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15 August 2020, Volume 41 Issue 15
Basic Research
Effect of Caseins and Processing Conditions on Stability of Recombined Dairy Cream
LI Yang, LI Yan, WANG Yunna, ZHANG Liebing
2020, 41(15):  1-7.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190805-055
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The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of micelle casein concentrate (MCC), calcium caseinate (CaC) and processing conditions (sterilization and two homogenization cycles) on the stability of recombined dairy cream as assessed by measurement of particle size, interfacial protein concentration, viscosity and microrheological properties. The results showed that the instability indexes of MCC cream with MCC concentration of 1.0% and 2.0% (m/m) were 0.396 ± 0.011 and 0.032 ± 0.001, respectively, suggesting a better stability at higher MCC concentration. However, an opposite trend was observed for CaC cream. An significant increase was observed in the D3,2 (P < 0.05), adsorbed protein amount and viscosity of MCC cream after being subjected to sterilization, and the mean square displacement (MSD) value decreased significantly. However, no apparent change was observed in the D3,2, viscosity or MSD of CaC cream (except for the MSD of 2.0% CaC cream), while the adsorbed protein amount increased from 3.9–5.5 to 5.2–7.0 mg/m2. After the second homogenization, the D3,2, adsorbed protein amount and viscosity of MCC cream decreased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas an increasing trend was observed in MSD values. The D3,2 of 1.0% CaC cream decreased from (2.80 ± 0.10) to (2.06 ± 0.11) μm, whereas no significant change occurred in other physicochemical parameters. The 2.0% MCC cream exhibited the best stability among all the recombined cream despite the fact that MCC showed poorer emulsifying capacity in comparison with CaC. Furthermore, the balance among the physicochemical characteristics of recombined dairy cream and consequently its stability changed to some extent after sterilization and secondary homogenization (in particular for MCC cream).
Controlled Release and Maintained Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effects of Thyme Essential Oil Encapsulated in Self-Assembled Peptide Hydrogel
ZHAO Mengqian, ZHANG Yadan, WANG Yingxiang, LIU Na, ZHANG Nan, JIAN Jiayu, ZHANG Lin, ZHANG Jihong
2020, 41(15):  8-14.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190725-327
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In order to achieve the controlled release of thyme essential oil and prolong its bacteriostatic and antioxidant effects, N-FMoc-L-phenylalanine (Fmoc-F) hydrogel was used to encapsulate thyme essential oil. The structure and morphology of the hydrogel were comparatively evaluated before and encapsulation, and the mechanism of encapsulation was studied as well as the controlled release of the encapsulated oil and the effect of Fmoc-F on maintaining its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The results indicated that the addition of thyme essential oil could significantly decrease the gelation time of Fmoc-F to 50 s, and increase the storage modulus (G’) of the hydrogel. Fmoc-F interacted with itself and with thyme essential oil mainly through hydrogen bonds, both contributing to the formation of hydrolgels with a fibrous network microstructure. The essential oil made the structure denser, thereby resulting in higher storage modulus of the hydrogel. The encapsulation rate of Fmoc-F hydrogel for thyme essential oil was 93.13%. At pH above 6.5, the hydrogel inhibited the volatilization of the encapsulated oil, and it was slowly broken down with the decrease of pH, thus maintaining the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil.
Comparison of Antioxidant Properties between Yak Milk and Holstein Cow Milk Hard Cheese
YANG Jing, LIANG Qi, SONG Xuemei, ZHANG Yan
2020, 41(15):  15-21.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190620-236
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Objective: To explore the pattern of milk fat oxidation during cheese ripening and improve the theory of milk fat oxidation in hard cheese by comparing the relationship between milk fat content and oxidation rate of hard cheese made from yak milk and Holstein cow milk. Methods: The acidity value (ADV), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (POV), reflecting the degree of primary oxidation, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, reflecting the degree of secondary oxidation, were measured after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months of ripening at 4 ℃. Results: 1) The ADV and CV of both cheeses increased continuously during the ripening process; for yak milk and Holstein cow milk cheese, the total increment in ADV was respectively (263.94 ± 13.88)% and (363.91 ± 11.71)%, and the average rate of increase in CV were respectively (0.140 0 ± 0.017 7) and (0.138 5 ± 0.015 1) meq/(kg·month). 2) POV first increased and then decreased during the maturation period for both cheeses, and there was no significant difference in POV between the two cheeses at all ripening periods (P > 0.05) except for 3 months (P < 0.05). 3) TBA value showed an upward trend during the maturation process, increasing by (330.48 ± 72.64)% and (335.89 ± 36.41)% and at an average rate of (0.035 4 ± 0.002 9) and (0.033 6 ± 0.002 0) mg/(kg·month) in yak milk and Holstein cow milk cheese, respectively. 4) The regression equations of first- and second-order oxidation rate for yak milk hard cheese were fitted as follows: Y = –0.001 7x5 + 0.038 2x4 - 0.336 6x3 + 1.347 7x2 – 2.146 7x + 1.496 9 (r2 = 0.993 2) and Y = 0.034 3x + 0.024 4 (r2 = 0.968 8), respectively. Conclusion: During the ripening process, yak milk hard cheese exhibited a lower oxidation rate despite its higher milk fat, indicating that the antioxidant factor in yak milk cheese is higher than that in Holstein cow milk cheese and plays an important role in the late stage of ripening, thereby inhibiting the oxidation rate.
Structuring of Sunflower Seed Oil by a Mixture of Monoglyceride and Stigmasterol
JIANG Zhaojing, LIU Zhongbo, MA Hanjun, LIU Benguo
2020, 41(15):  22-30.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190805-056
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Oleogels formed by the solidification of vegetable oils in the presence of gelators can reduce the use of trans and saturated fatty acids and increase the content of unsaturated fatty acids in foods. They can also be a promising hydrophobic nutraceutical delivery vehicle in the food industry. The development of food-derived oleogel gelators is a hotspot of food research. In this study, the feasibility of a mixture of monoglyceride (MG) and stigmasterol (ST) for structuring sunflower seed oil was evaluated. Then, the effects of gelator composition, concentration and storage temperature on the textural, rheological and thermal properties of oleogels were systematically investigated as well as their influence on the efficacy of oleogels in protecting lutein against ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It was found that MG/ST ratio had a significant influence on the lowest mixture concentration for forming oleogels. When the gelator concentration was more than 4%, oleogels could be formed at all tested MG/ST ratios. At the storage temperature of 5 ℃, the hardness, viscosity and chewiness values of the MG or ST oleogels were higher than those of the MG-ST oleogels. As the storage temperature increased to 20 ℃, these textural properties of the MG-ST oleogels were improved. In the rheological assay, all oleogels exhibited a shear-thinning behavior with similar rheological properties. The gelation temperature depended on the composition and concentration of the MG-ST mixture, instead of the storage temperature. The oleogel with the MG/ST ratio of 2:8 possessed the highest gelation temperature (80 ℃). The gelation temperature of MG-ST oleogels declined with the decrease of ST concentration. We also found that oleogels could significantly improve the stability of lutein under UV radiation; the best effect was observed at the MG/ST ratio of 8:2. These results are helpful to develop new edible oleogels and promote the application of lutein in foods.
Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Caryophyllene against Brochothrix thermosphacta
SHU Huizhen, TANG Zhiling, HAN Wei, CHEN Haiming, CHEN Weijun, HU Yueying, CHEN Wenxue
2020, 41(15):  31-38.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190725-334
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In this paper, the antibacterial effect and mechanism of action caryophyllene against Brochothrix thermosphacta were studied. The inhibitory activity was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and growth curve. The degree of damage to cell morphology and cell wall structure caused by caryophyllene were determined respectively by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and measuring the leakage of alkaline phosphatase (AKP). The effect on the cell membrane was examined by measuring the leakage of potassium ions, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and proteins. The effect on cell metabolism was investigated by measuring the activity of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK). The binding of caryophyllene to bacterial DNA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the MIC of caryophyllene against B. thermosphacta was 4.51 mg/mL. Caryophyllene at concentrations of 1 × MIC and 2 × MIC could destroy the morphology and structure of the cells and the permeability of the cell membrane, thus affecting cell metabolism, leading to a significant decrease in malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase activities (P < 0.05), and destroying the conformation and structure of genomic DNA.
