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Table of Content

15 December 2012, Volume 33 Issue 23
Preparation and Recognition Mechanism of Vanillin Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Microspheres
2012, 33(23):  1-7. 
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Molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIPs) were synthesized by precipitation polymerization using vanillin as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker. The interaction of vanillin with MAA and the recognition mechanism of vanillin MIPs were studied by UV spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 1H-NMR, and their surface morphology was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Equilibrium adsorption and isothermal adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the vanillin-binding capacities of MIPs and non-molecularly imprinted polymers (NIPs). Smooth and regularly shaped MIPs were formed from the hydrogen bonding interaction between vanillin and MAA. They could adsorb and recognize vanillin much better than NIPs and adsorption equilibrium was reached after 120 min. Scatchard analysis showed that a homogenous distribution of vanillin-specific recognition sites were found in the MIPs, and the dissociation constant (Kd) and apparent maximum binding capacity (Qmax) were 4.243 × 10-5 mol/L and 7.357 μmol/g, respectively. The results of selective separation, solid phase extraction (SPE) and HPLC analysis indicated that these MIPs were effective in separating and enriching vanillin.
Effect of Flaxseed Gum on Gelatinization of Maize Starch
sun jian
2012, 33(23):  8-12. 
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Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to explore the effect of flaxseed gum (FG) on the gelatinization of maize starch. DSC results showed that addition of FG to maize starch significantly increased the onset temperature and enthalpy of starch melting. No structural variations were found for maize starch in the presence and absence of FG, as demonstrated by FT-IR analysis. No obvious interactions existed between FG and maize starch at 65 ℃. However, FG could enhance the water-binding capacity of maize starch at 75 ℃. XRD results revealed no obvious changes in relative crystallinity of maize starch with added FG before gelatinization but a significant reduction after gelatinization. Therefore, the presence of FG could delay the gelatinization of maize starch. This result was confirmed by SEM observation.
Effects of Physical Grinding Methods and Particle Size on in vitro Antioxidant and Cholesterol-Scavenging Activity of Super-micro Green Tea Powder
2012, 33(23):  13-17. 
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of physical grinding methods (airstream pulverization, planetary ball milling and vibration milling) and particle size on in vitro antioxidant (DPPH free radical scavenging activity) and cholesterol-scavenging activity of super-micro green tea powder. Super-micro powder samples of ordinary (SOGT) and Se-rich (SSGT) green tea were prepared by different physical grinding methods and examined for particle size distribution and morphology using a laser particle analyzer and a scanning electron microscope. Planetary ball milling provided minimum particle size of green tea powder and a median particle size (D50) of 3.398 μm and 3.462 μm for SOGT and SSGT, respectively. In addition, tea powder samples showed a uniform particle size distribution but an irregular shape. SSGT had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity but weaker cholesterol-scavenging activity than SSGT.
Mechanism of Silver Nitrate Induced Glyceollin Production in Black Soybeans during Germination
2012, 33(23):  18-22. 
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The objective of this study was to clarify the mechanism of silver nitrate-induced glyceollin synthesis in black soybeans during germination. Black soybeans were treated with 0.01 mol/L silver nitrate to induce the production of glyceollin during cultivation. The contents of glyceollin, daidzin, daidzein, malonylgenstin, and malonyldaidzein in cultivated black soybeans were determined by HPLC. Daidzein was an important precursor for the synthesis of glyceollin. Daidzin, malonylgenstin and malonyldaidzein had an important influence on the synthesis of glyceollin. In conclusion, daidzein content can provide evidence for the selection of black soybean cultivars suitable for silver nitrate induced glyceollin production.
Purification, Identification and Anti-A549 Cell Activity of Gypenosides from Thermally Processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum Leaves
2012, 33(23):  23-26. 
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Objective: To extract, separate and identify anti-A549 cell constituents from thermally processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum leaves. Methods: Gynostemma pentaphyllum leaves were processed at 125 ℃ and 0.24 MPa for 3 h and subjected to heat reflux extraction with 80% ethanol for 3 h. Anti-A549 cell constituents in the extract were separated using HP-20 macroporous adsorption resin and a reversed-phase column by means of bioassay-guided separation and identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS. Results: Two dammarane-type saponins were obtained and identified as gypenoside L and gypenoside LI, respectively. Both gypenosides had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on A549 cells with IC50 values of (48.43 ± 1.33) μg/mL and (34.35 ± 0.88) μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Thermally processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum leaves have a notable inhibitory effect on A549 cells, which is associated with the presence of gypenoside L and gypenoside LI.
Effects of Cooking Temperature and Time on Fatty Acid Composition of Pork
2012, 33(23):  27-30. 
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In this study, the effects of cooking temperatures (70, 80, 90 ℃ and 100 ℃) and cooking time (0.5, 1, 2, 3 h and 4 h) on the fatty acid composition of pork were investigated. For each cooking temperature, the proportions of different types of fatty acids (saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids) in total fatty acids showed similar changing trends with cooking time. The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in total fatty acids presented a general downward trend but reached a peak at 2 h along with linolenic/linoleic acid ratio. However the opposite result was observed for saturated fatty acids. In addition, the proportions of different types of fatty acids in total fatty acids tended to negatively correlate with temperature, but the correlations were not significant. In conclusion, adjusting cooking temperature and time according to product design requirements can provide a desired blend of fatty acids.
Comparative Antibacterial Effects and Mechanisms of Biological Preservatives against Fish Spoilage Organisms
2012, 33(23):  31-35. 
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The antibacterial effects of five biological preservatives including grapefruit seed extract, grape seed extract, lemon extract, thymol and tea polyphenols against Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella putrefacien as specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) in fish were comparatively investigated by measuring inhibitory circle diameter and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results showed that thymol, tea polyphenols and grape seed extract had strong antibacterial effect. Meanwhile, thymol revealed extremely strong antibacterial effects against both spoilage organisms, especially Shewanella putrefacien. Tea polyphenols had similar antibacterial effects against both spoilage organisms, while grape seed extract had better antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas spp. than Shewanella putrefacien. Overall, thymol had the best antibacterial activity against both spoilage organisms. Thymol treatment group had high levels of electric conductivity, soluble sugar concentration and protein concentration when compared with control group. Hence, we concluded that the antibacterial mechanism of thymol is presumably due to increasing cell membrane permeability, disintegrating the outer cell membrane and destroying the phospholipids bilayer.
Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Quality of Three Kinds of Vegetable Oils during Frying
2012, 33(23):  36-41. 
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The effect of frying on the quality of soybean oil, camellia oil and palm oil was evaluated by determining acid value and peroxide value by the national standards and analyzing fatty acid composition (especially trans fatty acids, TFA) using a highly polar column (CP-Sil 88). The results showed that cis-linoleic acid (53.06%), cis-oleic acid (82.26%) and palmitic acid (49.7%) were predominant in soybean oil, camellia oil and palm oil, respectively. During low-temperature frying, the total TFA contents in soybean oil and palm oil had no significant change at an average level of 15.51 mg/g and 1.35 mg/g. The content of trans-oleic acid in camellia oil revealed an increase by 63.82% with extended frying time. In decreasing order of acid value, the vegetable oils were camellia oil, palm oil and soybean oil. During frying, the peroxide values of soybean oil and palm oil initially increased and then decreased. Within 8 h of continuous use, neither acid value nor peroxide value exceeded the national food hygiene standards. Taken together, the above results suggest that palm oil has the lowest total TFA content and therefore is more suitable for short-term repeated use in food processing.
Effect of Protein Content on Cooking and Eating Quality of Japonica Rice
2012, 33(23):  42-46. 
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The microstructure of raw rice and cooked rice from japonica rice cultivars with similar amylose contents and significantly different protein contents (12.32%, 8.42% and 5.72%, respectively), m 119,  m 90 and Koshihikari, was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to explore the relationship between protein content and cooking and eating quality. Koshihikari had the best eating quality followed by m90 and m119 as demonstrated by sensory evaluation and rapid viscosity analysis (RVA). Cross-sectional observations of brown rice under SEM and CLSM showed that compound starch granules in m 119 were surrounded by large amounts of spherical protein bodies in honeycomb-like patterns. The roughness of fracture surfaces of water-soaked brown rice grains increased, and consequently water absorption declined with increasing protein content as observed under CLSM, suggesting that protein content can affect water absorption in rice. The microstructure of cooked rice as observed under SEM and CLSM displayed that water absorption and gelatinization of starch granules were limited because compound starch granules in m 119 were surrounded by large amounts of spherical protein bodies, resulting in deterioration of cooking and eating quality.
Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Kernel Oils from Different Hazelnut Varieties
2012, 33(23):  47-50. 
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In this study, kernel oils from different hazelnut varieties, European hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Corylus heterophylla, and their hybrids Liaozhen No.3 and Dawei were comparatively analyzed for their physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity. Obvious differences in physicochemical properties of hazelnut kernel oil were observed among the different varieties, which ranged from 137.15 to 147.50 g I2/100 g in iodine value and from 144.99 to 159.03 mg KOH/g in saponification value. Acid and iodine values were lower in Corylus heterophylla kernel oil, whereas Corylus avellana L. kernel oil presented a higher acid value and kernel oil from both hybrids had a higher iodine value. In addition, there was a considerable difference in saponification value between both hybrids. Oleic acid (67.69%–82.26%) was the most abundant one in each hazelnut variety followed by linoleic acid (11.37%–14.24%). The contents of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 84.37%–94.31% and 11.84%–16.39%, respectively. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 values of kernel oils from these hazelnut varieties were between 23.63 mg/mL and 42.40 mg/mL and in decreasing order were Liaozhen No.3, Corylus heterophylla, Dawei and Corylus avellana L.. These results suggest that Corylus heterophylla and its hybrids with Corylus avellana L. are superior to Corylus avellana L. in terms of unsaturated fatty acid content and antioxidant activity.
in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Kiwifruit Seed Oil
2012, 33(23):  51-54. 
