flavonol or flavone glycosides, phenolic acids and theaflavins had been identified in different tea types. The result of principle component analysis showed that white tea located between oolong tea and black tea in first principle component whereas distinct from other tea types in second principle component. Loading plot showed the key profiles of white tea were flavonol or flavone glycosides,gallated catechin and catechin derivates. The intensity of most identified flavonol or flavone glycoside in white tea were significantly higher than other tea types. Catechins and anthocyanidins in white tea were significantly lower than green tea and approximated to black tea especially non-gallated catechins. Theaflavin and theaflavin-3-gallate in white tea were significantly higher than green tea but neither theaflavin-3’-gallate nor theaflavin-3,3’-gallate. Interestingly, 8-C-ascorbyl-EGCG one of EGCG derivate white tea showed significantly higher than other tea types.
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    Properties of Polylactic Acid Active Antibacterial Film and Its Effect on Cherry Preservation Quality
    Li Li
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract252)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (1180KB)(115)       Save
    Abstract: Using "Mei Zao" cherry as test material, polylactic acid/poly-3-Hydroxybut-yrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate (PLA/P34HB) as substrate, diatomaceous earth with peppermint essential oil as sustained release antibacterial The agent is prepared by using a cast film forming process to prepare an active antibacterial film for preserving the cherry. The physicochemical indexes such as the composition of the top air in the fresh-keeping bag and the mass loss rate during storage of the cherries at (4±1) °C were studied. The effect of the change of the water state inside the cherry on the quality was investigated by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). The results showed that the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the film with diatomite loaded with peppermint essential oil increased from 250.37(cm3?m-2?d-1?Mpa-1)to 290.45(cm3?m-2?d-1?Mpa-1)compared with PLA/P34HB film. The improvement of OTR was beneficial to maintain the nutrient composition and texture of cherry. LF-NMR showed that the film containing menthol oil with menthol oil kept the water activity of cherries very well. When the storage time was 12 days, the combined water peak area ratio was about 2 times that of the bare group, which effectively delayed the corruption of the cherries in the package and prolonged the Shelf life.
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    Aroma release from Stewed Pork with Brown Sauce during oral processing
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract249)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (418KB)(90)       Save
    This paper took stewed pork with brown sauce as the research project to explore its aroma release at different oral processing stages. The panel of four subjects was built by recruiting members for evaluation, selection, and professional training. Four subjects chewed the samples of Stewed Pork with Brown Sauce freely and collected the exhaled gas samples used Tedlar? gas bags at different oral processing stages, followed by solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to detect volatile organic compounds in the exhaled gas. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the exhaled gas for each subject at different oral processing stages. The correlation between total aroma release and chewing parameters were analyzed, and the distribution of aroma release at pre- and post-swallow was compared. Results showed that the aroma release curves (panel and individual) were found that the aroma release was always in dynamic change during the oral processing from Stewed Pork, and the inter-individual difference was still unavoidable; Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the chewing times (r=0.910, P<0.01) and the chewing cycles (r=0.851, P<0.01) on the amount of aroma release; Moreover, the ratio of aroma release was larger at the pre-swallow stage than the post-swallow stage; The release of three major volatiles with different hydrophobicity (log P values) were also analyzed between pre-swallow and post-swallow stages, and the higher the hydrophobicity of the volatile, the more release of aroma at post-swallow. The use of Tedlar? bags combined with solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was a novel detection method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the exhaled gas from food (Stewed Pork with Brown Sauce) during oral processing. It laid a methodological foundation for the study of the release kinetics of food aroma.