Enhanced Stability and Bioactivity of Curcumin Encapsulated in Phytoglycogen Nanoparticles
HAN Xingman, FAN Jinling, WANG Pan, ZHU Wenxue, REN Guoyan
2020, 41(15):  39-47.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190703-036
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Phytoglycogen (PG) is a plant-based, high-density carbohydrate nanoparticle that has been demonstrated as a promising encapsulation and delivery system for curcumin (CCM) with enhanced solubility in our previous study. In this study, the effects of PG loading on the stability, biological activity and release of CCM were further investigated and the possible underlying mechanism was explored. CCM was encapsulated into PG nanoparticles at different concentrations, yielding 1% PG-CCM, 3% PG-CCM and 5% PG-CCM, respectively. The particle size and surface potential of the bare and loaded nanoparticles were measured by a laser particle size analyzer. The loading characteristics of CCM were evaluated, and the stability of PG-CCM was tested by determining the retention rate of CCM under UV irradiation and different pH conditions. The antioxidant properties of curcumin before and after encapsulation were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity assay. The in vitro inhibitory efficacies of PG-CCM against A549 and MCF-7 cells were investigated using invasion-3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The release of CCM from PG-CCM complex was investigated using simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and intestinal fluid (SIF). The results showed the mean particle size and zeta potential of PG-CCM complex were found to be about 70–75 nm with a narrow size distribution and 0 mV at pH 7.0, respectively. PG-CCM protected the encapsulated CCM from UV irradiation. The CCM encapsulated in PG nanoparticles had higher antioxidant and antitumor activity than pristine CCM, likely due to the improved dispersibility. The CCM complexes with 1% and 5% PG shared the common characteristic: the initial burst release of the encapsulated CCM, and the release rate of CCM was higher in SGF than in SIF. In addition, the PG concentration used for CCM encapsulation had a great impact on loading characteristics of CCM into PG nanoparticles, as well as CCM stability, release behavior and biological activity. Up to 37.5% of CCM was loaded on the surface of nanoparticles for 1% PG-CCM and 17.3% for 5% PG-CCM. Compared with 1% PG-CCM, 5% PG-CCM showed higher CCM stability but lower release rate and cancer cell growth inhibitory activity. The stability, in vitro release characteristics and biological activity seemed to be dependent on the loading characteristics of CCM. PG showed considerable potential to improve the stability of the encapsulated CCM, increase its antioxidant activity and enable its anticancer efficacy, thereby improving its bioavailability. The simple approach used in this work is promising for the development of curcumin-based therapeutic and dietary supplement formulations with enhanced bioavailability.
Preparation of Dihydromyricetin-Ag+ Nanoemulsion and Its Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism on Staphylococcus aureus
DING Lijun, HUANG Zihao, LIU Dan
2020, 41(15):  48-53.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190725-338
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In order to overcome the poor water solubility and instability of dihydromyricetin (DMY), a dihydromyricetin-silver ion (DMY-Ag+) nanoemulsion system was constructed, which could exert strong synergistic antibacterial activity. Its antibacterial mechanism was also investigated. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of DMY against Staphylococcus aureus was 1.25 mg/mL. The DMY-Ag+ nanoemulsion was characterized as an oil-in-water emulsion. Its antibacterial activity was evaluated by the bacterial growth curve, the inhibition zone diameter and plate count. It was found that the nanoemulsion had an obvious synergistic effect when compared with DMY or Ag+ alone. The nanoemulsion could damage the integrity and selective permeability of the cell membrane, resulting in leakage of intracellular components, and partially or completely inhibit dehydrogenase activity in the cellular respiratory chain, thereby affecting normal energy supply and ultimately inhibiting or killing the bacterial cells. This study highlights the potential of the DMY-Ag+ nanoemulsion as a natural and highly effective bacteriostatic agent in the food industry.
Effects of Different Additives on Dielectric Properties and Water Mobility of Silver Carp Surimi and Surimi Products
LI Shuang, LI Feng, JIAO Yang
2020, 41(15):  54-63.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190727-364
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Dielectric properties of foods are affected by their components and measuring frequency. Thus, dielectric properties can be used to predict the types and contents of additives and contents in specific foods. In this paper, silver carp surimi and surimi products are taken as research objects, and cryoprotectant, corn starch and soybean protein isolate (SPI) were used as additives. The effects of cryoprotectant (0.3%), SPI (0, 3%, 6%, 9% and 12%) and starch (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) on dielectric properties of surimi and surimi products were studied in the frequency range of 1–2 500 MHz. The results showed that the dielectric constant (ε’) and dielectric loss factor (ε”) of silver carp surimi decreased with the increase of frequency in the measured range. The ε’ of silver carp surimi with cryoprotectant was higher than that without cryoprotectant at 27.12, 40.68 and 915 MHz, while there was no significant difference at 2 450 MHz. The ε” of silver carp surimi with cryoprotectant was higher than that without cryoprotectant in the frequency range. The ε’ of silver carp surimi decreased with the increase of SPI content at 27.12 and 40.68 MHz, but increased at 915 and 2 450 MHz, while the ε” continuously decreased. The ε’ and ε” of silver carp surimi showed the same trend with the increase of starch content as with the increase of SPI content. The ε’ and ε” of surimi products had the same trend as those of surimi with the increase of starch content. However, the ε’ of surimi products at low frequencies (27.12 and 40.68 MHz) was higher than that of surimi, and at high frequencies (915 and 2 450 MHz), the ε’ of surimi products was higher than that of surimi with starch contents in the range of 0–20%, while the opposite was true in the range of 25%–30%. The ε” of surimi products was lower than that of surimi over the entire frequency range tested. Polynomial equations were fitted to describe the ε’ and ε” of silver carp surimi as a function SPI or corn starch content at a specific frequency, which could be used to predict the contents of additives in silver carp surimi and to develop non-destructive testing equipment for the contents of additives in silver carp surimi.
Comprehensive Quality Evaluation of Soybean Varieties for Their Suitability for Soybean Milk Production Based on Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis
LI Xiaomei, XING Zhujing, ZHAO Liancheng, SHI Yanguo, CHEN Lu, YAN Yihong, ZHANG Na
2020, 41(15):  64-71.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190809-105
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In order to obtain soybean varieties than can be specially used for soybean milk production, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to screen 29 soybean varieties in Heilongjiang. Firstly, the physicochemical properties (contents of water, fat, soluble sugar, protein, calcium and protein subunit 7S and 11S, and 11S/7S ratio) of soybean and the quality indexes of soybean milk (protein content, stability, yield, particle size, protein transfer rate, and sensory score) were analyzed. Then, by analyzing the obtained data using PCA, the first six principal components (comprehensive evaluation indicators) were selected, explaining 84.97% of the total variance. The top three varieties with the highest comprehensive scores were ‘Heinong 85’, ‘Heinong 66’ and ‘Heinong 71’, whose comprehensive scores were significantly higher than those of other varieties (P < 0.05). Finally, the results of cluster analysis showed that the 29 varieties of soybean milk were divided into categories I, II, III and IV, consisting of 14, 11, 3 and 1 varieties, respectively. The three varieties selected by PCA were all in category II, which had the characteristics of high protein content, protein transfer rate, and sensory score as well as medium soymilk yield, meeting the technical requirements of soymilk products. In conclusion, ‘Heinong 85’, ‘Heinong 66’ and ‘Heinong 71’ can be specially used for soybean milk production, and PCA and CA are suitable for screening and comprehensive evaluation of multiple samples and multiple indicators.
Effect of Tumbling on the Quality of Beef Brined Ham
ZHAO Gaiming, YIN Feng, ZHU Chaozhi, JIAO Yangyang, LI Shanshan, LI Jiaqi, WANG Ke, ZHU Yuankui
2020, 41(15):  72-78.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190627-365
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In this experiment, the effect of different tumbling treatments (atmospheric tumbling, pulsating vacuum tumbling, vacuum tumbling) on the quality of beef brined ham made from beef knuckle were evaluated using that without tumbling as the control. The yield, texture, sensory evaluation, color, water content, water activity, pH, cooking loss rate, brine absorption rate, moisture mobility, microstructure and protein secondary structure relative content of ham were measured. The results showed that the yield of beef brined ham using vacuum tumbling was 122.40%, which was 11.85% higher than the control group. Its water-holing capacity, texture and microstructure were improved, and its sensory score was the highest. The secondary structure of proteins changed from a disordered (random coil) to an ordered state (alpha-helix). The gel network structure was more stable and the product had better texture characteristics. In conclusion, vacuum tumbling is more suitable for the procevb r ing of beef brined ham. This study provides a theoretical basis and reference for choosing a suitable tumbling technology to ensure the quality of beef brined ham and for its industrial production.
