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Table of Content

15 May 2020, Volume 41 Issue 9
Basic Research
Inhibitory Mechanism of Eugenol on Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas fluorescens
ZHOU Qianqian, FANG Shiyuan, MEI Jun, XIE Jing
2020, 41(9):  1-6.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190414-181
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In order to investigate the inhibitory effect and underlying mechanism of eugenol on the dominant spoilage bacteria of Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas fluorescens during seafood cold storage, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of eugenol against S. putrefaciens and P. fluorescens were determined, and then the inhibitory effects of eugenol atdoses of 0.5 MIC, 1 MIC and 2 MIC on the growth of S. putrefaciens and P. fluorescens were studied.?The damage caused by eugenol to the cell membrane was measured.?The results showed that the optical density (OD) at 260 and 280 nm wavelengths of extracellular substances, the content of potassium ions (K+) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) increased on average, and the activity of intracellular ATPase decreased.?Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that eugenol destroyed the cell wall, and increased the permeability of the cell membrane, leading to leakage of cell contents and finally cell death.
Preparation and Adsorption Properties of Magnetic Fe3O4/Chitosan Microspheres for Separation of Organic Acids from Apple Juice
JIANG Feihong, LEI Huanqing, REN Tingting, MENG Diaoqin, YUE Tianli,
2020, 41(9):  7-14.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190410-124
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The aim of this study was to provide an efficient method for the separation of organic acids from apple juice. Magnetic Fe3O4/chitosan microspheres were prepared by inverse suspension cross-linking method and were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, a laser particle size analyzer, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, a thermal gravimetric analyzer, an X-ray diffractometer, and a superconducting quantum magnetic measurement system. Also, the recovery rates of the magnetic Fe3O4/chitosan composite microspheres and pure Fe3O4 microspheres were determined as a function of time (0-5 min) and pH (pH 2-11) under a certain magnetic field intensity. Then, the composite microspheres were used to adsorb and desorb organic acids from apple juice for three times. The composite microspheres owned a narrow size distribution ranging from 22 to 158 μm, had good dispersity and were regularly spherical in shape. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that chitosan coating procedure did not change the spinal structure of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared and thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that chitosan was coated on Fe3O4 nanoparticles successfully and Fe3O4 was accounted for about 38.66% of the composite microspheres. The saturated magnetization of the composite microspheres was 35.98 emu/g. The microspheres showed a high recoverability of 99.99% in 2 minutes, obviously higher than that of pure Fe3O4 nanoparticles. After three cycles of adsorption and desorption, the equilibrium adsorption capacity was still as high as 109.92 mg/g and the recovery rate of organic acids was 86.86%. These results showed that the magnetic Fe3O4/chitosan composite microspheres had good magnetic response and good recoverability and could be repeatedly used to efficiently separate organic acid from apple juice as an environmental friendly adsorbent.
Risk Assessment of Hazardous Materials in Grain Supply Chain Based on Frequent Pattern Growth Combined with Self-Organizing Maps (FPG-SOM)
WANG Xiaoyi, WANG Zhenni, KONG Jianlei, JIN Xuebo, SU Tingli, BAI Yuting
2020, 41(9):  15-22.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190427-373
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In order to scientifically and reasonably evaluate the comprehensive risks of hazardous materials in each link of the grain supply chain, sample survey data from the grain supply chains in many provinces across the country and data from other dimensions were analyzed in this paper. On this basis, a multidimensional hierarchical risk indicator system was built by using risk factors in the grain supply chain to convert a large number of multidimensional heterogeneous data into semi-quantitative risk indicators. The association rules were applied to excavate the intrinsic correlation between the first-level indicators and the second-level indicators for determining the weight distribution. Further, the self-organizing maps algorithm was used to map each indicator variable to a risk level for analysis of the cross-correlation. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation method for risk levels of hazards in the grain supply chain. By evaluating the risk level of grain products, it was concluded that the key provinces with higher risks were Shandong and Henan provinces, typically in urban areas, and the key link was circulation as well as a series of high-risk hazards, represented by aluminum residues. The evaluation system established in this paper provides a scientific basis for the regulatory agencies to develop target-oriented sample survey strategies, establish priority supervision areas and legitimately allocate supervision resources.
Comparative Evaluation and Analysis of Cooking and Eating Quality of Different Foxtail Millet Varieties
ZHANG Fan, LI Shutian, WANG Xianrui, SHEN Qun
2020, 41(9):  23-29.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190408-097
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In order to better evaluate the eating quality of 10 foxtail millet varieties, fuzzy sensory evaluation and an electronic tongue were used to analyze the eating quality of foxtail millet, and the correlation between the physicochemical characteristics and cooking quality of foxtail millet was studied. Results showed that ‘Zhonggu 2’, ‘Huangjingu’ and ‘Fenghonggu’ had the best eating quality, whereas ‘Chigu 6, 8 and 17’ and ‘Hongmiao Yapoche’ exhibited the worst eating quality. Consistent with the sensory evaluation, the electronic tongue could distinguish and classify millet porridge with different taste levels by discriminant factor analysis (DFA). A prediction?model for sensory evaluation of millet porridge was established by partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, with a correlation coefficient up to 0.91. The water absorption rate, expansion rate, consistency value and b* value of ‘Zhonggu 2’ were remarkably high. In contrast, ‘Chigu 6, 8 and 17’ and ‘Hongmiao Yapoche’ showed a faint gray color, and had low consistency value and total solid content. The eating quality of millet porridge was negatively correlated with the protein content (P < 0.01),?as well as grain diameter, hardness and 1 000-grain mass.
Blockchain-Based Traceability Model for Grains and Oils Whole Supply Chain
DONG Yunfeng, ZHANG Xin, XU Jiping, WANG Xiaoyi, KONG Jianlei, SUN Pengcheng
2020, 41(9):  30-36.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190418-227
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Grains and oils are necessities for human life, and grains and oils supply chain security is directly related to people’s health. Due to the features of the grains and oils supply chain such as complex nature, long cycle time and multiple risk factors, how to effectively protect the safety of grains and oils during production, processing, storage, transportation and sale is a common concern for the whole world. Based on the blockchain technology, this paper constructs a credible traceability model for the whole supply chain of grains and oils which can solve the drawbacks of the current traceability system including serious structural centralization, low data security and the existence of information islands, and can ensure data security and reliability in the entire supply chain as well as provide accurate and credible traceability information. Further, a credible traceability prototype system for the whole supply chain of grains and oils is designed, and the effectiveness and feasibility of the design scheme are demonstrated based on specific application scenarios and cases.
