Table of Content

25 October 2016, Volume 37 Issue 20
Processing Technology
Optimization of Preparation of Zein/Chitosan Composite Films by Combined Microwave and Ultrasonic Treatments
LIU Tingting, ZHANG Ying, LI Na, WANG Dawei
2016, 37(20):  1-5.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620001
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Combined microwave and ultrasonic treatments was used to prepare zein/chitosan composite films. The
optimization of process parameters was carried out using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array. The independent
variables were ultrasonic power, microwave heating temperature and combined treatment,time, and stirrer speed, and
the response was film tensile strength. The optimum process parameters were determined as follows: ultrasonic power,
180 W; microwave heating temperature, 50 ℃; combined treatment time, 6 min; and stirrer speed, 300 r/min. Under these
conditions, the tensile strength of composite films was (19.98 ± 0.34) MPa. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed
that the combined microwave-ultrasonic treatments could obviously improve the microstructure of composite films apart
from smooth surface with less roughness. Infrared spectral analysis indicate that the original molecular structure was not
significantly damaged.

Optimization of Key Processing Parameters for Preparation of Corn Cyclo (His-Pro) by High Temperature/High Pressure Method
FAN Hongxiu, LIU Tingting, LIU Hongcheng, REN Huahua, ZHANG Yanrong
2016, 37(20):  6-12.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620002
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In this study, we investigated the synthesis of corn cyclo (His-Pro) (CHP) in aqueous solution by a high
temperature/pressure method from corn protein hydrolysate prepared in our laboratory. First of all, the one-factor-at-a-time
method was used to investigate the influences of reaction temperature, substrate concentration, KHCO3 concentration and
reaction time on CHP yield. Subsequently, the reaction conditions were optimized using response surface methodology.
Results revealed that the optimum reaction conditions were determined as follows: reaction temperature, 125.9 ℃;
reaction pressure, 0.25 MPa; substrate concentration, 20.5 mg/mL; KHCO3 concentration, 0.16 mol/L; and reaction time,
5.3 h, resulting in the maximum yield of CHP as high as 6.58 mg/g. The prepared CHP exhibited the expected structure as
confirmed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).

Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Tenderization Conditions for Low-grade Beef Using Papain and Composite Phosphate
TAO Rui, TANG Xiaoyan, GONG Yan, QI Kai, GENG Yongran
2016, 37(20):  13-18.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620003
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The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal tenderization conditions using papain and composite
phosphate together for low-grade roast beef production. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to model and
optimize responses. Three parameters including enzymatic specific activity, phosphate concentration and time were
selected as the main tenderization conditions. The responses were Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory evaluation.
The experimental data were statistically analyzed for the establishment of quadratic regression models using the Design-
Expert 8.05 software. According to the results of RSM, the Warner-Bratzler shear force could be reduced remarkably by
using papain and composite phosphate, and higher water retention and sensory evaluation scores were achieved by properly
reducing papain dosage. The optimal tenderization parameters were determined as follows: papain activity, 9.44 U/g;
phosphate concentration, 18.35 mg/mL; and tenderization time, 9.09 h. Under these conditions, the shear force was
17.25 N and the sensory evaluation was 5.02. The predicted values were proved to coincide well with the measured values.
Accordingly, the developed regression models were reliable and could be used to predict the changes in shear force and
sensory evaluation.

Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Guichang Kiwifruit-
WANG Jinhua, DU Chao, LIANG Chen, MA Lizhi, ZENG Jia
2016, 37(20):  19-23.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620004
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The extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Guichang kiwifruit pulp or pericarp were
investigated in this work. The optimization of the extraction parameters was investigated by using orthogonal array design.
Polysaccharide content was determined by the anthranone-sulfuric acid method. The antioxidant activities of Guichang kiwifruit
polysaccharides were tested by pyrogallol autoxidation and Fenton’s oxidation reaction. The results showed that the optimum
extraction conditions for kiwifruit pulp polysaccharides were found to be 2 h extraction at 80 ℃ with a solid-to-solvent ratio of
1:35 (g/mL) performed three times, and those for kiwifruit pericarp polysaccharides were determined as follows: three extraction
cycles at 70 ℃ each for 2 h at a solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:25 (g/mL) . Under the optimized conditions, the yield of polysaccharide
extracted from kiwifruit pulp and pericarp reached 1.74% and 1.16%, respectively. The polysaccharides from kiwifruit pulp and
pericarp both had strong scavenging effects on superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals with half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of
12.4 and 41.3 μg/mL for pulp polysaccharides and 84.1 and 50.8 μg/mL for pericarp polysaccharides, respectively.

Optimization of Polyphenols from Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves by Ultrasound-assisted Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology and Their Antioxidant Activities
PEI Fei, TAO Hongling, CAI Lijuan, WEI Chenchen, YUAN Yiming, YANG Wenjian, HU Qiuhui
2016, 37(20):  24-30.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620005
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In order to obtain the best ultrasound-assistedextracting conditions for polyphenols from Moringa oleifera
Lam. leaves, and clarified their antioxidant activities. Response surface methodology was used to explore the effects of
ultrasonic power, extraction time, extraction temperature, and solid to liquid ratio on extraction rate. Moreover, the reducing
power, the DPPH radical scavenging activities and the O2-· scavenging effect of polyphenols from Moringa oleifera Lam.
leaves were also investigated. The results showed that the best extraction condition were as follows: the extraction time of
19.5 min, the solid to liquid ratio of 1:30 (g/mL), the extraction temperature of 20.2 ℃, and the ultrasonic power of 250 W.
Under the optimal extractions, the extraction rate of phycoerythrin was (25.14 ± 0.46) mg/g. In addition, the polyphenols
from Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves. have strong anti-oxidative, and the reducing power, the DPPH radical scavenging activities
and the O2-· scavenging effect were 81.25%, 94.15% and 75.05% of L-ascorbic acid, respectively. This research could provide the
theoretical basis for higher preparation and antioxidants development of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves.

Component Analysis
Changes in Volatile Compounds of Pomfret and Grass Carp during Different Storage Periods
ZHANG Jingjing, LIANG Ping, SHI Wenzheng, GU Saiqi, WANG Xichang
2016, 37(20):  31-36.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620006
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Pomfret and grass carp were chosen as representatives of sea and freshwater fish, respectively to investigate
odor changes by electronic nose (E-nose) and changes in volatile flavor components during chilled storage by gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that e-nose could distinguish the odor of different
species of fish at different storage periods, and the odor changes of grass carp were much more obvious. A total of 22 and
19 volatiles were identified in pomfret and grass carp, respectively, during refrigeration, mainly consisting of aldehydes,
alcohols, esters, and putrefactive compounds etc. The major volatiles of fresh pomfret were 1-penten-3-ol, 1-octen-3-ol,
hexanal, heptanal and 2-octenal, while the major volatile of grass carp was caproic acid methyl ester. There were different
changes in odorous components of pomfret and grass carp during refrigeration. The putrefactive compounds of pomfret
were mainly trimethylamine and 3-methyl-butanol, and the contents of most aldehydes and alcohols showed a decreasing
tendency. The fat oxidation products decanal, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal and nonanal were found to be the main volatiles of grass
carp stored for two and four days. Moreover, fewer putrefactive compounds were detected during the late storage period.
The above results noted that growing environment, lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage may influence the odor of sea fish
and freshwater fish during cold storage.

