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Table of Content

15 September 2020, Volume 41 Issue 17
Basic Research
Inhibition of Biogenic Amines and Nitrite in Kimchi by Blueberry Pomace Addition
ZHANG Nawei, CHEN Fengyi, LI Erhu
2020, 41(17):  1-8.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190730-414
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In order to reduce the contents of nitrite and biogenic amines in kimchi and improve its quality, the inhibitory effect of blueberry pomace addition (3%, 6% and 9%) on the formation of nitrite and biogenic amines during the fermentation of kimchi, as well as the effects on the physicochemical, microbial and sensory quality of kimchi, the optimal kimchi juice composition and fermentation conditions were determined using single factor experiments and orthogonal array design. The homogenization of kimchi was obtained by crushing and homogenizing, and the content of nitrite and biogenic amines, total reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity were determined. The results showed that the addition of blueberry wine pomace slowed down the fermentation of kimchi, and significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited the total number of colonies and the contents of nitrite and biogenic amines (P < 0.05) while not resulting in a significant reduction in the sour taste. Upon the addition of 9% blueberry wine pomace was, the residual amount of nitrite at the end of fermentation and the total biogenic amine content were respectively 62.20% and 29.19% lower than those in the control group. In addition, the addition of blueberry pomace significantly enhanced the antioxidant properties of both kimchi and kimchi juice (P < 0.05). Adding blueberry pomace as an auxiliary material to kimchi before fermentation can effectively reduce the contents of nitrite and biogenic amines, improve the nutritional value, and improve the color of kimchi.
Effect of Alkylperoxyl Radical Oxidation on Heat-Induced Aggregation Behavior of Myofibrillar Protein from Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)
LI Xuepeng, LIU Cikun, WANG Jinxiang, ZHOU Mingyan, LIN Boyan, LI Wenxie, ZHU Wenhui, LI Jianrong, LIN Hong
2020, 41(17):  9-16.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190824-254
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Alkylperoxyl radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of 2,2’-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH) at different concentrations were used to oxidize myofibrillar protein from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), the thermal stability, surface hydrophobicity, zeta potential, turbidity and average particle size of grass carp myofibrillar protein were determined, and the endogenous fluorescence spectrum and atomic force microscope observation were carried out, and the effect of oxidative modification by alkylperoxyl radicals on its heat-induced aggregation behavior was investigated. The results showed that oxidative modification with low concentration (≤ 1.0 mmol/L) of AAPH enhanced the thermal stability of myofibrillar protein, while the opposite effect was observed with high concentration of AAPH (5.0 mmol/L). With the increase in heating temperature, the surface hydrophobicity, zeta potetial, and turbidity of myofibrillar protein in the control and AAPH-treated groups increased first and then decreased. The intrinsic fluorescence intensity declined with increasing temperature, and a red shift of the fluorescence peak was observed, which was more obvious at higher degree of oxidization. The mean particle size of thermal aggregates increased gradually with increasing temperature in the control and 0.2 mmol/L AAPH-treated groups, while it increased first and then decreased in the 1.0 mmol/L and 5.0 mmol/L AAPH-treated groups. The results of atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated that the particle size of thermal aggregates increased with increasing temperature, and the particle size of the control group was relatively smaller and evenly distributed, while the particle size of the oxidized groups was varying and unevenly distributed. Higher degree of oxidization resulted in bigger particle size and smaller number of particles. This study indicated that alkylperoxyl radical could significantly affect the heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of myofibrillar protein from grass carp, and change the morphological characteristics of thermal aggregates.
Effect of Taurine on Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Muscle Antioxidant Function in Broilers
HAN Hongli, ZHANG Jingfei, SHEN Mingming, HE Jiale, LIU Jia, YANG Peixuan, WANG Tian
2020, 41(17):  17-22.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190727-371
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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary taurine (TAU) on the growth performance, and meat quality and antioxidant capacity of breast muscle in broilers. A total of 384 1-day-old ‘Arbor Acres’ broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups, with 12 replicates of 8 birds each. The broilers in the control group were fed a basal diet, and those in the experimental groups were fed the same diet supplemented with 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% TAU (on the basis of the mass of the diet), respectively. The whole experiment lasted for 42 d, which was divided into early (from day 1 to day 21) and late (from day 22 to day 42) stages. The results showed that compared with the control group, TAU could significantly improve average daily gain (ADG) during the early stage, average daily feed intake (ADFI) during the late stage (P < 0.05), and ADG and ADFI (P < 0.05) during the whole administration period. Moreover, dietary addition of 0.25% and 0.5% TAU could significantly increase ADFI during the early stage (P < 0.05) and reduce feed conversion ratio during the whole administration period (P < 0.05). TAU could significantly elevate the pH of breast muscle at 24 hours after slaughter (P < 0.05), and dietary addition of 0.5% TAU could significantly reduce the drip loss rate and cooking loss rate, as well as yellowness (P < 0.05). In addition, dietary taurine supplementation could significantly increase glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05), and reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P < 0.05), as well as increase the gene expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). According to the above results, dietary TAU supplementation could improve the growth performance and meat quality and antioxidant capacity of breast muscle in broilers, being the most effective at an addition level of 0.5%, which may provide reference for research aiming to improve meat quality and health.
Establishment of Comprehensive Quality Evaluation System for ‘Xuehua’ Pear Wine
LI Limei, FENG Yunxiao, HE Jingang, QIAN Xun, ZHANG Shaojun, GUAN Junfeng
2020, 41(17):  23-28.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190822-227
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‘Xuehua’ pear wines fermented with different yeast strains were measured for the concentrations of reducing sugar, total acid, phenols and flavonoids content, pH, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power and sugar/acid ratio was calculated as well. Comprehensive scores were obtained through factor analysis method, indicating the wines fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae LA-BA and RC212 had the best and worst quality, respectively. A comprehensive quality evaluation model was developed as F’= –3.123 + 0.486 × reducing sugar concentration + 0.980 × reducing power + 0.006 × phenol concentration + 0.034 × DPPH radical scavenging rate using the stepwise regression method. The scores calculated by the model were significantly correlated with those obtained from factor analysis method (P < 0.01), suggesting high reliability of the model. Therefore, the developed model simplifies the quality evaluation of pear wine and can guide screening for suitable yeasts.
Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Berberine from the Fruit of Berberis poiretii
BAO Yihong, ZHANG Junshun, FU Qun, ZHANG Haiting
2020, 41(17):  29-34.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190728-372
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This study was done to determine the antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of berberine from the fruit of Berberis poiretii by the filter paper disk diffusion method and the spread plate method. Also, the antibacterial mechanism was explored by measuring the growth curve, conductivity, nucleic acid content and cell membrane Na+/K+-ATPase activity as well as conducting polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. The results showed that berberine had a certain inhibitory effect on four common bacteria with MICs for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella were 2.40, 3.60, 3.30 and 3.95 mg/mL, respectively, indicating it to be more effective against Escherichia coli. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that berberine damaged the morphology of the cells and ruptured the cells, leading to the leakage of intracellular substances and consequently an increase in the nucleic acid content in the bacterial suspension and an increase in electrical conductivity. PAGE analysis indicated that berberine could inhibit protein synthesis. In addition, it could reduce the Na+/K+-ATPase activity of the cell membrane. Therefore, berberine inhibits the expression of bacterial proteins by destroying the cell membrane structure, leading to the death of the cells so that it can exert good antibacterial effect. In conclusion, it can be used as a natural preservative to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria in foods so as to prolong the shelf life.