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The in vitro antioxidant activity of kiwifruit seed oil was evaluated by reducing power assay and DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays and compared with vitamin C as a positive control. The results showed that the reducing power and scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals of kiwifruit seed oil were directly proportional to concentration. Kiwifruit seed oil could scavenge superoxide anion radicals better than vitamin C but was less effective in scavenging DPPH radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. The IC50 values against superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals were 0.078, 0.1 mg/mL and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, kiwifruit seed oil had the strongest scavenging effect against superoxide anion radicals.
Changes in Sensory Quality and Chemical Composition of Sichuan Brick Tea during Processing
2012, 33(23):  55-59. 
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This study was conducted to systematically investigate changes in sensory quality and chemical composition of Sichuan brick tea during processing. The contents of free amino acids, tea polyphenols, catechins, soluble sugar, crude fiber and protopectin (by up to 66.50%) revealed a decreasing trend during the processing of Sichuan brick tea, while opposite results were observed for the contents of water extracts, caffeine, theaflavins (TF), theabrowns (TB, by up to 194.29%) and water-soluble pectin. The sensory quality of finished Sichuan brick tea was found to be just inferior to that of steamed compressed tea sample, indicating that post-fermentation was necessary for the final transformation of tea quality. The contents of water extract, caffeine, free amino acids, tea polyphenols, catechins, TF, TR and TB in the upper stratum of pile fermentation were greatly changed, while great changes in the contents of crude fiber, protopectin and water soluble pectin were observed for the middle stratum of pile fermentation. As the pile fermentation proceeded, the upper, middle and lower strata exchanged their places to make a well-distributed fermentation finally, thus resulting in quality transformation of Sichuan brick tea.
Establishment and Evaluation of Prediction Model for the Shelf Life of Fresh Chicken
2012, 33(23):  60-63. 
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In order to establish a kinetics model for the shelf-life of fresh chicken, fresh chicken was packed in PS/PE trays and stored at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 25 ℃, and Pseudomonas spp. count was determined. Meanwhile, fresh chicken was analyzed for quality characteristics during storage at 5 ℃ to determine the average count of Pseudomonas spp. at the end of shelf-life. The results indicated that the average count of Pseudomonas spp. was 5.39 (lg(CFU/g)) at the end of shelf-life. The growth dynamics of Pseudomonas spp. at six different temperatures could be well fitted with the Gompertz function and a bacterial growth model was established for each temperature. The effect of temperature on maximum specific growth rate (μmax) and lag phase (λ) was well described by the Belehradek function as a good linear relationship. Both models demonstrated an absolute residual error less than 0.07 and were thus reliable. Based on the above investigations, a prediction model for the shelf life of fresh chicken was developed.
Effects of Modified Tea Polyphenols on Lipid Oxidation in Chinese Bacon during Fermentation and Aging
2012, 33(23):  64-69. 
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Excessive lipid oxidation has a negative impact on the quality and safety of traditional Chinese cured meat products. In the present study, the effect of antioxidant coating treatment with modified oil-soluble tea polyphenols (MTP) on lipid oxidation in Chinese bacon during fermentation and aging. Combined treatment with MTP and chitosan resulted in a decrease of 28.82%, 12.76%, and 7.91% for internal muscle and of 12.73%, 17.11%, and 14.37% for surface fat in peroxide value (POV), 2-thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances (TBARs) and acid value (AV), respectively, when compared with combined treatment with non-modified TP and chitosan. This result demonstrates that MTP, which have increased antioxidant activity due to good oil solubility, can effectively control lipid oxidation in Chinese bacon. In addition, no significant differences in muscle a* value and fat b* value at the end of aging were found between both treatment groups (P > 0.05). Collectively, based on these results, we conclude that MTP can be combined with chitosan for practical applications.
Isolation, Purification, and Structural Analysis of Four Functional Saccharides from Chinese Dates
2012, 33(23):  70-74. 
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Crude oligosaccharides were obtained from Chinese dates by hot water extraction, decolorized using (201 × 7) 717 type strongly alkaline anion exchange resin, and purified on DEAE-52 cellulose column to obtain three fractions, JuBO1, JuBO2 and JuBO3. JuBO1 was further purified by Sephadex G-25 column chromatography to obtain two single components, JuBO1-1 and JuBO1-2. Besides, JuBO2 and JuBO3 were desalted by Sephadex G-15 column chromatography, along with JuBO1-1 and JuBO1-2, lyophilized and analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS for monosaccharide composition. The monosaccharide composition consisted of arabinose, mannose, galactose and glucose for JuBO1-1, arabinose, rhamnose, fructose, mannose, galactose and glucose for JuBO1-2, arabinose, fructose and glucose for JuBO2 and arabinose, rhamnose, fructose and glucose for JuBO3. The average molecular weights of JuBO1-1, JuBO1-2, JuBO2 and JuBO3 were determined by gel filtration chromatography to be 5952, 545, 108629 D and 2624 D, respectively.
Effect of Processing Temperature on Salts and Casein Colloid in Bovine Milk
2012, 33(23):  75-78. 
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As important components of milk, salts and casein colloid play a key role in maintaining the stability of milk system. In order to explore the effect of processing temperature on salts and casein colloid in bovine milk, we measured indicators of milk quality at different temperatures. The results showed that processing temperature had a significant impact on the form and content of salts in milk (P<0.05). As the temperature increased, the soluble calcium and soluble phosphorus were transferred to the colloidal phase; milk casein colloidal particle size, surface potential, hydration and other properties also revealed an obvious change due to the denaturation of whey protein. Therefore, there is a close relationship of processing temperature with salts and casein colloid in milk, which is important for the quality of milk.
in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Actinidia arguta Sieb. et Zucc. Fruits
2012, 33(23):  79-82. 
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Crude polysaccharides from Actinidia arguta Sieb. et Zucc. fruits were extracted by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation, deproteinized and defatted and the yield of crude polysaccharides was found to be 1.41%. The crude polysaccharide extract was separated by DEAE-cellulose 52 ion exchange chromatography to obtain four fractions (Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ). Complete separation of fractions Ⅱ and Ⅲ was achieved by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. The antioxidant activity of fraction Ⅱ was investigated by measuring free radical scavenging activity. Polysaccharide fraction II was found to have strong radical scavenging activity against DPPH and alkyl radicals with an IC50 of 0.497 mg/mL and 0.547 mg/mL, respectively. Its radical scavenging activity increased with increasing concentration within the concentration range investigated and the scavenging rate at a concentration of 1 mg/mL was 86.4% and 87.1% for DPPH and alkyl radicals, respectively, which was comparable to that of vitamin C. Moreover, this fraction also had radical scavenging activity against hydroxyl radical with an IC50 of 0.668 mg/mL in a concentration-dependent manner but was inferior to vitamin C. However, its radical scavenging activity against superioxide anion radical was weak. Based on the above results, we conclude that polysaccharide fraction Ⅱ has potent antioxidant activity.
Analysis of Mechanical Texture of Straight Thread-Like Pasta Based on Compressive Rod Post-Buckling
2012, 33(23):  83-87. 
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In order to clarify the bending deformation law of straight thread-like pastas, their mechanical texture parameters including bending-resistant capability and elastic modulus was explored and compared with Chinese dry noodles. Midpoint deflection and bending angle in different end axial displacements of straight thread-like pastas from different brands were measured using a scanner. Their mechanical texture parameters were tested using a texture analyzer. The results showed that the deformation behavior of straight thread-like pastas as analyzed based on the large deflection theory of compressive rod post-buckling was accurate, practicable and reliable. The optimal experimental conditions for testing elastic modulus were determined as 180 mm of sample length and 20° of end bending angle. Under these conditions, the elastic modulus of straight thread-like pastas was measured to be approximately 4.1 × 109 N/m2, an increase of 1.1 × 109 N/m2 compared with Chinese dry noodles. The bending stress at breaking points of straight thread-like pastas was approximately 36.0 N/mm2, an increase of approximately 22.3 N/mm2 compared with Chinese dry noodles. This parameter could be used for the evaluation of bending resistance with low errors.
Effect of Cellulose Nanocrystal Addition on Properties of Corn Starch Edible Films
2012, 33(23):  88-92. 
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The effect of sweet potato cellulose nanocrystals, prepared from sweet potato residue, on water vapor permeability, water-absorbing capacity, solubility, tensile strength and tensile strain at break of corn starch edible films was studied. Corn starch edible films showed a gradual decrease in water vapor permeability, water-absorbing capacity, solubility and tensile strain at break and a gradual increase in tensile strength with increasing concentration of sweet potato cellulose nanocrystals. Addition of sweet potato cellulose nanocrystals at a concentration of 0.4 g/100 mL provided minimum water vapor permeability of corn starch edible films. Minimum water-absorbing capacity, solubility and tensile strain at break and maximum tensile strength were found for corn starch edible films with added sweet potato cellulose nanocrystals at 0.5 g/100 mL. These results suggest that addition of sweet potato cellulose nanocrystals can effectively improve properties of corn starch films.
Effects of Carrageenan and Xanthan Gum on Texture of Processed Acid-coagulated Cheese
2012, 33(23):  93-97. 
