食品科学 ›› 2023, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (6): 235-243.doi: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220609-091

• 成分分析 • 上一篇    下一篇

同时蒸馏萃取结合GC-MS分析酿酒五粮原料蒸煮香气成分

廖鹏飞,王松,王哲,陈璐,陆玮,孙金沅,李贺贺,赵东瑞,王柏文,孙宝国   

  1. (1.北京工商大学,酿酒分子工程中国轻工业重点实验室,北京市食品风味化学重点实验室,北京 100048;2.安徽古井贡酒股份有限公司,安徽 亳州 236820)
  • 出版日期:2023-03-27 发布日期:2023-03-27
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(31972193)

Analysis of Aroma Components of Five Steamed Grains for Production of Nongxiangxing Baijiu by Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Combined with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

LIAO Pengfei, WANG Song, WANG Zhe, CHEN Lu, LU Wei, SUN Jinyuan, LI Hehe, ZHAO Dongrui, WANG Bowen, SUN Baoguo   

  1. (1. Key Laboratory of Brewing Molecular Engineering of China Light Industry, Beijing Key Laboratory of Flavor Chemistry, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China; 2. Gujing Gongjiu Co. Ltd., Bozhou 236820, China)
  • Online:2023-03-27 Published:2023-03-27

摘要: 采用同时蒸馏萃取结合气相色谱-质谱分别对浓香型白酒生产使用的五粮(高粱、小麦、玉米、糯米、大米)以及按生产比例制备的混合粮食样品的蒸煮香气中挥发性成分进行分析。结果表明,5 种单粮中共鉴定出153 种化合物;高粱、小麦、玉米、糯米、大米中分别鉴定出108、93、93、66、66 种化合物,其中鉴定出较多数量的醛类、醇类、酮类、芳香类、酯类等化合物。采用双柱定性,在混合粮食样品中共鉴定出140 种化合物。采用气相色谱-嗅闻-质谱联用法在混合粮食样品中共鉴定出29 种香气活性化合物,结合香气提取稀释分析和香气活性值评价不同化合物对粮食蒸煮整体风味的影响。经计算,苄硫醇、(E,E)-2,4-癸二烯醛、(E)-2-壬烯醛、壬醛、己醛、辛醛、(E)-2-辛烯醛、(E,Z)-2,6-壬二烯醛、正庚醇、(E)-2-癸烯醛、(E,E)-2,4-壬二烯醛、苯乙醛、4-乙基愈创木酚、己酸乙酯、香叶基丙酮、辛酸乙酯、香草醛17 种化合物的香气活性值不低于1,被认为是对粮香有贡献的重要风味化合物,其中苄硫醇和(E,Z)-2,6-壬二烯醛首次在蒸煮粮食香气中被鉴定。

关键词: 白酒;粮香;同时蒸馏萃取;挥发性香气成分;香气活性化合物

Abstract: Simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatile aroma compounds of steamed five grains for the production of Nongxiangxing baijiu: sorghum, wheat, maize, glutinous rice and rice as well as their mixture. A total of 153 compounds were identified from the five grains, of which 108, 93, 93, 66 and 66 were found in sorghum, wheat, maize, glutinous rice and rice, respectively. The identified compounds were dominated by aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aromatic compounds and esters. Totally 140 compounds were identified in the mixed grain sample by dual-column qualitative analysis. A total of 29 odor active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactory-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). The effects of different compounds on the overall flavor of steamed grains were evaluated by using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and odor activity value (OAV). The OAVs of 17 compounds including benzylthiol, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, nonanal, hexanal, octanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E,E)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-heptanol, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, ethyl hexanoate, geranyl acetone, ethyl octanoate and vanillin were larger than 1, which were considered as important compounds contributing to grain flavor. Benzylthiol and (E,E)-2,6-nonadienal were identified as important flavor compounds in steamed grains for the first time.

Key words: baijiu; grain aroma; simultaneous distillation and extraction; volatile aroma compounds; aroma active compounds

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