Interfacial Behavior of β-Lactoglobulin Aggregates Evaluated by Using Particle Tracking Microrheology and Interfacial Dilatational Rheology
YE Jing, LI Jing, ZHANG Yuemei, HUANG Ping, WANG Qian, GAO Zhiming, YANG Nan, NISHINARI Katsuyoshi, FANG Yapeng
2020, 41(17):  35-44.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190819-197
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Proteins are easily self-assembled into different aggregates during thermal processing. The surface structure and rheological properties of different protein aggregates have significant effects on the stability and digestibility of emulsions stabilized by them. To explore the interfacial behavior of β-lactoglobulin aggregates, in this study, β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) aggregates, β-lg nanoparticle aggregates (β-lg NP) and β-lg fibrillar aggregates (β-lg F) were prepared by controlling the heating temperature and pH, and their morphology was evaluated. The adsorption kinetics and the displacement behavior of protein films by bile salts (BSs) at the oil (decane)/water interface were studied using particle tracking microrheology and interfacial dilatational rheology. The digestion characteristics of emulsions stabilized by these protein aggregates were studied using an in vitro digestion model. It was found that protein diffusion to the interface became faster and the interfacial viscoelasticity became stronger with increasing protein concentration. β-lg NP and β-lg F could be adsorbed faster than native β-lg onto the interface, forming interfacial films with higher elasticity. In the case of protein displacement, β-lg NP had the strongest ability to resist bile salt substitution, while native β-lg had the weakest ability, which was consistent with the results from in vitro digestion experiments.
Comparative Analysis of the Thermal Stability of Konjac Glucomannan Oligosaccharides and Prebiotic Fructooligosaccharides
YE Feng, TANG Hongchi, ZHANG Jianbao, HE Zhuxin, HE Zhengpeng, FAN Ruihong, LIN Lihua, GUO Yuan, LIU Jiangli, PANG Hao
2020, 41(17):  45-52.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190808-087
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The thermal stability characteristics of konjac glucomannan oligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides was tested with a thermogravimetric analyzer under different heating rates. The activation energy (E), pre-exponential factors (ln A), thermodynamic parameters and mechanism functions of the two oligosaccharides were calculated by Kissinger method, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) method and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method and the mechanism equations were determined. The results showed that the pyrolysis process of both oligosaccharides was divided into 3 stages, and the peak temperature of decomposition was 220–300 ℃ under the non-isothermal heating rate. The first stage is the process of oligosaccharides drying and dehydration. At the second stage, the E and ln A of fructooligosaccharides were greater than those of glucomannan oligosaccharides, showing that the former was depolymerized by heat to produce fructodisaccharide and fructotrisaccharide, which can rapidly crystallize leading to a high E. The mechanism function of glucomannan oligosaccharides followed the three-dimensional spherically symmetric diffusion Jander equation. At the third stage, the E and ln A of glucomannan oligosaccharides were higher, showing that the thermal stability was higher than that of fructooligosaccharides. The mechanism functions of both oligosaccharides followed the random nucleation and subsequent growth of Avrami-Erofeev equation. Finally, the thermodynamic parameters of the oligosaccharide pyrolysis process, namely ΔG, ΔH and ΔS, were determined. The obtained thermal stability of glucomannan oligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides provides a basis for the design of processing technology for foods and medicine.
Analysis of Antioxidant Activity of Blueberry Anthocyanins Using Density Functional Theory
WANG Lanjiao, LI Dajing, ZHANG Liangcong, CHAI Zhi, HE Weiwei, HUANG Wuyang, BAO Yihong, ZHANG Zhongyuan
2020, 41(17):  53-59.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190826-279
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High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) were used to analyze the anthocyanins in four different blueberry varieties. The antioxidant capacity of 13 anthocyanins was determined in vitro using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and the molecular structure parameters, active hydroxyl bond dissociation energy (BDE), ionization potential (IP) and semi-quinone free radical spin density distribution were calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) at the M062-x/6-311++G** level. Furthermore, the difference in the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins was evaluated among blueberry varieties. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity of anthocyanidin galactosides was higher than that of arabinoglycosides and glucosides originating from the same anthocyanindins. The antioxidant capacity of petunia-3-O-galactoside was found to be the strongest among the 13 anthocyanins, with BDE, IP and spin density of semi-quinone radical of only 251.21 kJ/mol, 484.51?kJ/mol, and 0.032 78, respectively. The theoretical calculation of antioxidant capacity was consistent with the results of antioxidant assay in vitro. In addition, the relationship between anthocyanin content in blueberry fruit and antioxidant capacity was analyzed. This study indicated that the DFT method provides a theoretical basis for studies on the antioxidant activity of blueberry anthocyanins.
Pseudophase Model Interpretation of the Antioxidant Efficiency of p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid and Its Alkyl Esters in Oil-in-Water Emulsion
HUANG Shirong, WAN Hui, YAN Sinian, CHEN Dongfang
2020, 41(17):  60-67.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190726-351
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Four p-hydroxybenzoic alkyl esters were synthesized by direct esterification reaction from p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HA) and a series of alkyl alcohols. The antioxidant efficiency of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its alkyl esters in aqueous methanol solution were determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The Schaal oven test was used to determine their antioxidant efficiency in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions with an oil/water volume ratio of 2:8. Results showed that p-hydroxybenzoic octyl esters had the highest antioxidant efficiency in aqueous methanol solution, and its DPPH radical scavenging capacity was 339.40 mmol Trolox/mol. In contrast, p-hydroxybenzoic butyl esters had the maximum antioxidant efficiency in rapeseed oil emulsions. In the case of the addition of p-hydroxybenzoic butyl esters to emulsions with an emulsifier concentration of 1%, the time needed to reach a conjugated diene value (CDV) of 1 and a p-anisidine value (p-AV) of 6 was 27.1 and 19.8 days, respectively. The distribution profiles of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its alkyl esters were obtained in the interfacial region of the emulsions by using the pseudophase kinetic model to interpret their antioxidant behaviors in the emulsions. Results showed that the antioxidant efficiency of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and its alkyl esters in the emulsions roughly correlated with their concentrations in the interfacial region.
Genetic Diversity of Carambola Germplasm Based on Fruit Quality
MA Xiaowei, SU Muqing, LI Dongliang, ZHENG Bin, ZOU Minghong
2020, 41(17):  68-74.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190801-006
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Twenty-one carambola germplasm accessions grown in the orchards of China’s South Subtropical Crops Research Institute were used in this study. Genetic diversity of fruit physical characteristics and 25 quality attributes including acid, sugar, and mineral nutrient contents was evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that there were significant differences among the carambola germplasm accessions in all measured factors, indicating abundant genetic diversity. The highest variation coefficient (CV) was found in tartaric acid (109.95%), followed by iron (104.78%), citric acid (79.07%) and total acid (73.54%) contents, while the lowest CV was observed in fruit length (9.97%) and soluble solids content (7.44%). A high correlation was found among some quality attributes. In addition, the results of PCA showed that more than 81.63% of the observed variability was explained by the first 6 principal components, and indicated that the variation in the fruit quality was multi-directional.
Isolation and Identification of Antifungal Substance Synthesized by Bacillus megaterium LB01 from Special Environment and Its Action Mechanism
DING Congwen, FENG Qun, LI Chunhuan
2020, 41(17):  75-82.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190802-030
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In order to isolate and identify highly bioactive compounds against anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in postharvest mangos and to investigate their mechanism of action, bioassay-guided fractionation was used to isolate antifungal substances from the fermented broth of Bacillus megaterium LB01 and the antifungal activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zone diameter using the disk diffusion test method. The results showed that four monomeric compounds were separated from the fermented broth, and only one monomer with strong antifungal activity, numbered 001, was obtained and identified as 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid (TA) by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C NMR analysis. Its mechanism of action was by inducing reactive oxygen production to cause mitochondrial damage, destroy the integrity of spore membrane, and finally significantly inhibit spore germination and mycelium growth. This study confirmed that TA can inhibit the anthracnose disease of postharvest mangos by directly inhibiting the mycelium growth and spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which will provide reference for controlling anthracnose disease in postharvest mangos.