Simultaneous Determination of 6 Flavonoid Compounds in Herba Lobelia chinensis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography after Ionic Liquid Assisted Ultrasonic Extraction
DENG Yongli, ZHOU Guangming, CHEN Junhua, GAO Yi, LIAO Anhui
2016, 37(20):  37-41.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620007
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Objectives: To optimize the conditions for ionic liquid-assisted extraction of flavonoids compounds from Herba
Lobelia chinensis using single factor and orthogonal array designs and consequently to establish a high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of rutin, quercetin, naringgenin, hesperetin, kaempferol and
apigenin in Herba Lobelia chinensis. Methods: The 6 compounds were separated on an InertSustain C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm)
using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and acetic acid (pH 3.0) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min.
The detection wavelength was set at 285 nm. The column temperature was maintained at 35 ℃. Results: The optimum
extraction conditions for total flavonoids were determined as follows: 80% (V/V) aqueous methanol as extraction solvent;
solid-to-liquid ratio, 1:80 (g/mL); extraction time, 30 min; and ionic liquid concentration, 0.6 mol//L. Under these conditions,
rutin, quercetin, naringgenin, hesperetin, kaempferol and apigenin were separated satisfactorily. The limits of detection (LODs)
for these flavonoid compounds were 0.001 2, 0.002 3, 0.002 6, 0.000 2, 0.001 0 and 0.000 6 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries
of spiked samples ranged from 91.77% to 102.53%. Conclusion: The proposed method is simple and rapid, and it can provide an
efficient means for the extraction, separation and determination of flavonoid compounds in Herba Lobelia chinensis.

Antioxidant Activities and Major Chemical Components in Tea Infusions of Different Kinds of White Tea
Lü Haipeng, ZHANG Yue, CHEN Xinghua, CAI Liangsui, LIN Zhi
2016, 37(20):  42-50.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620008
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In this study, we examined and correlated the antioxidant activities and main quality components of tea infusions
of three different kinds of white tea, i.e., Baihaoyinzhen (BHYZ), Baimudan (BMD) and Shoumei (SM). The antioxidant
activities were tested using 1,1-dipheny1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-
6-sulphonate) radical (ABTS+·) scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and superoxide anion radical
scavenging assays. Results showed that BHYZ possessed significantly higher antioxidant activities than did BMD and SM
(P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed between BMD and SM (P > 0.05). Moreover, the different kinds of
white tea had significantly different levels of amino acids, shikimic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (P < 0.05).
Correlation analysis indicated that there were significant correlations between the antioxidant activities and the levels of
flavonoids, catechins and organic acids, especially EGCG and quinic acid. This study concludes that different kinds of white
tea greatly vary in their antioxidant activities and quality components.?

Comparative Analysis of Quality Characteristics of Souchong and Congou
ZENG Liang, WANG Jie, LIU Yan, LUO Liyong, MA Mengjun
2016, 37(20):  51-56.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620009
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Souchong and congou made with the same class of fresh tea leaves obtained from the same tea variety were
compared and analyzed for their quality characteristics in terms of the main biochemical components, physical characteristics
of tea infusion and volatile compounds. The results indicated that the content of tea polyphenols was significantly higher in
souchong while the contents of caffeine, theaflavins and thearubigins were significantly higher in congou. There were no
significant differences in the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein and free amino acids between souchong and congou.
The color parameters a* and b* and precipitate amount were significantly higher in congou at 8.38, 39.19 and 246.78 mg/L,
respectively, while L* value and transmittance were significantly higher in souchong at 29.16 and 76.53%, indicating that
congou possessed a yellower and redder infusion while souchong had a more transparent one. The odor activity values (OAVs)
of samples were examined and calculated. There were 11 and 13 kinds of aroma components, respectively, in souchong and
congou whose OAVs reached over 1. The main aroma substances were β-ionone, methyl benzoate and linalool in souchong,
which can exhibit significant sweet aroma and β-damascenone, β-ionone, methyl benzoate and hexanal in congou showing
flowery flavor. β-Damascenone and hexanal were probably the effective aroma components to differentiate the aroma type of
congou from souchong given that they particularly existed in congou and both had high OAVs reaching over 1.

Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Compounds of Tuna Oil Following Deodorization Process
ZHANG Hongyan, LI Ye, YUAN Bei, ZHU Zhoubin, WANG Qiujuan, CHEN Yifang, DONG Lisha, WANG Zhaoyang, SI Kaixue, HAN Jiaojiao, CUI Chenxi, SU Xiurong
2016, 37(20):  57-62.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620010
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The present study aimed to investigate the changes in fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of tuna oil
following deodorization by using electronic nose (E-nose) and headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-gas chromatographymass
spectrometry analysis (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Results showed the contents of saturated fatty acids (C14–C22) in tuna
oil decreased whereas unsaturated fatty acids increased following deodorization process. E-nose was able to detect the
changes in volatile compounds of tuna oil with high sensitivity. Before and following deodorization at 150 and 200 ℃, a
total of 50, 38 and 21 volatile compounds namely alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, hydrocarbons, acids and heterocyclic
compounds were identified using GC-MS. The major volatile compounds in tuna oil were identified as octanal, nonanal,
(E)-2-octenal, 1-penten-3-ol and 2-undecanone, which contributed to the unpleasant earthy and fishy smell of tuna oil.
Following deodorization at 150 ℃, the amounts of octanal, nonanal and (E)-2-octenal in tuna oil significantly decreased,
resulting in a significant decrease in its unpleasant earthy and fishy smell, whereas 10-dodecyn-1-ol and 2-butyl-1-octanol
significantly increased, giving a characteristic woody and fatty aroma. A higher deodorization temperature of 200 ℃
significantly decreased the contents of octanal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal and (E)-2-decene aldehyde and increased the contents
of tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-methanol, 2-ethyl-furan, and 2-pentyl furan in tuna oil. Tetrahydropyran-2-methanol, 2-ethyl furan
and 2-pentyl furan were responsible for the fatty, grass and green aroma of tuna oil.

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Artemisia sieversiana
LI Hailiang, CHEN Haikui, XU Fuli, WANG Weiling, LI Jilin
2016, 37(20):  63-68.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620011
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The chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia sieversiana,
a traditional medicinal herb in Tibet, China, were investigated. A total of 48 components, representing 95.36% of the total
oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the main constituents being α-bisabolol,
chamazulene, α-phellandrene, palmitic acid and lavandulol. The antimicrobial activities of the oil were evaluated against
five microorganisms, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Crytococcus
neofonman, respectively. The results showed that the oil possessed inhibitory activity against B. subtilis, E. faccalis,
S. aureus and C. neoformans, amon+g which the best inhibition was observed against C. neoforman with a minimum
inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.5 μg/mL. The oil revealed a relatively stronger scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-
picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS+·) and hydroxyl free
radicals in a concentration-dependent way.

Analysis of Differences in Milk Fat Globule Membrane Proteins between Breast Milk and Bovine Milk
JING Mengna, JIANG Tiemin, LIU Bin, ZHANG Dongdong, WEI Jinghua, WANG Pin, LI Jufang, CHEN Lijun
2016, 37(20):  69-74.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620012
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In order to compare the difference in milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins between breast milk and
bovine milk, MFGM were extracted from milk by organic solvent extraction and lysed in SDS-containing lysis buffer for
analysis by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) after the removal of SDS using PierceTM detergent
removal spin column. The results were filtered according to the number of unique peptide ≥ 1. A total of 863 and 454
proteins were identified separately in breast milk and bovine milk, including 175 proteins in common, and 688 and 279
proteins unique for breast milk and bovine milk, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of 688 specific MFGM proteins
in human milk showed that they were mainly distributed in cell part, cell organelle, and cell membrane, and involved in
biological pathways such as metabolic processes, biological regulation, response to stimulus, immune system process,
reproduction, and so on. These proteins also participated in many molecular functions, such as catalytic activity, binding, transport
activity and enzyme regulation activity. In addition, these breast milk MFGM proteins were involved in some metabolic pathways,
such as aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, fatty acid metabolism, propanoate metabolism,
steroid biosynthesis, lysine degradation, which were not shown in bovine milk. The MFGM proteins in breast milk and bovine
milk had obvious differences. Although some compositions and functions were overlapped, in terms of abundance and metabolic
pathways, the MFGM proteins in bovine milk could not be replaced by those in breast milk.