Food Engineering
Properties and Microstructure of Polysaccharides from Soy Hulls Extracted by Ultrasonic-Microwave Synergistic Extraction
WANG Shengnan, QU Danni, SHAO Guoqiang, YANG Jinjie, ZHAO Hekai, YANG Lina, LI Jun, HE Yutang, LIU He, ZHU Danshi
2020, 41(9):  37-42.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190416-203
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In this paper, the total sugar and protein contents, molecular mass, monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides extracted from soy hulls by ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction were determined, and they were further structurally characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the total sugar content of the extract obtained by the synergistic method was up to (50.67 ± 3.36)%, which was significantly higher than that extracted by ultrasonic or microwave method alone. The polysaccharides extracted by the three methods were all mainly composed of galactose, mannose, galacturonic acid and rhamnose, while the synergistic extraction method significantly changed the proportions of the monosaccharides. The synergism reduced the polydispersity and unsaturation degree of soy hull polysaccharides and changed the position and quantity of branches rather than the type of sugar ring. Soy hull polysaccharides extracted by the synergistic method exhibited big spherical particles forming a network structure, indicating that this synergistic effect could promote the molecular aggregation of soy hull polysaccharides. The results from this study will provide theoretical support for the analysis of polysaccharide conformation.
Effect of High Voltage Pulsed Electric Field on Aroma and Aging Time of Unfermented Pu’er Tea
ZHANG Xiaoyun, ZHAO Yan, QIAN Ye, LENG Yan, WANG Baijuan,
2020, 41(9):  43-49.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190318-232
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In order to produce high-quality Yunnan Pu’er tea by non-thermal processing, the effects of high voltage pulsed electric field (HPEF) on the aroma quality and aging time of unfermented Yunnan Pu’er tea were studied. Unfermented Pu’er tea made from tea leaves harvested in Lincang, Yunnan during 2015 to 2017 was used as the experimental object. After being pretreated by HPEF, the aroma quality of the tea was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and an electronic nose system. GC-MS results showed that HPEF had a positive effect on enhancing the aroma quality of Pu’er tea. The electronic nose responses to tea samples undergoing HPEF treatment under different conditions were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), sensor contribution rate (Loadings) analysis and partial least square (PLS) analysis with the Winmuster software. A voltage of 18 kV, a frequency of 198.4 Hz and a treatment duration of 45 min were found to be optimum for enhancing the aroma quality of tea samples. The tea sample produced in 2015 treated under the conditions of 18 kV, 198.4 Hz and 45 min was predicted to be produced in 2011.2283. The tea sample produced in 2016 treated under the conditions of 18 kV, 120.2 Hz and 60 min was predicted to be produced in 2013.2886. The tea sample produced in 2017 treated under the conditions of 12 kV, 198.4 Hz and 60 min was predicted to be produced in 2012.8051. Accordingly, HPEF contributed to shorten the aging time of unfermented Pu’er tea. This study provides a physical method to improve the aroma quality of unfermented Yunnan Pu’er tea, providing a theoretical basis and technical support for deep processing of unfermented Pu’er tea.
Effect of Microwave Reheating Time on Warmed-Over Flavor, Lipid Oxidation and Water Distribution in Precooked Pork Patties
ZHANG Kaihua, ZANG Mingwu, ZHANG Zheqi, LI Dan, LI Xiaoman, CHEN Wenhua
2020, 41(9):  50-56.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190816-173
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The volatile profiles and warmed-over flavor (WOF) of precooked pork patties reheated by microwave for different periods of time (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 s) were investigated to analyze the correlation among lipid oxidation, water distribution and WOF. The results showed that a total of 25 volatile compounds were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with aldehydes being predominant. Microwave reheating treatment for 30 s could accelerate lipid oxidation, and promote the formation of volatile flavors, especially WOF, but did not result in a significant change in the relaxation time and proportion of water in different states (P > 0.05). The content of WOF decreased with increasing reheating time up to 120–180 s, and the water content declined significantly (P < 0.05), together with a shift of T21 (bound water) and T22 (immobilized water) to a shorter relaxation time. Principal component analysis demonstrated that moderate microwave reheating (60–90 s) could play a critical role in inhibiting WOF and maintaining the flavor quality of precooked minced pork.
Effect of Jet Cavitation on the Structure and Functional Properties of Soybean 11S Globulin
XIE Changyuan, WANG Zhongjiang, GUO Zengwang, ZHAI Yuyu, TENG Fei, LI Yang
2020, 41(9):  57-65.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190423-319
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The effect of different durations of jet cavitation treatment on the structural (fluorescence spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, surface hydrophobicity, and the contents of carbonyl groups, sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bonds) and functional properties (solubility, emulsifying properties, and foaming properties) of soybean 11S globulin at different concentrations was investigated. The results indicated that with the prolongation of jet cavitation treatment time, the maximum absorption wavelength (λmax) of 11S globulin at concentrations of 2 and 5 g/100 mL showed a red shift first and then a blue shift (the higher the concentration, the higher the λmax), and the fluorescence intensity increased first and then decreased. The α-helix and β-sheet structure of 11S globulin at 2 g/100 mL were converted into β-turn. Toward the end of the treatment, β-turn was converted into α-helix, and the content of random coils did not change significantly during the entire treatment period; at 5 g/100 mL, the α-helix, β-sheet and β-turn were transformed into a random coil structure, and toward the end, the secondary structure was transformed from random coil and β-turn to α-helix and β-sheet. At both concentrations, the surface hydrophobicity and the contents of carbonyl groups and free sulfhydryl groups increased first and then decreased with increasing treatment time, while the opposite trend was found for the content of disulfide bonds. The solubility, emulsifying properties and foaming properties were significantly improved by jet cavitation, and this effect was more obvious at 5 g/100 mL than at 2 g/100 mL. These results showed that jet cavitation can change the structure of soybean 11S globulin, and consequently improve its solubility, foaming properties and emulsifying properties, resulting in more obvious unfolding and aggregation of soybean 11S globulin at 5 g/100 mL as well as more improved functional properties.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Intracellular Antioxidant Activity of Two Terpenoids in Baijiu
ZHANG Qian, ZHU Tingting, HUANG Mingquan, WEI Jinwang, WU Jihong, HUO Jiaying
2020, 41(9):  66-73.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190412-176
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Headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied for the qualification and quantification of terpenoids in 13 base Baijius and 3 commercial Baijius of Niulanshan “Erguotou”. Totally 5 terpenoids were identified by the external standard method, including β-caryophllene (BCP) and geranylacetone (GAT), which was first discovered in Erguotou Baijiu. The protective effects of GAT and BCP on oxidative damage induced by 2,2’-azobis(2-methylpropanimidamidine)dihydrochloride (AAPH) in HepG2 cells were investigated. The results showed that at the same concentration as in Erguotou, both GAT and BCP had a potent scavenging effect against intracellular reactive oxygen species by increasing the activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH). In addition, they could decrease the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), thereby enhancing cellular antioxidant defense capacity in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides fundamental data supporting the health benefits of Baijiu and the healthy development of the Baijiu industry.