Protective Effect of Polyphenols from Broad Bean on Peroxy Radical-Induced DNA Damage
LIN Lin, LU Yuehong, CHEN Youxia, LIU Zhenzhen, ZHAO Yiling, GAO Chunyan
2020, 41(17):  83-88.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190725-343
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The contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids in the seed coats and cotyledons of 10 varieties of broad beans were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method and sodium nitrite-aluminum chloride method, respectively. Besides, the polyphenolic extracts from seed coats and cotyledons were evaluated for their protective effect on DNA damage induced by peroxy radicals (ROO·). The results showed that the physical parameters of different broad bean varieties such as shape, 100-grain mass, color and density were different. The contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids in the seed coats and cotyledons were in the range of 1.30–2.67 and 0.08–0.23 mg/g, and 2.99–6.56 and 0.26–1.07 mg/g, being higher in the former than in the latter and showing significant differences among the different varieties. The percentage of supercoiled form for DNA treated with the polyphenolic extracts from seed coats and cotyledons ranged from 86.38% to 93.91% and 39.13% to 71.90%, respectively, indicating that the former exhibited higher protective activity against ROO· radical-induced DNA strand breakage than didthe latter.
Food Engineering
Fungicidal Effect of Glow Discharge Plasma on Fusarium sulphureum
DU Mingyuan, LONG Haitao, TIAN Lipeng, FU Guorui, BI Yang, PU Lumei
2020, 41(17):  89-96.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190828-312
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Objective: To study the fungicidal effect and influence of glow discharge plasma (GDP) on the spores of Fusarium sulphureum. Methods: The fungicidal effect of glow discharge plasma on the standard strain (BNCC 117681) of F. sulphureum was studied under different conditions. Then, Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effects of voltage, time and inter-electrode distance as well as interactions among them on the fungicidal efficiency, and the optimum levels of these parameters were determined. Finally, the effects of glow discharge plasma on the growth, membrane integrity and peroxidative damage of the fungus were studied. The results showed that voltage, time and inter-electrode distance were the significant factors affecting the fungicidal efficiency. Under the conditions of voltage 560 V, time 15 min, and inter-electrode distance 1.5 cm, the highest fungicidal efficiency of 92.73% was obtained. After the strain was treated with glow discharge plasma, the spore germination rate, colony diameter, fungal dry mass and ergosterol concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05); the relative conductivity, the leakage of macromolecular substances (protein and nucleic acid), the fluorescence staining intensity of propidium iodide and the concentration of malondialdehyde increased significantly (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the cell membrane was likely to be the main site for glow discharge plasma to attack F. sulphureum, causing damage to the cell membrane and consequently cell death. Conclusion: Glow discharge plasma has a significant fungicidal effect on F. sulphureum spores, which provides a theoretical basis for the application of this technique in the killing of pathogenic fungi in foods.
Effects of Chemical Components of Coconut Waters from Different Main Producing Countries and Pre-fermentation Treatment on Bacterial Cellulose Biosynthesis
LUO Jiaxi, FU Meijuan, ZHAO Bo, WU Yuwei, WANG Zhekui, DENG Jian, LI Congfa, LIU Sixin
2020, 41(17):  97-103.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200119-235
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Objective: To explore the differences in the chemical composition of coconut waters from different producing countries and compare the effects of raw material composition and pre-fermentation treatment on the biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose (BC) from coconut water. Methods: Raw material coconut waters from three representative producing countries, namely, Vietnam, Indonesia and China (Hainan) were selected for physical and chemical analysis. Coconut water was pre-fermented in natural environment and made into a culture medium, which was then inoculated with BC-producing strains to produce BC membrane. After cultivation, the biosynthesis efficiency of BC membrane was analyzed. Results: There were significant differences in the contents of amino acids, mineral elements, total sugars and total acids among the three raw coconut waters. The contents of all analyzed chemical components in Hainan fresh coconut water were relatively high. The difference in the biosynthesis efficiency of BC from the different fresh coconut waters was positively related to the difference in their chemical composition. However, there was a quite different relationship after pre-fermentation. The BC yield of Vietnamese factory pre-fermented coconut water was 17.6 g/L, which was significantly higher than that of its fresh counterpart (52 times) and Hainan factory pre-fermented coconut water (3 times) (P < 0.05). Coconut water in the early stage of pre-fermentation was more beneficial to BC biosynthesis than in the late stage. These results showed that the natural components of coconut water were not the main cause of the significant difference in BC yield, while the pretreatment factors such as pre-fermentation environment and time contributed the most to increasing the yield of BC. Conclusion: This study provides reference for further biological understanding of the pre-fermentation process and research on the regulatory mechanism by which it greatly promote the biosynthesis of BC.
Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Freezing on Emulsifying Stability of Myofibrillar Protein from Chicken Breast
ZHANG Chao, WU Yutong, KONG Baohua
2020, 41(17):  104-110.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190817-189
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different freezing methods on the emulsifying stability of myofibrillar protein. The changing trends of solubility, turbidity, particle size, Zeta potential and emulsifying activity index of chicken breast myofibrillar protein were measured after air freezing, immersion freezing and ultrasound-assisted immersion freezing at different ultrasound powers (125, 165, 205 and 245 W). The results showed that the emulsifying stability of myofibrillar protein with an appropriate ultrasound power (165 W) was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P < 0.05), as indicated by higher solubility and emulsifying activity index, and lower Zeta potential, turbidity, surface area average particle size D32 and volume average particle size D43. However, excessively high ultrasound power (245 W) could cause the aggregation and denaturation of the protein, consequently leading to its reduced emulsifying stability. These results indicated that ultrasound-assisted freezing with an appropriate power (165 W) can maintain the emulsifying stability of frozen chicken breast myofibrillar protein, which will provide a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasound-assisted freezing in meat products.
Impact of Heat Moisture Treatment on the Aggregation Structure and Pasting Behavior of Adlay Starch
WANG Hongwei, DING Jiangtao, ZHANG Yanyan, LIU Xingli, ZHANG Hua
2020, 41(17):  111-117.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190802-036
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In order to study the impact of heat moisture treatment (HMT) on the aggregation structure and pasting behavior of adlay starch, starch extracted from adlay seeds was adjusted to moderate moisture content (20%, 25% and 30%) and then subjected to HMT at 110 ℃ for 4 h. The effects of HMT on the granular structure, crystalline structure, short-range ordered structure and molecular ordered structure were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), Raman spectrometer and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Furthermore, the pasting parameters of HMT treated starch including pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown and setback values were recorded, and the relationship between their aggregation structure and pasting behavior was constructed. It was revealed that during HMT thermal energy and water molecules could synergistically induce damage to the aggregation structure of adlay starch, causing pits and pores on the surface of starch granules or even their rupture, reduce relative crystallinity, decrease the ordered degree of short-range ordered molecular structure and unravel double helices, thus resulting in a reduction in swelling power and peak viscosity. Meanwhile, HMT could enhance the interaction between starch chains and lead to rearrangement and reorientation of the molecular ordered structure, improved double-helical structure and microcrystaline structure and starch granule aggregation. All these structural changes promoted an increase in onset pasting temperature and a decrease in breakdown and setback values. These results indicated that adlay starch treated with HMT possessed lower viscosity and higher stability to both low and high temperatures, thereby showing excellent application potentials for the food industry.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Metabolomics Study of the Effect of Peptide from Naked Oat Globulin on D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mice
FU Yuan, ZHANG Meili, GAO Shaohui, ZHANG Yu
2020, 41(17):  118-125.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190901-004
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To investigate the mechanism of the antioxidant action of a peptide from naked oat globulin (PNOG) in D-galactose (D-gal) aging mice, plasma metabolomic fingerprinting of the control, aging model and PNOG-treated mice was performed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS/MS). The potential biomarkers for the intervention effect of PNOG on aging mice and the related metabolic pathways were determined by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) combined with variable importance in the projection (VIP) and nonparametric test. The results showed that 17 potential biomarkers in the brain of PNOG-treated mice were identified, including glycerophosphocholine, acetylcarnitine, L-carnitine, adenosine monophosphate, uric acid, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate. The PNOG could regulate 6 metabolic pathways in which the 17 potential biomarkers were involved in aging mice, namely glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, purine metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction; and could restore them to the normal level, thereby ameliorating metabolic disorders in aging mice. These results showed the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of PNOG, which would provide reference for further studies on the antioxidant mechanism of naked oat protein-derived peptides.