Analysis of the Volatile Components of Dried Cuttlefish by Electronic Nose Combined with HS-SPME-GC-MS
JIN Yang, BU Tingting, LI Mi, ZHENG Li, SONG Zhenggui, LI Hesheng
2016, 37(20):  75-80.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620013
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In the experiments, electronic nose (E-nose) and headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatographymass
spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) were used jointly to evaluate and compare the volatile components of fresh,
naturally dried and hot-air dried cuttlefish. The results showed that the E-nose could distinguish the flavors of the three
different samples of cuttlefish. The contribution rates of principal components, sensor recognition and flavor discrimination
of samples were quantified by principal component analysis (PCA), loadings analysis (LA) and linear discriminant analysis
(LDA), respectively. The results of HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis showed that a total of 116 volatile compounds were detected,
52 compounds of which had odor activity in fresh sample, 64 of which in naturally dried sample and 71 of which in hot-air
dried sample. Drying could result in a significant increase in the contents of aldehydes, hydrocarbons and pyrazines as well
as an obvious decrease in the contents of amines. Especially, the hot-air dried sample contained a large amount of pyrazines
which constituted its unique volatile flavor.

Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Acanthopagrus schlegeli, Pagrosomus major and Their Hybrids
WANG Siting, LI Peng, CHEN Shuyin, ZHANG Zhiyong, YIN Shaowu, ZHU Fei, JIA Chaofeng, LIU Hailin
2016, 37(20):  81-85.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620014
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The lipid contents of the liver, muscles and bones of Pagrosomus major, Acanthopagrus schlegeli and their
hybrids were analyzed by Soxhlet extraction method, and the fatty acid composition was tested by gas chromatography.
The results showed that the hybrids fully inherited the advantages of the red sea bream parents and their lipid content was
significantly higher than that of the parent black porgy, and the most significant difference in lipid content was observed for
liver among the three fish tissues. The saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition of the hybrids and the parents were almost
the same. The fatty acids C12:0, C22:0, and C24:0 were not found in the parents but they were detected in the hybrids. It was
indicated that SFAs were more abundant in the hybrids. The unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition of the hybrids was
almost the same as that of the parent black porgy, especially in the liver.

Comparison of Aroma Compounds in Traditional Fermented and Inoculated Douchies, A Chinese Traditional Fermented Soybean Food
YE Yan, SU Wei, WANG Qian, HE Xin, GAO Jingya
2016, 37(20):  86-94.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620015
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In this study, cooked soybean was fermented by mixed cultures of Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger,
pure Aspergillus oryzae and the traditional method, respectively. The volatile compound of three Douchi samples was
analyzed and compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 152 volatile compounds, i.e.,
30 hydrocarbons, 21 alcohols, 8 aldehydes, 33 esters, 7 ketones, 6 phenols, 18 acids, 20 heterocyclic compounds, 3
sulfocompounds and 6 other compounds, were identified. Results showed that the contents of hydrocarbons, aldehydes
and acids in Douchi produced by mixed culture fermentation were higher than in that from pure culture fermentation. The
traditional fermented Douchi had higher contents of alcohols, heterocyclic compounds sulfocompounds and phenols when
compared with the two other samples. On the other hand, the multi-strains fermented Douchi contained significantly higher
amounts of ketones and esters when compared with the pure culture and the traditional fermented Douchi.

Analysis of Characteristic Flavor Components of Cookies Formulated with Bean Paste Lentinus edodes
LIU Zhiyun, HU Qiuhui
2016, 37(20):  95-101.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620016
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The characteristic volatile components of cookies formulated with sweet bean paste as the main ingredient and
Lentinus edodes powder were analyzed and identified. The concentration and fineness of added L. edodes powder in cookies
were determined by sensory evaluation tests, and the characteristic volatile aroma components of L. edodes powder, sweet
bean paste cookies and cookies made with both sweet bean paste and L. edodes (BPL) were comparatively detected using
electronic nose and headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS).
The results showed that cookies formulated with sweet bean paste and 4% of L. edodes powder with 200 mesh fineness
had the best sensory quality. A total of 28 volatile components in the cookies were identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS, which
were composed of heterocyclic and aromatic compounds, aldehydes, alcohols and hydrocarbons. The characteristic flavor
components of BPL cookies were 1-octen-3-ol, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethyl
pyrazine and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine. This study has expanded the application of beans and mushrooms in bakery
products, and provided a new type of nutritious cookie with rich mushroom and bean paste flavor which is simple to produce.?

Effects of Four Different Tea Varieties and Harvesting Seasons on Aroma Characteristics of Green Tea
WANG Qi, ZHAO Guifu, ZHANG Xuzhou, ZHAO Lei, XIA Tao, ZHANG Xinfu
2016, 37(20):  102-107.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620017
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Fresh tea leaves from four different varieties picked in summer and those picked in three different seasons from tea populations from Huangshan mountain region, all of which were collected from the growing area of Qingdao, were processed into green tea by spreading, fixing, rolling, drying and aroma improvement. Using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, aroma components and proportions were analyzed. A total of forty-five main aroma components of different varieties from Qingdao green tea were identified. Correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that besides the unique aroma components, dimethylbenzene, D-limonene, linalool, β-ionone, naphthalene, tetradecane and 2-methoxy-4-methyl-1-(1- methylethyl)-benzene, among the shared aroma components, also played a key role in the aroma of Qingdao green tea. Among the 37 major aroma components identified in Qingdao green tea in different seasons, the unique aroma components made vital contributions to each type of aroma, but the common aroma components were not important.DY>

Comparative Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Glutinous Rice Wine Added with Adenophora stricta Roots before and after Pasteurization by GC-MS
LIU Yi, WU Qiong, WU Qingyuan, JIANG Heti
2016, 37(20):  108-112.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620018
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In order to explore the influence of pasteurization on the aroma intensity of rice wine added with Adenophora
stricta roots, produced from glutinous rice and Adenophora stricta roots, the volatile aroma compounds of unpasteurized and
pasteurized wines were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and qualitatively and quantitatively
analyzed by gas chromatograghy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and area normalization method. The results illustrated that
a total of 73 and 71 aroma compounds were detected in the unpasteurized and pasteurized wines, respectively. The major
components identified were phenylethyl alcohol, linalool, ethyl lactate, isoamyl acetate, lauryl alcohol, alpha-terpineol,
n-hexanol, and terpinen-4-ol. After pasteurization, the relative contents of alcohols and esters were increased by 1.22% and
2.00%, respectively, while the contents of hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, and acids as well as phenols and ethers were all
decreased to different extents. After pasteurization, citronellol and phenethyl acetate, which contributed to the pleasing aroma
of the wine, were not detected, while octanoic acid and capric acid, which smelled unpleasant, were accordingly decreased
and even disappeared. The wine had sweet and fruit flavors due to the occurrence of ethyl caprylate, tetradecanal and methyl
heptenone after pasteurization. In general, pasteurization had little impact on the volatile aroma compounds in rice wine
added with Adenophora stricta roots. Thus, pasteurization is suitable for the wine.

Safety Detection
Establishment of Magnetic Bead-Based Immunosensor for the Detection of Tetracycline Residues in Milk
KANG Huaibin, MA Hongyan, LI Fang, XU Baocheng, LUO Denglin, ZHANG Ruihua, ZOU Liangliang
2016, 37(20):  113-119.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620019
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A highly sensitive and rapid immunofluorescence assay for the detection of tetracycline residues in raw milk
based on magnetic beads was developed. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of this method were
0.03 and 0.20 ng/mL, respectively. The fluorescence intensity was linear with the concentration of tetracycline in the range
of 0.25 to 32 ng/mL with a coefficient of determination of 0.995 9 (R2 = 0.995 9). The recoveries of TC spiked at different
concentrations were between 82.6% and 97.0%, indicating that the method is accurate. Furthermore, precision, calculated as
relative standard deviation (RSD), was below 5.0% for intra-day and inter-day determinations, indicating good repeatability of the
method. The results of tetracycline residues in raw milk determined by this method and HPLC-UV were highly consistent.