Effects of Different Feeding Systems on Rumen Microflora and Muscle Quality of Yaks
TAN Zixuan, BAI Xue, LUO Fan, GUO Qiong, LIU Xinyu, RAN Li, GAO Yanhua,
2020, 41(15):  79-87.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190729-401
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The feeding system is one of the important factors affecting yak meat quality. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different feeding modes on the rumen microflora, meat quality and flavor substances of yaks. A total of 16 yaks with similar age and body mass in two feeding systems (grazing and feedlot, 8 animals each) were slaughtered. Rumen fluid was collected for microbial community diversity analysis and Longissimus dorsi muscle was harvested for the determination of meat quality, fatty acid composition, muscle fiber characteristics and volatile flavor substances. The results showed that the number of operational taxonomic units (OTU), the richness indices ACE and Chao 1, and Shannon index of rumen microorganisms in grazing yaks were significantly higher than those in feedlot yaks (P < 0.05). The meat quality traits dripping loss, cooking loss, cooked meat shear stress and muscle fiber density of feedlot yaks were significantly lower than those of grazing yaks (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the intramuscular fat content was 1.14 g/100 g, which was significantly higher than that of grazing yaks (P < 0.05). The contents of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids in the muscle of feedlot yaks were significantly higher than those in grazing yaks (P < 0.05), while the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was significantly lower than that in grazing yaks (P < 0.05). Thirty-four and twenty-seven volatile flavor substances were detected in the muscles of grazing and feedlot yaks, respectively. In summary, the meat quality of feedlot yaks was better than that of grazing yaks, whereas the fatty acid composition of muscle lipids was inferior to that of grazing yaks, possibly due to the difference in rumen microfloral diversity between the two feeding systems. This study provides a scientific basis for the feedlot finishing of yaks to produce a plentiful variety of yak meat products.
Anti-virulence Effect of Trans-cinnamaldehyde against Vibrio parahaemolyticus
WANG Shuo, DENG Haichao, GUO Du, YONG Qiyao, ZHAO Pengyu, DENG Ruisha, SHI Chao, XIA Xiaodong
2020, 41(15):  88-95.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190730-422
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-virulence effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and sub-inhibitory concentration (SIC) were investigated. The inhibitory effects against motility, biofilm formation ability, and the ability to adhere to and invade host cells were also investigated. The results showed that the MICs of TC against 10 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were 50–200 μg/mL, and the SICs for V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 were 1/16 MIC, 1/32 MIC, and 1/64 MIC. TC at SICs could repress the motility and biofilm formation ability, and reduce the ability of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 to adhere to and invade Caco-2 cells. Therefore, TC has the potential to reduce the ability of V. parahaemolyticus to infect humans, which provides a theoretical basis for further development of TC for the control of foodborne diseases caused by V. parahaemolyticus.
Separation and Purification of Anthocyanins from Mulberry Fruit by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography and Their Antioxidant Activity
XUE Hongkun, LI Pengcheng, ZHONG Xue, LIU Chenghai, LI Qian
2020, 41(15):  96-104.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190715-193
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In this study, anthocyanins from mulberry fruit were separated and purified by sequential macroporous resin adsorption chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), and were identified by UV-Vis spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance. We further evaluated the inhibitory effects of the crude extract and the purified components on lipid peroxidation and 1,1-diphenyl-2-trinitrophenylhydrazine (DPPH) radical. The HSCCC was performed using a two-phase solvent system composed of n-butanol, methyl tert-butyl ether, acetonitrile, water and trifluoroacetic acid (2:2:1:5:0.01, V/V) with the upper phase as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase under the conditions of rotation speed of 850 r/min, flow rate of 2 mL/min and detection wavelength of 254 nm. Finally, four peaks (components I, II, III and IV) were displayed on the HSCCC chromatogram. Component IV was identified as non-anthocyanin, while components I, II and III as delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside with purities of and 92.27%, 94.05% and 90.82%, respectively and their contents in the crude extract were 17.4, 33.7, 9.8 mg/100 mg, respectively. The 50% inhibiting concentration of the crude extract, and components I, II and III were (0.77 ± 0.02), (0.34 ± 0.02), (0.55 ± 0.04) and (0.68 ± 0.01) g/L for inhibiting lipid peroxidation and (0.40 ± 0.01), (0.16 ± 0.01), (0.22 ± 0.01) and (0.35 ± 0.03) g/L for scavenging DPPH radical, respectively.
Correlation between Anthocyanin Accumulation and Sugar and Acid Contents in ‘Tarocco’ Blood Oranges during Ripening
YU Zuixin, WANG Rikui, HE Mingyang, HONG Min, YUAN Xiaosong, WANG Jing, FENG Yu, WU Zhigang
2020, 41(15):  105-114.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190620-227
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In the present study, the variation in anthocyanin content, soluble sugar, organic acid content and anthocyanin synthesis-related gene expression in Tarocco blood oranges during the ripening period (from Day 200 to Day 324 after flowering) were investigated to study the correlation between anthocyanin accumulation and soluble sugar and organic acid contents. Results showed that anthocyanin content in blood oranges gradually increased during the ripening period. The presence of anthocyanins was detected for the first time in blood orange juice at 261 days after flowering. Rapid accumulation of anthocyanins in blood oranges occurred from Day 276 to Day 293 after flowering, with an increasing rate of 0.55 mg/L per day during this period. 4CL, CHS, F3H, F3’5’H, DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST were the core structural genes that regulate the accumulation of anthocyanins in blood oranges. Ruby was the key transcription factor regulating the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in blood oranges. The positive correlation of anthocyanin content with fructose and glucose contents was extremely significant (P < 0.01), with correlation coefficients of 0.810 and 0.799, respectively. The accumulation of fructose and glucose in blood oranges during the ripening period may be an important reason for the biosynthesis of anthocyanins.
Food Engineering
Effect of Drying Methods on Chestnut-Like Aroma of Green Tea
ZHANG Mingming, JIANG Yongwen, HUA Jinjie, WANG Jinjin, YUAN Haibo, YANG Yanqin
2020, 41(15):  115-123.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190725-335
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Drying is the key manufacturing process for aroma formation of green tea. This work was performed in order to investigate the effect of six different drying methods (tunnel-type far infrared radiation drying, box-type hot air convection drying, chain-plate hot air convection drying, bucket-type hot air convection drying, vibration strip-type conduction drying, and roller-type conduction drying) on the formation of chestnut-like aroma of green tea. A method based on infrared-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed to analyze the volatile components in green tea. Besides, sensory evaluation and chemical composition analysis were conducted and the obtained data were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the chestnut-like aroma of the tea sample obtained by box-type hot air convection drying was the strongest based on sensory evaluation. The aroma score was significantly higher by 3–5 points than that of the samples obtained by the other drying methods, and the overall quality was also better with a sensory score of greater than 90 points. Based on the comparison of the fixation and drying steps in the manufacturing process, obvious regional distribution characteristics were observed before versus after drying. The well-explained variance (R2X = 0.822, R2Y = 0.982) and cross-validation predictive capability (Q2 = 0.856) indicated good feasibility of the model, which confirmed the important influence of drying methods on the formation of chestnut-like aroma. In addition, it was found that among the three heat transfer modes, convection and conduction were more favorable for producing chestnut-like aroma than radiation. These results provide technical guidance for the production and processing of green tea with chestnut-like aroma, and theoretical support for the drying of green tea with chestnut-like aroma.