Glycemic Index of Low Gluten Rice in Beagle Dogs
CHEN Xu, CHEN Xuan, YANG Jiong, ZHOU Shaowen, WANG Shaoyun
2020, 41(17):  126-132.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190719-258
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative glycemic index of low gluten rice (W0868) in healthy adult Beagle dogs and to comparatively and quantitatively evaluate the effect of W0868 on postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, so as to provide a theoretical reference for the application and further studies of low gluten rice. Methods: The postprandial blood glucose concentration was measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer, and the postprandial insulin content of serum was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The results showed that the total cumulative effect of W0868 on increasing the blood glucose level of Beagle dogs was lower than that of the control diet, especially at postprandial 1 hour. In addition, according to the definition of glycemic index, the geometric mean value of relative glycemic index of W0868 compared with the control diet was calculated as 59.33% with a 90% confidence interval of 42.56%–82.72% using the area under the plasma glucose curve for 0–120 min after baseline correction. Therefore, it can be considered that the rate and degree of increase in blood glucose of the animals fed with W0868 was 40.67% lower than that with the control diet under the same standard single ration feeding regimen. Therefore, the postprandial glycemic index of W0868 is low in Beagle dogs and it can result in smooth postprandial glycemic fluctuations.
Antioxidant, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Extracellular Polysaccharide of Nostoc flagelliforme under Salt Stress
CHANG Xiangna, CHEN Xuefeng, GONG Pin, YANG Wenjuan, WANG Lan, YUAN Xia, LIU Ning
2020, 41(17):  133-138.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190810-113
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The antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracellular polysaccharide from Nostoc flagelliforme cultured in a liquid medium with 0.3 mol/L NaCl were studied. The in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by determining the scavenging capacity against hydroxyl radical (·OH), superoxide anion radical (O2-·) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The mouse warm-water tail-flick test was used to study the analgesic effect of subcutaneous versus intraperitoneal administration of the extracellular polysaccharide. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed by observing the inhibition of dimethylbenzene-induced ear edema in mice. The results showed that the scavenging capacities against ·OH, O2-· and DPPH radical of the extracellular polysaccharide produced under salt stress were higher than those in the absence of salt stress. In addition, the former had a stronger analgesic activity than did the latter with a significant higher pain threshold (P < 0.05). The extracellular polysaccharide was absorbed faster when administered subcutaneously?than when administered?intraperitoneally, and the efficacy of subcutaneous injection reached its peak at 30 min, whereas the efficacy of intraperitoneal injection reached its peak at 20 min. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracellular polysaccharide produced under salt stress was stronger and in a dose-dependent manner, and it at a high dose (30 mg/kg mb) showed the best anti-inflammatory effect.
Effect of Astaxanthin on Lipid Metabolism in HepG2 Cells and in C57BL/6J Mice Fed with High-Fat Diet
DIAO Cuiru, WANG Jing, YAN Yong, LIU Dong, ZHANG Xiaohan, WANG Hao
2020, 41(17):  139-144.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190802-045
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This study aims to evaluate the effects of astaxanthin on lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid and in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat diet. A HepG2 cell model of oleic acid-induced steatosis in vitro was established. Furthermore, cellular lipid accumulation was determined using Oil red O staining assay and cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) contents were determined in the normal, model and astaxanthin treatment groups. Serum total TC, TG and high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) of mice in the normal diet, high-fat and astaxanthin intervention groups were detected as well. Liver histomorphology was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The mRNA expression levels of the genes related to lipid regulation were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The fecal excretion of short chain fatty acids was detected by gas chromatography (GC). Astaxanthin could significantly alleviate oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells, and cellular TC and TG contents decreased significantly in the astaxanthin intervention group compared with the model group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SREBP-1C and FAS mRNA expression levels were significantly down-regulated in the astaxanthin intervention group, the degree of steatosis in the astaxanthin intervention group was significantly decreased and the content of total short-chain fatty acids increased significantly, and serum TG and TC levels decreased significantly relative to those in the high-fat diet group (P < 0.05). Therefore, Astaxanthin can regulate lipid metabolism by reducing the content of lipid droplets in HepG2 cells, and by regulating blood lipid levels, increasing the content of short-chain fatty acids in feces, improving liver pathology, and regulating the expression of the genes related to lipid synthesis in the liver of mice.
Degradation of Sialoglycoprotein from Carassius auratus Eggs by Simulated Gastrointestinal Tract in Vitro
WANG Ting, TIAN Yingying, LI Xuejing, WANG Fei, WANG Jingfeng
2020, 41(17):  145-152.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191009-053
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Sialoglycoprotein from Carassius auratus eggs (Ca-SGP) is a novel sialic acid glycoprotein which has the functions of improving bone metabolism and regulating immunity. However, as a large molecular mass substance (195.35 kDa), how Ca-SGP is digested and absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract is yet not clear. This paper aims to study the degradation of Ca-SGP by simulated gastrointestinal fluids and colonic intestinal flora, which is expected to provide theoretical support for further exploration of the mechanism of action of Ca-SGP in vivo. The degradation of Ca-SGP by simulated gastrointestinal fluid and intestinal flora in vitro was evaluated by detecting the molecular mass, pH, sialic acid content and reducing sugar content at different stages of digestion. The results showed that the molecular mass of Ca-SGP decreased, the content of sialic acid declined and the content of reducing sugar increased after gastrointestinal digestion, which indicated that the simulated gastrointestinal fluids can degrade Ca-SGP, and the gastrointestinal digestive enzymes can cause the active factor sialic acid to fall off the end of the Ca-SGP sugar chain. The molecular mass of Ca-SGP and the reducing sugar content were reduced after fermentation by the intestinal bacteria, indicating that Ca-SGP can be continuously fermented and utilized by microorganisms, and the pH gradually decreased as fermentation proceeded, which may be related to the production of acidic substances such as short-chain fatty acids. Hence, the simulated gastrointestinal fluids can degrade Ca-SGP, and the intestinal microflora can further degrade it and utilize its degradation products.
Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Powder on Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Function in Obese Rats
LIU Yaoyao, LI Lu, LIU Tingting, ZHANG Shanshan, XUN Yiping, ZHU Hong, WANG Shijie, BIAN Yanqing, ZHAO Baohua
2020, 41(17):  153-160.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191015-131
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Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum powder on intestinal mucosal barrier function in obese rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into normal control group and high-fat diet (HFD) group, which were fed on a normal feed and a high-fat diet, respectively. After 5 weeks of feeding, the obese rats were randomly assigned into obese model, and high-, medium- and low-dose Lactobacillus plantarum powder intervention groups. The rats from the intervention groups were given Lactobacillus plantarum powder suspended in physiological saline, while those from the other groups were intragastrically administered with normal saline once a day. The body masses and body fat percentages of all rats were measured after 8 weeks of intervention. The contents of serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-lactic acid (D-LA) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The morphology of small intestine was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression of zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), Occludin and Claudin-1 in the small intestine of the rats from each group. Results: low-dose Lactobacillus plantarum powder could significantly reduce the HFD-induced increase in body mass and body fat percentage (P < 0.05). Besides, low-dose bacterial powder intervention could also reduce serum LPS and D-LA levels in HFD-fed rats (P < 0.05), and alleviate intestinal mucosal damage caused by the high-fat diet. Low-dose bacterial powder intervention increased the expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 (P < 0.01), Occludin and Claudin-1 (P < 0.05) in the rat small intestine. Conclusion: Low-dose Lactobacillus plantarum powder intervention can protect the intestinal barrier function by up-regulating the expression levels of intestinal tight junction proteins ZO-1, Occludin and Claudin-1 in obese rats.
Effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin on Thyroid Hormone Homeostasis in Obese Mice
LI Siyuan, NING Junli, DING Xiaowen, HUANG Xianzhi
2020, 41(17):  161-168.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190823-250
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Thyroid hormone plays a very important role in regulating lipid metabolism. This study explored the effect of obesity on thyroid hormone homeostasis in mice and the influence of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) intervention on this effect. An obese mouse model was established by feeding a high-fat diet, and then DNJ at doses of 8.0, 4.0 and 2.0 mg/(kg mb·d) was administered to the obese mice for 45 days, and serum lipid levels and thyroid hormone related indicators were determined at 5 d intervals during this period. The results showed that compared with the obese control group, high-dose DNJ could significantly alleviate body mass gain and improve dyslipidemia caused by the high-fat diet in female and male mice, as well as increase total thyroxine (TT4) levels by 22.03% and 15.99% (P < 0.05), total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels by 66.86% and 47.79% (P < 0.05), decrease thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels by 9.65% and 9.73% (P < 0.05), increase the activity of liver type 1 deiodinase (DIO1) by 40.99% and 24.40% (P < 0.05) and DIO1 protein levels by 35.68% and 29.50% (P < 0.05), and increase protein levels of liver thyroid hormone receptor β by 37.53% and 27.81% (P < 0.05) in female and male mice, respectively; and it could also significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression of liver DIO1, thyroid hormone receptor β, and the lipid metabolism-related thyroid hormone target genes encoding adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT1α) and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). In conclusion, DNJ can improve thyroid hormone homeostasis, up-regulate the mRNA expression of the lipid metabolism-related thyroid hormone target genes, and consequently promote lipid catabolism and inhibit body mass gain.
Epidemiological Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Collected during Yak Slaughter
QU Yun, TONG Yao, TAN Yongping, ZHAO Yanying, TANG Junni
2020, 41(17):  169-175.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190730-407
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To study the epidemiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from yak slaughterhouses, 150 biological samples were collected from a yak slaughterhouse in Chengdu. Strains suspected of being S. aureus were isolated using Baird-Parker medium and the ones carrying the heat-resistant nuclease gene (nuc) unique to S. aureus were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The S. aureus strains were examined for whether they carried 21 enterotoxin genes, 6 virulence genes, 4 disinfectant resistance genes, or 14 drug resistance genes. The susceptibility of the S. aureus isolates to 24 antibiotics was detected by disk diffusion method. The results showed that 67 S. aureus strains were isolated and identified from the 150 samples with a detection rate of 44.67%. The detection rate was relatively high in carcass and environmental swab samples, 56.67% and 51.61%, respectively. A total of 12 enterotoxin genes were detected in the isolates, among which the carrying rates of selx, seu and sej genes were high. We also confirmed the presence of the virulence genes (hlα, hlβ, eta, etb, pvl, and tsst-1), the disinfectant resistance genes (qacA/B, qacG, and qacH), and 11 drug-resistant genes. Eleven positive bands were found for antibiotic resistance genes. Notably, the detection rate of the methicillin-resistant gene (mecA) was 62.69%, and the detection rates of the aminoglycoside-resistant gene (aac6’/aph2’) and the macrolide-resistant gene (erm) were high. Most of the 67 isolates had multi-drug resistance. The epidemiological characteristics of S. aureus during the slaughter process of yaks demonstrated contamination with multi-drug resistant S. aureus with carrying virulence genes, which may pose potential threats to consumers’ health through the food chain. This study provides reference for evaluating the risk of S. aureus contamination during yak slaughter.
Protective Effect of Mung Bean Protein Hydrolysate on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
DIAO Jingjing, LIU Yanbing, LI Zhaoyang, YU Di, ZUO Feng, ZHANG Liping
2020, 41(17):  176-181.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190822-232
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This investigation aims to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of mung bean protein hydrolysate (MBPH). A mouse model of acute lung injury (ALI) was constructed by intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the anti-inflammatory of MBPH was evaluated by assessing pulmonary histopathological changes, the ratio between wet mass and dry mass, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and cytokine concentrations, protein concentration and neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The results showed that MBPH relieved lung injury in a dose-dependent manner, reduced the wet/dry mass ratio and MPO activity of lung tissue, and decreased the concentrations of proteins, pro-inflammatory cytokines and neutrophils in BALF. The anti-inflammatory effect of high-dose MBPH was similar to that of dexamethasone when administered at a dose of 5 mg/(kg mb · d). The above findings indicated that MBPH has an anti-inflammatory effect, which can exert its protective effect on ALI by reducing pulmonary edema and pulmonary microvascular leakage, improving the pathological changes of lung tissue, reducing neutrophil infiltration in BALF, and inhibiting the secretion of cytokines by inflammatory cells.
Effect of Crude Alkaloids from Mulberry Leaves on Improving D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Protein Damage in Mice
YANG Zhongmin, SHEN Yihong, HUANG Xianzhi, WANG Zuwen, DING Xiaowen
2020, 41(17):  182-187.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190731-430
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Objective: To explore the effect of alkaloids from mulberry leaves on improving oxidative protein damage in mice and the underlying mechanism for the purpose of providing a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of alkaloids from mulberry leaves. Methods: A mouse model of oxidative damage was induced by D-galactose (D-Gal) and administered with different doses of mulberry leaf alkaloids. At the end of the 8th week, the contents of protein carbonyl (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), and the enzyme activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in plasma were measured. The mRNA expression of SOD, GSH-Px, NQO1, nuclear erythroid related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) in liver tissues were also detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results: Compared with the model control group, the plasma PCO, AOPP and 3-NT levels of mice decreased by 36.43%, 61.81% and 58.13%, respectively after intragastric administration of high-dose mulberry leaf alkaloids (200 mg/kg mb) (P < 0.01). However, the activity of SOD, GSH-Px and NQO1 in plasma increased by 48.89%, 167.17% and 85.12% (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, high-dose mulberry leaf alkaloids also increased the mRNA expression of SOD1, SOD2, GSH-Px, NQO1 and Nrf2 in the liver by 96.96%, 94.26%, 116.71%, 101.51% and 63.01%, respectively (P < 0.01), but decreased the mRNA level of Keap1 by 33.54% (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Mulberry leaf alkaloids have a protective effect on D-Gal-induced oxidative protein damage in mice via adjusting Keap1/Nrf2 signal pathway.
Anti-infective Activity of Lipoic Acid against Cronobacter sakazakii
GUO Du, ZHAO Yuyang, WANG Ruixia, WANG Shuo, XIA Xiaodong, SHI Chao
2020, 41(17):  188-195.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190610-090
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Lipoic acid (LA) is a class of natural vitamin-like compounds widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. This study investigated the effects of LA on the swimming and swarming motility and biofilm-forming capacity of Cronobacter sakazakii and its ability to adhere and invade the host cells as well as to survive and replicate in macrophages. The results showed that LA could effectively inhibit C. sakazakii with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 5.00 mg/mL for three standard strains and three isolated strains, and sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (SIC) of 30 and 60 μg/mL for C. sakazakii ATCC 29544. The SICs of LA inhibited the swimming and swarming motility and biofilm-forming capacity of C. sakazakii, and its ability to adhere and invade Caco-2 cells. In addition, the ability to survival and replicate in mouse macrophages RAW 264.7 was suppressed by LA at SICs. These findings suggest that LA can effectively inhibit the growth of C. sakazakii and significantly reduce its infection ability. LA has the potential to act as a dietary supplement to prevent or control foodborne diseases associated with C. sakazakii.