An Electrochemical Immunosensor for Rapid Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Foods Based on Graphene and Ionic Liquid
WANG Ruixin, FENG Yajing, LI Shuguo
2016, 37(20):  120-125.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620020
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An electrochemical immunosensor for the rapid determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foods has been fabricated
by employing chitosan, graphene and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate composite film to immobilize AFB1
antibody onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode. Based on the specific immune reaction between AFB1 antibody
and antigen, the effects of immune response on the response current of the immunosensor were investigated by cyclic
voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry using K3[Fe(CN)6] as the probe in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0) with
1 mmol/L K3[Fe(CN)6] and 0.1 KCl. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the reduction in the peak current of
the immunosensor increased with the increase in the logarithm of the concentration of AFB1 in solution, showing a linear
relationship in the AFB1 concentration range of 0.1–8.1 ng/mL with limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 ng/mL (RSN = 3).
Excellent stability and repeatability of the prepared immunosensor were observed under the selected condition. The recovery
rate of AFB1 in peanut and corn oil samples was in the range of 94.73%–104.41%. The results from this method well agreed
with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography method, and so it is practicable for the rapid determination
of AFB1 in food.

Effect of Penicillium expansum Infection of Grapes on Patulin Content and Flavor Quality of Cabernet Gernischt Wine
CHEN Xia, LI Min, ZHANG Bo, ZHANG Jianhua, ZHAO Wanzhen, LI Wei, HAN Shunyu
2016, 37(20):  126-133.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620021
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In this experiment, we aimed to study the effect of Penicillium expansum infection of Cabernet Gernischt grapes
on the patulin content, physicochemical indexes and volatile composition of the corresponding wine. The results showed
that patulin content of the wine made from grapes with postharvest infection by Penicillium expansum was lower than the
detection limit (10 μg/L) of the HPLC method as described in the standard SN/T 2008—2007, suggesting that patulin does
not accumulate to exceed the maximum allowable limit, while the physicochemical indexes and aroma compounds of wine
were affected by this treatment as indicated by a significant increase in chroma as well as the contents of tannin, total phenols
and total anthocyanins (P < 0.05) and a decrease in alcohol level. The volatile composition analysis showed that the types
and contents of volatiles in treated and control samples were different; the contents of 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylthiopropanol
and octanoic acid were higher in the treated sample than in the control one whereas phenethyl acetate, damascenone
and α-terpilenol were lower (P < 0.05). Taking into account the odor thresholds and organoleptic properties of volatile
compounds, P. expansum infection of grapes would affect wine flavor and raise the risk of wine quality deterioration.

Establishment of Quantitative Analysis Model of Chicken Cholesterol Based on Medium-Wavelength Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
WANG Hui, TIAN Hanyou, ZHANG Shunliang, ZOU Hao, LIU Fei, LI Wencai, LI Jiapeng, CHEN Wenhua, QIAO Xiaoling
2016, 37(20):  134-140.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620022
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In this research spectral information for commercially available chicken breast samples was extracted in the
medium wavelength region of near-infrared (NIR) and used for establishing a quantitative analysis model of cholesterol
concentration using partial least squares (PLS) regression, and the prediction accuracy of the model was analyzed. The
modeling was investigated with respect to outlier elimination and optimized combined use of various spectral preprocessing
methods. The optimum quantitative analysis model was achieved with two cycles of outlier elimination and the combined
use of SG first derivative, SG smoothing and De-trending for spectral preprocessing. The model parameters standard error of
calibration (SEC), correlation coefficient of calibration set (Rc), standard error of prediction (SEP), correlation coefficient of validation
set (Rp), ratio of performance to standard deviate (RPD), relative standard error of prediction (RSEP), the number of principal factors (PF)
and SEP/SEC were 4.534 8, 0.919 7, 7.437 5, 0.812 0, 2.844 7, 9.44%, 5, and 1.640 1, respectively. The experimental results showed
that the model had better prediction accuracy in test set (P > 0.05), especially in the range of 60–100 mg/100 g, and could be applied to
analyze the cholesterol concentration of commercially available fresh chicken and chicken products.

Discrimination Analysis of Edible Oil Oxidation Based on Electronic Nose Technique
HU Guoliang, XU Lirong, XU Shenglu, YU Xiuzhu, ZHANG Rui
2016, 37(20):  141-145.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620023
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In order to achieve rapid discrimination analysis of edible oil oxidation, common edible vegetable oils available in
the market were subjected to oxidation treatment and then divided by peroxide value and acid value according to the Chinese
national standard into two groups: unoxidized and oxidized for use as a reference set and a validation set. The qualitative
analysis of edible oils with different oxidation degrees was determined by electronic nose (E-nose) technology combined
with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). A model that
allowed rapid discrimination of edible oils with different oxidation degrees was built using CA, PCA, and LDA, respectively.
The recognition rates of all calibration models were 100%, and the recognition rates of CA, PCA, and LDA on validation set
were 95.8%, 98.9% and 100%, respectively. The E-nose technique was workable for identifying edible oil oxidation.

Determination of Residues of the Antiviral Drug Ribavirin in Chicken Muscle and Liver by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometryx
QI Kai, TANG Xiaoyan, TAO Rui, YANG Xiaoti, ZHANG Xiaoqing, SHEN Xixi
2016, 37(20):  146-150.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620024
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This study aimed to investigate the distribution prolfiles of residues of the antiviral drug ribavirin in chicken
tissues, whose use has been banned. Ribavirin at the dose of 30 mg/kg was continuously administered to Jinghong laying
hens. The animals were executed and chicken muscle and liver samples were collected at different time intervals for the
detection of ribavirin content by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The
calibration curve for ribavirin in chicken muscle was linear in the concentration range of 5.0–200 μg/L with a correlation
coefficients (R2) of above 0.99, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 1.20 μg/kg. The calibration curve for ribavirin in
chicken liver was linear in the concentration range of 10.0–500 μg/L with a correlation coefficients (R2) of above 0.98, and
the the limit of detection (LOD) was 1.54 μg/kg. At three spiked concentration levels, the recoveries of ribavirin ranged from
83.5% to 120.6%, and the precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 0.7%–9.1%, which met
the basic quantitative requirements. The results showed that ribavirin in chicken liver was rapidly eliminated and the final
detection time was 24 h, while the elimination rate for muscle was relatively slow, and the final detection time was 60 h after
oral administration. Finally, there was no accumulation of ribavirin residue in both tissues.

Application of X-Ray Technique to Detection of Fish Bones in Marine Fish Fillets
HU Jidong, LIU Yuanping, SUN Aihua, LIN Hong, GUO Xiaohua, NIAN Rui, LI Yujin, CAO Limin
2016, 37(20):  151-156.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620025
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This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of X-ray technique in the detection of fish bones with respect to
three aspects: optimization of working parameters of X-ray detector, analysis of fish bone distribution pattern and combined
application of X-ray technique and freezing technique. The results showed that for most marine fish fillets, the optimal
detection parameters were determined as follows: voltage range, 30–45 kV; current range, 3 000–6 000 μA; and brightness
range, 4–6. In term of fish bone distribution, the detection rates of fish bones in frozen fish fillets were higher than those
in unfrozen state, and artificial judgment of X-ray images for fish bones is more practical. By optimizing X-ray detector
parameters, ascertaining fish bone distribution pattern and combining freezing technique and X-ray technique, the quality
of X-ray image, the detection rate of fish bones and the visual sense of X-ray test personnel in aquatic products processing
enterprises were improved. Therefore, the problem of remaining fish bones in frozen marine fish fillets can be solved to a
certain extent.

