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Table of Content

15 November 2018, Volume 39 Issue 21
Basic Research
Effects of Different Drying Methods on Lipid Oxidation and Volatile Flavor Components of Cured Grass Carp
GU Saiqi, ZHOU Hongxin, ZHENG Haoming, ZHOU Xuxia, CHEN Yuan, DING Yuting
2018, 39(21):  1-10.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821001
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The study investigated the effects of light and temperature on the flavor quality of cured grass carp produced by different drying methods (all with a moisture content of 40%). For this purpose, the aerobic plate count, acid value (AV), peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) content, total fat content, total fatty acid compositions, volatile flavor components and sensory evaluation of the cured fish samples were measured. The results showed that total number of colonies was the largest (4.42 (lg (CFU/g))) in the cured fish dried with cold air in the dark, while it was the smallest (2.91 (lg (CFU/g))) in the cured fish produced by hot air drying in light. The indexes of lipid oxidation were larger in the cured fish dried in light than in darkness, but no significant difference in total fat content between the two groups was observed (P > 0.05). Furthermore, POV and TBA content of the cured fish dried by hot air were significantly larger than those of the cured fish dried by cold air (P < 0.05); however, AV and total fat content were opposite. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) accounted for about 40% of the total fatty acids in the cured fish, and both light and temperature had a significant effect on n-3 PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid (P < 0.05). The sensory evaluation results showed that drying with cold air and in light gave significantly higher sensory scores for the aroma of cured fish when compared with drying with hot air and in darkness, respectively (P < 0.05). A total of 82 volatile compounds were identified from all four cured fish samples, 14 of which were recognized as odor-active compounds including 2-nonenal. The sum of odor activity values was significantly higher in the cured fish dried in light than in darkness (P < 0.05), indicating that light may be favorable for the generation of aroma components. The results from this study provide a theoretical basis to improve the quality of cured fish in the future.
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship of Zinc-Chelating Peptides by Two-Terminal Position Numbering
HUANG Jingjing, YU Min, MA Min, YAN Yan, ZHANG Fusheng, YIN Junfeng, XIE Ningning
2018, 39(21):  11-17.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821002
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In order to explore the relationship between the structure and bioactivity of zinc-chelating peptides, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were established. A new method called two-terminal position numbering was proposed to describe the structures of 56 synthetic zinc-chelating peptides with different lengths. Then, these peptides were statistically analyzed using 18 amino acid descriptors and partial least squares regression. Results showed that the correlation coefficients of the QSAR models based on 5 amino acids descriptors FASGAI, Z, HESH, C and ST met the requirements. FASGAI was found to be the best among these descriptors (R2 = 0.827 3, Q2 = 0.602 2, root mean square error of estimation = 0.168 6, Q2 ext = 0.717 2, and root mean square error of prediction = 0.255 8). Further analysis of the FASGAIbased model revealed that the influence of amino acid positions in the peptides on their zinc-chelating activity was C3 > N3 > C1 > N1 > N2 > C2. Meanwhile, the bulky properties of amino acid residues influenced the zinc-chelating activity of the peptides. These models have the potential to provide new ideas to explore the quantitative structure-activity relationships of zinc-chelating peptides.
Effect of Different Extraction Methods on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Soybean Dietary Fiber
LI Yang, HU Miao, SUN Yufan, ZHONG Mingming, ZHANG Qiaozhi, JIANG Lianzhou, QI Baokun
2018, 39(21):  18-24.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821003
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The residue from biological dissociation (BD) of soybeans can be considered as a rich source of dietary fibers due to its richness in dietary fibers. In order to investigate the effect of BD on the quality of soybean dietary fiber and hence to obtain high-quality soybean dietary fiber, the chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties of the resulting soybean dietary fiber were determined and compared with those obtained from water extraction, chemical treatment, fermentation and water extraction following extrusion pretreatment. The results showed that the purity of dietary fiber prepared by BD was 82.58%, and approximately 60% of the total dietary fiber was soluble, suggesting that high-quality dietary fiber was obtained. The water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, expansibility and solubility of dietary fiber from BD were 6.87 g/g, 5.48 g/g, 8.22 mL/g and 5.07%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of dietary fibers from other extraction methods. The results of functional properties showed that the functional properties of dietary fibers from different extraction methods were in the decreasing order of BD, extrusion, fermentation, chemical extraction, and water extraction. In addition, the adsorption capacity of BD dietary fiber toward Pb2+, As3+, and Cu2+ were 351.2, 304.1 and 214.1 μmol/g at pH 7.0, respectively. The glucose adsorption capacity, α-amylase-inhibitory activity and bile acid retardation index were 6.56–35.78 mmol/g, 18.42%, and 33.12%–35.52%, respectively, which were significantly higher than dietary fibers from other extraction methods. Therefore, the residue from biological dissociation of soybeans has good physicochemical and functional properties, indicating that it has great potential for application in the food industry as a new source of dietary fiber.