Kiwifruit Peel Polyphenols Regulate Lipid Metabolism Disorders Induced by a High Fat Diet in Rats
SU Tianxia, YUAN Minlan, ZHOU Yan, SUN Xiaohong, ZHANG Qinghai
2020, 41(17):  196-201.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191014-124
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Objective: To investigate the effect of kiwifruit peel polyphenols on lipid metabolism in rats fed on high fat diet and its underlying mechanism. Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control (NC), high fat diet (HF), and low-dose (LKP), middle-dose (MKP), and high-dose kiwifruit polyphenols (HKP) groups. At the end of the 9-week feeding period, all rats were sacrificed. The liver index, fat index, mesenteric fat mass, abdominal fat mass, and epididymal and perirenal fat pad mass, and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and free fatty acids (FFA) were examined. The mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl CoA-carboxylase (ACC), carnitine palmityl transferase 1 (CPT-1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR-α) genes in liver were assayed. Results: Compared with the HF group, the liver index in all intervention groups and the fat index in the MKP and HKP groups were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The masses of mesenteric fat and epididymal and perirenal fat pads in the MKP and HKP groups were significantly lower than those in the HF group (P < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in abdominal fat mass. Serum TG and LDL-C were significantly decreased in each intervention group (P < 0.05). In the MKP and HKP groups, TC and FFA were decreased significantly whereas HDL-C was increased significantly (P < 0.05). The expression of fat synthesis-related genes (ACC and FAS) was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05), while the expression of fat decomposition-related gene (CPT-1) was significantly upregulated in all intervention groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of PPAR-α in the MKP and HKP groups was also significantly upregulated (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Kiwifruit peel polyphenols can alleviate lipid metabolism disorder caused by high fat diet. The underlying mechanism is related to the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in the liver and the promotion of oxidative decomposition of fatty acids.
Effects of Mulberry Leaf Alkaloids on Antioxidant Capacity and Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Mice with Hepatic Fibrosis
WANG Zuwen, SHEN Yihong, HUANG Xianzhi, DING Xiaowen
2020, 41(17):  202-207.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190903-023
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Objective: To investigate whether mulberry leaf alkaloids can improve hepatic fibrosis by influencing the antioxidant defense indicators and inflammatory cytokines in mice for the purpose of providing a theoretical rationale for the scientific utilization of mulberry leaves. Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 10% CCl4 in olive oil at a dose of 5 mL/kg mb every other day combined with a high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. The mice in the control group were injected with an equal volume of olive oil without CCl4 and treated with a normal diet. After successful model establishment, the mice were intragastrically treated with mulberry leaf alkaloids at 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg mb or a positive drug (100 mg/kg mb silibinin) for 45 days, while those in the control and model groups received an equal volume of distilled water. Results: Compared the control group, the mice from the model group showed hepatic damage as evidenced by histological changes and an elevation in oxidative stress and inflammation levels. These pathophysiological changes were attenuated by mulberry leaf alkaloids at each dose. Compared with the model group, 200 mg/kg?mb mulberry leaf alkaloids significantly decreased the contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and hydroxyproline (HYP) in liver and the plasma concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) by 53.85%, 41.67%, 28.81% and 33.60%, respectively (P < 0.05); increased the plasma levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) by 136.83%, 45.14% and 78.13%, respectively (P < 0.05); and reduced the plasma levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 by 9.96%, 11.06% and 10.02%, respectively (P < 0.05). These results were consistent with the Masson staining results. Conclusion: Mulberry leaf alkaloids can improve hepatic fibrosis possibly associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Luteolin and Its Flavone Glycosides
WANG Wei, HE Ping, JIANG Xiaoming
2020, 41(17):  208-215.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190908-103
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The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of luteolin, cynaroside, orientin and homoorientin were explored on THP-1 cells. The expression of cytokines in the cells pretreated with each of the four flavonoids were analyzed by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western Blot, and the expression of IκB kinase β (IKKβ), α inhibitor of κB (IκBα), NF-κB P65, nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) enzyme were also analyzed. It was found that the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were extremely significantly inhibited by each of the four flavonoids (P < 0.01). Orientin also inhibited the expression of IL-1β (P < 0.01). These four flavonoids significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of IKKβ and IκBα in inflammatory cells, and the three luteolin glycosides also reduced the content of P65 in the nuclei, thereby exerting their anti-inflammatory effects through the NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, orientin extremely significantly promoted the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in inflammatory cells (P < 0.01), which resulted in a lower expression of HO-1 (P < 0.01) and a lower level of oxidative stress. In conclusion, luteolin and its three derivatives are effective against inflammation. In particular, orientin can down-regulate the expression of the NF-κB signaling pathway-related proteins IKKβ, IκBα and P65, thereby exerting its strong anti-inflammatory activity by significantly reducing the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Furthermore, by promoting Nrf2 expression and nuclear translocation, orientin can exert a good antioxidant effect, leading to a low level of HO-1 expression.
Packaging & Storage
Properties of Antimicrobial Polylactic Acid-Based Film and Its Effect on Cherry Quality Preservation
LI Yangyang, SONG Wenlong, GAO Haiyan, LI Li
2020, 41(17):  216-222.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190808-094
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Three biodegradable packaging films were prepared by a casting method using polylactic acid/poly-3-hydroxybut-yrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate (PLA/P34HB) as the substrate and diatomite loaded with peppermint essential oil as the sustained release antibacterial, namely PLA/P34HB, peppermint essential oil-PLA/P34HB, and peppermint essential oil-diatomite-PLA/P34HB films, and their performance was tested. Furthermore, their efficiency in preserving the quality of ‘Meizao’ sweet cherries was explored by measuring gas composition inside the packages and mass loss percentage during storage at (4 ± 1) ℃ as well as analyzing the water status of sweet cherries using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Unpackaged samples were used as control for comparison. The results showed that the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the film with diatomite loaded with peppermint essential oil was 290.45 cm3/(m2·d·0.1 MPa), higher than that of PLA/P34HB film, 250.37 cm3/(m2·d·0.1 MPa). The improvement in OTR was beneficial to maintain the quality of cherries. LF-NMR analysis showed that the peppermint essential oil-diatomite-PLA/P34HB film maintained the water activity of cherries well. On day 12 of storage, the peak area percentage of bound water was about 2 times as high as that of the control group, which indicates delaying fruit spoilage and prolonging shelf life.
Inhibition of ε-Poly-lysine on Dominant Spoilage Bacteria in Grass Carp and Its Effect on Microbial Diversity during Cold Storage
HOU Wenfu, YUE Qiqi, HAN Qianhui, WANG Hongxun, ZHOU Min, MIN Ting, PAN Siyi
2020, 41(17):  223-230.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191021-211
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The present study investigated the effect of ε-poly-lysine (ε-PL) pretreatment on spoilage bacteria growth in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets under refrigerated storage as well as on its microbial diversity using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technique. Results showed that 1.0 mg/mL ε-PL could inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas sp., Shewanella sp. and Aeromonas sp., which were isolated and identified as the dominant spoilage bacteria from grass carp fillets. A total of 858 964 bacterial sequences targeting the V3–V4 region of 16S rRNA and 388 different genera belonging to 28 phyla were observed by high-throughput sequencing. The microbial diversity of both control and ε-PL pretreated groups decreased as the storage time increased. Pseudomonas sp. was the absolute dominant spoilage bacterium in fresh grass carp fillets. ε-PL pretreatment affected both the microbial diversity and abundance. Notably, it had a very significant influence on Flavobacterium in fresh grass carp fillets (P < 0.01), and a significant influence on Pseudomonas in 6-day-stored samples (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ε-PL presents a high performance in inhibiting the growth of fish spoilage bacteria and can lead to changes in the structure of the microbiome in grass carp fillets, which supports its application in fresh fish preservation.