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The effects of carrageenan and xanthan gum on the texture and sensory quality of processed acid-coagulated cheese were studied. Under the acidic condition of pH 4.25, addition of carrageenan, along with 0.2% locust bean gum, could increase the hardness of cheese and result in the formation of hard and sticky gels. The presence of xanthan gum was effective in enhancing the springiness and chewiness of processed acid-coagulated cheese and soft, smooth and elastic gels were formed. Combined addition of carageenan and xanthan gum to processed acid-coagulated cheese can meet various texture requirements.
Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties of Whey Protein Isolate during Maillard Reaction
2012, 33(23):  98-102. 
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In this study, Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared by heating 1:1 (m/m) mixtures of whey protein isolates (WPI) with D-glucose or D-galactose at 95 ℃ for 6 h and sampling at different time points during the heating period for the determination of pH, absorbance at 294 nm and 420 nm (A294 nm and A420 nm), fluorescence intensity, free amino group content and protein polymerization. The pH and free amino group content of each reaction system significantly (P<0.05) decreased and the yields of non-fluorescent intermediate products (A294 nm) and browning products (A420 nm) and fluorescence intensity significantly (P<0.05) increased with increasing heating time. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that both α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin could be polymerized to different extents into larger molecules. More intermediate products and higher degree of browning were generated from WPI-D-glucose system compared with WPI-D-glucose system.
Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Effects of Phlorotannins from Sargassum mcclurei
2012, 33(23):  103-106. 
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Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferation activity of phlorotannins (PTs) from S. mcclurei. Method: S. mcclurei PTs were extracted by solvent extraction and separated by ultrafiltration. PTs content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry and phosphomolybdenum method, respectively. Meanwhile, the scavenging activity against DHHP and superoxide anion radicals were determined and MTT was used to test the growth inhibitory effect of PTs on sw579 thyroid squamous cell carcinoma cells. Results: Four different PTs extracts including aqueous fraction retenate (AR) and filtrate (AF) and ethyl acetate fraction retenate (EAR) and filtrate (EAF) were obtained from the ultrafiltration of two different fractions (aqueous and ethyl acetate) of the crude methanol extract of S. mcclurei through a 10 kD MWCO membrane. The total phenol contents of AR, AF, EAR and EAF were 1.672, 0.096, 1.319 mg and 0.143 mg of gallic acid per gram of dry matter of S. mcclurei. AR had the strongest TAC at the same concentration (3 mg/L) and was equivalent to 2.315 mg/L of GA. All PTs extracts especially AR and EAR had free radical scavenging effects. Their growth inhibitory effects on sw579 thyroid squamous cell carcinoma cells at a low concentration of 4.4 mg/L increased with increasing treatment time and AF had the most potent antiproliferation activity and showed an inhibitory rate of 23.84% after 72 h treatment. Conclusion: S. mcclurei shows potent antioxidant and antiproliferation activities and thus has great potential for exploitation and utilization.
Effect of Aging Time on Spectroscopic Characteristics of Western Hunan Natural Savory Vinegar
2012, 33(23):  107-109. 
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Western Hunan natural savory vinegar was analyzed by UV, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy for variations in spectroscopic characteristics during ageing. The vinegar was found to have characteristic absorption mainly in the near UV region of 200–400 nm. The UV absorption intensity increased, but irregular variations in the symmetric stretching vibration of hydroxyl groups and significant variations at 2351 cm-1 were found in the infrared spectrum with increasing aging time. The fluorescence spectrum of the vinegar presented considerable variations with increasing ageing time, and the fluorescence intensity displayed a general declining trend and dramatically declined when the ageing time exceeded 3 years; meanwhile, the number of emission peaks deceased from 3 to 2. During ageing, physicochemical variations of the vinegar are associated with variations in its spectroscopic characteristics. Hence, spectroscopy can provide an approach for identifying the ageing time of Western Hunan natural savory vinegar.
Adsorption and Mechanism of Metal Ions onto Grass Carp Scales
WANG Haibo
2012, 33(23):  110-115. 
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In this study, fish scale adsorbent was prepared from grass carp scales and comparatively investigated for its effectiveness in adsorbing several metal ions. The optimal conditions for Cu2+ adsorption by the adsorbent were studied and the mechanism of adsorption was explored by kinetic and thermodynamic analysis and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The adsorbent had good adsorption capacity for different metal ions and its adsorption capacity followed the decreasing order: Cu2+ > Zn2+ >Co2+ > Mn2+ > Cr2+. The best adsorption results were obtained by using an adsorbent dose of 1.25 g/L to adsorb Cu2+ at an initial concentration of 200 μg/mL and pH 4 under room temperature conditions. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption of Cu2+ by the adsorbent was a multilayer process consisting of physical and chemical reactions and could be enhanced at higher temperatures, and the dynamic adsorption behavior could be well described by quasi-second-order kinetic model. IR spectroscopic analysis showed that the main functional groups in the fish scale adsorbent involved in adsorbing Cu2+ were amino, carboxyl, phosphate and carbonate groups, which were from rotein and hydroxyapatite, respectively.
Isolation and Purification of Antibacterial Components in Fermentation Broth of Paecilomyces militaris
2012, 33(23):  116-120. 
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Escherichia coli, Canidia albicans and Aspergillus niger were used as indicator strains for the bioassay-guided separation of antibacterial components from the ethyl acetate extract of fermentation broth of Paecilomyces militaris. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by silica gel column chromatography into two antibacterial fractions, Ⅴ and Ⅶ. Fraction Ⅴ was further separated by reversed-phase column chromatography to obtain a pure antibacterial compound, PMBA-1. At a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL, PMBA-1 presented an inhibition circle diameter of (16.21 ± 0.27) mm, (23.54 ± 0.35) mm and (27.33 ± 0.54) mm against Escherichia coli, Canidia albicans and Aspergillus niger, respectively. Another pure antibacterial compound, PMBA-2, was obtained from further separation of fraction Ⅶ by silica gel column chromatography. Its inhibition circle diameter at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL was (21.84 ± 0.28), (16.33 ± 0.54) mm and (11.54 ± 0.51) mm for Escherichia coli, Canidia albicans and Aspergillus niger, respectively.
Effect and Mechanism of Fermentation on Beef Muscle Tenderness
2012, 33(23):  121-124. 
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The objective of this study was to explore the improving effect and mechanism of fermentation on beef muscle tenderness. Beef semitendinosus (ST) was cut into 5 × 5 × 3 cm blocks. After adding 3.0% NaCl, 2.0% glucose and 0.02% Lactobacillus powder (lg(14 CFU/g)), the blocks were fermented at 10 ℃ under oxygen-free conditions. The fermented beef was subjected to physicochemical analysis on the 0, 2nd, 4th and 6th days. The pH and shear force revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) with increasing fermentation time. Atomic force microscopic observation revealed a significant increase in myofibril fragmentation. As shown by SDS-PAGE, 24 kD myofibrillar proteins were decomposed. These results suggested that fermentation could lead to denaturation of beef muscle myofibrillar proteins and improve beef tenderness.
Proteomic Analysis of Xuanwei Ham by Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis
2012, 33(23):  125-128. 
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In the present study, a method for the proteomic analysis of Xuanwei ham was established using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Muscle protein from Xuanwei ham was extracted with trichloroacetic acid-acetone, quantified, and analyzed by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE. After electrophoresis, the gels were stained with coomassie brilliant blue, and the observed protein spots were analyzed using imageMaster 2D platinum software and one of them was selected and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) after tripsin digestion. The obtained peptide mapping fingerprint was analyzed using Mascot software. A total of 1749 clear protein spots were observed in the 2-DE pattern of Xuanwei ham, which were mainly distributed over a pH range of 4.0-7.0. The tested protein spot was identified as gamma-2-actin protein and found to have a Mascot score of 129 (threshold was 67). These results demonstrate the successful establishment of a 2-DE method for the proteomic analysis of Xuanwei ham.
in vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Pigments from Flowers of Vicia sepium
2012, 33(23):  129-132. 
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The antioxidant and antibacterial activity of pigments extracted from the flowers of Vicia sepium was investigated. The pigment extract had reducing power and scavenging activity against superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent fashion. At a concentration of 0.72 mg/mL, its scavenging rates against superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals were 69.01% and 66.27%, respectively. Its antibacterial activity against different strains followed the decreasing order: E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccus aureus and was positively correlated with concentration.
Effects of Four Common Clarificants on Quality of Black Tartary Buckwheat Beverage
Hai-Ping QI
2012, 33(23):  133-137. 
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This paper reports the results of a comparison of the effects of four common clarificants including CMC-Na, gelatin, arabic gum and xanthan gum on quality properties of black tartray buckwheat beverage such as transmittance, total color difference, flavonoid content and protein content. Their effectiveness for clarifying black tartray buckwheat beverage followed the decreasing order: gelatin > CMC-Na > xanthan gum > arabic gum. Thus, gelatin was the best clarificant for the clarification of black tartray buckwheat beverage and its optimal dose was 0.036 g/L, resulting in a transmittance as high as 95.87%.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Pectin from Premna microphylla Leaves and Its Effect on the Coagulation of Fairy Tofu
2012, 33(23):  138-142. 
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Objective: To explore the sugar composition of pectin extracted from Premna microphylla leaves and its effect on the coagulation of Fairy Tofu, a jelly-like food prepared from Premna microphylla leaves and coagulant. Methods: Pectin was obtained as a creamy yellowish precipitate from Premna microphylla leaf juice by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, ethanol precipitation, TCA-chloroform deproteinization, ammonia-ethanol decolorization and 95% ethanol precipitation. After further hydrolysis with sulfuric acid, the precipitate (pectin) was analyzed by silica gel G thin-layer chromatography for saccharide composition. In addition, its pH, soluble pectin content and degree of esterification were determined and its protein content was measured by biuret protein assay. Also, we analyzed the effects of coagulant type (synthetic coagulant and plant ash) and dosage on the coagulation of the pectin for Fairy Tofu production. Results: The pectin extract contained 78.24% saccharides, mainly glucose, fructose and D-mannose and 21.76% protein. It had high water binding capacity and a degree of esterification of 74.6% and its properties were close to international quality standards. The Fairy Tofu prepared from it revealed a degree of coagulation higher than 100. Conclusion: The preparation of Fairy Tofu from Premna microphylla leaves is based on the simultaneous interactions of pectin with calcium and magnesium ions.