Protective Effect of Xinjiang Bactrian Camel Milk on the Liver of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
LIU Chen, FENG Xinhuan, DOU Zhihua, AN Shujing, LIU Mengjiao, HOU Zhimei, YANG Jie
2020, 41(9):  74-80.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190322-293
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In this research, the effect of whole milk, skim milk, milk casein, whey and whey proteins from bactrian camels in Xinjiang on glycolipid metabolism, antioxidant status, hepatocyte morphology, and the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice was investigated. The results showed that all samples except camel milk casein could increase the body mass of diabetic mice, reduce blood sugar, increase serum insulin level, restore blood lipid levels to normal, improve liver antioxidant capacity, and reduce liver tissue damage. In terms of these indicators, the whey treatment group differed more significantly from the model group than did other treatment groups (P < 0.01). Camel whey could increase the expression of PPAR-γ and reduce the expression of SREBP1c in the liver of diabetic mice. In summary, camel whey could effectively improve glycolipid metabolism and relief liver tissue damage in STZ-induced diabetic mice and its effect might be related to the up-regulation of PPAR-γ and the down-regulation of SREBP1c.
Effect of Soluble Dietary Fiber from Black Soybean Hull on the Regulation of Anti-inflammatory Factors in Diabetic Mice
SHEN Meng, WANG Weihao, KANG Lijun, GE Yunfei, KANG Ziyue, XIAO Jinling, QUAN Zhigang, WANG Juan, LIU Dezhi, ZHAO Shuting, WANG Jinman, CAO Longkui
2020, 41(9):  81-85.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190512-124
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A mouse model of diabetes was successfully established by intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (50 mg/kg mb), and continuously administered by gavage with soluble dietary fiber (600 mg/kg mb) from black soybean hull for 28 days. Body mass, and the concentrations of blood glucose, insulin and anti-inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-4, and C-reactive protein) were measured during the administration period, and pathological sections of pancreatic tissue were analyzed. The results showed that compared with the model group, the mice in the positive drug (metformin) and soluble dietary fiber groups had lower body mass and decreased fasting blood glucose level (P < 0.05); the insulin level decreased, but there was no significant difference between the model and soluble dietary fiber groups. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while the concentration of interleukin-4 significantly increased (P < 0.05). According to the histopathological analysis of pancreatic tissue, the soluble dietary fiber had a repairing effect on the damaged pancreas of diabetic mice, and increased the islet area and the number of β cells. This study provides a scientific basis for the development of soluble dietary fiber products from black soybean hull.
Effect of Sugarcane Vinegar on Lipid Metabolism and Redox State of Mice Fed High-Fat Diet
LI Zhichun, CHEN Ganlin, ZHENG Fengjin, SUN Jian, LIN Bo, FANG Xiaochun
2020, 41(9):  86-90.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190422-294
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Sugarcane vinegar contains abundant polyphenols and flavonoids and has good antioxidant activity. Given this background, this study explored the effect of sugarcane vinegar on blood lipids, liver lipids and redox capacity including the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in a mouse model of lipid metabolism disorder induced by a high-fat diet. The results showed that compared with the high fat control group, oral administration with sugarcane vinegar could significantly decrease plasma total cholesterol (TC) (P < 0.05), lower triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.01) and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.01). At the same time, blood ?amylase activity was significantly decreased (P < 0.01) and lipase activity was significantly increased (P < 0.01), so that blood glucose level and fat accumulation could be reduced. The activity of SOD and GSH-Px in plasma and liver were improved, and NOS activity and MDA content of the lipid peroxidation products in liver were decreased. Therefore, sugarcane vinegar can function to regulate blood lipids, reduce body mass and hepatomegaly and improve oxidative stress resistance, thereby helping slow down the occurrence and development of hyperlipidemia, and obesity and its complications.
Isolation and Purification of Fucoidans from Sargassum and Their Effect on Tail Thrombosis in Mice
LIU Haiyun, WANG Weimin, CHEN Suhua, Lü Jiatong, CHEN Huaying, LIAO Sentai
2020, 41(9):  91-97.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190519-211
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The effects of crude (F) and purified (FD1 and FS1) fucoidans from Sargassum on tail thrombosis in mice were studied. F was prepared by ultrasonic-assisted hot water extraction, alcohol precipitation and deproteinization using Sevag reagent. FD1 and FS1 were obtained by passing F through a DEAE C-52 cellulose column and a Sepharose CL-6B agarose gel column, respectively. The chemical composition of the three fucoidans was analyzed and their monosaccharide composition was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A mouse black tail model was established and used to evaluate the inhibition effect of the three fucoidans on thrombus formation, and the clotting time was determined by capillary method. The results showed that the polysaccharide content of the crude fucoidans was increased to different extents after being purified by the chromatographic columns. The sulphate content of FD1 was the highest and the fucose content of FS1 was the highest among the three fucoidans. Their monosaccharide composition was significantly different from other, but none contained arabinose. FS1 showed the highest fucoidan content. Ingestion of each fucoidan did not affect the body mass of mice, indicating their safety. The black tail length of mice treated with each fucoidan at all doses investigated was shorter than that of the model control group, and FD1 and FS1 inhibited thrombus formation in mice more effectively than F, with a significant difference being observed for FD1 at 60 mg/kg mb and FS1 at 15 mg/kg mb (P < 0.01). All three fucoidans could prolong the clotting time of mice in the order of decreasing effectiveness: FS1> FD1> F, and the clotting time of the high-dose FD1 group and the high-, medium- and low-dose FS1 groups were longer than that of the positive drug group.
Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis of Mouse Testicular Sertoli TM4 Cells
DU Yuemei, HAN Hedan, GUO Zhuoyu, GAO Liping
2020, 41(9):  98-104.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190426-343
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Objective: To study the effect of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) combined with cisplatin (cisdichlorodiamineplatinum (II), cDDP) on cell apoptosis and apoptosis-related protein expression in mouse testicular sertoli TM4 cells. Methods: Normal TM4 cells were cultured in vitro and divided into control, cDDP (0.014 mg/mL), GSPE (0.005 mg/mL) + cDDP (0.014 mg/mL) and GSPE (0.005 mg/mL) group. Flow cytometry was used to determine the effect of GSPE on cDDP-induced cell apoptosis rate, Hoechst staining was used to determine the morphological change of TM4 cells, and Western blot was used to determine the protein expression levels of apoptosis-related genes. Results: cDDP significantly increased the apoptosis of TM4 cells, significantly decreased the expression of the anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and pro-caspase 3, significantly increased the expression of the pro-apoptosis protein Bax, and increased the expression of activated caspase-3. GSPE could significantly reduce cDDP-induced apoptosis, reduce the expression of Bax and caspase-3, and increase the expression of Bcl-2 and pro-caspase3. Conclusion: Apoptosis plays an important role in TM4 cytotoxicity induced by cDDP. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and other proteins are involved in the cDDP-induced apoptosis of TM4 cells, which can be inhibited by GSPE through inhibiting the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3 and enhancing the expression of Bcl-2 and pro-caspase 3, thereby reducing cDDP-induced damage to TM4 cells.
