食品科学

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酶法改性技术及其在植物基肉制品中的应用研究进展

李同庆,张金闯,陈琼玲,刘浩栋,王强   

  1. 中国农业科学院农产品加工研究所
  • 收稿日期:2022-07-14 修回日期:2022-09-05 出版日期:2022-09-27 发布日期:2022-09-27
  • 通讯作者: 王强
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目;国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目;中国农业科学院科技创新工程

Research progress of enzymatic modification technology and its application in plant-based meat products

Tong-Qing LI金闯 张 2,Hao-Dong LIU2,Qiang Wang   

  • Received:2022-07-14 Revised:2022-09-05 Online:2022-09-27 Published:2022-09-27
  • Contact: Qiang Wang

摘要: 植物蛋白经挤压结构重组可形成具有类似动物肉品质特征的植物基肉制品,作为动物肉的有益补充,对实现蛋白质高值化利用和保障高效供给具有重要意义。但目前的植物基肉制品还存在产品弹性不足、结构松散、多汁性较差等突出问题,多以碎肉形式用于肉丸、肉饼、饺子等肉制品添加物,尚不能完全满足中国消费者的需求。酶法改性技术具有安全、高效、绿色等特点,可对蛋白质结构进行修饰改性,改善产品质构和风味等品质,已广泛应用于肉制品的研究和产品开发,在植物基肉制品中也展现出良好应用前景。本文通过查阅文献,梳理了动植物蛋白之间化学结构与功能特性的差异,分析了酶法改性对蛋白质结构修饰改性的机理以及在肉制品中的应用,阐述了酶法改性结合挤压技术工艺在植物基肉制品中应用的最新进展,以期为我国新型植物基肉制品的研发和品质提升提供参考。

关键词: 蛋白质, 酶法改性技术, 高水分挤压技术, 植物基肉制品, 应用进展

Abstract: Plant proteins can form plant-based meat products with similar quality characteristics of animal meat, which is a useful supplement to animal meat and is of great significance to realize high value utilization of protein and guarantee efficient supply. However, the current plant-based meat products still have problems such as insufficient elasticity, loose structure and poor juiciness, and are mostly used in the form of minced meat for meatballs, meat cakes, dumplings and other meat product additions, which cannot fully meet the needs of Chinese consumers yet. Enzymatic modification technology is safe, efficient and green, which can modify the protein structure and improve the quality of the product such as texture and flavor, and has been widely used in the research and product development of meat products, and has also shown good application prospects in plant-based meat products. Therefore, this paper reviewed the literature, sorted out the differences of chemical structure and functional properties between animal and plant proteins, analyzed the mechanism of protein structure modification by enzymatic modification technology and its application in meat products, and explained the latest progress of the application of combined process of enzymatic modification technology and extrusion technology in plant-based meat products, in order to provide reference for the development and quality improvement of new plant-based meat products in China.

Key words: protein, enzymatic modification technology, high moisture extrusion technology, plant-based meat products, application progress

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