Composition and Functional Properties of Rice Bran Proteins
2012, 33(23):  143-149. 
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The protein composition of rice bran protein isolate (RBPI) was investigated by Osborn fractionation and its amino acid composition and nutritional value were analyzed. Besides, the effect of pH, temperature and protein concentration on its functional properties such as solubility and emulsifying and foaming properties were examined. RBPI was mainly composed of albumin and globulin and contained a full range of amino acids with a well-balance composition and high levels of hydrophobic amino acids. The solubility and emulsifying and foaming properties of RBPI varied with pH and temperature. The lowest solubility was reached at pH values near the isoelectric point. The concentration of RBPI had a great effect on its emulsifying properties. 
Processing Characteristics of Compound Microcapsules of Immune Colostrum and Bifidobacteria
2012, 33(23):  150-154. 
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Compound microcapsules of immune colostrums and bifidobacteria were prepared by air suspension technique and analyzed for processing characteristics including solubility, acid resistance, bile salt resistance and stability. The prepared microcapsules could maintain its stability in simulated gastric fluid after 2 h treatment and the survival rate of bifidobacteria and the activity and apparent recovery rate of IgG were still as high as 87%, 28 and 90.5%, respectively, while complete disintegration was observed when they were treated with simulated intestinal fluid for 40 min. After 3 h of treatment with high-concentration bile salt solution, the survival rate of bifidobacteria was 67.7% and the activity of IgG was 27. The survival rate of bifidobacteria was 31.7%, the surviving population of bifidobacteria was more than 108 CFU/mL and the activity of IgG showed no change and remained 28 during 10 months of storage at room temperature.
Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Germinated Brown Rice
2012, 33(23):  155-159. 
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The antioxidant potential of soluble and insoluble polyphenol extracts of germinated brown rice was evaluated and compared with that of ascorbic acid, ferulic acid and BHT as positive controls. Germinated brown rice contained (6.03 ± 0.03) mg/100 g of soluble polyphenols, (32.35 ± 0.05) mg/100 g of insoluble polyphenols, (4.82 ± 0.01) mg/100 g of soluble ferulic acid and (20.04 ± 0.77) mg/100 g of insoluble ferulic acid. The radical scavenging activity of five samples investigated followed the decreasing order: BHT, ferulic acid, insoluble polyphenols, soluble polyphenols and ascorbic acid for superoxide anion radical, ascorbic acid, ferulic acid, BHT, soluble polyphenols and insoluble polyphenols for hydroxyl radical, insoluble polyphenols, and ferulic acid, BHT, soluble polyphenols and ascorbic acid for DPPH radical. In decreasing order of anti-lipid oxidation activity (lard POV after 168 h of constant temperature incubation), these samples were ferulic acid, BHT, soluble polyphenols, insoluble polyphenols and ascorbic acid. Hence, polyphenols from germinated brown rice has antioxidant activity and are superior to ascorbic acid and BHT in terms of some antioxidant properties.
Optimization of Conditions for Disruption of Recombinant E. coli Cells and Determination of Lipoxygenase Activity
lu fengxia
2012, 33(23):  160-165. 
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Recombinant E. coli cells were disrupted by combined non-mechanical methods, such as chemical permeation, repeated freeze-thaw and enzymatic lysis for the extraction of recombinant lipoxygenase (LOX). Based on one-factor-at-a-time experiments, an L25(56) orthogonal array design was employed to optimize five process parameters. The best results for bacterial cell disruption were achieved through enzymatic lysis with 1.5 mg/mL of lysozyme for 40 min in the presence of 2.0 mmoL/L EDTA-2Na and 2% Tween-60 followed by 3 repeated freeze-thaw cycles, yielding an LOX activity of 6840 U/mL in crude enzyme solution, which was 1.44-fold higher than before the optimization. Compared with spectrophotometry and xylenol orange method, potassium iodide-starch method was more simple, sensitive and rapid and the reaction system showed characteristic color visible to the naked eye. Thus, this method is suitable for high throughput screening of LOX activity.
Optimization of Catalytic Reaction Conditions for Glucose Oxidase in Microcalorimeter by Response Surface Methodology
Cheng-Nan ZHANG Fei Xu
2012, 33(23):  166-170. 
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Response surface methodology based on a central composite design was used to optimize catalytic reaction conditions for glucose oxidase in micro-differential scanning calorimeter (Micro DSC) based on heat release. Three reaction conditions in decreasing order of their effects on heat release were enzyme dosage, pH and reaction temperature and their optimal values were 1.58 mg/mL, 4.46 and 35 ℃, respectively. Under these conditions, the observed total heat release was 39.6668 J, and the relative error was 1.11% compared with 40.1071 J of the predicted value. The fitted regression model was statistically significant.v
Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Erythritol Production by Yeast RH-UV-L4-F9 Using Response Surface Methodology
2012, 33(23):  171-174. 
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This work reports the application of response surface methodology based on a three-variable, three-level Box-Benhnken design to optimize fermentation parameters to enhance the production of erythritol from molasses and corn syrup using yeast RH-UV-L4-F9, a potent erythritol producing strain. The optimal values of temperature, pH and shaking speed were 32.3 ℃, 5.1 and 176 r/min, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the yield of erythritol was 166.89 mg/mL, which was 1.2-fold higher than before the optimization.
Three-Step Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Tilapia Skin Collagen for Preparation of Antioxidant Peptides and Their Antioxidant Activity
2012, 33(23):  175-179. 
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This study explored optimal conditions for the enzymatic preparation of antioxidant peptides from tilapia skin collagen and the antioxidant activity of antioxidant peptides. Sequential hydrolysis with alkaline protease, trypsin and Orientase 20A was the best way to prepare antioxidant peptides from tilapia skin collagen, as shown by a comparison of the effects of single use and sequential combinations of proteases on DPPH radical scavenging activity of hydrolyzed tilapia skin collagen. In the final step (Orientase 20A) of the hydrolysis process, process parameters including temperature, time, pH and enzyme/substrate ratio were optimized using response surface methodology based on degree of hydrolysis (DH) and DPPH radical scavenging activity of hydrolyzed tilapia skin collagen to be 41.74 ℃, 3.97, 6 h and 1.5%, respectively. Under these hydrolysis conditions, the predicted DH and DPPH radical scavenging activity of hydrolyzed tilapia skin collagen were 9.42% and 35.01%, respectively, and the observed values were 9.57% and 35.21%, respectively. Thus, the developed response surface model is feasible and can be used for practical prediction. The tilapia skin collagen hydrolysate obtained under the optimized hydrolysis conditions had potent scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS+ radicals with an IC50 of 10.78 mg/mL and 8.26 mg/mL, respectively.
Identification of Halophilic Endophytic Fungus Salicorn 15 Isolated from Salicornia bigelovii Using Molecular Biology Combined with Morphology
2012, 33(23):  180-183. 
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An endophytic fungus designated as Salicorn 15 was isolated from halophilic Salicornia bigelovii and identified by molecular biology techniques combined with morphological observation. Genomic DNA from Salicorn 15 was extracted and its 18S rDNA and ITS region were amplified by PCR and sequenced for sequence homology analysis using NCBI BLAST. Based on phylogenetic analysis combined with morphological observation, Salicorn 15 was identified as Fusarium proliferatum.
Kinetics of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Starch by α-Amylase and Glucoamylase for Preparation of Microporous Starch
2012, 33(23):  184-188. 
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In order to understand the kinetic characteristics of the synergistic hydrolysis of wheat starch by α-amylase and glucoamylase for preparing microporous starch, the effects of pH, reaction temperature and enzyme dosage on hydrolysis rate during the hydrolysis of wheat type A granular starch by both enzymes were investigated and the Michaelis constants (Km) for the individual and combined enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat starch were determined. Both individual enzymatic hydrolysis processes obeyed the Michaelis-Menten equation, and the Km and Vmax (maximum reaction velocity) were 9.548 mg/mL and 0.659 mg/(mL•min) for and α-amylase, and 12.676 mg/mL and 0.555 mg/ (mL•min) for glucoamylase, respectively. The hydrolysis product glucose was a competitive inhibitor against the enzymes with an inhibitory constant (Ki) of 4.288 mg/mL. Maximum hydrolysis was reached when 5 mg/mL of wheat type A granular starch was hydrolyzed with 10 U/mL of α-amylase and 20 U/mL of glucoamylase under the conditions of 55 ℃ and pH 4.5 for 25 min. As a result, 2.54 mg/mL of reducing sugar was produced. In conclusion, α-amylase and glucoamylase can be used together to hydrolyze wheat starch for the preparation of microporous starch and their combination shows significantly higher hydrolysis efficiency than individual use.
Effect of Lactobacillus brevis HD11 Fermentation on Syringin and Isofraxidin Contents of Radix Acanthopanacis senticosi
ZHENG Chun-Ying
2012, 33(23):  189-192. 