Effect of Salvianolic Acid B on Antioxidant Capacity and Intestinal Microflora in Mice
ZHAO Menghao, FENG Yinong, YIN Yuwen, LI Chengqian, SUN Guojie
2020, 41(9):  105-112.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190425-329
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo antioxidant properties of salvianolic acid B and its effect on the intestinal microbial community in mice. Kunming mice were administered by gavage with salvianolic acid B solution at low (30 mg/kg mb), medium (60 mg/kg mb), and high (120 mg/kg mb) doses for 42 successive days. At 24 h after the last administration, body mass was recorded, the organ coefficients of heart, liver, kidney and spleen were calculated, and the antioxidant indexes of blood and liver were detected. The results showed that the organ coefficients of liver in the medium-dose, high-dose and VC control groups were significantly lower than that in the normal group (P < 0.05). Similarly, the organ coefficient of kidney in the high-dose group was significantly lower than that in the normal (P < 0.05) and VC control groups (P < 0.01). The antioxidant indexes showed that compared with the normal group, MDA content was significantly decreased in the serum of mice in the middle-dose group (P < 0.05) as well as the high-dose and VC control groups (P < 0.01), and MDA content in the liver was also significantly decreased in the high-dose group (P < 0.05). In contrast, serum glutathione (GSH) levels in the high-dose and VC groups were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Through high-throughput sequencing analysis, the structure of intestinal flora in mice from each group was dominated by Bacteroides, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Actinobacteria. According to LEfSe analysis, the relative abundances of Bacteroides vulgatus and Parabacteroides distasonis were significantly increased in the three dose groups relative to the normal group (P < 0.05), decreasing with increasing dose. Therefore, salvianolic acid B can improve the antioxidant capacity and the intestinal environment of mice, increasing the number of beneficial bacteria. This finding provides new ideas for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases with salvianolic acid B.
Antioxidant Activity and Postprandial Glycemic Response Mitigating Effect of Homogenized Seed/Nut Milk
ZHOU Ying, PAN Haikun, FAN Zhihong, WU Yixue
2020, 41(9):  113-118.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190508-062
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In this study, nine homogenized seed/nut milks were prepared from soybeans alone and in combination with almond, black sesame or flaxseed. Their antioxidant compositions and inhibitory rates on digestive enzymes activities were assessed. Postprandial blood glucose levels of 13 healthy adults after consuming each seed/nut milk together with white bread were measured. Results indicated that glycemic index of each seed/nut milk combined with white bread ranged from 49 (for strong flaxseed + soymilk) to 69. Total phenol and tannin contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were significantly negatively correlated with glycemic index, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC)0–60 min and iAUC0–120 min, glycemic peak, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions at 180 min postprandial (MAGE180) (P < 0.01). In conclusion, flaxseed + soymilk has the strongest inhibitory effect on postprandial blood glucose, which may be related to the presence of antioxidants.
Evaluation of the Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on Promoting the Excretion of Aflatoxin B1 in Rats
ZHANG Judian, LIU Yawen, WANG Xiquan, XU Jinzhao, XU Jinghan, WU Mingyue, XU Xiaoxi
2020, 41(9):  119-125.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190425-331
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Rats with continuous low-dose intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were supplemented daily with live and inactivated suspensions of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and its cell-free culture supernatant at different concentrations, separately. To evaluate whether and how effectively Lactobacillus rhamnosus could reduce AFB1 in rats, serum biochemical and immune indicators were measured. All animals except those in the control group were given AFB1 at a dose of 50 μg/kg and administered intragastrically with Lactobacillus rhamnosus at a volume of 0.5 mL. The effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and its cell-free culture supernatant at different concentrations on the growth and immune function of rats were evaluated by determining body mass, serum cytokine levels and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels. The results showed that live Lactobacillus rhamnosus had a good adsorption capacity for AFB1 in rats and its effects varied significantly with its concentration. Live Lactobacillus rhamnosus at high dose had the best effect on maintaining the health status, liver function and immune function of rats. Although inactivated Lactobacillus rhamnosus also had certain adsorption capacity for AFB1 and significantly maintained aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, as well as IgM and IgG in rats, it was ineffective for cytokine stabilization. In contrast, the low concentration cell-free culture supernatant of Lactobacillus rhamnosus had a poor adsorption effect toward AFB1 in rats, which was effective only at high concentration.
Packaging & Storage
24-Epibrassinolide Regulates Active Oxygen Metabolism to Enhance Postharvest Disease Resistance of Apricot Fruit
SHI Ling, LI Lihua, ZHANG Ruijie, LI Yaling, LI Ling, ZHANG Yu, LIAO Haihui, ZHU Xuan
2020, 41(9):  126-132.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190505-027
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In order to investigate the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) treatment on postharvest black spot and reactive oxygen metabolism of apricot. ‘Saimmaiti’ apricot fruit were soaked with 0.9 mg/L EBR under reduced pressure or distilled water as a control, dried under natural sunlight, and then stored at (1.0 ± 0.5) ℃ and relative humidity of 90%–95% for 48 hours. Afterwards, the fruit were inoculated with Alternaria alternata and then kept under the same conditions. Sampling was conducted periodically to examine the effect of EBR treatment on postharvest black spot and reactive oxygen metabolism. The results showed that EBR treatment significantly increased the content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) shortly after inoculation (P < 0.05), continuously and significantly improved the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) over the entire culture period and significantly enhanced catalase (CAT) activity during the later stages (P < 0.05). In addition, it significantly inhibited the production rate of superoxide anion radical (O2-·), effectively reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the increase in cell membrane permeability and the incidence of disease, and greatly inhibited the expansion of the lesion. Meanwhile, the results of transmission electron microscopy showed that EBR treatment could maintain the structural integrity of mitochondria, chloroplasts and other organelles in apricot fruit during storage. The mechanism behind the inhibition of the occurrence of postharvest black spot in apricots by EBR treatment may be closely related to regulating reactive oxygen metabolism and maintaining the structural integrity of organelles.
Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of p-Anisaldehyde aganist Geotrichum citri-aurantii
LI Lu, LI Wei, CHE Jinxin, OUYANG Qiuli, TAO Nengguo
2020, 41(9):  133-138.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190523-269
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To clarify the antifungal effect and mechanism of p-anisaldehyde against Geotrichum citri-aurantii, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to identify the antifungal capacity of p-anisaldehyde. Moreover, the cell wall integrity, membrane permeability and fungal morphology of G. citri-aurantii were investigated to analyze the possible antifungal mechanism of p-anisaldehyde. Results showed that p-anisaldehyde could strongly inhibit the growth of G. citri-aurantii, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) value were both 4.48 g/L. Waxing with 10 MFC p-anisaldehyde could effectively delay the incidence of sour rot in citrus fruit, which was only 30% at 13 days after inoculation, significantly lower than the 100% incidence of the control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, p-anisaldehyde increased the activity of extracellular alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and damaged the cell wall integrity of G. citri-aurantii mycelia. Moreover, addition of sorbitol could not reverse the inhibition. Propidium iodide (PI) staining indicated that p-anisaldehyde could impair the cell membrane of G. citri-aurantii. Also, the hyphae treated with p-anisaldehyde appeared to be wrinkle, shriveled and distorted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It can be illustrated that p-anisaldehyde can effectively inhibit the growth of G. citri-aurantii and delay the progression of sour rot. In addition, the inhibitory mechanism of p-anisaldehyde is probably related to the damage caused by it to the cell wall and membrane of the mycelia.