Inquiry and Analysis of Sources of False Positive Results for the Detection of Fat Soluble Shellfish Toxins by the Mouse Bioassay
LIU Xiaoyu, XU Jing, WAN Guansheng, LIU Huiying, CAO Jijuan
2016, 37(20):  157-161.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620026
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Objective: To examine the changes in free fatty acid contents in oyster with storage temperature and storage time
for the purpose of exploring and analyzing the sources of false positive results in mouse bioassay for fat soluble shellfish
toxins. Methods: Methyl esterification of free fatty acids was carried out with boron trifluoride in methanol. The products
were analyzed by gas capillary chromatography with a column coated with a 100% cyanopropyl polysiloxane stationary
phase. Results: The total content of free fatty acids stored at −10 ℃ and −20 ℃ increased at first, then decreased, and
slowly increased again with prolonging time. When the sample was stored at 4 ℃, there was a slowly increasing trend. The
content of free fatty acids stored at −20 ℃ was significantly higher than at −10 ℃ at the same storage time. At all the three
storage temperatures, the contents of the highly toxic free fatty acid C20:5n-3 and the low toxic fatty acid C22:6n-3 kept increasing
throughout the storage period. Five months later, C20:5n-3 in oyster stored at −20 ℃ was 136.79 μg/g, which was 45% of the
lethal dose for mice. If 2.5-fold weight of the oyster sample was used, the mice would die, leading to false positive results in
mouse bioassay for fat soluble shellfish toxins. Conclusion: The high toxic free fatty acid in oyster samples was important
source of false positive results in mouse bioassay for fat soluble shellfish toxin, and the content of high toxic free fatty acid
in oyster samples presented an increasing trend at three temperatures as time goes by.

Effects of Boiling on Metal Speciation in Three Marine Shellfish
YU Jiawei, SUN Huaming, LU Jingjing, CAI Yan, ZHONG Yingying, YU Xuejun, YANG Zhenfeng, SU Xinguo
2016, 37(20):  162-166.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620027
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Heavy metals including Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, As and Hg in oysters, razor clams and blood clams collected from
three breeding areas located, respectively, in Ninghai, Xiangshan and Zhoushan of Zhejiang province were investigated
by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Sequential extraction
procedure was introduced to determine metal speciation of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and organic and inorganic forms of arsenic and
mercury before and after boiling. The results showed that the contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb varied among three marine
shellfish, and significant correlations existed between Cu and Cd, and between Cr and Pb. Meanwhile, the percentage of
samples exceeding the standard limit of arsenic was 77.78% while Hg residues were lower than the standard limit. As
indicated by comparison of the contents of acid extractable, reducible, oxidizable and residual fractions of Cd, Cu, Cr, and
Pb before and after boiling, boiling had significant effect on speciations of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb, but had little effect on organic
and inorganic forms of arsenic and mercury. In conclusion, the content of heavy metal elements and the variation of metal
speciation before and after boiling can be used as indexes to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals in marine shellfish.

Determination of Perchlorate in Chicken Meat and Liver by Ion Exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
SHAO Linzhi, WU Yingxuan, OUYANG Shaolun, LIN Feng
2016, 37(20):  167-171.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620028
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A method was developed for the determination of perchlorate in chicken meat and liver by ion- exchange high
performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-HPLC-MS/MS). After adding isotopically labeled
internal standards to it, the sample was extracted with 1% acetic acid-acetonitrile, and then purified by solid-phase extraction
column. The target compound was separated on an IC-PakTM Anion HR column (4.6 mm × 75 mm, 6 μm) using a mobile
phase consisting of acetonitrile and 100 mmol/L aqueous ammonium acetate, and detected by tandem mass spectrometry
in negative electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The quantification of perchlorate was
performed by the internal standard method. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the concentration range of
0.2–10 μg/L with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3.0 μg/kg. The recoveries in chicken meat and liver at three spiked levels
were in the range of 91.8%–96.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 1.8% and 6.5%. With the advantages
of convenience, high sensitivity, strong anti-interference capability and good recovery and repeatability, the method was
suitable for the analysis of perchlorate in chicken meat and liver.

Preparation and Application of Multi-Target Immunoaffinity Columns with Polystyrene-Divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) as CarrierL
ZHANG Jianing, DING Ke, HAN Tao, CHEN Xiangning
2016, 37(20):  172-176.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620029
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Three kinds of polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resins were selected to prepare immunoaffinity columns
(IAC) through nitration, amination, activation, and antibody coupling for the simultaneous purification of four Fusarium
toxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Among these, the coupling ratio of Cleanert PS-type PS-DVB
IAC was 97.64% and the absorption of its blank column for samples was the lowest. The recovery of this IAC column at
three spiked concentration levels was in the range of 66.16%–112.80%, and the relative standard deviation was between
3.09% and 12.25%. It can be applied to purify actual samples.

Identification of Bifidobacterium Strains in Foods by Real-Time PCR
XIAO Qisheng, YANG Jielin, YANG Huiqin, DING Zhuoping, HE Yuping
2016, 37(20):  177-182.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620030
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A real-time PCR method was developed to identify Bifidobacterium in foods. Specific primers and probes targeting
the conserved region of the 16S rRNA gene of Bifidobacterium were designed. The specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility and
system anti-interference ability of the proposed method were verified. Twenty-five commercial products labeled “containing
Bifidobacterium” were tested by the real-time fluorescence PCR assay. Results showed that the developed method was
highly specific for Bifidobacterium detection. The detection limits were 2 pg using eight species of Bifidobacterium as the
templates, and the relative detection limits were 104 CFU/mL. Standard deviations and relative standard deviations (RSDs)
of Ct values for five DNA concentrations were all in the acceptable range. The Ct values were not affected by a mixture of
Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC15703 and Escherichia coli ATCC25922 at both the culture level and genomic DNA
level, which showed that the fluorescence PCR method has good anti-interference ability. Five samples were detected
without Bifidobacterium. Thus, considering its high specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, the real-time PCR could be used
to rapidly and accurately identify Bifidobacterium in foods.

Fast Determination of Lead in Flour Foods by Resonance Rayleigh Scattering Method with Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTMAB) as Sensitizer
PANG Xiangdong, JIANG Hong, LIAO Chongmei, SHI Wenbing, QIN Ai
2016, 37(20):  183-186.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620031
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In the presence of surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and an acidic Tris-hydrochloric acid buffer medium,
chrome azurol S can be bound with lead (Ⅱ) to form a new product, which leads to a distinctly enhanced resonance Rayleigh
scattering (RRS) and the appearance of a new RRS spectrum. The maximum RRS peak was located at 369 nm. The mass
concentration of lead (Ⅱ) in the range of 0.002 to 0.35 mg/L was directly proportional to the RRS intensity (ΔIRRS) of
system with the limit of quantitation (LOQ) being 0.024 mg/kg. Therefore, a rapid, accurate and sensitive new RRS method
for quantifying lead (Ⅱ) was successfully developed. The optimal reaction conditions and resonance Rayleigh scattering
spectral characteristics were investigated. The method can be used for rapid determination of lead in commercial pastas.

Establishment of a High-Throughput Fluorescence Multiplex PCR Method for Detection of Genetically Modified Rice Events
ZHANG Mingzhe, ZHANG Xiaofeng, XU Lili, CHEN Xiaomei, ZHOU Yuan, YIN Wenxiu, CHEN Wujian, LI Xiaojun
2016, 37(20):  187-190.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620032
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In this research, a high-throughput and specific method for the detection of genetically modified (GM) rice events
was developed using fluorescence multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis based on fluorescence-labeled primers for
endogenous, exogenous and event-specific genes. The fluorescence multiplex PCR method could specifically detect four
GM rice events with a sensitivity of 0.1%. This method has the potential to be applied in the inspection and quarantine of
import and export genetically modified commodities and in food safety detection.