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In this study, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus brevis HD11 fermentation on syringin and isofraxidin contents of Radix Acanthopanacis senticosi. HPLC was used to determine the contents of syringin and isofraxidin in native and Lactobacillus brevis HD11 fermented samples of Radix Acanthopanacis senticosi. Lactobacillus brevis HD11 fermentation resulted in a significant reduction in syringin content in Radix Acanthopanacis senticosi and a new peak near its retention time was found in the HPLC chromatogram. The isofraxidin content in the stems and roots of Acanthopanacis senticosi increased from 0.08 mg/g and 0.05 mg/g to 0.14 mg/g and 0.15 mg/g, respectively, after Lactobacillus brevis HD11 fermentation. During this process, syringin could be converted into another substance, while the increased isofraxidin content was helpful for increasing the availability of active components.
Optimization of Conditions for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Apostichopus japonicus Spawn
2012, 33(23):  193-198. 
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This paper deals with the optimization of conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis of Apostichopus japonicus spawn to obtain maximum degree of hydrolysis (DH). Papain, protamex and flavourzyme were found to be more suitable for the hydrolysis of Apostichopus japonicus spawn. Process parameters for the hydrolysis of Apostichopus japonicus spawn by each of the selected enzymes including temperature, enzyme dosage and time were optimized by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods. Meanwhile, the combined use of these enzymes was investigated. Based on DH, production cost and sensory quality of Apostichopus japonicus spawn hydrolysate, the optimal hydrolysis procedure was determined as follows: hydrolysis at 75 ℃ for 4 h with a 1:1 (m/m) mixture of papain and protamex at a total enzyme dosage of 2.0% and after boiling for enzyme inactivation, further hydrolysis with 1.5% flavourzyme at 45 ℃ for 1 h. Under these conditions, the DH was 77.11% and the obtained hydrolysate had a strong aroma and delicious taste and was a homogeneous and clear liquid. Therefore, it can be applied in functional foods with unique flavor.
Changes in Microflora of Hot-boned Pork during Storage as Analyzed by PCR-DGGE
2012, 33(23):  199-203. 
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Traditional microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were used to examine microflora changes of hot-boned pork during storage at different temperatures. Total aerobic counts (TAC) were determined at regular time intervals during storage and bacterial DNA extraction was carried out for PCR-DGGE analysis. The storage time required for reaching the minimum spoilage level 7.2(lg(CFU/g)) at 5, 15, 25 ℃ and 30 ℃ were 14 d, 75 h, 19 h and 16 h, respectively. PCR-DGGE demonstrated that different spoilage bacteria dominated at the end of storage at different temperatures, and the dominant spoilage bacteria in hot-boned pork were mainly Macrococcu, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter and Escherichia.
Effect of Glycine Betaine on Hyperosmotic Stress Tolerance of Lactobacillus plantarum YSQ18
2012, 33(23):  204-208. 
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A salt-tolerant Lactobacillus strain was isolated from traditional Chinese pickle and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum YSQ18 based on morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence. A16S rRNA-based phylogenetic tree was established for further confirmation of YSQ18. The growth of this strain was completely inhibited in a synthetic medium containing 1.2 or 1.5 mol/L NaCl. The presence of 0.80 mmol/L glycine betaine (GB) as a compatible solute exerted an obvious protective effect on YSQ18 and could attenuate hyperosmotic stress, effectively shorten the lag phase and enhance salt tolerance. As showed by determination of sugar consumption rate, addition of 0.80 mmol/L GB was effective in maintaining the viability of bacterial cells. Therefore, GB could effectively increase the viability of bacterial cells during culture in hyperosmotic environments, such as traditional soy sauce brewing and pickle fermentation.
Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Conditions for ACE Inhibitory Peptides Preparation from Porcine Hemoglobin by Response Surface Methodology
2012, 33(23):  209-214. 
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The enzymatic preparation of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from porcine hemoglobin using pepsin was optimized by response surface methodology. ACE inhibitory rate in vitro and degree of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated with respect to hydrolysis parameters including temperature, pH, substrate concentration, enzyme dosage and time. As a result, a quadratic polynomial model was developed. The optimum conditions for enzymatic preparation of ACE inhibitory peptides from porcine hemoglobin were found to be hydrolysis at pH 1.98 and 37.60 ℃ for 4 h with a substrate concentration of  4.98 g/100 mL and a enzyme dosage of 3.04%. Under these conditions, the prepared peptides showed an ACE inhibitory rate of 70.09%.
Response Surface Optimization of Conditions for Antibacterial Peptide Preparation from Buffalo Milk Casein
2012, 33(23):  215-218. 
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This paper reports the use of response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken experimental design to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of buffalo milk casein by trypsin for preparing antibacterial peptides. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were determined to be hydrolysis at 43 ℃ for 3.4 h with an enzyme/substrate ratio of 2.5%. Under these conditions, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of buffalo milk casein was 4.76%, and the obtained hydrolysate showed an inhibitory rate as high as 81.34% against Escherichia coli.
Characteristics of Crude Zinc Chelatase Extract from Bovine Liver
2012, 33(23):  219-222. 
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Crude zinc chelatase extract prepared from bovine liver and characterized in the present study. The optimal reaction pH and temperature for this enzyme were 6.0 and 60 ℃, respectively, and initial substrate concentration was positively correlated with enzyme activity. This enzyme could catalyze substances with porphyrin ring, especially protoporphyrin disodium. Several activators such as ascorbic acid and ATP could activate its activity in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas Fe2+ and Mg2+ had inhibitory effect on its activity.
Effect of Saprophytic staphylococcus S25 on Fat and Protein Contents of Sichuan Sausage during Natural Air Drying
Yan CHENG
2012, 33(23):  223-227. 
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This study was designed to examine changes in the contents of fat and protein in Saprophytic staphylococcus S25 fermented and naturally fermented (control) Sichuan sausage during natural air drying. The acid value of inoculated sausage was higher than that of control sausage at the late stage of natural air drying. On the 15th and 30th days, unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 74.34% and 74.30% of the total fat content of inoculated sausage, respectively, which were both higher when compared with control sausage. In addition, the contents of total nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen were higher in inoculated sausage than control sausage. Inoculated sausage indicated an increase of respectively 19%, 31%, 10% and 21% in total free amino acids, Glu, Gly and essential amino acids on the 15th day and presented only a slight increase on the 30th day when compared with control sausage. These results suggest that Saprophytic staphylococcus S25 can accelerate proteolysis and adipolysis in Sichuan sausage during natural air drying.
Screening of Cellulase-Producing Bacterium from Sorbus tianshanica and Enzymatic Characteristics
2012, 33(23):  228-231. 
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Fifty-three endophytic bacteria were isolated from Sorbus tianshanica Rupr. stems, leaves and fruits. Four colonies were surrounded by big transparent zones in congo red agar medium. A strain (S11) with higher cellulase activity was isolated and cultured in shake flasks for secondary screening. Maximum carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity was found to be 39.47 U/mL after 12 h culture. The optimal reaction pH for crude CMCase solution was 5.0, and it revealed high stability at pH 5.0–6.0. The optimal reaction temperature was 50 ℃, and its activity remained stable below 50 ℃ but was almost completely lost at 60–70 ℃. The CMCase activity was inhibited by all tested metal ions and compounds, and dramatically inhibited by Ca2+, SDS and EDTA.
Effect of Inoculation Amount of Lactobacillus casei on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Beef Kebabs
2012, 33(23):  232-235. 
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The present study aimed to examine the effect of different inoculation amounts of Lactobacillus casei on physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fermented beef kebabs. Beef was fermented with different amounts of Lactobacillus casei and 107 CFU/g of S. xylosus to produce fermented beef kebabs. We analyzed changes in pH, water activity, color, texture and sensory characteristics during the fermentation process. Compared with S. xylosus alone, co-fermentation with Lactobacillus casei and S. xylosus could significantly the quality of fermented beef kebabs and prolong its shelf life. Beef kebabs fermented with 107 CFU/g and 108 CFU/g of Lactobacillus casei showed no significant differences in smell, taste, color, tenderness, cohesiveness and chewiness. Beef kebabs fermented with 108 CFU/g of Lactobacillus casei had poor overall acceptance and tasted sour. By contrast, better quality of fermented beef kebabs was achieved when the inoculum amount of Lactobacillus casei was 107 CFU/g.
Effects of Different Kinds of Amino Acids on Mycelial Growth and Cordycepin Content in Cordyceps militaris
2012, 33(23):  236-239. 
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In this study, we investigated the effect of individual addition of 20 kinds of amino acids at a concentration of 0.2 g/100 mL to liquid PDA medium for the cultivation of Cordyceps militaris in shake flasks on mycelial growth and cordycepin production. 16 of the 20 kinds of amino acids had obvious mycelial growth-promoting effects on Cordyceps militaris. The top five most potent growth promoters included arginine, lysine and histidine as basic amino acids as well as aspartic acid and glutamic acid as acidic amino acids, which resulted in 2.10, 1.82, 1.63, 1.48 and 1.40-fold increases in mycelial biomass, respectively. Moreover, each of the 20 kinds of amino acid could significantly enhance the accumulation of cordycepin in Cordyceps militaris mycelia. Addition of the basic amino acids arginine and histidine resulted in 2.91 and 2.90-fold increases in cordycepin content in Cordyceps militaris mycelia, respectively. Upon addition of the polar polar amino acids threonine and asparagine, 2.43 and 2.42-fold increases, respectively, were observed, while cordycepin content in Cordyceps militaris mycelia presented a 2.05-fold increase when the non-polar amino acid alanine was added.
Fermentation Kinetics of Organic Solvent-stable Protease Production
2012, 33(23):  240-243. 