Predictive System of Microbial Growth on Atlantic Salmon during Storage
YU Zhuzhu, LIN Hong, WANG Jingxue
2020, 41(9):  139-144.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190404-058
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The total viable count and the number of Pseudomonas and Shewanella are important indicators affecting the freshness of Atlantic salmon. Therefore, the detection of their changes can help monitor and pre-judge the quality of Atlantic salmon during storage and transportation. The total viable count and the number of Pseudomonas and Shewanella in Atlantic salmon during storage at different temperatures were nonlinearly fitted to the modified Gompertz, Baranyi and Roberts and Belehradek models. Results showed that the Baranyi and Roberts model was more suitable to reflect the changes in the number of microorganisms on Atlantic salmon during storage at 4, 10, and 25 ℃ when compared with the modified Gompertz model. The coefficients of determination (R2) of the Baranyi and Roberts models for the total viable count and the number of Pseudomonas and Shewanella were greater than 0.9, 0.995, 0.994 and 0.952 at 25 ℃, 0.993, 0.996 and 0.997 at 10 ℃, and 0.981, 0.995 and 0.914 at 4 ℃, respectively. The lag period of the growth curve and the maximum specific growth rate versus storage temperature were fitted to the Bellehradek equation using parameters obtained from the Baranyi and Roberts models. Furthermore, a microbial growth prediction software was written in Visual Basic (VB) to obtain the number and growth curve of microorganisms at different storage temperatures quickly, which will provide an efficient and convenient tool for pre-judging and monitoring microbial growth in Atlantic salmon.
Effect of Bleached Shellac/Tannic Acid Composite Coating on Mango Preservation at Room Temperature
ZHOU Zhiqiang, MA Jinju, GAN Jin, LI Kun, LI Kai, ZHANG Wenwen, TU Xinghao, DU Liqing, ZHANG Hong
2020, 41(9):  145-152.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190823-247
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In order to reduce the incidence of black spots and decay as well as the loss of nutrients and to prolong the shelf life of mango fruit stored at room temperature, a tannic acid (TA)-bleached shellac composite preservative was prepared. The concentrations of TA and bleached shellac were used as the variables and the mass loss percentage and the incidence of black spots in mango fruit were used as the response values to optimize the formulation of the composite preservative using response surface methodology based on central composite design. Meanwhile, the physical and chemical indexes of the optimized formulation were tested. The results showed that the composite preservative could obviously prolong the shelf life of mango fruit at room temperature. The optimal proportions (m/m) of the ingredients were 7.3% bleached shellac, 0.3% TA. The mass loss percentage and the incidence of black spots in mango fruit treated with the optimized preservative were 24.38% and 29.91% after 18 days of storage, respectively. Compared with the blank control group, the preservative significantly reduced the loss of nutrients such as titration acid, soluble sugar, total soluble solids and ascorbic acid in mangoes, delayed the decaying process and prolonged shelf life by at least 8 days. The sensory, physicochemical indexes of the preservative, including viscosity, ignition residue, total arsenic and lead content, were all in line with the requirements of the national standard, which indicates that the preservative is green, safe and non-toxic.
Effect of Cold Controlled Atmosphere Storage on Quality of ‘Tunisia’ Soft Seed Pomegranate during Subsequent Shelf Life
XU Ranran, YUAN Yang, ZHAO Yumei, CAO Jiankang
2020, 41(9):  153-160.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190511-117
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In order to extend the storage period and maintain the quality of pomegranate during subsequent shelf life, the effects of cold ((7.0 ± 0.5) ℃) controlled atmosphere storage with different gas combinations: 2% O2 + 8% CO2, 4% O2 + 7% CO2 and 5% O2 + 6% CO2 on the quality of ‘Tunisia’ soft seed pomegranate during subsequent shelf life at (20.0 ± 0.5) ℃ were investigated. The results showed that the cold controlled atmosphere storage could effectively inhibit the occurrence of scald husk and mass loss during subsequent shelf life in comparison with ordinary refrigeration (control). The controlled atmosphere storage also increased soluble solids/titratable acid ratio in the edible aril and improved the flavor of pomegranate. On the fourth day of shelf life, the total phenolics content of pomegranate peel stored in each modified atmosphere was lower than that of the control, while the anthocyanins content and polyphenol oxidase activity were increased to different degrees. The lower the oxygen/carbon dioxide ratio, the higher contents of anthocyanins and total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of pomegranate arils. Among these combinations, pomegranate arils stored in 2% O2 + 8% CO2 had highest total phenolics content and antioxidant activity, the lowest husk scald degree and mass loss percentage at 4 days of shelf life, so that this combination was the optimal one.
Effect of Calcium Chloride Treatment on Internal Browning and Storage Quality of Pineapple after Harvest
GU Hui, ZHU Shijiang, HOU Xiaowan, JIA Zhiwei, ZHANG Lubin
2020, 41(9):  161-167.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190425-326
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This research work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of peduncle infiltration with calcium chloride on internal browning and storage quality of pineapple (Ananas comosus ‘Comtede Paris’) after harvest, and the antioxidant capacity, phenolic metabolism and water-soluble calcium content of the treated fruit were determined. The results showed that 1% calcium chloride treatment reduced the disease index of pineapple internal browning, increased the activity of peroxidase (POD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and decreased the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the content of total phenols. Calcium chloride treatment also delayed the decrease of VC and soluble sugar content, and increased the contents of water-soluble total calcium and intracellular calcium, thereby delaying the postharvest storage quality deterioration of pineapple. Calcium chloride treatment, however, had little effect on titratable acid content. It is speculated that calcium chloride treatment may alleviate the occurrence of pineapple internal browning by improving the antioxidant capacity reducing the metabolic level of phenolic substances and increasing the content of water-soluble intracellular calcium.
Effect of Fumigation with Volatile Metabolites of Hanseniaspora uvarum on Aroma Components and Storage Quality of Strawberry Fruit
XI Yuting, GUO Hongna, JIANG Yi, ZHOU Jiao, YU Wei, LIU Jia, XIAO Hongmei
2020, 41(9):  168-174.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190508-064
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The effect of fumigation with volatile organic compounds of Hanseniaspora uvarum on the the decay index, physicochemical qualities and aroma components of ‘Hongyan’ strawberry fruit was studied during postharvest storage. The results showed that fresh strawberry fruit was found to contain 20 major aromatic substances, with trans-2-hexenyl acetate being the most dominant (44.94%), followed by hexyl acetate (26.12%), ethyl hexanoate (16.51%), and methyl hexoate (2.92%). Compared with the control group, 7 esters, 1 alcohol, 1 acid, and 1 alkene were newly detected in the 3-day fumigation group, the contents of ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethanol and hexanol were obviously increased, and the flavor of strawberry fruit was improved by the fumigation treatment. Moreover, it could effectively maintain fruit appearance and color, delay the decrease in hardness and the contents of total soluble solids and titratable acid, and inhibit fruit decay during cold storage. In conclusion, the fumigation treatment has a positive effect on delaying the decay, maintaining the quality, promoting the flavor, and strengthening the storability of strawberry fruit.