Effects of Different Storage Conditions on the Flavor and Overall Quality of Superfine Fragrant Peanut Oil
DENG Jinliang, LIU Yulan, WANG Xiaolei, CHEN Ning, SONG Lili
2020, 41(17):  231-237.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190824-252
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To shed light on the effects of different storage conditions on the flavor and overall quality of peanut oil, superfine fragrant peanut oil contained in stainless steel oil tanks under normal conditions, with the addition of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) or in a nitrogen atmosphere was sampled periodically during 18 months of storage in the natural outdoor environment for quantitative analysis of volatile flavor compounds by headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), flavor evaluation by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and measurement of acid value, peroxide value, vitamin E content and physterol content. The results showed that 64 volatile flavor compounds belonging to 9 chemical classes were isolated and identified in superfine fragrant peanut oil with pyrazines and aldehydes accounting for more than half of the total amount, and both volatile flavor compounds constituted the basic flavor of superfine fragrant peanut oil including nutty, roasted, and sweet aromas. After 18 months of storage, the relative content of pyrazines decreased from 36.42% to 16.33%, 21.92% and 27.02% under normal conditions, with the addition of TBHQ, and in the nitrogen atmosphere respectively, whereas the relative content of aldehydes increased from 23.82% to 24.61%, 2.26% and 17.52%, respectively. The nutty, roasted, and sweet aromas and the overall flavor were obviously weakened, and the oil became rancid. Added TBHQ and nitrogen atmosphere storage could effectively delay the loss of the characteristic flavor compounds, vitamin E and physterols in peanut oil, and extend the shelf life to more than 18 and 10 months, respectively, but in peanut oil with added TBHQ, 2-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone was detected as its oxidative decomposition product after storage. Therefore, nitrogen atmosphere storage can not only avoid the pollution of oils by added antioxidants, but also can achieve the purpose of quality and freshness preservation.
Effect of Combined UV-C and Red Light Emitting Diode Irradiation on Storage Quality of Broccoli
LIU Zesong, SHI Junyan, ZUO Jinhua, GAO Lipu, WANG Qing, MENG Demei
2020, 41(17):  238-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190805-052
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In this study, 3 kJ/m2 ultraviolet-C (UV-C) and 50 μmol/(m2·s) red light emitting diode (LED) irradiation were used separately or in combination to treat postharvest broccoli, which was subsequently stored at (20 ± 1) ℃. Changes in its appearance and physiological characteristics were observed to evaluate the effect of this combined treatment on the storage quality of broccoli. The experimental results showed that combined UV-C and red LED irradiation could effectively maintain the sensory quality, inhibit mass loss and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, delay the decrease in chlorophyll and vitamin C content, and enhance the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and aseorbate peroxidase (APX) compared with UV-C, daylight and red LED irradiation. Thus, combined UV-C and red LED irradiation can effectively maintain the quality and prolong the shelf life of broccoli.
Analysis of Bacterial Community Diversity of Soft-Boiled Chicken by High-Throughput Sequencing
SONG Xiangyu, LI Ming, WANG Huhu, XU Xinglian, CAI Linlin
2020, 41(17):  246-252.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190822-230
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Objective: To analyze the effects of packaging methods and storage temperature on the microbial flora structure in soft-boiled chicken. Methods: Three packaging methods were used in this experiment: tray packaging (AP), 100% N2 (MN) packaging, and 30% CO2/70% N2 (MC) packaging. Soft-boiled chickens were packaged and stored at 4 or 12 ℃. Samples were taken during the middle and late stages of storage. The V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA was sequenced by using Illumina MiSeq high-throughput technology. The results showed that a total of 2 216 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at 97% similarity level, and all these OTUs belonged to the bacterial domain, including 5 phyla and 40 genera. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla in all groups, and their relative abundance was 96.93% on average. The dominant bacteria in the AP group at the late stage at either storage temperature were Pseudomonas, significantly different from those in the MN and MC groups. The dominant bacteria in the MC and MN groups were Brochothrix and Serratia at 4 ℃, and Enterobactriaceae and Kluyvera was also observed at 12 ℃. Conclusion: There were significant differences in the dominant microorganisms, microbial diversity, abundance and proportions of soft-boiled chicken with different packaging methods and storage temperatures. This study provides a theoretical basis for delaying the spoilage of soft-boiled chicken during storage.
Preparation and Packaging Properties of Soybean Protein Isolate/Cellulose Nanofiber/Ferulic Acid Composite Film
LI Tong, ZHANG Hong, ZHAO Xiaotong, ZHANG Yinglong, ZHANG Huajiang, XIA Ning, LIU Chunzhe, SUN Duowen
2020, 41(17):  253-260.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190820-205
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Soybe protein isolate (SPI) /cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/ferulic acid (FA) composite films were prepared with different compositions and evaluated for tensile strength, elongation at break, water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, moisture absorption capacity, transmittance, contact angle and antibacterial efficacy. The results showed that the performance of the composite film with the addition of 20.0 g of CNF and 0.4 g of FA was the best. Compared with pure SPI film, the tensile strength and contact angle of the composite film increased by 116.19% and 127.21%, and the moisture absorption was also improved. The elongation at break, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability decreased by 59.76%, 90.91% and 77.55%, respectively and the transmittance also decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that cross-linking with FA made the molecular structure of the protein denser, and strengthened the interaction between the CNF and protein molecules, imparting smother surfaces and flatter cross-sections to the composite film. The addition of FA could also increase the antibacterial effect of the composite film. This study will provide a technical reference for further research on soybean protein films and expand its application range.
Relationship between Mass Loss Percentage of Fresh Goji Berries and Either Storage Time or Texture Parameters
CHENG Xiaoyan, GE Xiangzhen, XUE Huali, BI Yang
2020, 41(17):  261-266.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200410-138
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Objective: To analyze the pattern of change in mass loss percentage and its relationship with texture parameters of fresh goji berries during storage at ambient temperature. Methods: The mass loss percentage was plotted against storage time as a scatter diagram to develop a model describing the relationship between them. Through correlation analysis, the texture parameters that are significantly related to the mass loss rate were found out, and then the ones with the most significant influence on the mass loss percentage were selected by the stepwise regression method. The main texture parameters associated with mass loss percentages lower or higher than the threshold were analyzed by response surface ridge analysis method. Results: The mass loss percentage of fresh goji berries increased with storage time, which was fitted with the exponential regression model: y = 0.023 19exp (x/2.696 25) - 0.026 68. The mass loss percentage (y) had a significantly negative correlation with brittleness (x1), chewiness (x2) and resilience (x3) (P < 0.01), and a significantly positive correlation with adhesiveness (x4) (P < 0.01). The following stepwise regression equation was established: y = 0.445?3 - 0.014?93x1 - 1.224?5x3+0.114?8x4. The results of response surface ridge analysis showed that the change in brittleness and adhesion was not obvious, while resilience increased sharply with decreasing mass loss percentage from 2.55%. As the mass loss percentage increased from 56.67%, with the increase of mass loss rate, the change in brittleness and resilience was not significant, while adhesiveness increased significantly. Conclusion: The mass loss percentage of fresh goji berries exponentially increased during ambient storage, which could mainly affect brittleness, resilience and adhesiveness. The established mathematical model in this study can provide a theoretical basis for the prediction of postharvest storage life and texture changes of fresh goji berries.
Reviews
Recent Advances in Patulin Biosynthesis and Its Molecular Regulation
WANG Yanling, GUO Xiaojie, ZHANG Wenwei, SHANG Minmin, ZONG Yuanyuan, BI Yang
2020, 41(17):  267-274.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190820-212
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Patulin (PAT) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by filamentous fungi such as Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys, which poses a serious threat to human health. This article describes the patulin biosynthesis pathway, and its related genes and encoded enzymes as well as molecular regulation. Biosynthesis of PAT is determined by the patulin gene cluster (Pat) including 15 genes (PatA through PatO), which encodes catalytic enzymes, transcription factors and transporters involved in the biosynthesis pathway. The reaction starts from one molecule of acetyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA to synthesize 6-methylsalicylic acid, which is decarboxylated and hydroxylated into gentisaldehyde, and then converted into isoepoxydon, phyllodin, E-ascladiol, and eventually patulin by a series of reactions. The biosynthetic pathway is not only regulated by the key genes encoding the catalytic enzymes, the specific transcriptional regulator (PatL), the global regulatory factors (LaeA, CreA and AreA), the pH-dependent regulatory factor (PacC), and the light regulatory factors (VeA and VelB), but also influenced by host factors. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis for the control and removal of patulin in cereals, vegetables, fruits and their products.