Preparation and Applicability of a Simple and Fast Test Strip to Detect Listeria monocytogenes
ZHENG Xiaofeng, HAN Yong, LIU Yingyu, ZHANG Juntao, ZHANG Qi, ZHANG Xiaohong, YAO Gang
2016, 37(20):  191-197.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620033
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Purpose: In the present study, a paper-based test strip for the fast and simple detection of foodborne L.
monocytogenes (LM) was prepared and named as LM-FTP (Patent Acceptance Number: 201510274726.9), and its
performance was evaluated. Methods: The performance evaluation was carried out in comparison with 3M PetrifilmTM by
using them to detect samples of meat, milk, drinking water and vegetable collected from farmer’s market and supermarket.
Results: The specificity of LM-FTP was 100% with a limit of detection of 2.1 × 104 CFU/mL, and the detection process from
bacterial enrichment to obtainment of analytical results took about 5.5 hours. Both LM-FTP and 3M PetrifilmTM could enable
the detection of the samples we tested. The coincidence rate between the results obtained using LM-FTP and 3M PetrifilmTM
for the detection of livestock products and vegetables from farmer’s market was about 75%, whereas that for those from
supermarket was about 62.5%. In addition, the coincidence rate between the results of both methods for supermarket delis
was about 93.75%. Conclusions: LM-FTP is simpler to prepare, easier to use, and time saving compared with 3M PetrifilmTM,
but it was inferior to 3M PetrifilmTM in terms of sensitivity. Therefore, LM-FTP remains to be further improved.

Determination of Heat Resistant Mould in Concentrated Fruit Juice
TONG Xun, GAO Wen, HUANG Tingxuan, ZHOU Guoping
2016, 37(20):  198-202.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620034
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Objective: To detect and identify the heat resistant molds in 15 batches of concentrated fruit juice. Methods:
After heat treatment at 80 ℃ for 30 min to kill the heat-sensitive fungi and activate the heat-resistant spores, we spread
the concentrated juices on medium plates and counted the fungal colonies after 14–21 d culture. Secondly, the fungi were
purified, observed and identified by 28S rDNA sequence analysis. Results: Heat resistant fungi were detected in eight out of
15 batches (53.3%) of concentrated fruit juice, consisting mainly of Eupenicillium and Talaromyces, together with a small
number of Irpex lacteus, Trametes sp. and Capnodiales sp.. Conclusions: Heat resistant fungi were detected both in imported
and domestic concentrated fruit juice, especially those Eupenicillium and Talaromyces can produce toxin as well.

Predictive Models for the Detection of Zearalenone and Aflatoxin B1 Contents in Moldy Corn with Electronic Nose
YU Huichun, PENG Panpan, YIN Yong
2016, 37(20):  203-208.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620035
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This study aimed to explore a quantitative method for detecting the contents of zearalenone and aflatoxin B1 in
moldy corn using electronic nose. Firstly, the integral values of the electronic nose response signals of corn samples with
different mildew levels were extracted and used as feature parameters for establishing a predictive model for predicting
the contents of zearalenone and aflatoxin B1 in moldy corn samples employing principal component regression (PCR),
partial least squares regression (PLSR), back-propagation (BP) neural network, and least squares support vector machine
(LS-SVM), respectively. The results from the different models developed were compared. It was shown that the prediction
accuracy of the PCR model was the worst among four models, the PLSR model had better prediction accuracy, and the
BP neural network and LS-SVM models provided the most accurate predictions. The PCR, PLSR, BP neural network and
LS-SVM models gave good predictions of zearalenone with relative errors less than 5% for 23, 45, 63, and 67 out of 70
samples, respectively, while they provided good predictions of aflatoxin B1 with relative errors less than 5% for 19, 41, 62
and 65 out of the 70 samples. At the same time, different training and test sets were used to examine the robustness of the BP
neural network and LS-SVM models. The results showed that the BP neural network architecture, and the kernel function
and kernel parameter of LS-SVM remained unchanged. The prediction accuracy of the two models was still good, showing
that both models are of high robustness.how

A Multiplex PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes
HU Bingxue, SHU Yanyan, PAN Daodong, ZENG Xiaoqun, WU Zhen
2016, 37(20):  209-214.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620036
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Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens), Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) are 3
species of bacteria that contaminate meat products. The aim of this work was to establish a feasible multiplex polymerase
chain reaction (m-PCR) protocol for simultaneous and rapid detection of these 3 species of bacteria. The specific primers
for the gyrB gene of P. fluorescens, the invA gene of Salmonella and the hlyA gene of L. monocytogenes were designed and
their specificities were determined. In addition, the sensitivities for detecting 3 standard strains and these strains enriched
on meat overnight were tested as well. The results indicated that the m-PCR method had high specificity and sensitivity. For
simultaneous detection of these target microorganisms, the limit of detection (LOD) for pure DNA was 1 pg/μL, and the
LOD for P. fluorescens, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were 9, 5, and 70 CFU/mL, respectively, by inoculating these 3
strains onto duck meat and overnight culturing at 35 ℃.

Packaging & Storage
Effects of Ozone Treatment on Storage Quality and Physiological Characteristics of Xinjiang Thick-Skinned Melon
CHEN Cunkun, GAO Furong, XUE Wentong, ZHU Wanzhen, DONG Chenghu, WANG Wensheng
2016, 37(20):  215-220.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620037
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Xinjiang thick-skinned melon is a type of fruit which is extraordinarily favored by people, but it does not
withstand storage or transportation. This study was concerned with the effects of 4 different storage conditions i.e., a)
treatment with ozone at 5 × 10-6 m3/m3 (on an air basis) for 5 h every seven days during storage at −1–0 ℃; b) 2 × 10-6 m3/m3
ozone for 30 min every day during storage at 5–6 ℃; c) 4 × 10-6 m3/m3 ozone for 30 min every day during storage at 5–6 ℃;
and d) 2%–5% O2 + 2%–4% CO2 during storage 5–6 ℃, on the storage quality and physiological properties of Xinjiang
thick-skinned melon. Untreated fruits were used as control. With this aim, we determined respiration intensity, ethylene
production rate, soluble solids content, titratable acid content, pH, fruit hardness, reducing sugar content and peroxidase (POD)
activity of melon under these conditions were determined every 15 days of storage, and we also statistically analyzed decay
index and chilling injury index of melon fruits in all treatment groups after 68-day storage. The experiment results suggested
that low-temperature storage (−1–0 ℃) resulted in the minimum decay index, but caused chilling injury (the chilling injury
index after 68-day storage was 39%). The second treatment better maintained the quality of melon fruit than the control
group, and the third treatment provided the best maintenance of fruit quality as indicated by delaying the occurrence of
the respiratory peak, decreasing respiration intensity, minimizing ethylene production rate, and increasing reducing sugar
content, fruit flesh firmness and POD activity, consequently achieving a decay index of only 0.318 after storage for 68 days.
The highest titratable acid content was found in the fourth treatment, showing a highly significant difference as compared
with the other three treatment groups (P < 0.01). The control group was the least effective at preserving the quality of melon fruit.