Effect of Rye Polyphenol Extract on Oxidative Stability and Quality of Pork Meatballs during Refrigerated Storage
HAO Jiaomin, YANG Wenping, JIN Mingkai, ZHAO Fangfang, WANG Kai, YANG Zhenping, GAO Zhiqiang
2020, 41(9):  175-181.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190509-091
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The inhibitory effect of rye polyphenol extract (RPE) on the oxidation of fat and protein in pork meatballs during refrigerated storage was studied along with its effect on the storage quality of pork meatballs. Meatballs were made from ground pork mixed with different levels of RPE (0.04%, 0.08% and 0.12%, m/m) and refrigerated at 4 ℃ for 12 days. The results showed that the pork meatballs with RPE had higher antioxidant capacity than did the control without any antioxidant. Addition of RPE at 0.08% and 0.12% significantly reduced the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value (P < 0.05), and inhibited the oxidation of proteins, as evidenced by significantly reduced carbonyl content and increased sulfhydryl level (P < 0.05). The effect of 0.12% RPE was comparable to that of 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in inhibiting lipid and protein oxidation and maintaining the storage quality of pork meatballs. Compared with the control group, addition of 0.12% RPE significantly increased the L* and a* values, and improved the chewiness and resilience, as well as the sensory quality during the later stage of storage. These findings showed that RPE, a potent natural antioxidant, is a potential alternative to synthetic antioxidants (0.02% BHT), which could improve the shelf life of the product while maintaining and even improving the quality, and it has great application potential in the production of healthy meat products with improved functions.
Evaluation of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Based SiO2/TiO2 Nanocomposite Films and Their Preservation Effect on Agaricus bisporus
MA Qinghua, CAI Ming, XIE Chunfang, YANG Kai, SUN Peilong
2020, 41(9):  182-187.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190515-153
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In this study, modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films added separately with nano SiO2 and nano TiO2 at different concentrations were prepared to improve the mechanical properties and permeability and broaden the application of PVA films in the field of edible mushroom preservation. The effect of these nano films on preserving the quality of Agaricus bisporus was evaluated by measuring mass loss, hardness, whiteness and sensory evaluation and compared with that of commercial polyethylene (PE) film. Results showed when nano SiO2/TiO2 were added at 1%, the CO2 permeability decreased by 35.66% and 12.58%, respectively, and the water vapor permeability decreased by 9.05% and 13.96%, respectively. The tensile strength, elongation at break and Young’s modulus increased by 23.86% and 23.41%, 1.59% and 0.84%, and 72.89% and 96.24%, respectively. After 5 days of storage, the percentage mass loss of Agaricus bisporus packed with the 1% nano SiO2 and 1% nano TiO2 incorporated films decreased by 31.06% and 32.87% as compared with pure PVA films, respectively, and the hardness decreased by 13.16% and 13.05% as compared with PE films, respectively. In addition, the whiteness of Agaricus bisporus packed with the 1% nano TiO2 incorporated film was the highest, 86.18. According to the sensory indicators including the opening degree of caps, color, hardness and odor, the 1% nano TiO2 incorporated film showed a better preservation effect on Agaricus bisporus. Therefore, incorporation of 1% nano SiO2/TiO2 could improve the mechanical properties and preservation effect of PVA films.
Effect of Pre-harvest Melatonin Spraying on the Post-harvest Disease Resistance and Storage Quality of Tomato Fruit
SHENG Jiping, ZHAO Ruirui, CHEN Lingling, SHEN Lin
2020, 41(9):  188-193.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190416-204
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In this study, in order to evaluate the effect of pre-harvest spraying with melatonin (MT) on the resistance to Botrytis cinerea and quality of postharvest fruit, ‘Ailsa Craig’ tomato plants were sprayed with MT at 1, 50, 100 and 150 μmol/L MT before harvest, and then postharvest fruit quality, related enzyme activities and related gene expression levels were determined. The results showed that compared with the control fruit sprayed with distilled water, 100 μmol/L MT pre-treatment significantly reduced disease incidence and lesion area on the fruit inoculated with Botrytis cinerea (P < 0.05), induced increased activities of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase, increased the expression of the PR1, NPR1, PI II and LoxD genes, associated with disease resistance, and elevated the contents of vitamin C, titratable acid, soluble sugar and soluble proteins. In summary, 100 μmol/L MT pre-treatment had the best effect on enhancing the disease resistance of post-harvest tomato fruit by increasing the related enzyme activities and thus on improving the storage quality.
Reviews
Progress in Understanding the Effects of Human Milk Components on Intestinal Barrier Function in Infants
ZHANG Qimin, NI Weiwei, ZHANG Xin, LI Ying, MA Xiangyang, YANG Jiajie, LI Chun, LI Xiaodong, LI Aili
2020, 41(9):  194-203.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190427-357
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The newborn is in a susceptible immune state after birth, the adaptive immune system is immature and it relies on the innate immune system for protection. The intestinal barrier is an important component of innate immunity and consists mainly of the mucosal layer, the intestinal epithelial cell layer and the lamina propria. Human milk is the perfect source of nutrition for infants. It is rich in bioactive factors, which is crucial for the establishment and maturation of neonatal intestinal barrier function. This article reviews the roles of oligosaccharides, phospholipids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, active proteins and miRNAs in breast milk in protecting intestinal barrier function.
A Review on Microbial Biotransformation of Epigallocatechin Gallate and Bioactivities of Its Metabolites
DU Minru, FANG Qian’an, LIAO Zhenlin, FANG Xiang, WANG Jie
2020, 41(9):  204-210.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190418-228
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Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic flavonoid compound isolated from tea, has many biological functions such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-tumor, cholesterol-lowering and anti-obesity properties. However, its instability and low bioavailability lead to limited bioactivities. Recently, biotransformation mediated by microbes may provide an effective way of modifying the structure of EGCG to improve its bioavailability while maintaining and even improving its original bioactivities. This review summarizes the biotransformation of EGCG mediated by different microorganisms and the bioactivities of its resulting breakdown products, mainly focusing on the metabolic pathways, the metabolites, and their bioactivities. It is expected that this review will provides a theoretical basis for further study aiming at the development of EGCG-based value-added products and for in-depth studies on human health promotion triggered by microbial biotransformation of polyphenols.
