食品科学

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不同煮制条件对罗非鱼片品质的影响

熊雅雯1,黄卉1,李来好1,杨贤庆1,陈胜军1,郝淑贤1,吴燕燕1,魏涯2   

  1. 1. 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所
    2. 南海水产研究所
  • 收稿日期:2021-06-10 修回日期:2021-08-17 出版日期:2021-09-26 发布日期:2021-09-26
  • 通讯作者: 黄卉
  • 基金资助:
    财政部和农业农村部:国家现代农业产业技术体系资助;广东省重点领域研发计划项目

Effects of different cooking conditions on the quality of tilapia fillets

Ya-wen XIONG, ,Laihao LI,Xianqing YANG,Sheng-Jun CHEN, , Yan-Yan WU,   

  • Received:2021-06-10 Revised:2021-08-17 Online:2021-09-26 Published:2021-09-26
  • Supported by:
    Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs: National Modern Agricultural Industrial Technology System Funding;Guangdong Province Key Field R&D Program Project

摘要: 本研究以罗非鱼片为原料,观察其在不同煮制条件下蒸煮损失率、色泽、质构特性、感官评价及微观结构的变化,并对肌原纤维蛋白含量、总巯基含量及其二级结构变化进行了检测。结果表明:在不同煮制温度下,罗非鱼片蒸煮损失率随加热时间延长都有不同程度的增加,在90 ℃下蒸煮损失整体较低;L*和b*值增大,a*减小,高温短时热煮处理后的鱼片色泽较好;鱼片硬度、胶着性和咀嚼性在50 ℃时随时间延长逐渐升高,在60 ℃及以上温度时呈下降趋势,80 ℃和90 ℃处理的鱼肉质构特性保持的相对较好;扫描电镜结果表明鱼肉在煮制过程中组织结构变得松散,肌纤维束间隙明显,相同时间下随着温度的升高,肌纤维束间隙逐渐增大,破损也越来越严重,但高温短时热煮对鱼肉组织结构的破坏更小;感官评价结果与各项品质指标趋势基本一致;肌原纤维蛋白含量、总巯基含量以及Ca2+-ATP酶活性都显著下降(P<0.05),但在低温长时热煮条件下蛋白质的变性程度更小;肌原纤维蛋白α-螺旋和β-转角占比呈下降趋势,β-折叠和无规卷曲占比呈上升趋势,其中低温长时热煮条件下α-螺旋和β-转角含量整体高于高温短时热煮。综上,从食用品质并结合实际生产效率方面考虑,高温短时是罗非鱼片较适宜的煮制条件,且在80~90 ℃煮制6~9 min时鱼片的品质更好。

关键词: 罗非鱼, 煮制, 品质, 肌原纤维蛋白

Abstract: In this study, tilapia fillets were used as raw materials to investigate the cooking loss rate, color, texture characteristics, sensory evaluation and microstructure changes under different cooking conditions, as well as the myofibrillar proteins content, total thiol group content, Ca2+-ATPase activity and its secondary structure changes were examined. The results showed that the cooking loss rate of tilapia fillets increased to varying degrees with the extension of heating time under different cooking temperatures, and lower cooking loss at 90°C. The values of L* and b* increased and a* decreased. The color of the fish fillets after being boiled for high-temperature short-term was better. The hardness, adhesiveness and chewiness gradually increased with time at 50℃, and decreased as a whole at 60℃ and above. The texture properties of fish meat treated at 80°C and 90°C were relatively better. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the tissue structure of the fish became loose during the cooking process, and the muscle fiber bundle gap was obvious. With the increase of temperature at the same time, the muscle fiber bundle gap gradually increased, and the damage became more serious. However, high-temperature short-term heating will cause less damage to the tissue structure of the fish. Sensory evaluation results are basically consistent with the trend of various quality indicators. The myofibrillar proteins content, total thiol group content and Ca2+-ATPase activity all decreased significantly (P<0.05), the degree of protein denaturation is smaller under the condition of low-temperature long-term heating; The proportion of myofibrillar protein α-helix and β-turn were decreased, and the proportion of β-sheets and random coils were increased. The content of α-helix and β-turn under the condition of low-temperature long-term heating is higher than that of high-temperature short-term heating. In summary, considering the edible quality and actual production efficiency, high-temperature short-term cooking are more suitable cooking conditions for tilapia fillets. And the quality of fish fillets is better when cooked at 80-90 ℃ for 6-9 min.

Key words: tilapia, cooking in boiling water, quality, myofibrillar protein

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