Energy Absorption and Utilization during Microwave Foam Drying of Raspberry Pulp
QIN Qingyu, ZHENG Xianzhe, WANG Lei, ZHU Yong, LIU Hui, ZHANG Youpeng, XU Hao
2020, 41(15):  124-133.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190730-406
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Drying uniformity and microwave energy utilization rate (MEUR) are important indicators for evaluating microwave energy absorption and utilization of materials. Drying uniformity and MEUR during drying are the main factors affecting product quality and processing cost, respectively. During the microwave foam drying of raspberry berries the electric field intensity, temperature and microwave energy absorption distribution pattern of the material layer was analyzed by numerical simulation to improve the drying uniformity and MEUR. The influence of microwave intensity, layer thickness and circulating drying time (CDT) on the drying characteristics, drying uniformity (temperature and water content uniformity) and MEUR of foamed pulp were investigated by theoretical analysis and single-factor experiments. The results indicated that the electric field distribution uniformity (EFDU) of the material layer was significantly improved with the increase of microwave intensity (P < 0.05). The EFDU and absorption characteristics of the material layer had a significant influence on the uniformity of temperature and water content distribution (P < 0.05). Drying uniformity was positively correlated with microwave intensity (2-6 W/g) but negatively with layer thickness (3-7 mm) and CDT (2-6 min). With the increase of microwave intensity, the drying uniformity gradually increased, and with the increase of layer thickness and CDT, the drying uniformity gradually decreased. MEUR increased initially and then decreased with the increase of microwave intensity, layer thickness and CDT. These results provide a theoretical basis for studies on the energy-efficient production of microwave dried berry fruit powder with high quality.
Inhibition Effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis Polysaccharides-Selenium Nanoparticles Prepared by Ultrasound Treatment on Non-enzymatic Glycosylation
XIAO Yidong, CAI Wenfei, ZHENG Zhaomin, MA Huiyu, HUANG Qilin
2020, 41(15):  134-139.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190725-337
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In order to explore the inhibitory effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis polysaccharides-selenium nanoparticles (LRP-SeNPs) on the non-enzymatic glycosylation reaction, stable LRP-SeNPs were synthesized under ultrasound irradiation, and the effects of LRP-SeNPs on the characteristic products (fructosamine, dicarbonyl compounds and fluorescence end products) of non-enzymatic glycosylation reaction at three stages were studied by ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that ultrasound treated LRP-SeNPs (U-LRP-SeNPs) could effectively inhibit non-enzymatic glycosylation reaction in a dose-dependent manner. The percentage inhibition of non-enzymatic glycosylation by U-LRP-SeNPs with Se/LRP ratio of 1:10 and 1:15 (m/m) remained at 30% and 20%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of U-LRP-SeNPs was further verified by SDS-PAGE. Ultrasound could effectively improve the stability of LRP-SeNPs, reduce the size of SeNPs, and increase the specific surface area, thereby providing more sites for binding with free radicals to shield or terminate free radicals, effectively inhibit oxidation reaction caused by free radicals, and finally prevent non-enzymatic glycation reaction at the oxidation stage.
Effects of Different Drying Methods on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Ziziphi Spinosae Sarcocarp
DU Chenhui, XIE Yujun, SHEN Chenxi, PEI Xiangping, YAN Yan
2020, 41(15):  140-147.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190701-012
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Objective: The metabolite compositions and antioxidant activity were considered to select a suitable drying method for ziziphi spinosae fructus. Methods: The impact of three commonly used drying methods, i.e., freeze drying, sun drying and hot air drying, on the metabolite composition and antioxidant activity of ziziphi spinosae sarcocarp was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) combined with multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) and partial least square regression (PLSR). Results: A total of 32 metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectrum. MSA and PLSR analysis showed that the contents of total flavonoids, sugars (xylose and β-glucose), amino acids (arginine, glycine, and L-aspartic acid) and choline in the freeze dried samples remained at higher levels. It also had the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. The sun dried samples retained the contents of polysaccharides, L-proline and dimethylamine to the maximum extent and had stronger for 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation scavenging capacity. The hot-air dried samples had the highest total phenolic content, and also retained higher contents of L-methionine, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, zizyphus saponin II, α-glucose, fructose and betaine. Conclusion: Freeze drying is the most suitable method for ziziphi spinosae sarcocarp to retain the antioxidant activity and reduce the drying time greatly.
Effect of Different Heat Transfer Modes during Secondary Drying on Quality Components, Color and Taste of Congou Black Tea
WANG Huajie, HUA Jinjie, JIANG Yongwen, WANG Jinjin, YUAN Haibo
2020, 41(15):  148-157.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190626-349
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In order to explore the effect of different heat transfer modes during secondary drying on the quality of Gongfu black tea, Gongfu black tea was made from the Cuifeng variety. Three heat transfer modes were set up: thermal radiation (far-infrared and microwave drying), thermal convection (box-type hot air drying), and thermal conduction (carding machine and rotary pot drying). The color parameters (L, a and b values) of tea and those (LL, La and Lb) of tea infusion as well as more than 60 of its quality components including tea polyphenols, catechin, theaflavin, thearubin, theaflavins, flavonoid glycosides and soluble sugars were measured and compared under the different secondary drying modes. The quality of teas prepared with these secondary drying modes was evaluated by sensory evaluation and electronic tongue technology. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis and significance analysis were used to investigate the effect of these heat transfer modes on the high brightness, and sweet and mellow taste of tea infusion as well as the black bloom of tea, and landmarks to distinguish the heat transfer modes were identified. The results showed that, thermal convection was the most beneficial to the retention and leaching of catechins except epigallocatechin gallate, theaflavins, thearubigins, theaflavins, flavonoids except vitexin-glucoside (Vit-Glc), amino acids, total soluble sugar and other components, rotary pot drying being not as effective as carding machine drying, followed by thermal radiation and thermal convection was the least effective. L and b values, as well as La and Lb values were all significantly optimized by heat conduction, a value by microwave radiation, and LL value by heat convection. The electronic tongue analysis showed that radar profiles were significantly different among heat transfer modes. Heat radiation, heat conduction and heat convection resulted in sour and umami taste, bitter and salty taste, and sweet taste and comprehensive attributes, respectively. Sensory evaluation exhibited that tea produced by heat conduction showed an appearance with gray color and its infusion had a bright red color and strong taste with astringency, while heat radiation produced a sweet aroma, strong and refreshing taste and orange-red color in tea infusion. The PLS model clearly distinguished tea infusion color and taste characteristics among the three heat transfer modes, and distinguished the appearance of tea produced by heat conduction from that obtained by heat radiation and heat convection. Through significance analysis, the key components that contributed to the difference in quality characteristics of tea and tea infusion among these three heat transfer modes were identified as follows: theaflavin (TF), theaflavin-3,3’-gallate (TF-D-G), theaflavin-3-gallate, soluble sugar, arginine (Arg), and phosphoethanolamine for tea infusion color; TF, theaflavin-3’-gallate, TFs, TBs, Vit-Glc, Glc, citrulline (Cit), and glycine (Gly) for tea color; and TF, TF-D-G, TBs, quercetin-3-O-β-D-gentiobiose , kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, Arg, Cit, and Gly for tea infusion taste. This study provides a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the directed and standardized production of high-quality Gongfu black tea with high brightness, sweet?and?mellow?taste and black bloom.
Effect of Infrared Radiation on Composition, Extraction Yield and Antioxidant Properties of Polysaccharides from Rice Bran
YAN Wei, DENG Lisha, WANG Yan, LIU Qiang, LIU Bing, TAO Tingting, LIU Jue, DING Chao
2020, 41(15):  158-163.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190805-057
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In order to realize high-value utilization of rice processing by-products, a method based on infrared radiation was developed to improve the antioxidant properties of rice bran polysaccharides. Under the condition of infrared radiation intensity of 2 780 W/m2, fresh rice bran was heated until the surface temperature reached 70, 75, 80, 85 and 90 ℃, separately. The effects of infrared radiation treatment on the extraction yield and composition of polysaccharides were analyzed by the sulfuric acid-phenol method and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the samples obtained was further studied and the effect of this treatment on the nutritional properties of rice bran polysaccharides was discussed. The results showed that when the surface temperature of rice bran was 75 ℃, the yield of polysaccharides reached its highest value, which was 18.33% higher than that of untreated control. In addition, the relative contents of rhamnose and mannose in the treated group were significantly increased, reaching their highest values at 80 and 85 ℃, respectively. The in vitro antioxidant results showed that the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-trinitrophenylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of (25.21 ± 0.88)% was obtained at 85 ℃. The optimal temperatures for obtaining the highest hydroxyl (·OH) and superoxide anion (O2-·) radical scavenging activity of (61.24 ± 1.08)% and (35.93 ± 0.24)% were 80 and 75 ℃, respectively. In conclusion, infrared radiation treatment can help improve the extraction yield of rice bran polysaccharides and simultaneous maintain good antioxidant properties.