Preparation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts and Their Antioxidant Activities
ZHAO Mouming, LI Qiaolin, LIN Lianzhu, YANG Yanqing
2018, 39(21):  25-30.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821004
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Active components were extracted from Moringa oleifera leaves using 16 different methods. The effects of different extraction methods on the yields of proteins, saccharides, phenolics and antioxidants were investigated. In the case of ethyl acetate extraction, the effect of the interaction among proteins (protein hydrolysates) and saccharides in the aqueous phase and phenolics in the ethyl acetate phase on the antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts was evaluated. An extract with high contents of proteins, saccharides and phenolics and strong antioxidant activity was obtained by enzymatic extraction or enzyme-assisted ethanol extraction. Ns37071 protease and pancreatin, respectively gave the highest yield of proteins, saccharides and phenolics and strongest antioxidant activity. Proteins (protein hydrolysates) and saccharides made greater contribution to the antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract that did phenolics. Furthermore, there were synergistic or antagonistic effects among proteins, saccharides and phenolics in the extract.
Effect of Berry Size on Fruit Quality of ‘Chardonnay’ Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.)
YUE Xiaofeng, TANG Yonghong, JU Yanlun, ZHAO Yameng, LIANG Pan, ZHAO Ting, XI Zhumei, ZHANG Zhenwen
2018, 39(21):  31-38.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821005
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The quality of both wine grape and wine are closely related to the size of berry. Grape berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay from four producing areas of Shangrila in Yunnan, Yuquanying in Ningxia, Yantai in Shandong and Wujiaqu in Xinjiang were divided into large (> 14 mm), medium (14–12 mm), and small size (< 12 mm). The fruit size distribution, fresh peel mass and fresh fruit mass were measured; the contents of tartaric acid, sugar and total phenolics and other major quality indicators were detected, and the obtained data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that ‘Chardonnay’ born mostly medium and small fruits in the four producing areas, the number and mass of seeds in single berries increased with the increase of berry size and titratable acid content was higher in large berries; the contents of total phenols and tannin were higher in large berries from Wujiaqu and in small berries from other three producing areas; total flavonoid content was higher in small berries from Yuquanying and in medium berries from other producing areas while total flavanol content was higher in small berries from Shangrila and Wujiaqu, in medium berries from Yuquanying and in large berries from Yantai. The PCA showed that the overall quality scores of small berries from Yuquanying and large berries from Wujiaqu were the highest and lowest, respectively. The overall quality score of large grape berries from Yantai was higher, and the overall quality score of grape berries of different sizes from three other areas followed the descending order of small > medium > large.