Physiological Mechanism of the Difference in Pericarp Browning of Harvested Fruit between Longan Cultivars ‘Dongbi’ and ‘Fuyan’.
LIN Yifen, LIN Yixiong, LIN Hetong, WENG Hongli, CHEN Yihui, WANG Hui?
2016, 37(20):  221-227.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620038
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The harvested fruits of longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour.) are susceptible to pericarp browning, the most
important factor affecting the quality and shelf-life of harvested longan fruit. The difference in postharvest pericarp browning
between the longan cultivars ‘Dongbi’ (Dimocarpus longan Lour. cv. Dongbi) and ‘Fuyan’ (Dimocarpus longan Lour. cv.
Fuyan) during storage at (8 ± 1) ℃ and 85% relative humidity in relation to the metabolisms of active oxygen and phenolics
were investigated. The results showed that compared to ‘Fuyan’ longans, the browning index, superoxide anion (O2-·)
production rate, malondialdehyde content, and cellular membrane permeability were lower whereas the activities of active
oxygen scavenging enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), were
significantly higher and the contents of endogenous antioxidant substances, like ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH),
were higher in the pericarp of ‘Dongbi’ longans during storage. In addition, lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and
peroxidase (POD), and higher contents of anthocyanin, flavonoid and total phenolics in pericarp of ‘Dongbi’ longans during
storage were observed as compared to ‘Fuyan’ longans. From the above results, it could be concluded that ‘Dongbi’ longans
tend to be less susceptible to postharvest pericarp browning, which was due to higher active oxygen scavenging capacity,
resulting in reduced accumulation of O2-·, alleviated cellular membrane lipid peroxidation, maintained structural integrity of
the cellular membrane, and prevention of PPO and POD from contacting their phenolic substrates, and thus, reducing the
occurrence of enzymatic browning in the pericarp of ‘Dongbi’ fruit.

Effects of Irradiation on Postharvest Physiology and Quality in Walnut Fruit during Cold Storage
DONG Hui, LU Zhoumin, MA Yanping, HU Haichao, MA Huiling
2016, 37(20):  228-233.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620039
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The green walnut fruits of the cultivar Liaohe No. 2 were subjected to 60Coγ-ray irradiation at 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5
and 1.0 kGy, respectively, and then stored at (0 ± 1) ℃ for 60 days firstly and then for another 30 days after the removal of
green husk. Changes in color parameters, browning index, cracking rate, ethylene production, gas composition, the contents
of protein, fat and fatty acids, peroxide value and carbonyl value were monitored during storage. The results showed that
irradiation significantly decreased the cracking rate of walnut fruit and ethylene peak, maintained the peroxide value and
carbonyl value at relatively low levels and also slowed down lipid oxidation. Irradiation at doses of 0.3 and 0.5 kGy had a
good performance on sensory quality, and the optimal dose for retarding fruit senescence was 0.3 kGy. The lowest cracking
rate and ethylene peak were achieved with this dose. Meanwhile, the total essential fatty acids remained at a high level, and
the highest fat content and lowest peroxide value were obtained at the late stage of storage. In conclusion, 0.3 kGy was the
optimal irradiation dose for cold storage of walnut fruit.

Effect of 1-MCP Combined with Different Concentrations of Natamycin on Quality and Aroma Substances of Fuji Apple during Ambient Shelf Life after Cold Storage
ZHANG Peng, LI Xin, LI Jiangkuo, ZHOU Bin
2016, 37(20):  234-240.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620040
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Effects of 1-MCP (1 μL/L) in combination with different concentrations of natamycin (0, 400, 800, and 1 200 mg/L)
on storage quality and aroma substances of Fuji apples during shelf life after cold storage were studied. The results showed
that compared with the control group, 1-MCP combined with natamycin was more effective in slowing down weight loss and
the decrease of hardness, maintaining the contents of fruit vitamin C, titratable acidity and total soluble solids in Fuji apples,
and the effect of 800 mg/L natamycin treatment was better than other treatments. The main characteristic aroma components
included hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, 2-methyl butyl acetate, hexyl acetate and hexano. The types of aroma substances in Fuji
apple with different treatments were different, and the composition and relative amounts of aroma substances changed during
shelf life. The contents of alcohols in Fuji apple with four treatments were reduced while the contents of esters and aldehydes
and the total content of aroma substances in the control group and the 1 200 mg/L natamycin group were increased. The
content of esters in the 400 mg/L natamycin group was increased whereas it was decreased in the 800 m/L natamycin group
and the total content of aroma substances was slightly reduced. The changing patterns were generally consistent with the
results of physicochemical analysis.

Effects of Low Temperature Thawing under Different Humidity Conditions on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast
ZHANG Xin, GAO Tian, SONG Lei,ZHANG Lin, JIANG Yun, LI Jiaolong, GAO Feng, ZHOU Guanghong
2016, 37(20):  241-246.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620041
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The effects of low temperature (4 ℃) thawing under different relative humidity (RH) conditions on the quality
characteristics of chicken breast were investigated. Low temperature refrigerator thawing (4 ℃; RH 65%–81%) was taken as
the control group, and four different humidity (4 ℃; RH 80%, RH 85%, RH 90% and RH 95%) thawing methods were set as
the experimental groups. The differences in thawing time, drip loss, pH, color, texture, protein solubility, total bacterial count
(TBC), and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and water distribution were analyzed among five thawing samples. The
results showed that with increasing RH thawing time, thawing drip loss and T23 peak area ratio in the RH 90% and RH 95%
groups were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05), whereas L* value, a* value, hardness, chewiness,
total protein solubility, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, and T22 peak area ratio in both experimental groups were significantly
higher (P < 0.05). Moreover, significantly higher TBC and TVB-N content were observed for the RH 95% group (P < 0.05).
In conclusion, the best quality of chicken breast could be obtained through RH 90% low temperature thawing method, which
could effectively decrease muscle protein denaturation, reduce thawing drip loss and improve the color in thawing process.

Effect of Preharvest Acetylsalicylic Acid and Postharvest 1-MCP Treatments on Quality and Antioxidant Ability of Muskmelon Fruit during Cool Storage
SHANG Qi, WANG Ting, LI Xin, LIU Yaona, BAI Xiaodong, ZHANG Xitong, WANG Yi, BI Yang
2016, 37(20):  247-252.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620042
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This study examined effects of multiple preharvest acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) sprays combined with postharvest
1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) fumigation on the quality and antioxidant ability of muskmelon (Cucumis melo cv.
Manao) fruit during cool storage. The plants were sprayed with ASA four times, namely at young fruit period (2 weeks
after flowering), fruit enlarging period (3 weeks after flowering), netting period (4 weeks after flowering) and 2 days before
harvest, respectively. After harvest, the fruits were fumigated with 1-MCP. The results indicated that preharvest ASA
treatment inhibited weight loss, retarded peel yellowing, maintained the levels of total soluble solids and titratable acid,
increased the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids, and enhanced the antioxidant ability of fruits. 1-MCP fumigation
decreased weight loss, maintained fruit firmness and increased the contents of ascorbic acid. Preharvest ASA combined with
postharvest 1-MCP treatments showed a synergistic effect on maintaining high levels of total soluble solids and titratable
acid and enhancing the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. In conclusion, ASA and 1-MCP treatments maintained the
postharvest quality of muskmelons, which is related to the inhibition of ethylene production. Both chemicals enhanced the
antioxidant activity of fruits, which are involved in the accumulation of phenylpropanoid metabolites and ascorbic acid.

Effect of Box-Type Modified Atmosphere Packaging Combined with 1-MCP on Quality and Flavor Compounds of Actinidia arguta during Cold Storage
YAN Tingcai, LIU Zhentong, LI Jiangkuo, SUN Xiaorong, ZHANG Peng
2016, 37(20):  253-260.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620043
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In order to improve the marketability of hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta) during storage and sale, the separate
and combined effects of box-type modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and 1-methyllcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment
on gaseous components, percentages of softened fruits and decayed fruits, and physiology, nutritional quality and flavor
changes during cold storage of ‘Changjiang No. 1’ hardy kiwifruit were investigated. The results showed that in refrigerator
at (0 ± 0.5) ℃, the spontaneous atmosphere for hardy kiwifruits without 1-MCP treatment consisted of 2.2%–3.1% CO2
and 17.7%–18.6% O2, while that for those with 1-MCP treatment was composed of 2.2%–2.7% CO2 and 18.1%–18.6%.
All three treatments inhibited the increase in decay incidence and softening incidence, slowed down the decrease in fruit
firmness and titratable acid content, maintained higher contents of VC and soluble solids, and reduced respiration rate and
ethylene production rate, indicating significant differences compared with the control (P < 0.05). The combined treatment
provided the best maintenance of hardy kiwifruit quality, followed by 1-MCP alone, and the quality of control fruits was
the worst after storage. The main flavor compounds in hardy kiwifruit were aldehydes, alcohols, and esters, which were
dominated by trans-2-hexenal and hexanal, accounting for about 84% of the total flavor compounds. With prolonged cold
storage, aldehydes, alcohols and hydrocarbons in all the three treatment groups declined, whereas the relative content
of esters increased.