Effect of Pulsed Pressure on Pickling Efficiency and Quality Attributes of Marinated Eggs
YUAN Nuo, ZHANG Qing, BAI Jie, XIAO Hongwei, GAO Yang, JIN Yang, GUO Hong, ZHAO Jinhong
2020, 41(15):  164-170.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191117-194
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In order to enhance the pickling efficiency and quality of marinated eggs, pulsed pressure osmotic dehydration (PPOD) technology was used for pickling during the processing of marinated eggs in comparison with traditional atmospheric pressure pickling (control) in the present study. The effects of pressure, pulsation frequency (ratio of pressure-holding time to atmospheric pressure-holding time) and pickling time on the salt content of marinated eggs were investigated. According to the salt content, favorable pulsed pressure-pickling conditions were chosen. Then further studies were conducted to explore the effect of PPOD on the quality attributes of marinated eggs and the most favorable pulsed pressure pickling condition was obtained. The results showed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the salt content of egg white between marinated eggs processed by PPOD technology (4 min/8 min pulsation frequency, 9 h pickling time, and 50, 100, 150 or 200 kPa pressure) and traditional atmospheric pressure pickling for 24 h, indicating that PPOD technology required significantly shorter pickling time (reduced by 62.5%) when compared with the traditional pickling method. In addition, compared with the control group, PPOD technology increased the springiness, chewiness, and a* value of marinated egg white, and significantly reduced conjugated dienoic acid (CDA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value (P < 0.05). Pressure below 100 kPa gave better retention of total fatty acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marinated eggs. In order to save energy, 50 kPa pressure, 4 min/8 min pulsation frequency and 9 h picking time were proposed as the most favorable pulsed pressure pickling condition. The current work indicates PPOD technology can significantly improve the pickling efficiency and the quality of marinated eggs, which provides a scientific basis for the application of PPOD technology in pickling for marinated eggs.
Effect of Cavitation Jet-Assisted Glycosylation on Structure and Function of Soy Protein
MENG Fandi, BAI Yin, WANG Zhongjiang, JIANG Lianzhou, LI Yang, LI Liang
2020, 41(15):  171-176.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190711-169
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In this paper, cavitation jet treatment was introduced in the glycosylation process of soy protein isolate (SPI) to explore the structure and function of glycosylated products as a function of cavitation jet treatment time. The results showed that cavitation jet treatment for an appropriate duration could promote the glycosylation of soy protein, increasing the degree of grafting and browning as well as surface hydrophobicity and improving solubility and functional characteristics such as emulsifying properties. The experimental results showed that cavitation jet treatment for 60 min was the most effective in improving the function of the grafted product overall. Compared with the glycosylated product obtained by heating alone, the solubility was increased by about 37%, and the emulsifying activity and emulsion were also improved. Furthermore, this study found that cavitation jet treatment significantly changed the secondary and tertiary structures of the grafted product, accounting for the functional improvement.
Effect of Ultrasonic-Assisted Osmotic Dehydration on the Quality Characteristics of Hot Air Dried and Vacuum Freeze Dried Yellow Peach Chips
SONG Yue, JIN Xin, BI Jinfeng, LÜ Jian, LI Xuan, LI Xiao
2020, 41(15):  177-185.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190730-403
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In order to explore the feasibility of replacing maltitol (MAI) as a sugar additive for yellow peach chips with isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO), four pretreatments, i.e., ultrasonic (US), ultrasonic combined with isomalto-oligosaccharides (US + IMO), ultrasonic combined with maltitol (US + MAI), and ultrasound combined with combined sugar solution osmosis (IMO-MAI at a mass ratio of 1:1) (US + CSL) were applied to yellow peach slices. The moisture loss, solid increment, microstructure and water state of the pretreated samples were analyzed. Then, the samples were processed into yellow peach chips by either hot air drying (AD) or vacuum freeze drying (FD). The color, texture (hardness and brittleness), taste and major nutrient contents (total polyhenols, total carotenoids and VC) of yellow peach chips were determined. The results showed that the highest water loss rate of 23.36% was observed in the US + IMO treatment group, along with a solid increment of 2.25%, which were in line with the requirements of the national standard for food additives. Ultrasonic-assisted osmosis treatment led to increased porosity, cell wall distortion and consequent altered moisture state in peach slices as evidenced by a decrease in T23 from 357.07 to 310.78 ms, and increased the total carotenoids content of peach chips. The hot air dried peach chips with US + IMO pretreatment had the highest content of 47.87 mg/100 g, but showed a reduction in total polyhenols content, antioxidant capacity and VC content with the highest loss of 40 mg/100 g, while there were no significant differences among the different pretreatment groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the results of electronic tongue showed that the taste of the hot air yellow peach chips was similar to that of the freeze-dried ones irrespective of the ultrasound-assisted osmosis treatment used. Based on the above findings, IMO could be used to replace the traditional osmotic sugars (such as maltitol), which could improve the taste of the yellow peach chips. The yellow chips with US + IMO pretreatment could be served as a functional food to a broader range of consumers.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Changing Pattern of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP-IV) Inhibitory Activity during Casein Digestion in Vitro and Underlying Mechanism
QIAN Jingjing, ZHENG Lin, ZHAO Mouming
2020, 41(15):  186-193.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190723-306
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In recent years, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides have become an important auxiliary anti-diabetic agent. In this paper, the in vitro digestion characteristics of bovine casein and the change in dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity during digestion were investigated. Meanwhile, the pattern of change in the typical structure features of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides was analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to elucidate the relevance of the release of characteristic peptides with the mechanism underlying the change in the DPP-IV inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate during digestion. As a result, we found that the degree of hydrolysis and digestibility increased with the prolongation of digestion time. At the same time, compared to undigested product, the DPP-IV inhibitory effect also increased overall, reaching the highest value of 58.04% at 240 min, which was about 2-fold higher than that at 120 min (23.22%). The degree of hydrolysis and protein digestibility had a certain relationship with the release of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. Furthermore, the typical structures of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides (i.e., Xaa-Pro/Ala- and Trp-Xaa-) were determined. The pepsin digestion generated 25 target peptides mostly with molecular mass more than 5 kDa, while the pancreatin digestion produced a total of 48 target peptides mostly with molecular mass less than 1 kDa. These results combined with heat map analysis demonstrated that the number and contents of peptides in casein digests were increased with increasing digestion time, which was consistent with the trend of DPP-IV inhibitory activity. Therefore, the DPP-IV inhibitory activity of casein digests during in vitro digestion is closely related to the number and contents of Xaa-Pro/Ala- and Trp-Xaa- peptides.
Effects of Lycium barbarum Fruit Polysaccharides Combined with Cisplatin on Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Line A549
HAN Hedan, HAN Zhaoyu, DU Yuemei, LIU Yunfan, LI Ailin, GAO Liping
2020, 41(15):  194-200.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190714-185
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Objective: To investigate the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) combined with cisplatin (DDP) on oxidative injury, apoptosis and apoptosis-related protein expression in hunman lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods: The cells were divided into a control group, a DDP (6 mg/L) group, an LBP (8 mg/L) group and an LBP (8 mg/L) + DDP (6 mg/L) group. CCK-8 method was used to detect the effect of separate and combined treatment with LBP and DDP on the cell viability of A549. Superoxide dismutase activity was measured by xanthine oxidase method, malondialdehyde content by thiobarbituric acid method, the content of glutathione (GSH) by dithio-dinitrobenzoic acid method, the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the rate of apoptosis by flow cytometry, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 by Western blot. Results: LBP significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of DDP on the survival rate of A549 cells (P < 0.01). DDP resulted in a significant reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and GSH content (P < 0.01), and a significant increase of MDA and ROS contents in A549 cells (P < 0.01). Compared with the DDP group, the levels of SOD, GSH and malondialdehyde in the LBP + DDP group were not significantly changed (P > 0.05), while the content of ROS was significantly reduced (P < 0.01).Treatment with DDP, LBP or their combination could significantly promote cell apoptosis (P < 0.01) and lower the expression of Bax and caspase-3 as well as Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of LBP and DDP can obviously promote apoptosis of A549 cells, and its underlying mechanism is mainly related to the regulation of apoptosis-related protein expression by both of them.