Effect of Soaking and Germination on the Quality of Sesame Seeds and Sesame Butter
QIU Jihong, HOU Lixia, ZHANG Zhaoguo, WANG Xuede, ZENG Guozhan
2018, 39(21):  39-44.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821006
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The effects of soaking and germination under constant temperature and humidity conditions on the proximate composition, functional ingredients, mineral contents and fatty acid compositions of sesame seeds and sesame butter were studied. The results revealed that the contents of crude fat and crude protein gradually decreased at 2 and 5 h of soaking; ash content also decreased, while the content of crude fiber increased (P < 0.05), and the content of total sugar increased first and then decreased. The contents of crude fat, total sugar and crude fiber in sesame butter showed the same trend as did those in sesame seeds with increasing germination time. The content of crude protein decreased first and then increased. The content of oxalic acid in germinated sesame butter decreased, while the acid values fluctuated and sterol content gradually increased with extended germination time. VE content was higher in sesame butter with germination than that in the control group without germination and the highest value of 49.96 mg/100 g was obtained by 20 min soaking and 14 h germination, which was 49.36% higher than the control. The 24 h germination of sesame seeds significantly increased the contents of sesamol and calcium but decreased potassium content in sesame butter compared with the control. Principal component analysis demonstrated that the contents of crude fat and VE were important parameters for measuring sesame butter quality. Arachidonic acid was not detected in germinated sesame butter. In conclusion, germination may be a new approach to prepare low fat, high VE sesame butter.
Food Engineering
Effect of Ultrasonic Processing on Protein Structure and Gel Properties of Egg White
YE Yu, GAO Jinyan, CHEN Hongbing, TONG Ping
2018, 39(21):  45-52.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821007
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In order to explore the effect of ultrasound on the structure and gel properties of egg white proteins, the spatial structure, molecular distribution and rheological properties of egg white proteins before and after ultrasonic treatment were analyzed, and the water retention and texture properties of egg white gel were determined. Results showed that at ultrasound powers of 200 and 400 W, the structure of some egg white proteins were folded and aggregated; meanwhile, only a small fraction were degraded. On the other hand, at 600 W ultrasound power, egg white proteins were partially degraded, and only a small fraction were aggregated. Therefore, ultrasound could increased the particle sizes of some proteins, and decreased the particle sizes of others, narrowing the overall particle size distribution. Egg white treated at 200 W for 10 min or at 600 W for 30 min had similar rheological properties to those of a liquid. At all three powers, water-holding capacity of egg white gel was increased. Ultrasonic treatment at 200 or 400 W enhanced gel strength, making the gel more firm and compacted. On the contrary, ultrasonic treatment at 600 W for 30 min significantly decreased gel strength and consequently decreased gel stability. These results may provide a basis for improving gel properties of egg white proteins.
Effect of High Pressure Processing on the Water State and Microstructure of Low-Fat Emulsion Sausages
BAI Yun, ZHUANG Xinbo, SUN Jian, XU Xinglian, ZHOU Guanghong
2018, 39(21):  53-58.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821008
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The present study investigated the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (0.1, 100, 200, 300 MPa) on the water-holding capacity, water distribution and microstructure of low-fat emulsion sausages by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that compared with the control group, HPP at increasing pressure from 100 to 300 MPa significantly increased the proportion of bound water and immobilized water and reduced the proportion of free water (P < 0.05). The treatment at 200 MPa gave the best water state distribution. In addition, HPP significantly changed the microstructure of emulsion sausages and increased the size and number of cavities in the gel structure. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between water-holding capacity, water state and microstructure through principal component analysis. In conclusion, HPP can improve the microstructure, reduce the proportion of free water, and improved the water-holding capacity of low-fat emulsion sausages.
Effect of High-Intensity Ultrasound on the Characteristics of Goose Breast Muscle Actomyosin
ZHANG Kun, ZOU Ye, WANG Daoying, ZHANG Xinxiao, CHEN Lin, ZHU Yongzhi, XU Weimin
2018, 39(21):  59-65.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821009
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This study was performed to investigate changes in the characteristics of goose breast muscle actomyosin treated with high-intensity ultrasound (frequency 20 kHz, power 800 W, total time 42 min, on-time 2 s and off-time 3 s) during freezing storage. Untreated sample was used as a control. The effect of ultrasonic treatment and different storage time (0, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h) at 4 ℃ on goose breast muscle actomyosin was determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, ATPase activity, zeta potential, particle size, viscosity, cathepsin activity and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that ultrasound treatment changed the conformation and significantly reduced the ATPase activity, particle size and viscosity, and significantly increased the zeta potential and cathepsin B, D, L and H activities of actomyosin compared with the control group. Moreover, the surface microstructure significantly changed after ultrasound treatment, transforming the actomyosin structure from complete and ordered arrangement into broken and disordered protein particles. The above findings suggested that ultrasonic treatment could change actomyosin conformation and aid in the dissociation of actomyosin into small molecule proteins, which can provide the theoretical basis for applying ultrasonic treatment to improve goose breast muscle tenderness and quality.
Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on the Preservation and Quality of Sea Bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) Meat
ZHANG Han, Lü Mingchun, MEI Kalin, LU Jiafang, YANG Wenge
2018, 39(21):  66-71.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821010
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This study was undertaken to valuate the feasibility of applying electron beam irradiation in the preservation of aquatic products. Sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) meat was treated with electron beam irradiation at 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy and stored at 4 ℃. The total bacterial count (TBC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, color value and texture properties of the fish meat were measured during cold storage. The results showed that electron beam irradiation could effectively decrease the TBC and slow down the rise in TVB-N content. After the irradiation, the TBA value increased and it increased faster in high-dose irradiated sample than in low-dose irradiated sample during cold storage. Electron beam irradiation did not significantly influence the color and texture properties, but it could slightly improve the brightness. Therefore, it is appropriate that L. japonicus meat should be irradiated at a dose of 3–5 kGy before cold storage, extending the shelf life by 6-10 d. This result provides a basis for the application of electron beam irradiation to the preservation of L. japonicus meat.
Effects of Ultrasonic-Assisted Resting on Dough Rheological Properties, Water Distribution and Protein Secondary Structure
ZHANG Yanyan, LI Yinli, WU Mengmeng, LI Jiale, LI Ke, ZHANG Hua
2018, 39(21):  72-77.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821011
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The resting process is an important step during the processing of non-fermented dough. In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic-assisted resting on the rheological properties, water distribution, protein secondary structure and microstructure of dough was studied by a rotational rheometer, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that ultrasonic-assisted resting could improve the elastic modulus and viscous modulus of dough. The water distribution state moved from adsorbed to bound water; the content of bound water increased to reach a plateau, whereas the opposite trend was observed for the content of adsorbed water. The content of bound water in the ultrasonic-treated dough was increased by 44.0% and the content of adsorbed water was decreased by 11.0% compared with the control sample after resting for 25 min. The results of FTIR and SEM analysis showed that ultrasonic-assisted resting could improve the quality of dough by changing the secondary structure of proteins and microstructure of dough. These results provide a theoretical basis for improving the quality of dough by ultrasonic-assisted resting.
Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Instant Solubility of Egg White Powder
SUN Zhuo, LI Peishan, SHENG Long, MA Meihu, JIN Yongguo
2018, 39(21):  78-86.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821012
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Liquid egg white was processed into instant soluble egg white powder with improved solubility by sequential ultrasonic modification and spray drying. The conditions for ultrasonic treatment were optimized using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods. The dispersibility, solubility and stability coefficient of egg white powder were investigated with respect to ultrasonic treatment time, ultrasonic power and egg white concentration. The results revealed that the optimal conditions were determined as 10 min, 120 W and 50% for ultrasonic treatment time, power and egg white concentration, respectively. The average dispersion time of the egg white powder produced using the optimized conditions was 56.67 s, the average solubility was 93.56 g/100 g and the average stability coefficient was 97.29%, showing good instant solubility. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis showed that the particle size of the egg white powder obtained in this study was smaller and more uniform compared with those prepared by spray drying without ultrasonic pretreatment and by freeze drying. Circular dichroism and surface hydrophobicity results showed that the structure of proteins in the spray dried powder became disordered and the surface hydrophobicity increased after sonication, contributing to the improvement of instant solubility. The results from this study can provide a basis for the application of ultrasonic treatment in the field of new egg products.
Effect of Drying Temperature on the Quality of Apple Powder Made from Red-Fleshed Apples Grown in Xinjiang
GOU Xiaoju, LIU Dong, YANG Xi, GUO Yurong
2018, 39(21):  87-93.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821013
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Red-fleshed apples have a unique flavor and high contents of anthocyanins and polyphenols as well as a high food value. Using a hot-air convective dryer, red-fleshed apples grown in Xinjiang was processed into apple powder for the purpose of investigating the effect of drying temperature (40–80 ℃) on physiochemical properties, sensory characteristics, nutritional components and antioxidant properties of apple powder. The results showed that low temperature long time (40 ℃, 210 min) and high temperature short time (80 ℃, 90 min) drying caused losses of nutritional components, sensory quality and antioxidant activity. On the other hand, moderate drying temperature and time (50 ℃, 180 min) better maintained the color, solubility, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of apples. Overall, the optimal drying temperature to obtain the best quality of apple powder was determined to be 50 ℃.