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    Effect of High Pressure Thermal Sterilization on Physiological Characteristics of Weissella viridescens
    YU Longxia, WU Xiang, LI Xinfu, ZHANG Wangang, LI Cong, XU Baocai
    FOOD SCIENCE    2020, 41 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20181121-250
    Abstract245)   HTML13)    PDF(pc) (2431KB)(375)       Save
    To explore the killing effect of high pressure thermal sterilization (HPTS) on Weissella viridescens, the physiological properties, morphological characteristics and membrane permeability of bacterial cells treated by either ultra high pressure (UHP) (at 350 MPa and 25 ℃ for 10 min) or HPTS (at 350 MPa and 50 ℃ for 10 min) were evaluated. The results showed that after HPTS treatment total bacteria count was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that after UHP treatment (5.71 versus 7.67 (lg(CFU/mL))). The synergistic treatment caused the surface of bacterial cells to become seriously wrinkled, caused denaturation and coagulation of cellular contents, and damaged the cell membrane thereby altering membrane permeability and resulting in a significant increase in extracellular ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing substances (P < 0.05). In summary, HPTS could aggravate deformation of bacterial cells and increase cell membrane permeability leading to leakage of intracellular UV-absorbing substances. The results of this study provide theoretical evidence for the mechanisms of Weissella viridescens inactivation by HPTS.
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    Origin Traceability of Green Tea from Guizhou Tongren Fanjing Mountains area
    ZHANG Minglu, HUANG Congwei, LI Like, XIAO Yixuan, YU Haiyou, ZHAO Tairan, YIN Jie
    FOOD SCIENCE   
    Accepted: 15 October 2020

    Effect of hawthorn leaves polysaccharide on the quality and antioxidation of fermented milk
    null
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract216)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (1143KB)(98)       Save
    The effect of hawthorn Leaves polysaccharide on the fermented milk quality of total number of prebiotic lactic acid bacteria, water-holding capacity, titratable acidity, color, texture properties, rheological properties, antioxidant activity and sensory quality were investigated by adding different concentrations hawthorn Leaves polysaccharide into fermented milk. The quality characteristics of fermented milk were studied with texture analyzer, rheometer and color difference meter, DPPH method, salicylic method and Fe3+ reducing power were used to investigate its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that the growth of lactic acid bacteria and acid production in fermented milk could be promoted by hawthorn Leaves polysaccharide, the water-holding capacity was up to 60.24%, when the adding amount of hawthorn Leaves polysaccharide polysaccharide was 0.12%. Fermented milk had the highest hardness, viscosity, chewiness, When the addition amount of hawthorn Leaves polysaccharide is 0.16%. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ?OH free radical scavenging activity and Fe3+ reducing power were the highest value, reach to 80.7%、81.6% and 0.56 (OD value), which were till significantly higher than control group(p<0.05). The quality and antioxidant activity of fermented milk could be improved by adding hawthorn Leaves polysaccharide in reasonable amounts. This study can provides theoretical basis and technical support for the application development of hawthorn Leaves polysaccharide.
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    The Global Transcriptional Regulator CodY Promotes Listeria monocytogenes Against Oxidative Stress
    Shi-Yi YANG 罗勤
    FOOD SCIENCE   
    Accepted: 29 July 2020

    Effect of Cooking Time on Glucoraphanin and Sulforaphane Contents in Broccoli Cooked by Different Cooking Methods
    LU Xu, MA Shaoying, LI Sheng, ZHANG Congcong, BAO Jinyu, ZHANG Xiumin
    FOOD SCIENCE    2020, 41 (1): 41-47.   DOI: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20181201-005
    Abstract189)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (2961KB)(204)       Save
    The common domestic cooking methods include steaming, boiling, stir-frying and microwaving, and vegetables may lose nutrients during the cooking processes. In this experiment, the effect of cooking time on glucoraphanin (GRA) and sulforaphane (SFN) contents, endogenous myrosinase (MYR) activity and cell membrane permeability in broccoli (cv. ‘Ruinong’) cooked by each of the four methods separately. In addition, the effect of exogenous MYR addition on converting GRA to SFN was studied. The results showed that for each cooking method, GRA content decreased with cooking time, SFN content increased first and then decreased, endogenous MYR activity decreased, and cell membrane permeability increased. Steamed broccoli retained higher contents of GRA and SFN. The addition of exogenous MYR could enhance the conversion rate of GRA to SFN in broccoli, producing more SFN.