Characterization, Antioxidant Activity in Vitro and Toxicity in Vivo of Polysaccharides from Rubus suavissimus S. Lee Leaves
JIAO Xiaopan, LIU Yun
2020, 41(15):  201-207.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190511-114
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In the present study, polysaccharides were obtained from the leaves of Rubus suavissimus S. Lee by water extraction followed by alcohol precipitation. The polysaccharide content and monosaccharide composition were determined. The antioxidant activity in vitro of the polysaccharides was evaluated by reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical (·OH) scavenging activity. Meanwhile, toxicity studies in vivo were conducted in the zebrafish model. The results showed that the yield of polysaccharides extracted from Rubus suavissimus S. Lee was 0.6%. The total sugar content of the polysaccharides was 70.2%, and the monosaccharide composition mainly included mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose, arabinose and fucose at a molar ratio of 1.17:21.79:3.54:1.00:1.33:2.86. The polysaccharides had antioxidant activity in vitro in terms of reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ·OH radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner. In the in vivo toxicity studies, the polysaccharides did not exhibit teratogenic or lethal effects on zebrafish embryos and juveniles and could be safe and low toxic to some extent.
Protective Effects of Curcumin and Its Metabolites on H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage in PC12 Cells
LI Haoming, HUANG Yongjie, WANG Yongli, LI Dapeng, LI Feng
2020, 41(15):  208-215.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191014-109
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This study aimed to compare the protective effects of curcumin and its major metabolites tetrahydrocurcumin and curcumin-β-D-glucuronide on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. After the cells were treated with the three compounds separately, the cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were determined by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay and 2’,7’-dichlorodi-hydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, respectively. Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by commercial kits, and the expression of antioxidant proteins was quantified by Western blot. The results showed that curcumin and its metabolites significantly reduced H2O2-stimulated ROS and MDA levels in PC12 cells, increased SOD activity (P < 0.05), up-regulated the expression of Nrf2 protein in the cytoplasm and nucleus of kidney, and activated downstream hemeoxygenase-1 and NADPH quinineoxidoreductase-1 proteins. In general, the curcumin metabolites presented weaker protective effects than curcumin. These results may provide an experimental basis to understand the health-promoting mechanism of curcumin.
Effect of Chondroitin Sulfate from Sturgeon on Intestinal Flora of Mice with Colorectal Cancer
WU Ruiyun, MA Lizhen, LI Pinglan
2020, 41(15):  216-223.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200209-065
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Colorectal cancer is a kind of malignant tumor caused by uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells. Its development and progression are closely related to the intestinal flora. Chondroitin sulfate is the main polysaccharide in animal tissues, which executes many important physiological functions. More importantly, compared with drugs and surgery, chondroitin sulfate has the characteristics of low toxicity and fewer side effects. In order to investigate the regulatory effect of chondroitin sulfate on the intestinal flora of colorectal cancer-bearing mice, a mouse model of colorectal cancer was established, and after 4 weeks of oral administration with chondroitin sulfate from sturgeon, the intestinal contents of the mice from each group were measured and analyzed. The results showed that chondroitin sulfate could regulate intestinal flora diversity, increase the content of beneficial bacteria such as Saccharibacteria and reduce the content of harmful bacteria to a certain extent in the mouse model of colorectal cancer. The relative abundance of Fusobacteria was 0.008 5% in the model group, and it decreased to 0.001 4% in the high-dose chondroitin sulfate group, which was close to that in the normal group (0.001 3%). The relative abundance of Bacteroidales S24-7 group was 30% in the normal group, and it decreased to 18% in the model group. The relative abundance of Ruminiclostridium 5 was 2.05% in the model group, and it decreased to as low as 0.41% in the high-dose chondroitin sulfate group, which was significantly lower than that in the normal group (0.92%). It is suggested that chondroitin sulfate from sturgeon can reduce the change of intestinal microflora caused by colorectal cancer cell infection, regulate the diversity of intestinal microflora and slow down the development of colorectal cancer and can therefore be considered as a potential prebiotic for intestinal health.
Packaging & Storage
Antibacterial Activity and Preservative Effect of Inclusion Complex of Grape Seed Extract (GSE) with (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-Cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) against Spoilage Bacteria in Lamb Tripe
ZHONG Yuanyuan, LI Wenhui, LU Shiling, WANG Qingling, RAN Lidan, DONG Juan
2020, 41(15):  224-230.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190711-159
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The inclusion complexes of grape seed extract (GSE) with (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) at different molar ratios were prepared by the co-precipitation method. The structures of the inclusion complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the inhibitory effect of the inclusion complex with GSE:HP-β-CD ratio = 1:2 on seven strains of spoilage bacteria isolated from lamb tripe was studied. At the same time, the pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content and sensory evaluation scores during storage were determined as freshness indices to explore the preservative effect of the inclusion complex on lamb tripe. The results showed that the formation of the inclusion complex was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, DSC and SEM. Seven strains of spoilage bacteria were isolated from lamb tripe. The inclusion complex with GSE:HP-β-CD ratio = 1:2 had the strongest bacteriostatic activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli causing the spoilage of lamb tripe, with diameters of bacteriostatic circles of 15.13 and 18.11 mm, respectively. Compared with the blank group, the three inclusion complexes could effectively reduce the TVB-N content and pH of lamb trip, and keep the sensory evaluation within an acceptable range of e during 6 d of storage at 4 ℃, with the greatest effect being observed at a GSE:HP-β-CD ratio of 1:2. Thus, these experimental results provide theoretical evidence for the development of novel preservatives meat products.
Effects of Exogenous Ethylene and 1-Methylcyclopropene on Postharvest Physicochemical and Aroma Characteristics of ‘Shengxin’ Mango
LIANG Minhua, DENG Hongling, LIANG Ruijin, YANG Zhenfeng, SU Xinguo
2020, 41(15):  231-237.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200324-357
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Color, texture and aroma characteristics are the main indicators for evaluating the sensory quality of fruits. In this study, in order to find out the physical properties and aroma characteristics of mango fruit after harvest, ‘Shengxin’ mango fruit after harvest were treated with exogenous ethylene or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), and the changes of peel color, pulp hardness, total soluble solid content in pulp, and the content of 3-carene in peel and pulp were analyzed. The results showed that exogenous ethylene and 1-MCP induced and delayed postharvest fruit maturation and senescence, respectively, manifested by peel color change from green to yellow, a decrease in pulp hardness, and an increase in total soluble solid content. 3-Carene was a characteristic aroma substance in mango fruit, being more abundant in peel than in pulp and accounting for above 80% of the total aroma components in peel was. Ethylene treatment induced the synthesis of 3-carene in peel at the early stage of storage, and the 3-carene content reached a maximum value of 0.161 μg/g at the third day. In contrast, 1-MCP treatment generally inhibited the synthesis of 3-carene in peel during storage, but promoted the synthesis of 3-carene in pulp. These results provide an experimental basis for postharvest storage and quality control of mango fruit.
Preparation of Composite Phase Change Cold Storage Material and Its Effect on Storage Quality of Lentinula edodes
KONG Qi, MU Honglei, HAN Yanchao, WU Weijie, FANG Xiangjun, LIU Ruiling, CHEN Hangjun, GAO Haiyan
2020, 41(15):  238-246.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200302-029
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Composite phase change cold storage materials with appropriate phase transition temperature, high phase change latent heat, and stable thermal performance parameters were formulated from potassium chloride, glycine, and superabsorbent ploymer (SAP). Optimization of the formulation was carried out by the combined use of one-factor-at-a-time method and Box-Behnken design. The latent heat of phase change was used as the response variable. The optimum combination was determined as follows: potassium chloride 2%, glycine 1.37% and SAP 3.37%. Furthermore, the performance of this material was tested in freeze-thaw cycles as well as its effect on the storage quality of Lentinula edodes. The results indicated the temperature difference within the incubator during the storage of Lentinula edodes showed that the composite cold storage material had higher latent heat than the commercially available materials, and it exhibited no phase separation after 20 freeze-thaw cycles. Data from the temperature and humidity recorder before and after freezing and thawing showed that the composite material had better thermal stability, which could maintain better color and lower mass loss ratio, inhibit membrane lipid peroxidation, and delay the senescence of Lentinula edodes at room temperature of 25 ℃.