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Metabolic characteristics and the synthesis of organic solvent-stable protease during batch fermentation of Bacillus aquaemaris DS1 were investigated. The production of organic solvent-stable protease was partially associated with the growth of Bacillus aquaemaris DS1. Based on the results of batch fermentation experiments, the Logistic equation and Luedeking-Piret equation were used to establish kinetic models for bacterial growth, organic solvent-stable protease production and substrate consumption. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and the predicted data of residual sugar concentration with a relative error of less than 10%.
Mutation Breeding of High-Yield Carotenoid Producing Rhodotorula mucilaginosa by N+ Implantation and Optimization of Solid-state Fermentation Conditions for Carotenoid Production
2012, 33(23):  244-248. 
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Rhodotorula mucilaginosa RM-1 was mutagenized by means of N+ implantation to obtain high-yield carotenoid producing mutants. The optimum dose of 10 keV N+ implantation was 2.0 × 1014 ion/cm2 and the best mutant (RM-21) revealed a 60.85% increase in carotenoid production when compared with the original strain. This mutant remained stable after the 10th passage and thus could be used for industrial production. Further investigations were conducted to optimize solid-state fermentation conditions for the production of carotenoid from corn flour and rice by mutant RM-21. The optimum fermentation conditions were determined as follows: a 3:1 (m/m) mixture of corn flour and rice with 75% added water as fermentation substrate, 4.0 g/L of glucose concentration, 2.5 g/L of NH4NO3 concentration, initial pH 6.0 and 10% of inoculum size. The fermentation time was 96 h and consisted of two stages: the fermentation temperature was 33 ℃ in the first 84 h and 28 ℃ in the following 12 h. Under these conditions, the yield of carotenoid was 7.04 μg/g dry matter, which revealed a 20.96% increase compared with constant temperature fermentation.
Screening of α-Glucosidase Inhibitor-producing Strain and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions
2012, 33(23):  249-253. 
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A high-yield α-glucosidase inhibitor-producing strain named as UN-8 was isolated from farm soil and fermentation conditions for the production of α-glucosidase inhibitor by UN-8 were optimized. The optimal fermentation conditions were determined as follows: 3 g/100 mL of corn meal, 1.2 g/100 mL of yeast extract, 30 mL of fermentation medium in a 250-mL shake flask, 160 r/min of shaking speed, initial pH 8.0 and 32 ℃ of fermentation temperature. The inhibitory rate of α-glucosidase inhibitor produced under these conditions was 75.34%, which was 14.55% higher than before the optimization (60.79%).
Development and Optimization of a Specialized Multi-enzyme Complex for the Production of Soybean Oligopeptides with High Degree of Hydrolysis
2012, 33(23):  254-258. 
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In the present study, alcalase, flavourzyme, neutral protease, bromelin, papain and different combinations of alcalase with some or all of the four other proteases were compared for their efficiency to hydrolyze soybean protein isolate (SPI) for the production of soybean oligopeptides. Alcalase provided maximum degree of hydrolysis (DH) and soybean oligopeptide yield among the five proteases. Both parameters could be improved by combining alcalase with the other proteases and maximum DH was achieved when flavourzyme and neutral protease were also used. Using response surface methodology, the optimal dosages of alcalase, flavourzyme and neutral protease were determined to be 39.6%, 25.4% and 35.0%, respectively, and the optimal total protease dosage on the basis of dry weight of SPI was 3%. A DH as high as 27.2% and an oligopeptide yield as high as 83% were obtained after 6 h of hydrolysis at 55 ℃, natural pH and an SPI concentration of 10 g/100 mL with the optimized multi-enzyme complex.
Optimal Culture Conditions for Biotransformaion of Iron in Tolerant Chinese Rice Wine Yeast YS6.2.5
2012, 33(23):  259-265. 
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The biotransformation of iron in Chinese rice wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) YS6.2.5 was investigated by tolerance and acclimation tests and culture conditions for iron biotransformation in a shake flask and a fermentor were optimized. The strain had strong iron tolerance and potential for iron biotransformation. The optimal culture conditions in a 500-mL shake flask were determined as follows: an inoculum size of 10%, a medium loading of 40%, and initial pH 4.0 for culture at 28 ℃ for 24 h at a shaking speed of 200 r/min. At the end of the culture period, the biomass and iron content of yeast cells were (14.68 ± 0.37) g/L and (30.15 ± 0.70) mg/g, respectively. The optimal culture conditions in a 50-L fermentor were determined as follows: an inoculum size of 15%, a medium loading of 60%, and addition of Fe2+ at a constant flow rate during the early logarithmic growth phase. After 18 h culture under these conditions, the iron content of yeast cells was as high as 674.79 mg/L, which was 1.52-fold higher than shake flask culture, and the enrichment factor, the percentage of organic iron and conversaion rate were 67.48%, 97.81% and 66.00%, respectivley.
Immobilization of Trypsin onto Magnetic Core-shell Mesoporous Molecular Sieve
2012, 33(23):  266-269. 
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A dipping method was used to immobilize trypsin onto magnetic core-shell mesoporous molecular sieve (Fe3O4@MCM-41). The effects of immobilization conditions on the recovery of trypsin activity were investigated and immobilized trypsin was analyzed for enzymatic properties and carrier structure. The recovery of trypsin activity reached 55.9% when immobilizing at pH 8.2 and an enzyme loading of 60 mg/g for 4 h. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed that the immobilized trypsin contained 14% trypsin (calculated on the basis of total nitrogen content). Compared with free trypsin, it showed tolerance to temperature and pH in much wider ranges and better repeated usability and meanwhile, the mesopore structure of the carrier remained good.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus B10 Treatment Ameliorates Ethanol-induced Mouse Liver Injury by Antioxidant Pathways
2012, 33(23):  270-273. 
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This study examined whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus B10 treatment can ameliorate ethanol-induced liver injury by antioxidant pathways in a mouse model of alcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were randomly divided into control group, ethanol treatment group and L. rhamnosus B10 treatment group. After treatment for 8 weeks, blood samples were collected from the inferior vena cava of mice for the determination of serum ALT, LPS, MDA and SOD levels and mouse livers were observed for histopathological features and oxidative injury and analyzed for the contents of FFA (free fatty acids), TG and cholesterol. L. rhamnosus B10 treatment significantly relieved alcohol-induced fatty degeneration and oxidative injury in mice (P<0.05), lowered the increase in the levels of serum ALT, LPS and MDA (P<0.05), increased SOD activity (P<0.05), and inhibited the increase in the levels of liver FFA, TG and cholesterol (P<0.05). These findings suggest that L. rhamnosus B10 treatment can ameliorate alcohol-induced liver injury by antioxidant pathways in mice.
Immune Modulation and Antioxidation Activity of Polysaccharides from Ganoderma atrum in Immunosuppressed Mice
2012, 33(23):  274-277. 
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Objective: To study the immunomodulatory and antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from Ganoderma atrum in immunosuppressed mice. Methods: Immunosuppressed mouse models were established by intrapefitoneal injection of cyclophosphamid. Forty-eight mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank control, positive control, model control, and high-, medium- and low-dose Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide groups. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides were administrated by gavage at doses of 100, 50 mg/(kg•d) and 25 mg/(kg•d) to mice for 7 consecutive days, respectively. At 24 h after the last administration, the mice in each group was sacrificed and spleens were collected for the measurement of spleen index and the levels of spleen super-oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), maleic dialdehyd (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Moreover, T and B lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by MTT and the levels of TNF-α and IL-2 in spleen homogenate supernatant were assayed by ELISA. Results: Compared to control mice, Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides significantly improved mouse spleen index, promoted T and B lymphocyte proliferation, increased SOD, CAT and T-AOC levels, and reduced MDA content in mouse spleen, while only high and medium-dose groups indicated obviously improved TNF-α and IL-2 levels in spleen cells. Conclusions: Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides can effectively antagonize cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression in mice and enhance antioxidant function in immunosuppressed mice.
Separation, Identification and Bioactivity of Anti-Tumor Components from Fermented Broth and Mycelia of Fungus Penicillium stoloniferum Derived from Salicornia herbacea
2012, 33(23):  278-282. 
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Eight anti-tumor monomer compounds were isolated from the fermented broth and mycelia of the fungus Penicillium stoloniferum derived from Salicornia herbacea by bioassay-guided isolation method using silica gel column chromatography, Sephedex LH-20 chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC. They were identified by physiochemical analysis and spectroscopic techniques as ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3-ol, ergosterol, spinasterol, 5α,8α-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-23-methylergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol, tryptophan phenylalanine cyclic dipeptide, phenylalanine, dibutyl phthalate and diisobutyl phthalate. Only 5α,8α-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-23-methylergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol, dibutyl phthalate and diisobutyl phthalate had strong cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 14, 34 μg/mL and 46 μg/mL, respectively, as evaluated by SRB method.
Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Ganoderma atrum against Adriamycin-Induced Myocardial Injury in Rats
2012, 33(23):  283-286. 
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Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides against adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiotoxicity in SD rats. Methods: A myocardial injury model induced by intraperitoneal injection of ADR was established in SD rats. SD rats were divided arbitrarily into five groups: control group, ADR model group, and three Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide treatment groups (administered at doses of 25, 50 mg/(kg·d) and100 mg/(kg·d) body weight, respectively for 7 consecutive days). ADR was administered on the 8th day at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. On the 14th day, the mice in each group were sacrificed and hearts were collected and determined for the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), mitochondrial membrane potential and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Moreover, mouse body weight and physiological conditions were examined. Results: Compared with ADR model group, Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides significantly attenuated ADR-induced body weight loss, increased CAT, SOD and GSH-Px activities and mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased LDH and CK activities and MDA content in cardiac tissues. Conclusions: Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides can protect against ADR-induced myocardial injury in rats. The mechanism may be related to reducing oxidative stress, enhancing antioxidant defense and protecting mitochondria.
