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Genotoxicity Evaluation of Violacein and Deoxyviolacein by umu Test

SUN Yong1,2, ZHANG Jinlan3, LIU Hongru3, LI Gang1, ZHANG Chong1, XING Xinhui1,*, CHEN Ning4, WANG Shouwei2,*   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Industrial Biocatalysis, Ministry of Education, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University,
    Beijing 100084, China; 2. China Meat Research Center, Beijing 100068, China; 3. Beijing Academy of Food Sciences,
    Beijing 100068, China; 4. College of Health Science, Wuhan Sports University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • Online:2016-05-15 Published:2016-05-18


Objective: Violacein and deoxyviolacein are bacteria-originated indole compounds with diverse bioactivities.
This study aimed to investigate the genotoxicity of violacein, deoxyviolacein and their combination, and provide the basis
for the exploration of their applications. Methods: The SOS repairing of Salmonella typhimurium NM2009 cells induced
by violacein, deoxyviolacein, their combination or S9 metabolites was quantitatively analyzed by SOS/umu detection kits.
Meanwhile, the toxicity of violacein, deoxyviolacein, their combination and S9 metabolites as well as the positive control
drugs such as 2-aminofluorene (AF-2) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) was compared. Results: It was demonstrated that
32.6 μg/mL deoxyviolacein, S9 metabolites of 34.2 μg/mL violacein and 33.4 μg/mL combination had genotoxicity for
Salmonella typhimurium NM2009 cells, but they all showed lower genotoxicity compared with positive control. Moreover,
violacein, deoxyviolacein and their combination at the same dosage exhibited similar toxicity without synergistic effect.
Conclusion: Violacein and deoxyviolacein have weak genotoxicity.

Key words: violacein, deoxyviolacein, genotoxicity, SOS/umu detection system

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