Effect of Postharvest Ethephon Treatment on Peel Wax Composition of Korla Fragrant Pear
MAO Huijuan, WANG Yue, YANG Wanting, CHEN Guogang, JIANG Ying
2020, 41(15):  247-255.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190729-402
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In order to analyze the effect of exogenous ethylene on the cuticular wax of Korla fragrant pear during accelerated ripening, a comparative analysis on the extraction yield and chemical composition of cuticular wax from pears soaked in ethephon solutions (250, 500 and 1 000 mg/L) was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Simultaneously, the changes in physiological indexes were determined. Compared with the non-treated control group, all concentrations of ethephon accelerated the ripening of the fragrant pear, remarkably increasing the respiratory rate on day 40 and ethylene release on day 60 (P < 0.05), advancing the peak of respiration and ethylene release, and increasing the content of water soluble pectin (WSP) and the enzyme activity of polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulase (CX), and the best effect was observed at 1 000 mg/L ethephon concentration. At the same time, ethephon at concentrations of 250 and 1 000 mg/L promoted the degradation of cellulose, and at 500 mg/L promoted the increase of relative conductivity. During the first 40 d of storage, ethephon treatment increased the extraction yield of total wax, being the most effective at a concentration of 1 000 mg/L. Ethephon treatment also promoted the formation of alcohols, saturated fatty acids, aldehydes, esters and olefins in the wax, but reduced the relative content of alkanes. Moreover, 500 and 1 000 mg/L ethephon also promoted the formation of enoic acids. In summary, ethephon could accelerate changes in cuticular wax contents and components while promoting the ripening of Korla fragrant pear.
Influence of Different Thawing Methods on Physicochemical Properties and Quality of Goose Thigh Meat
LIU Lei, XIA Qiang, CAO Jinxuan, HE Jun, PAN Daodong, TANG Xiaoyan, WANG Ying
2020, 41(15):  256-261.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191018-196
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To explore whether fast microwave thawing has a negative impact on the quality of goose meat when compared with low temperature thawing and running water thawing, we compared the influences of the two traditional thawing methods and two microwave treatments (microwave thawing 1: 45 ℃, 1 800 kW and 2 min; microwave thawing 2: 45 ℃, 1 800 kW, and 6 min) on the color, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value, met-myoglobin (MetMb) content, cooking loss, dripping loss, pH, shear force and protein conformation of goose meat during the thawing process. The results showed that compared with microwave thawing 1, low-temperature thawing could better maintain the cooking loss, dripping loss and shear force of goose meat, while the running water thawed-goose meat revealed lower dripping loss and cooking loss than that thawed by microwave thawing 1. Microwave thawing 2 increased the cooking loss, dripping loss, shear force and TBARS value compared to the other treatments, resulting in the poorest quality of goose meat. All four thawing methods had no significant effect on meat pH (P > 0.05). According to the Raman spectra, the influence of running water thawing on protein secondary structure was higher than that of microwave thawing, while low-temperature thawing proved to be least effective in this regard. While the quality of microwave thawed meat was inferior to that of low-temperature thawed goose meat, microwave thawing for a short time could significantly reduce the deterioration of goose meat quality and improve the thawing efficiency in comparison with running water thawing. Among the three thawing methods, low temperature thawing and short-time microwave treatment provided better maintenance of goose quality.
Effect of Ethephon-Containing Packaging Material on Quality of Banana during Postharvest Ripening
CHEN Yating, HAN Xiangwen, ZHOU You, CAO Chongjiang
2020, 41(15):  262-268.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191023-246
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This study aimed to resolve the problem of ethephon residues and effectively promote the ripening of fruits and vegetables. A packaging material supplemented with ethephon was prepared to promote the ripening of banana. Samples were subjected to normal packaging or ethephon packaging (EP) and then storage for up to 8 days at 25 ℃ and 70% relative humidity. Every two days, respiratory intensity and hardness were determined to study the effects of the ethephon-supplemented packaging material on the ripening process and shelf life quality of banana. The results showed that respiratory intensity and the contents of reducing sugar and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the flesh, as well as the color parameter a* value and the content of soluble protein in the peel of EP treated samples were higher than those in control samples, while the hardness was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05), indicating that EP could promote the postharvest ripening process of banana when compared with ordinary packaging. In addition, the total phenol content of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group, while the activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) was lower than that of the control group, indicating that EP could have an inhibitory effect on the browning of banana peels. Therefore, the ethephon-supplemented packaging material can effectively promote the postharvest ripening of banana by promoting the release of ethylene.
Effect of Packaging Oxygen Concentration on Gill Structure and Related Enzyme Activities in Lateolabrax maculatus during Waterless Live Transportation
ZHANG Yuhan, XIE Jing
2020, 41(15):  269-274.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190129-380
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In the present study, we attempted to narrow the oxygen concentration range in the packaging atmosphere during waterless live fish transportation and hence reduce the packaging cost. Lateolabrax maculates were packaging with various oxygen concentrations (60%, 80% and 98%) and cooled before waterless live transportation for up to 8 h. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum, the activity of body surface mucus lysozyme (LZM) and the morphology of the gill were determined during the transportation period. Results indicated that at each transportation time, the lowest serum MDA level occurred in the 60% O2 group. Serum SOD activity in the 80% O2 group remained stable during the 8 h transportation period, and LZM activity was always at the lowest level in the 98% O2 group. The gill filaments were swollen at 0 h, and the gill lamellas were fused and adhered together at 8 h; circular microridges (CM), star point rod-shaped (SPRS) structures and microvilli (MIC) were observed on the surface of gill lamellar epithelial cells under microscopy. At 8 h, in all three groups, the surface of gill lamellas was wrinkled and rough due to lack of water, the number of CM and SPRS declined and MIC almost disappeared. Moreover, free mitochondria inside the gill filaments increased and moved to the epidermis, mucous cells decreased, and CM at the edge of the epidermis became thicker or were exfoliated. In the 80% O2 group, the gill morphology was intact, more similar to that of the control group. Therefore, packaging with oxygen concentration of 60%–80% could be recommended for waterless live transportation of Lateolabrax maculatus.
Effects of Low Oxygen and High Carbon Dioxide Storage Environment on Potato Quality
TIAN Jiachun, TIAN Shilong, LI Shouqiang, GE Xia, LI Mei, CHENG Jianxin, ZHANG Huiyuan
2020, 41(15):  275-281.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190625-307
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In order to explore the effects of low oxygen and high carbon dioxide storage environment on potato quality, potatoes were stored in controlled atmospheres of 5% O2 + 2% CO2 (CA1), 5% O2 + 4% CO2 (CA2), 5% O2 + 6% CO2 (CA3), 5% O2 + 8% CO2 (CA4) and 5% O2 + 10% CO2 (CA5) at 4 or 10 ℃ for 120 days and changes in the nutritional quality, appearance and physiological quality were determined during the storage period. The results showed that CA1 could delay the increase of reducing sugar content during storage, maintain the original color of potato skins, inhibit the peroxidation of membrane lipids, preserve the relative integrity of the membrane system, and retard the increase of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, thus delaying the aging of potato tubers. On the other hand, CA5 could cause the accumulation a large amount of reducing sugar, and significantly inhibit the germination of potato tubers. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the storage of processed potatoes.