Numerical Simulation of Ultrasound-Assisted Thawing of Frozen Chinese Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and Its Impact on Protein Denaturation
LI Man, Lü Ruiling, WANG Danli, MA Xiaobin, DING Tian, LING Jiangang, LIU Donghong
2018, 39(21):  94-101.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821014
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To explore the temperature distribution and thawing time of Chinese shrimp during ultrasound-assisted thawing and the impact of the thawing process on protein denaturation, a mathematical model was established and validated to simulate the unsteady heat transfer process of ultrasound-assisted thawing by using the finite element-based commercial software COMSOL, and the changes in the structure and thermal stability of myofibrillar protein after thawing were determined. The aim is to model the ultrasound-assisted thawing process of Chinese shrimp and hence provide a basis for choosing the optimal thawing process. Results showed that the root mean square error of internal temperature of Chinese shrimp between the simulated and experimental values was 0.943 3 ℃ for ultrasound-assisted thawing, and 0.907 7 ℃ for water immersion thawing, illustrating the model to simulate the thawing process well. Ultrasoundassisted thawing could significantly improve thawing rate, and reduced thawing time by 35.9% as compared to water immersion. After thawing, the myosin heavy chain and actin did not change, but the proteins with molecular mass from 70 to 100 kDa were degraded and cross-linked to a certain degree. The maximum absorption wavelength did not significantly change, but fluorescence intensity was remarkably enhanced; the thermal stability of frozen muscle thawed by ultrasound-assisted thawing was close to that of fresh sample, while the thermal stability of frozen muscle thawed by water immersion was worsened. Overall, ultrasound-assisted thawing is an efficient thawing method that can maintain the quality of frozen Chinese shrimp.
Ultrasound-Assisted Biosorption of Anthocyanins from Blueberry Pomace Extracts by Waste Beer Yeast
WANG Jiandong, WU Yue, TAO Yang, HAN Yongbin, ZHOU Jianzhong, YE Xiaosong, YE Shuxian, WU Chao, YE Mingru
2018, 39(21):  102-108.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821015
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Ultrasound-assisted biosorption of anthocyanins from blueberry pomace by waste beer yeast was investigated as a function of various processing parameters. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms and mechanism were determined, and the change of anthocyanin composition before and after adsorption was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was found that the adsorption quantity of anthocyanins in the presence of ultrasound was significantly higher than that in the absence of ultrasound or with shaking (P < 0.05). The adsorption amount increased with the increase of adsorption time and the adsorption equilibrium was reached at 120 min. Furthermore, the adsorption amount increased with increasing ultrasonic intensity, temperature and initial concentration. The adsorption process was fitted to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption behavior could be well described by Temkin isotherm model. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results suggested that the amino, hydroxyl and amide groups on the yeast surface may play a key role in the biosorption of anthocyanins. HPLC analysis indicated that waste beer yeast could adsorb various anthocyanins to different extents. Overall, ultrasound can improve the adsorption efficiency of blueberry anthocyanins by waste beer yeast.