Therapeutic Effect of Oral Administration of Hyaluronic Acid on Adjuvant Arthritis in Mice
2012, 33(23):  287-290. 
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Objective: To examine the therapeutic effect of oral administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in mice. Methods: Forty 6-weeks-old healthy mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal, model, HA and diclofenac groups. AA mouse models were created by injection of Fluoride’s complete adjuvant (FCA) into the right hind paw. After 4 successive weeks of oral HA administration, mouse body weight and footpad thickness were measured and knee swelling was observed and scored. In addition, serum levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and HA were assayed. Results: Oral HA administration resulted in a significant reduction in mouse footpad thickness and arthritis index and serum levels of IL-1 and HA and showed no significant differences in various indicators compared with diclofenac. Conclusions: Oral HA administration is effective at alleviating knee swelling, lowering serum interleukin-1 level and enhancing physical activities in AA mice and thus has a powerful therapeutic effect on adjuvant arthritis.
Regulatory Effect of Lentinus edodes Ultrafine Powder on Human Cytokines
2012, 33(23):  291-296. 
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The immunoregulatory effect of Lentinus edodes ultrafine powder in 12 healthy subjects was explored by analyzing changes in serum levels of 39 cytokines using a Millipore Human Kit and a liquid chip scanner. Lentinus edodes ingestion at a dose of 5 g resulted in a significant increase in EGF level and a significant reduction in IP-10 level, G-CSF, IL-12(p70), IP-10 and MCP-1 levels showed a significant decrease after ingestion of 10 g of Lentinus edodes, and significant decreases in Eotaxin, G-CSF, IL-12(p70), MCP-1, MIP-1β and TGF-α were observed when the dose was further increased to 15 g. Through online information searching, we obtained data on the specific target cells of cytokines found to show significant changes in response to Lentinus edodes ingestion at each dose and those responsible for their synthesis and secretion. Based on the obtained data, we constructed cell-cell communication networks that represent intercellular interactions. The constructed intercellular communication networks demonstrated that ingestion of 5 g of Lentinus edodes had dual immunoregulatory effects in humans, while a down-regulatory effect on human immune functions was found at doses of 10 g and 15 g. Moreover, different cytokines significantly changed and there were different cell-cell communication regulations in response to different doses of Lentinus edodes. In conclusion, high-dose Lentinus edodes ingestion has powerful regulatory effects on human immune system. Furthermore, it is speculated that Lentinus edodes has anti-inflammatory, anti-agllergic, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-tumor functions.
Effect of Prenatal Dietary Quercetin Supplementation on Female Rat Reproduction and Postnatal Development and Growth of Their Offspring
2012, 33(23):  297-300. 
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Objective: To investigate the effect of prenatal dietary quercetin supplementation on reproduction in female rats and the postnatal development and growth of their offspring. Methods: Pregnant SD rats were randomized into four groups: blank control and quercetin low, medium and high-dose groups. Quercetin was given by gavage to mice from gestation day 0 to postnatal day 21 at doses of 16, 160 mg/(kg•d) and 480 mg/(kg•d). and served as low, medium and high-dose groups, respectively. The mother rats and their offspring were examined for growth indices, reproductive capacity, and pup survival and anogenital distance (AGD) at regular time intervals during the administration period. At the end of the administration period, all of them were sacrificed and organ indices were measured. Results: Quercetin had no effects on maternal body weigh, reproductive capacity or pup survival as compared to blank controls. Quercetin administration at low and medium doses resulted in a significant decrease in AGD and body weight in male pups but had no effects on AGD or body weight in female pups. High-dose administration could reduce spleen index in mother rats and male pups, while female pups showed an increase in kidney index after medium-dose administration. Conclusion: Quercetin has estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities, greater effects in male pups, but no reproductive and developmental toxicities.
Effect of Mayonnaise Intake on Blood Lipid Profile in Humans
2012, 33(23):  301-304. 
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This study investigated the effect of mayonnaise intake on blood lipid level in human. Self control trial was used.  Forty-seven male subjects, aged 18 to 22 years were recruited for a 70-day trial. All the volunteers maintained their own eating habits and 15 g of mayonnaise was introduced to their daily diet. Physical examinations were conducted before the trial, on the 30, 60 d and 70 d, and 37 d after the end to observe changes in the blood lipid profile. Serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level in human subjects significantly decreased after 30 d of mayonnaise intake (P<0.01). Serum levels of cholesterol and triglyceride significantly increased (P<0.01), while LDL-C level significantly declined until the 60 d (P<0.01). Serum levels of TC, TG and HDL-C significantly increased until the 70 d (P<0.01). In conclusion, mayonnaise intake at a dose of 15 g has no adverse effect on blood lipid profile in humans. However, irregular changes in serum levels of TC and TG were observed until the 60 d and 70 d, presumably due to excessive intake of alcohol and animal-derived fat on the 50 d. This indicates that food structure can directly alter blood lipid profile. This study demonstrates that mayonnaise intake can increase HDL-C and lower LDL-C.
Cyanidin-3-O-β-Glucoside Inhibits Lipoprotein Lipase Activity through Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Adipocytes
2012, 33(23):  305-309. 
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The major purpose of this study was to explore the effect of cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-g) on lipoprotein lipase(LPL) activity in adipocytes isolated from rats. It was found that Cy-3-g could inhibit LPL activity in adipocytes through  activating pAMPK. This suggests that Cy-3-g may have a potential role against obesity through regulating lipid metabolism.
Nutritional Composition Analysis and Quality Evaluation of Chaoshan Fish Sauce
Jin-Jin JIANG Qing-Xiao ZENG Chong-Gao LI
2012, 33(23):  310-313. 
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Chaoshan fish sauce was analyzed for nutritional composition and compared with imported fish sauce products. All tested samples had high salt content, especially Chaoshan fish sauce (as high as 30%). However, Chaoshan fish sauce showed the lowest ratio of total volatile basic nitrogen to trimethylamine nitrogen and better fermentation quality. EAA/TAA ratio in Chaoshan fish sauce was 51.23%, which was higher than the FAO/WHO pattern, and EAA/NEAA was 105.04%. Chaoshan fish sauce contained 110.53 mg/100 mL taurine. Therefore, it is a salty and tasty seasoning with high nutritional value. Moreover, abundant micro-elements such as Ca were found in Chaoshan fish sauce. Chaoshan fish sauce as a natural fermentation product of marine trash fish exhibited a 90.51% antioxidant activity in modified FRAP assay and a TCA-soluble short peptide content of 28.49 mg/mL.
Influence of Soybean Isoflavone on PKG and Raf-1 Expression in the Hippocampus of Rats with Alzheimer’s Disease
2012, 33(23):  314-317. 
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Objective: To explore the effect and possible mechanism of action of soybean isoflavone (SIF) on PKG and Raf-1 expression in the hippocampus of rats with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Method: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into shame operation model control and SIF high, medium and low-dose groups. AD rat models were established by bilateral hippocampus injection of Aβ. Learning-memory abilities in AD rats were observed by Morris water maze test. PKG content in the hippocampus was measured by ELISA and Raf-1 expression in the hippocampus of rats was detected by immunohistochemistrical SP method. Result: SIF significantly improved learning-memory abilities (P<0.05) and decreased PKG content and Raf-1 expression in the hippocampus of AD rats (P<0.05). Conclusion: SIF has anti-AD effects probably by decreasing PKG content and Raf-1 expression in the hippocampus of AD rats.
Antitumor Activity of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Converted from Linoleic Acid in Salicornia herbacea Seed Oil
2012, 33(23):  318-322. 
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Objective: To explore the in vitro antitumor activity of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) converted from linoleic acid in Salicornia herbacea seed oil. Methods: CLA was chemically prepared from Salicornia herbacea seed oil containing 73.52% linoleic acid and analyzed for physiochemical properties and acute toxicity in mice. Meanwhile, its growth inhibitory effect on human tumor cells was measured by MTT assay. Results: The total content of c9, t11-CLA and t10, c12-CLA in the prepared CLA was 68.75%. Its physiochemical properties met relevant quality requirements. Acute toxicity test showed an LD50 larger than 20 g/kg, indicating its nontoxicity. Esophageal cancer cells EC109 and breast cancer cells HTB-22 were powerfully inhibited by this CLA with an IC50 of 111.9 μg/mL for the latter, but It had no inhibitory effect on cervical cancer cells HeLa cell and no toxicity to normal embryos renal cell 293T. Conclusion: The CLA prepared from Salicornia herbacea seed oil has a strong growth inhibition on some human tumor cells, but this inhibition is cell type specific.
Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Pleurotus cornucopiae against Alcohol-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice
2012, 33(23):  323-326. 
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The present study investigated the protective effect of polysaccharides in hot water extract from Pleurotus cornucopiae (PCNP) on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were randomly divided into blank control, alcohol-induced liver injury model, positive control and PCNP treatment (at doses of 100, 200 mg/(kg·d) and 400 mg/(kg·d) groups. After 30 consecutive days of intragastric administration, all the mice except for blank control group were given by gavage 50% alcohol at a dose of 12 mL/kg to induce acute liver injury. At 12 h after alcohol administration, all the mice in each group were killed by cervical dislocation and blood and liver were collected for the measurement of antioxidant indicators and pathological observation of liver tissue. Compared with the model group, PCNP administration resulted in a decrease in MDA content in the liver and the activities of AST, ALT in the serum, and an increase in the activities of SOD and CAT and GSH content in the liver of mice. In conclusion, PCNP can obviously improve pathological liver injury and protect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.