Preparation of Carvacrol-Loaded Casein Nanoparticles and Its Inhibitory Activity against Colletotrichum acutatum on Loquat Fruit (Eriobotrya japonica)
HUA Chunyang, LI Zhuoye, JIN Peng, QIN Dingkui, DU Qizhen
2020, 41(15):  282-287.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190625-312
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Objective: To prepare casein (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with carvacrol (CL) for improved antifungal activity of CL. Methods: Carvacrol-loaded casein nanoparticles (CL-CS-NPs) were prepared through ultrasonic treatment. The difference in the CL retention rate of CL-CS-NPs, when incubated on solid culture medium, versus free CL and a physical mixture of casein and CL was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The in vitro growth inhibitory effects of free CL, casein + CL and CL-CS-NPs on Colletotrichum acutatum mycelium were evaluated as well as the inhibitory effects on Colletotrichum acutatum inoculated into loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. cv. Baisha). Results: Stable CL-CS-NPs (152.6 nm in diameter) could be prepared by adding CL (12 mg/mL) to casein solution (20 mg/mL) followed by ultrasonic treatment. The sustained release time of CL-CS-NPs was 4 days and 2 days longer than that of free CL group and casein + CL mixture group, respectively, indicating that nano-CL had an obvious sustained release effect, and CL-CS-NPs showed potential to prolong the time of action of CL on pathogens. The in vitro culture experiment showed that CL-CS-NPs completely inhibited Colletotrichum acutatum for 5 days, while casein + CL mixture and free CL were effective for 3 days. Loquats sprayed with CL-CS-NPs dispersion did not rot basically at 5 days after inoculation, and the average lesion diameter and disease incidence were only 1.5 mm and 10% at 7 days. Moreover, those treated with casein + CL mixture had relatively small lesions but a high disease incidence (80%) at 5 days, and seriously rotted with an average lesion diameter of up to 4.8 mm at 7 days. Conclusion: Spraying the CL-CS-NPs dispersion onto loquat fruit can have a significant inhibitory effect on anthracnose rot caused by Colletotrichum acutatum.
Reviews
Mechanism of the Interaction of Muscle Proteins with Flavor Compounds and Factors Influencing It: A Review
YIN Xiaoyu, LIU Haotian, ZOU Wenrong, KONG Baohua, CHEN Qian
2020, 41(15):  288-294.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190815-158
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As an important ingredient in meat and meat products, muscle proteins are not only an important index to measure the nutritional value of meat products, but also have an important influence on the sensory quality. Muscle proteins have no flavor of their own, but can interact with flavor compounds and consequently act as a flavor carrier and improver affecting flavor release and perception in meat products. In this paper, we provide a brief review on the interaction of muscle proteins with flavor compounds, and summarize the factors causing structural changes of muscle proteins and the effects of structural changes on the interaction between muscle proteins and flavor compounds. We expect this review to provide a theoretical basis and reference for controlling the flavor quality of meat products.
Recent Advances in miRNA and Functional Foods against Ionizing Radiation
LU Jike, CHEN Pei, CAO Nana, CHEN Chen, YI Juanjuan, HAO Limin
2020, 41(15):  295-300.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200301-001
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Consumption of functional foods against radiation is an effective way to protect against ionizing radiation damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression found in many eukaryotic organisms, and they are closely related to radiation protection. Food intake is a way of exchanging material, energy and information between organisms and the environment. Specific diets, including functional food factors, can affect the expression of miRNAs, and this effect may be transgenerational. MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) plays an important role in protection against ionizing radiation, and the relationship between the signal pathway of miR-34a/Sirt1/p53 and functional foods against radiation deserves concern and needs to be further studied.
Recent Advances in Understanding the Potential Impact of Probiotic on Ulcerative Colitis
SHI Jialu, YAN Fenfen, LI Huizhen, JIAO Wenshu, GUAN Jiaqi, SONG Yue, HUO Guicheng
2020, 41(15):  301-308.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190720-259
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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic non-specific inflammatory bowel disease that mainly affects the rectum, colonic mucosa and submucosa. UC has recently attracted growing research interest because of its increased incidence. With the development of 16S rDNA sequencing technology and metabolomics, intestinal flora structure and metabolites have been found to be closely related to the occurrence and development of UC. As a group of intestinal beneficial bacteria, probiotics have the functions of enhancing intestinal barrier, regulating intestinal immunity and maintaining intestinal balance, and play a significant role in the treatment of UC. This article reviews the mechanism of action of intestinal flora on ulcerative colitis and recent progress in understanding the effect of probiotics on UC.
Recent Progress in the Development of Photoelectric Preservation Technologies for Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables
ZHANG Yanhui, HU Wenzhong, LIU Chenghui, CHEN Chen, GAO Hongdou, SUN Xiaoyuan, ZHANG Xiaofang, FENG Ke
2020, 41(15):  309-313.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190627-359
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Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are favored by consumers due to their nutritional, convenient and safe characteristics. However, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are vulnerable to microbial contamination, tissue softening, browning and consequently shortened shelf-life. It is quite urgent to develop preservation technologies for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables so as to further develop this industry. Photoelectric sterilization technology has attracted attention due to its advantages of green safety, low cost and simple operation. This review article mainly focuses on the mechanism and efficiency of photoelectric sterilization technologies including ultraviolet light, pulsed light, high-voltage pulsed electric field and light emitting diode in preserving fresh-cut fruits and vegetables as well as their effect on the product quality. Besides, recent progress in studies in these regards is summarized in order to provide a basis for the application of photoelectric sterilization technology in the preservation of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables in the future.
A Review of the Effect of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on the Cell Growth and Aroma Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Fermentation
LIU Peitong, ZHEGN Xiaowei, DUAN Changqing, CHEN Bo, YAN Guoliang
2020, 41(15):  314-322.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190729-397
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Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) are essential nutrients for the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation. Grape must is the main source for S. cerevisiae to obtain UFAs. The concentrations and types of UFAs vary with the rape cultivars, viticultural management and fermentation technologies, which directly influence the cell growth and the production of higher alcohols, medium-chain fatty acids and esters in S. cerevisiae. Optimal UFA composition can increase the formation of desirable aroma compounds and modify the quality of wine. In this paper, the effect of unsaturated fatty acids on the cell growth and aroma production of S. cerevisiae is reviewed, in order to provide theoretical guidance for the wine industry.
Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing on Phenolic Compounds in Fruits and Vegetables: A Review
YAN Huiming, LI Weizhou, LI Fuhua, ZHAO Jichun, MING Jian
2020, 41(15):  323-328.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191009-051
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High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a typical non-thermal technology, has great potential in the processing of fruit and vegetable products with high quality, because it can maintain nutrients and thermo-sensitive bioactive compounds, such as vitamins and polyphenols in foods, as well as maintain the functional activities of bioactive ingredients in fruits and vegetables. Polyphenols are among the most ubiquitous groups of secondary metabolites in fruits and vegetables, which have many pharmacological characteristics. A large number of studies have confirmed that increasing intake of polyphenols can reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. Therefore, polyphenols are increasingly becoming a research hotspot in the field of natural ingredients. In this article, we review the effects of HHP on the contents, composition, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of polyphenols in fruits and vegetables in order to provide a basis for the application of HHP in the processing of fruits and vegetables.
Progress in the Construction and Controlled Release Characteristics of Starch-Based Microcapsule Delivery Systems for Bioactive Food Components
WANG Bailong, YUAN Hongfei, LIN Xiong, SUN Siwei, GUO Zebin
2020, 41(15):  329-337.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190722-288
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Embedding unstable bioactive food ingredients into starch-based microcapsules can impart excellent stability and certain functional effects to the core material. Starch-based microcapsules can enhance the antioxidant stability of bioactive ingredients in the core material and allow their targeted release. This review summarizes the current knowledge of starch-based microcapsules, with focus on the current mainstream preparation methods, the embedding characteristics of the starch-based wall materials on the core materials, and the controlled release characteristics and application of starch-based microcapsules, with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for extending the application of starch in the food industry.
Recent Progress in Research on Starch-Lipid/Fatty Acid Complexes
ZHAO Xiaoyun, HUANG Qilin, ZHANG Binjia, ZENG Lingjun, ZHANG Jiaqi, WEN Xing
2020, 41(15):  338-347.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190729-398
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Starch-lipid/fatty acid complexes, a new type of modified starch, have become a research hotspot in China and all over the world. This modified starch is a unique composite system formed by the interactions among biomacromolecules, broadening the scope of application of starch. In this paper, we review the common methods for the preparation of starch-lipid/fatty acid complexes and the factors affecting it, the formation mechanism, microstructure and stability of the complexes, and their influence on starch properties as well as the fields where they have been applied. Besides, the existing problems are analyzed in order to provide new ideas for the development of modified starch in China.