Effect of Nano-Packing on Lignification and Related Enzyme Activities of Flammulina velutipes
FANG Donglu, CHANG Shijie, ZHAO Liyan, AN Xinxin, HU Qiuhui, YANG Wenjian
2016, 37(20):  261-267.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620044
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A polyethylene (PE) packing material containing nano-Ag, nano-TiO2, attapulgite and nano-SiO2 was prepared
and applied in the preservation of Flammulina velutipes and its effects on sensory quality and lignification of F. velutipes
were determined during 14-day storage at 4 ℃. The influence of nano-packing material on the lignification of F. velutipes was
studied by tracking the changes in texture, weight loss, soluble protein contents, lignin contents, the activities of phenylalnine
ammonialyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) as well as cell microstructure. The
normal PE material was used as control. After 14 days of storage, the maximum shearing force, weight loss, PAL, CAD and
POD activities of F. velutipes packed with nano-packing material were 1.191 kg, 0.51%, 20.72 U/mg, 41.23 U/mg, 10.09 U/mg,
respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the control (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the lignin content in
nano-packaging samples increased by 4.7% while that in the control increased by 14.2% compared with the initial level.
Nano-packing material has the potential to maintain the preservation quality and extend the shelf life of F. velutipes by
inhibiting the accumulation of lignin and increasing the related enzyme activities.

Dynamic Moisture Change of Battered and Fried Pork Slices during Storage
GUO Xijuan, WANG Ruiqi, YANG Mingduo
2016, 37(20):  268-273.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620045
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The aim of this study was to determine moisture migration and desorption isotherm models for battered and fried
pork slices. The experimental data were applied for nonlinear regression analysis carried out by the least square method, and
the fitting coefficient R2 was evaluated. The results showed that moisture diffusion during 0–4 h of storage was given priority
to the surface evaporation at 0–40 ℃, while moisture transfer was mainly through internal exchange later. Temperature and
moisture loss rate were positively correlated with each other, and moisture loss rate was slowed down after the fourth hour
of storage. The desorption isotherm model displayed an S-type curve and belonged to type II isotherm. The equilibrium
moisture content was significantly affected by temperature in the range of 0–40 ℃ at the same water activity (P < 0.05).
Furthermore, the dynamic moisture changes were assessed by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). It was
shown that the main moisture loss was derived from free water during the first 4 h storage. No obvious changes in t22 or t23
were found. Moisture loss was mainly due to surface diffusion, while moisture mass transfer was mainly through internal
exchange from the fourth hour of storage onwards. The dynamic changes of moisture migration was influenced by temperature
more significant (P < 0.05). When temperature increased from 30 to 40 ℃, t22 decreased and P23 significantly increased, indicating
that immobile water is converted to free water and that the main moisture loss is derived from immobile water.

Effect of Different Storage Methods on Quality of High Pressure Processed Chicken Broth and Establishment of Shelf Life Prediction Model
YU Li, HE Zhifei, LI Hongjun, GONG Mingxin, GONG Hailong, WANG Zhaoming, HUANG Han
2016, 37(20):  274-281.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620046
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The effects of three storage methods on sensory quality, pH, brightness (L*), yellowness (b*), turbidity (Y), total
volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and total viable count (TVC) of high
pressure processed chicken broth were investigated. A dynamic model for shelf-life prediction was established. The results
obtained were as follows. With the extension of storage time, the sensory scores and pH of cold stored, partially frozen and
frozen chicken broth showed a gradual downward trend, while TVB-N, TBARS and TVC presented a gradual increasing
trend. The change during cold storage was more significant than at the other two higher storage temperatures (P < 0.05). In
addition, the L*, b* and Y values of chicken broth did not show regular changes during storage. A dynamic prediction model
for TBARS of high pressure processed chicken broth during storage was established. The verification results revealed that
relative errors between the theoretical prediction and the actual value were less than 10%, which indicated that the model
was reliable. On this basis, the predicted value of the shelf-life of high pressure chicken soup at .2.5 ℃ was 136 days, and
was 258 days at .18 ℃. Because of its unique advantages, partial freezing might be a better way for the storage of nutrientrich
broth for industrial production and supermarket sale in the future.>

Effect of Chitosan Treatment Combined with Nano-Packaging on Quality and Physiological Changes of Daylily
YAO Yaming, PENG Jing, LIU Tan, CHEN Jikun, MEI Weiyun, PAN Leiqing, TU Kang
2016, 37(20):  282-286.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620047
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The daylily cultivar ‘Dawuzui’ was used to explore the effects of chitosan treatment combined with nanopackaging
on the quality and physiological changes of daylily during storage. Results indicated that chitosan treatment,
nano-packaging and their combination delayed the senescence of daylily. The quality of daylily was best preserved when
chitosan treatment was combined with nano-packaging. This combinatorial treatment decreased the rate of weight losses,
effectively inhibited the reduction of VC and sugar contents, and maintained higher activities of superoxide dismutase and
catalase. As a result, the marketable flower rate of daylily remained more than 90% after storage for 18 days at (4 ± 0.5) ℃
and a relative humidity of 75%–80%.

Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Quality of Passion Fruit during Storage
CHEN Meihua, XIONG Zheng, PANG Tingcai
2016, 37(20):  287-292.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620048
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This study aimed to investigate the influence of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with different materials
on the quality of passion fruit during storage. ‘Zixiang No.1’ passion fruits were packaged in two different types of
packaging, namely active packaging with active bags and ordinary packaging with polyethene bags. Subsequently, the two
packaging treatments were sealed and stored at (25±1) ℃ and 70%–80% relative humidity. The unpackaged fruits with
the same maturity stored under the same conditions served as controls. During storage, weight loss, soluble solids content
and titratable acidity, peel L*, a*, and b* value, peel defect index and storage life were monitored until the end of storage.
Compared to controls, both MAPs slowed down the rate of weight loss and the changes in peel defect index and other
physicochemical indexes associated with passion fruit ripening and hence prolonged the shelf life of passion fruit by at
least 6 days. On the other hand, the active packaging was better than the ordinary one in maintaining the postharvest quality
attributes of passion fruit and therefore extending its shelf life.

Effects of Emulsifying Fish Oil on the Water-Holding Capacity and Ice Crystal Formation of Heat-Induced Surimi Gel during Frozen Storage
NIU Liqiong, HUYNH Thi Thu Huong, JIA Ru, GAO Yuanpei, NAHO Nakazawa, KAZUFUMI Osako, EMIKO Okazaki
2016, 37(20):  293-298.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201620049
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This study was performed to evaluate the effects of emulsifying fish oil on the water-holding capacity (WHC) and
ice crystal formation of heat-induced surimi gel during frozen storage. Alaska pollack surimi was ground with water and salt,
mixed and emulsified with 5% fish oil, and prepared into gels by heat induction. The surimi gels were frozen by quick and
slow freezing methods, and the gel quality was evaluated. The results showed that emulsified surimi gels displayed lower
thawing drip and expressible drip compared to the control gel. Microscopic observation revealed that the sizes of ice crystals
in the emulsified surimi gel stored for 3 months after freezing by quick and slow freezing methods were smaller than those
of the control gels, 7.2 μm vs. 13.1 μm and 13.7 μm vs. 31.2 μm, respectively. These results indicated that the gel structure
derived from emulsification of fish oil affected ice crystal formation and its frequency, consequently exerting a positive
effect on the WHC of the gels during frozen storage.