Promoting Effect of Bonepep on Bone Metabolism and Growth
2012, 33(23):  327-330. 
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The purpose of this study was to elucidate the promoting effect of Bonepep, bioactive peptides derived from egg yolk on bone metabolism and growth and its physiological mechanism. For this, mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, isolated rat osteoclast and rats were used and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity measurement, TRAP staining, bone erosion lacunae and BrdU staining were carried out in this study. It was found that Bonepep improved bone metabolism and growth through many different mechanisms such as promotion of osteoblast growth, inhibition of osteoclast growth and differentiation and enhancement of bone cell activity. 
Preventive and Curative Effects and Mechanism of Sesamin against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice
2012, 33(23):  331-335. 
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In this study, the preventive and curative effect of sesamin against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice and its mechanism of action were investigated. NAFLD mouse models were established by feeding high fat diet. Serum lipid and free fatty acid composition, oxygen radical metabolism and liver injury were analyzed to evaluate the preventive and curative effect of sesamin against NAFLD in mice. Sesamin prevention (50 mg/(kg•d)) and treatment (50, 100 mg/(kg•d)) effectively decreased serum levels of T-CHO and TG in NAFLD mice, significantly improved serum HDL-C level, increased serum percentage of free unsaturated fatty acids and had positive regulatory effects on serum lipid levels. In addition, sesamin also could lower liver MDA level and serum levels of GOT and GPT and increase liver T-AOC level. Histopathological observation indicated that sesamin markedly alleviated liver lesions in NAFLD mice. Hence, sesamin has both preventive and curative effects against NAFLD in mice and its mechanism of action is relevant to lowering serum lipid levels, regulating serum free fatty acid composition (elevating unsaturated fatty acid proportion), antioxidation and attenuating hepatocyte damage.
Safety Evaluation of Chemically Modified Maize Resistant Starch Prepared with POCl3
2012, 33(23):  336-339. 
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In order to evaluate the safety of long-term consumption of chemically modified maize resistant starch prepared with POCl3, acute toxicity test was used to determine its safety dosage. For this, the modified starch was given to mice by gavage at four different doses, and median lethal dose (LD50) and 95% fiducial limits (95% FL) were calculated by Bliss method. According to the results of acute toxicology test, 4 gradients 90% LD50, 75% LD50, 50% LD50, and 25% LD50 were designed for a 90-day subchronic toxicity test. The results showed that the LD50 of the modified starch was 33.9 g/kg and the 95% FL was 23.7–48.3 g/kg, indicating that this material was non-toxic. Moreover, its acceptable daily intake for a normal person (65 kg) should be less than 16526.25 mg, which means that the recommended intake (RNI) is no more than 16.526 g/d.
Research Progress of Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Allergenicity Reduction of Milk Protein
2012, 33(23):  340-345. 
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Enzymatic hydrolysis is one common technology of milk processing, which has been used in producing hypoallergenic formula. The major allergens in milk and the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis for reducing milk allergens are introduced briefly in this paper. The application of single proteinase and several proteinases in combination for reducing allergenicity of milk protein are reviewed, which will be useful for the preparation and production of hypoallergenic dairy products.
Application of Three Molecular Biotechnologies in Microbial Diversity of Microorganisms from Traditional Fermented Foods
2012, 33(23):  346-350. 
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Traditional fermented foods with their own production methods have existed for centuries in China. These foods have special flavour and functions due to a great variety of microorganisms during their production processes. Recently, the modernization and industrialization of these fermented foods their production methods and food safety have gained extensive attention. Biodiversity and functions of microorganisms during fermentation process have become the hot topics of traditional fermented foods. Molecular biotechnologies, such as metagenomics, DNA microarray and real-time PCR, were widely used for studying microorganisms of traditional fermented foods. In this article, current progresses are summarized, which provides insights into current trends for these technologies in the application of traditional fermented foods.
Application of Sensory and Instrumental Analysis in Wine Aroma
2012, 33(23):  351-355. 
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Aroma is one of the most important sensory characteristics of wine, and regional characteristics have made it as a basis of original wine protection. Instrumental analysis plays a significant role in wine aroma, however, the olfactory sensation is still needed to identify whether the wine can bring pleasure feeling and spiritual satisfaction to people. Nowadays, sensory analysis can not be replaced by any other advanced instruments. In this paper, major aroma compositions in wine through sensory analysis, and the utilization of sensory and instrumental methods for wine aroma are reviewed.
Research Progress in Bioactive Components and Functions of Dendrobium officinale
Shao-Ping NIE
2012, 33(23):  356-361. 
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Dendrobium officinale, is widely used in traditional Chinese and folk medicine for centuries to nourish stomach and promote the production of body fluid. In this article, the research progress in identification is summarized. The bioactive components extracted from Dendrobium officinale, such as polysaccharides, dendrobine, stillnoids and volatile oil as well as their biological functions are discussed. All of these studies will provide a scientific basis for expanding the application of Dendrobium officinale.
Research Process on the Application of Dextranase in Cane-sugar Industry
2012, 33(23):  362-364. 
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In this article, the impacts of dextran on cane-sugar manufacturing and current research process in the application of dextranase in cane-sugar industry have been reviewed. Recent research in foreign countries shows that dextranase could be used in the whole cane-sugar process and the optimal feeding point is the extraction process. The application of dextranase can acquire good economic benefits. However, there are no relevant reports related to the industrial application of dextranase in China.
Research Progress in the Detection of Soybean Allergens
2012, 33(23):  365-369. 
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Soybean is recognized as one of the major food allergens. The rapid and accurate detection of soybean allergen with low cost has gained tremendous attention in the field of food and pharmaceutical industries. The major allergens in soybean include glycinin, β-conglycinin, Gly m Bd 60 K, Gly m Bd 30 K and Gly m Bd 28 K. The major detection methods for soybean allergens have electrophoresis method, immunological method, PCR, chromatography, mass spectroscopy and bio-chip technology. In this article, the major detection methods for allergens in soybean were summarized, which will provide the theoretical guidance for the allergen detection in different food sources and the ensure of food safety for human health.
Development and Prospect of Antioxidant Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria
2012, 33(23):  370-374. 
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The antioxidant function of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in vivo and in vitro has been confirmed through radical scavenging capability, metal chelating activity, reducing power, inhibitory capability of lipid oxidation and the improvement of antioxidant enzyme activity. However, the compositions of lactic acid bacteria and molecular mechanisms of antioxidation have not been elucidated yet. The development of medical healthcare, drugs and anti-aging products through antioxidative lactic acid bacteria will become the hot topic. The significance and current studies of LAB with antioxidant properties have gained tremendous attention at home and abroad. The antioxidant modes and current problems are also discussed, and future development trends of LAB with antioxidant properties are proposed.
Research Progress in Processing and Utilization of Fresh Corn
2012, 33(23):  375-379. 
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Fresh corn processing industry has developed rapidly in recent years, and is characteristics of gradual maturation, product diversity and significant economic benefits. In this paper, the research progress in processing and application of fresh corn is summarized; current problems and solutions of fresh corn processing in our country are discussed, which will provide a reference for the deep processing of fresh corn.
Chromatographic Methods for the Analysis of Melamine and Analogs in Food and Food Contact Materials
2012, 33(23):  380-387. 
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Residues of melamine and its analogs in food and food contact materials have attracted extensive attentions. In this article, sample extraction, liquid chromatography analysis and matrix effect for the analysis of melamine and its analogs have been reviewed. These investigations will provide the useful references for the research and establishment of the limitation value of malemine and its analogs in the field of food in China.
Research Progress of Soybean Protein Modification at Subunit Level
2012, 33(23):  388-392. 
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In this article, soybean protein modification methods and processing properties are summarized. Based on the research progress at the subunit level, the modification strategies, functional properties and molecular structures of soybean proteins as well as protein aggregation mechanisms are discussed. Moreover, current problems and future development trends for soybean protein modification are also proposed.
Research Progress of Protein Detection Technology in Foods
2012, 33(23):  393-398. 
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Accurate determination of protein in foods is necessary for quality management and scientific research. The principle, characteristics and application of analytic methods for protein contents are reviewed in this article. Meanwhile, the future development trends are also discussed. These investigations will provide a theoretical reference for improving and developing suitable methods of protein detection in foods.
Characteristics, Application, Safety Evaluation and Safety Control of Natural Food Pigments
2012, 33(23):  399-404. 
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Natural food pigments have been widely used in the food industry due to their unique benefits such as high safety, low negative effects and multiple health benefits compared with synthetic food pigments. However, with development of natural food pigments, the safety of natural pigments used in foods has gained extensive attention. There are still many safety risks in natural food pigments during their development, processing and application. This article summarizes the classification, major characteristics, application and safety evaluation as well as safety control of natural food pigments, which will be benefit for reducing the immediate and cumulative safety risks of natural food pigments to the minimal level. A series of natural food pigment safety evaluation methods including toxicology test, toxic trace element test and hygiene test of natural food pigments in a more reliable and consistent manner have been discussed.
Research Progresses in Biodegradation Pathways of Deoxynivalenol
2012, 33(23):  405-409. 
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As one of the most widely distributed Fusarium mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) not only results in the enormous loss of global food industry, but also lead to serious threat for food safety. The appropriate application of microbial degradation metabolism of DON in raw materials has become a hot topic. In this paper, biodegradation, transformation and absorption pathways including 3C—OH oxidation, de-epoxidation, hydration, glycosylation, 3C-epimerization, binding and absorption and other mechanisms are summarized, which will provide the better understanding of biodegradation, transformation or absorption mechanisms of DON, and theoretical basis for the control of DON in food and feed through microbiological strategies.