食品科学

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食品中苦味物质的感知与调控研究进展

黄岩1,史伊格1,梁莉1,蒲丹丹1,郑向东2,张玉玉1   

  1. 1. 北京工商大学
    2. 郑州大学
  • 收稿日期:2022-06-24 修回日期:2022-08-22 出版日期:2022-09-27 发布日期:2022-09-27
  • 通讯作者: 张玉玉
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目;北京市卓越青年科学家项目

Research Progress on perception and regulation of bitter compounds in food

1, 1,Li LIANG 1, 1,Yu-yu ZHANG   

  • Received:2022-06-24 Revised:2022-08-22 Online:2022-09-27 Published:2022-09-27
  • Contact: Yu-yu ZHANG

摘要: 苦味化合物广泛存在于食品中,对食品风味有重要影响。食品中的苦味化合物主要有氨基酸类、肽类、多酚类、生物碱类、无机盐类等。苦味化合物通过与苦味受体(25个hTAS2Rs)的特定位点结合,激活G蛋白介导的下游信号通路,将化学信号转化为电信号最终传递到大脑产生苦味感知。一些食品的苦味较强往往不被消费者所接受,因此适当降低食品中的苦味可以提高消费者的喜好度。目前降低食品苦味感知的方法主要包括两大类:(1)掩盖苦味包括聚合/络合作用、风味相互作用等;(2)去除苦味包括降低苦味化合物含量、改变化合物结构等。本文对食品中的苦味化合物及其分析方法、苦味感知机制以及降低苦味感知的方法等方面进行了综述。

关键词: 苦味化合物, 苦味分析方法, 苦味感知机制, 苦味调控

Abstract: Bitter compounds widely exist in food and have an important impact on food flavor. The main bitter compounds in food include amino acids, peptides, polyphenols, alkaloids, inorganic salts, etc. Bitterness is perceived through the binding between bitter compounds and specific sites of bitter receptors (25 hTAS2Rs), which further activate the downstream signal pathway mediated by G protein. And it converts chemical signals into electrical signals, and transmit them to the brain. Some foods with strong bitterness taste are not well accepted by consumers, so appropriately reducing the bitterness taste in foods can improve consumers' preference. At present, the methods to reduce the perception of food bitterness mainly include two categories: (1) bitterness covering methods include polymerization/complexation, flavor interaction, etc; (2) bitterness removing methods include reducing the content of bitter compounds, changing the structure of compounds, etc. In this work, bitter compounds in food, analytical methods of bitter compounds, mechanisms of bitter perception and bitter perception reduction methods were reviewed.

Key words: bitter compounds, bitterness analytical methods, bitterness perception mechanism, bitterness regulation

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