A Review of Free Fatty Acid Catabolism in Mold-Fermented Cheese and Its Effect on Product Quality
LUAN Binyu, SHI Haisu, LI Yanbo, WU Junrui, WU Rina, TAO Dongbing, WU Chen, YUE Xiqing
2020, 41(9):  211-221.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190430-394
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Free fatty acids are important volatile flavor compounds in mold-fermented cheeses, which can react violently during cheese ripening. In this paper, free fatty acid catabolism during cheese ripening is reviewed. We firstly introduce the production process of various types of mold-fermented cheese and the nutritional properties of fatty acid in mold-fermented cheese. The transformation of fatty acids during the maturation process of mold-fermented cheese, the factors affecting the types and levels of fatty acids and currently available methods to increase the level of unsaturated fatty acids in mold-fermented cheese are also summarized. Finally, we discuss future development directions.
Recent Progress toward Understanding the Physiological Function, Purification, and Enzymatic Browning Control of Plant Polyphenol Oxidases
WANG Xinyu, YANG Lüzhu, WANG Ting, WANG Rongrong, LIU Jie, SHAN Yang, ZHANG Qun, DING Shenghua
2020, 41(9):  222-237.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190411-145
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Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are a group of metalloenzymes containing copper plastid that can catalyze the oxidation of polyphenols, which widely exist in plants, animals, and microorganisms. On the one hand, they play an important role in the physiological functions of plants; on the other hand, they also cause a decline in fruit and vegetable quality, thereby resulting in a large number of economic losses. In this paper, the physiological function, extraction and purification, and enzymatic properties of PPOs, as well as the different methods for inhibiting PPO acticity for enzymatic browning control are summarized, which will provide a references for basic research and application of PPO.
Advances in Functional and Nutritional Properties of Starch-Lipid Complexes
SHI Shaoxia, DONG Yaoyao, LI Qi, YU Xiuzhu
2020, 41(9):  238-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190427-371
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In order to further investigate their functional and nutritional characteristics, the formation mechanism, helical structure and characterization methods of starch-lipid complexes are summarized. The functional properties (solubility and swelling power, anti-digestibility, pasting properties, rheological behavior, dielectricity, thermal stability and film-forming properties) and nutritional properties including regulating blood glucose and delivering bioactive ingredients under different conditions are discussed, which will be useful for the application of the complexes in the food industry.
Progress in Microcapsule Wall Materials and Preparation Techniques
ZHANG Zhihua, ZHONG Shurui, PENG Fei, ZENG Yingjie, ZONG Minhua, LOU Wenyong
2020, 41(9):  246-253.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190625-320
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Microencapsulation technology has been widely applied in the food industry to effectively improve the applications of bioactive substances. The development of the food industry has spurred researchers to constantly improve this technology. In this article, the common wall materials and methods used for the preparation of microcapsules are reviewed. Firstly, the properties and applications of natural microcapsule wall materials and modified wall materials are summarized. Then, the application process and improvement strategies of layer-by-layer self-assembling, complex coacervation and yeast-cell-based microencapsulation are elaborated. Besides, the effects of the improvement strategies are also presented, deepening the understanding of the microcapsule preparation techniques. Finally, the concerns about microcapsule wall materials and preparation methods, as well as the development trends of microencapsulation technology are discussed. This review is expected to provide a theoretical basis for promoting further development of microencapsulation technology.
Recent Progress in Understanding the Protective Effect of Phenolics against Cadmium-Induced Liver Injury
HAO Rili, LI Dapeng
2020, 41(9):  254-262.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190425-334
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Cadmium is a common heavy metal pollutant in the environment and foods, which can cause irreversible damage to human organs, especially liver. Previous studies have found that the mechanism of cadmium-induced liver injury may be related to the occurrence of oxidative stress. Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based diets and have strong antioxidant capacity. In recent years, more and more studies have shown that phenolic compounds have significant control effects on cadmium-induced liver injury. This paper reviews recent progress in understanding the protective effect of phenolic compounds against cadmium-induced liver injury, in order to provide a theoretical basis and research ideas for the development and application of phenolic compounds.
Progress in Application of Magnetic Relaxation Switch Nanosensor in Food Safety Detection
WANG Rong, XU Zhou, CHEN Yanqiu, CHEN Maolong, ZHU Yingyue, DING Li, CHENG Yunhui
2020, 41(9):  263-268.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190507-053
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This study describes the principle of the magnetic relaxation switch (MRS) nanosensor and its application in the field of food safety. The MRS sensor is an analytical technology that integrates biological sensing, nanotechnology and specific recognition with multiple advantages. This technology is based on the principle of detecting the change in the transverse relaxation time (T2) of water molecules caused by magnetic nanoparticle aggregation and decomposition medicated by the target object. It has been widely used in the detection of heavy metal ions, organic pollutants, proteins, bacteria and viruses. Compared with other nanosensors, the MRS nanosensor is not only free from background interference, but also does not require tedious pretreatment steps. It has many advantages such as high throughput screening, fast detection and simple operation.
A Review of Interactions between Cell Wall Polysaccharides and Polyphenols in Fruits and Vegetables
YI Jianyong, ZHAO Yuanyuan, BI Jinfeng, Lü Jian, ZHOU Mo
2020, 41(9):  269-275.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190303-021
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In fruit- and vegetable-based food systems, cell wall polysaccharides and polyphenols co-exist and commonly interact during processing and digestion. The interactions between cell wall polysaccharides and polyphenols may greatly influence the physicochemical and nutritional properties of foods. The affinity of cell wall polysaccharides with polyphenols depends on both endogenous and exogenous factors. The endogenous factors include the structures, compositions, and concentrations of both polysaccharides and polyphenols, and the presence of other components such as proteins and fibers. The exogenous factors include pH, ironic strength and temperature. In addition, the interactions between polyphenols and polysaccharides play an important role in their digestive behavior and metabolism, as well as human health. Besides, quality attributes of various foods can be significantly affected by polysaccharides-polyphenol interactions. In this review, the main factors affecting polysaccharides-polyphenol interactions, and their implications for nutrition and health as well as food processing are illustrated, and future trends in this field of research are also analyzed.
Recent Progress in Bioactive Constituents of Lonicera caerulea L. Fruit and Their Health Benefits
QIAO Jinli, QIN Dong, GUO Liangchuan, FEI Xiaohui, ZHANG Yan, HUO Junwei
2020, 41(9):  276-284.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190416-211
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Lonicera caerulea L. fruit is a small berry with rich nutrients and bioactive ingredients. With the change in people’s lifestyle and the increasing desire for health, the health benefits of Lonicera caerulea L. fruit have aroused increasing interest among people. This article reviews the current status of research on the functional components in Lonicera caerulea L. fruit with antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, anti-diabetes and cardiovascular disease preventive effects and their mechanisms of action.