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    Repair Effect of Lactoferrin on Triadimefon Induced Damage of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells
    Yan XU Haowei REN Ning Liu
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract180)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (10777KB)(95)       Save
    The present study was designed to investigate the repairing effect of Lactoferrin (Lf) on triadimefon (TDF) induced damage of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The cell damage model was induced by TDF. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferation of BMSCs. After being treated with TDF and Lf, the cells were collected for determining the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN), and the changes in osteogenesis and adipogenic gene expression. Detection of osteogenic differentiation ability using alizarin red staining and detection of adipogenic differentiation ability using oil red O staining. We found that compared with the blank control group, Lf at all concentrations tested promoted cell proliferation (P<0.05). Lf increased the cell survival rate, elevated the content of ALP and OCN in the cells, increased the formation of mineralized nodules, reduced the formation of lipid drople, as well as increased the relative expression of osteogenic differentiation-related genes, and decreased the relative expression of genes involved in adipogenic differentiation. According to our results, Lf can promote the proliferation of BMSCs damaged by TDF, differentiated the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteogenic direction, which can promote the formation of new bone better and consequently repair cell damage.
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    Antimicrobial mechanism of oregano essential oil (OEO) against Staphylococcus saprophyticus
    Meng-Ling Chen Wei-qing LAN Han-Xiao Li Meng Wang Zi-Xuan Lu Zhi-Chu Ren Jing XIE
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract179)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (1087KB)(113)       Save
    the antimicrobial mechanism of oregano essential oil (OEO) against staphylococcus saprophyticus were investigated in this paper, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of OEO against Staphylococcus saprophyticus was determined from inhibition zone diameter by perforation method, microbic?growth?curve, electrical conductivity, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, ultraviolet absorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of OEO. The result showed that the MIC of OEO against staphylococcus saprophyticus was 0.25%. When treated by MIC and 2MIC of OEO, the logarithmic phase of staphylococcus saprophyticus was delayed obviously, which led to the leakage of content, the activity of AKP and LDH were increased significantly. The growth of bacteria was inhibited, which was positively correlated with the concentration of OEO. The structure of cell wall and cell membrane were changed at the same time. The results of SEM revealed that the morphology of bacterial cells was changed when treated with MIC of OEO for 6h, the hollowness and extensive wrinkles were appeared after treated by 2MIC, which due to the deformation and death of staphylococcus saprophyticu finally.
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    Physiochemical Characterization of Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Anthocyanin and Soybean Protein Isolate Composite Nanoparticles
    JU Mengnan, ZHU Gang, CHEN Hongyu, LAN Tian, DONG Yabo, WEN Jiayu, JIANG Lianzhou, SUI Xiaonan
    FOOD SCIENCE    2020, 41 (2): 1-7.   DOI: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190109-101
    Abstract179)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (5172KB)(246)       Save
    In this paper, composite nanoparticles of soy protein isolate (SPI) and anthocyanin (ACN) were prepared by covalent binding and used to stabilize Pickering emulsions. We measured the surface hydrophobicity of nanoparticles with different concentrations of anthocyanins. The emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), rheological properties and microstructure of the resulting Pickering emulsions were measured via chemical and instrumental analysis. The results showed that as the volume fraction of anthocyanin increased from 0% to 0.15%, the surface hydrophobicity of nanoparticles decreased from 18 174 to 8 945; the EAI of Pickering emulsions increased 127 m2/g, and the ESI by nearly 100%, which was accompanied by a significant improvement in the distribution of lipid droplets. In addition, the Pickering emulsions exhibited solid-like properties and were a typical non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid. We also found that droplet bridging in SPI-ACN composite Pickering emulsions occurred with the addition of anthocyanins, which will lay a theoretical basis for developing new Pickering emulsions in the food industry.
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    A Review on Traditional Fermented Foods and Their Starters in Different Countries and Regions
    FOOD SCIENCE    0, (): 0-0.  
    Abstract173)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (433KB)(106)       Save
    Since ancient times, traditional fermented food is a part of people’s daily diet, and has a strong regional. Food microorganism is an important part of traditional fermented food, and plays a decisive role in the quality and safety of fermented food. Expounding the composition, group, succession rule, action mechanism and function of fermentation microorganisms in fermented food could lay a theoretical foundation for the production of high-quality and stable fermented food in modern industrialization. In this paper, the types of traditional fermented foods, the groups of fermented microorganisms, the regulatory system, the mechanism of action and the relationship between the types of interactions and the development of starters were reviewed. The application of meta-omics in fermented food was also summarized.
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