Advances in Immunoregulation Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide and/or Polyporus umbellatus Polysaccharide
HUANG Qing, LI Liyuan, LIU Qingqing, WANG Zhao
2020, 41(17):  275-282.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190813-149
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Polysaccharide is a kind of natural macromolecule that is polymerized from many monosaccharide molecules. Edible mushroom polysaccharide is a member of the polysaccharide family. As a natural compound, edible mushroom polysaccharide shows great promise in the research and development of foods, medicine and health care products. Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus are valuable edible and medicinal mushrooms, which have great flavor and high nutritional value. Both of them have a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as anti-tumor, immunoregulation, and antioxidant effect. Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus contain many bioactive ingredients, separately. Among them, polysaccharides play an important role in immune regulation by acting on a variety of immune cells, thereby regulating the immune function of the body. Modern pharmacological studies have found that a combination of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide and Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide is able to enhance the immune function of mice. In this paper, we will briefly describe the characteristics of polysaccharides, and summarize the immunoregulatory functions and mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide and Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide in order to guide future studies in this area.
Review on the Protective Effects of Food-Derived Natural Compounds on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury
QU Hang, GAO Xin, YI Juanjuan, WANG Zhenyu
2020, 41(17):  283-290.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190920-262
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Alcohol-induced liver injury (AILI) is a clinically common type of liver injury that is mainly caused by long-term excessive intake of alcohol. Sustained or severe alcohol liver injury can cause pathological changes to liver tissues, which may develop into fatty liver, hepatitis, cirrhosis, or even liver cancer. AILI has become one of the major global public health concerns. Therefore, how to effectively protect against AILI is gradually becoming the focus of research in the fields of medicine and functional foods. In recent years, natural compounds with the advantages of low side effects and multiple pathways of action and targets have attracted considerable attention. A variety of food-derived natural compounds have been reported for their hepatoprotective activities against AILI. In this article, we review the main pathogenesis of AILI and the protective effects of food-derived natural compounds on AILI, which will hopefully provide a theoretical rationale for further research to prevent AILI and develop new hepatoprotective drugs or functional foods.
Progress in Understanding the Mechanism by Which Pseudomonas spp. Causes the Spoilage of Raw Meat
ZHANG Ruoyu, DONG Pengcheng, ZHU Lixian, MAO Yanwei, LUO Xin, ZHANG Yimin, HAN Mingshan, HAN Guangxing
2020, 41(17):  291-297.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190828-309
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The spoilage of raw meat is an ecological phenomenon closely related to many specific microorganisms and is affected by many external environmental factors. Pseudomonas spp. is one of the dominant spoilage microorganisms in raw meat. However, there is still lacking a systematic review on the mechanism of action of Pseudomonas spp. in the spoilage of raw meat. Notably, there is as yet no definite conclusion on the regulation and expression of genes involved in the spoilage of meat. Therefore, this paper summarizes the characteristics, classification and interspecific difference of Pseudomonas spp., and overviews its contamination sources. The mechanism of meat spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp. is elucidated at the genetic level from the viewpoint of substrate utilization (including carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism). Specifically, the difference in the expression of the genes encoding enzymes regulating the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, the AprX gene regulating extracellular protease, the genes encoding ABC transporter, and the lipase encoding gene lipA under different conditions and the inter-species difference in the expression of these genes may be the fundamental cause of the spoilage of Pseudomonas spp. The information gathered here provides a theoretical basis for controlling meat spoilage.
Mechanism of Pathogen Resistance to Lysozyme: A Review
ZHANG Xinshuai, RUAN Yao, LIU Wukang, CHEN Qian, GU Lihong, GUO Ailing
2020, 41(17):  298-306.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190809-100
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Lysozyme is widely found in organisms and plays an important role in the innate immune system, which acts as a cationic antimicrobial protein and effectively hydrolyzes the β-1,4 glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in the cell wall of bacteria as a bactericidal agent. Pathogenic bacteria have evolved a wide range of mechanisms to evade lysozyme killing in order to colonize the host for a long time and cause host infection. However, despite many studies on lysozyme, there has been little research on the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to lysozyme. This paper presents a review of recent research in this area. The mechanism by which peptidoglycan modification and lysozyme inhibitors improve lysozyme resistance and the transcriptional regulation of the lysozyme resistance genes are discussed in detail, and future research directions and potential applications are also proposed.
Trends in the Microbial Health Industry and Countermeasures for Its Development
MA Aijin, HAN Panpan, LIU Yangliu, SUN Baoguo
2020, 41(17):  307-314.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200403-039
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The microbial health industry mainly involves edible fungi, probiotics, spirulina and other fields. This industry is an important part of the national economy, shouldering the dual mission of enhancing consumer health and promoting economic development. This review comprehensively and systematically expounds the current situation of the global microbial health industry in terms of competition and technological trends in this industry. Based on its developmental foundation, the advantages and disadvantages of China’s microbial health industry and the opportunities and challenges for its development are analyzed by the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) approach, and some countermeasures that suit China’s national conditions are proposed with respect to resources, technology, policy and so on, aiming to provide a reference for promoting the development of the microbial health industry in the country.
A Review of Research Methods in Baijiu Flavor Chemistry and Recent Progress in the Flavor Chemistry of Maotai-Flavored Baijiu
TANG Ping, SHAN Qimuge, WANG Li, WANG Fan, LI Changwen, LU Jun
2020, 41(17):  315-324.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190822-228
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Maotai-flavored Baijiu is popular among consumers because of its unique flavor, taste and relatively good post-drink comfort. However, the mechanism of flavor formation and the key flavor substances in Maotai-flavored Baijiu have not been definitely determined yet. Based on an extensive review of the recent studies on Maotai-flavored Baijiu, this article therefore provides a brief description of the current research methods in Baijiu flavor chemistry, and it also summarizes micro-flavor compounds and their contribution to the flavor during the fermentation of Maotai-flavored Baijiu, in order to provide a basis for further research in Maotai-flavored Baijiu flavor chemistry.
Practices of and Enlightenments Drawn from Labeling Management of Foods for Special Medical Purpose in Developed Countries
NING Bo, SU Qiang, YANG Bo, GAO Haitao, YU Qing
2020, 41(17):  325-332.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190802-017
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In this article, by analyzing the contents of the related policies, we sort out the practices of developed countries in the labeling management of foods for special medical purpose (FSMP), and we summarize these polices from several dimensions such as general label information, target patient populations, nutrition labeling and medication reminders. Developed countries have more detailed and strict requirements for the labeling management of FSMP. The main differences between the regulations on FSMP labeling in China and those in developed countries are as follows: 1) in developed countries, manufacturers are usually required to clearly indicate “applicable to patient populations’’; 2) a nutrition fact label is also given for FSMP, including ingredients and their contents, proportions, and reference intake; and 3) the label must provide caution and warning messages to guide consumers to use the product correctly. The above findings imply that the FSMP labeling management system in China should draw on the experience of developed countries. More specially, the relevant laws and regulations need to be improved in the future. It is necessary to guide enterprises to label nutrition and health information in a regulated and scientific way. Moreover, reference nutrient intake standards for different patient populations should be formulated for more scientific labeling management. The connection between FSMP labeling management and the whole industry chain supervision or public nutrition education should be strengthened.