Recent Advances in Research the Bitterness of Coffee
CHEN Yuying, SUN Hongbo, SONG Xiaoxiao, CHAI Yu, WANG Bolan, LENG Xiaojing
2020, 41(9):  285-293.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190423-304
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The bitterness can directly affect the quality and consumer acceptance of coffee. The bitter taste receptor family (TAS2Rs) from taste cells can perceive bitter substances. The bitterness of coffee is mainly attributed to the presence of alkaloids, as well as the formation of oxidation products of chlorogenic acid and Maillard reaction products during roasting. Alkaloids are the main source of bitter substances in green coffee beans. The oxidation products of caffeoylquinic acid and the Maillard reaction products formed during roasting are important flavor constituents of roasted coffee. At present, combination of instrumental physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation is mostly used for the identification of new bitter substances found in coffee. This paper presents a review of the formation pathways, sensory characteristics, and physicochemical identification techniques of coffee bitter substances, and the impact of bitterness on the consumer preference for coffee, which will be useful for the quality control of coffee products and optimization of the roasting process.
Advances in Methods for the Determination of Folate in Foods
WANG Bolun, GU Fengying, LIU Ziyi, ZHANG Fan, LIU Hao, YANG Tingting, WANG Feng
2020, 41(9):  294-300.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190411-147
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Folate, an essential vitamin B, plays a very important role in the metabolism and circulation of the human body. Folate cannot be synthesized by the body and therefore has to be supplied through the diet. Folate deficiency is recognized as a health issue worldwide and the World Health Organization has established the recommended daily intake of folate. However, folate content in natural foods is generally low. Fortification of cereal products and infant milk powder products with synthetic folic acid is common practice in many countries; special diets and health food fortified with natural folate have been developed. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the folate content in foods accurately. This paper reviews the key steps of folate extraction from foods and the common analytical methods used for folate detection, and it compares the advantages and disadvantages of microbiological methods, liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. This review is expected to provide a reference for research aiming to establish a fast and accurate method for the determination of folate in foods.
Progress in the Preparation and Application of Food-Devired Carbon Dots
WANG Qiuyue, XU Yaxin, CAI Zhaoxia, CHEN Yiping, HUANG Xi, MA Meihu, FU Xing
2020, 41(9):  301-309.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190529-351
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Carbon dots (CDs), a new type of fluorescent nanomaterials, have gained wide attention. In recent years, finding and developing specific raw materials for synthesizing novel CDs has become a research hotspot. In particular, food materials have unique advantages for use as precursors for the synthesis of CDs owing to their renewability, wide sources, low cost and easy availability, and can be used to prepare doped CDs with improved applicability by taking advantage of their rich elements. Moreover, CDs prepared from food materials have low toxicity and excellent biocompatibility. In general, food materials play an important role in the synthesis of CDs, and food-derived CDs show increasingly important application prospects. This article summarizes the latest progress in the synthesis of CDs from food materials with respect to various food materials used, synthesis methods and the properties of CDs. An overview of the applications of food-derived materials in the analysis of food and medicine, bio-imaging and catalysis is presented as well.
Connotation, Legal Inspection and Management of the Safety Risk of Edible Wild Animals
HUO Jingyu
2020, 41(9):  310-315.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200214-149
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With the development of industrialization, the food value of wild animals is gradually decreasing. Today, however, public health events associated with the consumption of wild animals still occur frequently due to the weak health management of wild animals. Therefore, we should reconsider the scientificity and rationality of the Wild Animal Protection Law’s definition of non-national key protected animals in order to prevent foodborne safety risks caused by segmented regulation during the quarantine, purchase and sale of wild animals. At the same time, relying on the legislation system of wild animal protection, we should scientifically and reasonably define a legal boundary for the protection and utilization of non-national key protected animals. Under the concept of “one health”, we should build an efficient cooperation mechanism for wild animal protection, public health, ecological environment and food safety supervision.
Development of Golden Flower Fungus Community in Fuzhuan Brick Tea: A Review
Lü Jiali, YANG Liuqing, MENG Yannan
2020, 41(9):  316-322.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190423-320
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Fuzhuan brick tea is fermented by a variety of microorganisms and belongs to the typical Chinese dark tea. It has a special flavor and long-term drinking is beneficial to human health. At present, the manufacturing?areas?of Fuzhuan brick tea in China mainly include Shaanxi, Hunan, Zhejiang and Guizhou provinces. There is a large number of “Golden Flower Fungi” in Fuzhuan brick tea from different manufacturing?areas. The species composition of “Golden Flower Fungi” is closely related to the quality and functional activity of Fuzhuan brick tea, varying among different geographical regions. Meanwhile, the quantity of “Golden Flower Fungus” is also an important indicator of the quality of Fuzhuan brick tea. Currently, “Golden Flower Fungi” are identified mainly by a single method such as morphology, internal transcribed spacer or 18S rDNA, but each method gives different species identification results with a significant variance. Moreover, use of a single identification method may lead to deviation. Therefore, the identification of “Golden Flower Fungi” in Fuzhuan brick tea is still controversial, which affects the evaluation of landmark products of Fuzhuan brick tea. In this article, the current status of research on the dominant flora in Fuzhuan brick tea and the existing methods for the classification and identification of “Golden Flower Fungi” are reviewed, with the aim of providing the basis for the identification, exploitation and application of “Golden Flower Fungi” and for the standardized production of Fuzhuan brick tea.
Progress in Preparation Methods, Structural Characterization and Functional Properties of Zein-Polysaccharide Nanocomposites
SUN Cuixia, SONG Jingru, FANG Yapeng
2020, 41(9):  323-331.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190411-153
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As a natural plant protein extracted from corn gluten meal, zein is non-allergenic protein, and has unique self-assembly characteristics and good biocompatibility. It is generally recognized as safe food-grade ingredient. Based on the solubility of zein in different solvents, a variety of methods have been developed to fabricate zein nanoparticles. Such particles are widely used as delivery vehicles for bioactive compounds and as particulate stabilizers for emulsions. Nanocomposites of zein and polysaccharides formed by electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding can synergistically enhance emulsion stability, which will increase encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and bioavailability of bioactive compounds. In the current article, we review the different methods used to prepare zein-polysaccharide nanocomposites, the techniques for their structural characterization, the factors affecting particle properties, and their functional properties. The aim is to provide a theoretical basis for the development of new fabrication methods for zein-based nanocomposites, and at the same time, offer technical support for the application of zein-polysaccharide nanocomposites in the food industry.
Recent Progress in Immunoregulatory Effects of Functional Ingredients in Allium Species
XU Cuicui, ZHU Yunfeng, JIN Shaojin, SUN Shengnan, ZHANG Youyuan, ZHOU Kai, MA Ying, LU Weihong
2020, 41(9):  332-337.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190411-157
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Allium species are widely used for both medicinal and food purposes because they contain multiple functional ingredients such as polysaccharides, flavonoids and volatile oils that can exert immunoregulatory effects in the body. Immune dysfunction can increase the risk of many diseases such as inflammation and cancer, which pose a great threat to human health. The immunoregulatory effects of functional ingredients in Allium species are reviewed herein, which will provide a reference for their development and applications in the future.