Effect of High Pressure and Salt on Quality Properties of Chicken Sausage
ZHENG Haibo, ZHU Jinpeng, LI Xianbao, WU Xiaowei, JIANG Yi
2018, 39(21):  109-115.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821016
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Chicken meat sausages with different contents of salt (0%, 1%, or 2%) were heated at 60 ℃ at different pressures (0.1, 200, or 400 MPa) for 30 min, with the aim to investigate the effects of high pressure and salt on gel properties of heat-induced protein gels from chicken meat sausages including water-holding capacity, water distribution, texture and microstructure. It was found that the water-holding capacity and texture of the sausages decreased with decreasing salt addition, but high pressure could offset this effect. Compared with heating at atmospheric pressure, heating at 200 MPa pressure significantly improved the water-holding capacity and texture of heat-induced protein gels (P < 0.05), while the reverse effect was observed at 400 MPa (P < 0.05). High pressure promoted the disruption of myofibrillar structure, increased the proportion of immobilized water and decreased the proportion of free water. Heating at 200 MPa produced a dense gel network, whereas the formation of gel works was blocked at 400 MPa. Conclusively, the gel properties of salt reduced chicken sausages could be improved by using an intermediate level of high pressure combined with heating.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Impact of Long-Term Dietary Quercetin Exposure on Breast Development in Mice
MIN Jialing, XU Chunlian, SHU Xiang, QIU Qiqi, NIE Shaoping, XIE Mingyong, HU Xiaojuan
2018, 39(21):  116-121.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821017
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Objective: The negative bioeffects caused by improper dietary intake of some phytoestrogens like quercetin have aroused increasing concerns. The present research used peripubertal female mice as an in vivo model to observe the effect of juvenile exposure to quercetin on breast development as indicated by the expression levels of reproductive endocrine hormone receptors and the proliferative capacity of mammary gland epithelium in adult mice. Methods: The distribution profiles of quercetin metabolites in plasma and partial breast tissue were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight/mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF/MS). The expression levels of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and the proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: The contents of quercetin metabolites in breast tissue were much higher than in plasma, suggesting local accumulation of quercetin metabolites. At a dosage of 5 mg/(kg·d), quercetin dramatically increased estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression and suppressed ERβ and PR expression, thereby increasing ERα/β expression ratio in mammary gland epithelium. Conclusion: Given local accumulation of quercetin metabolites, breast tissue is very sensitive to quercetin exposure. It seems likely that peripubertal exposure to quercetin obviously alters the profile of reproductive hormone receptor expression in breast tissue during adulthood, thereby rendering the breast more sensitive to carcinogens.
Effect of Model Biscuits on Digestive Stability and Immunoreactivity of Wheat and Peanut Allergens
RAO Huan, TIAN Yang, LI Xi, XUE Wentong
2018, 39(21):  122-128.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821018
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Food processing and interactions between different food components affect the bioavailability and immunoreactivity of allergens. However, the impacts of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility and the immunoreactivity of allergens are poorly understood. The digestibility and immunogenicity of wheat and peanut allergens in wheat-based model biscuits were assessed in an in vitro digestion system including simulated mastication and gastroduodenal digestion using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis. Our results demonstrated that peanut and wheat allergens were rapidly digested after exposure to pepsin. The wheat allergens were degraded into low-molecular-mass polypeptides. The peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 almost disappeared, and Ara h 2/6 was resistant to gastrointestinal digestion. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed decreased allergenicity of the allergens after digestion. Taken together, these findings showed that the digestive stability of the model biscuits was not affected by the baking process and other ingredients and the immunoreactivity was reduced due to the digestion of allergens.
Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Intestinal Absorption and Transport of the Pollutant Cadmium in Cooked Rice
HE Qiang, Lü Qian, WU Yue, LIN Qinlu, JIA Hongling, NING Yali
2018, 39(21):  129-134.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821019
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In recent years, with the aggravation of water and soil pollution, the situation of cadmium pollution in rice has got more and more serious in China. The primary route of cadmium exposure in humans is dietary digestion, and it is absorbed in the small intestine. In this study, the cadmium contents in contaminated raw and cooked rice were analyzed, and then the bioaccessibility of cadmium after digestion was determined by using an in vitro oral-gastric-intestinal digestion model. Finally, a Caco-2/HT-29 cell co-culture model was used to evaluate the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the absorption and transport rates of cadmium in the digestive fluid of cooked rice. The results indicated that cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase was (73.58 ± 1.92)% after simulated digestion for 2 h, and (36.29 ± 1.25)% in the small intestinal phase after simulated digestion for 7 h. Moreover, EGCG significantly reduced the absorption and transport rates of cadmium in the digestive fluid of cooked rice, at 21.82 and 43.64 μmol/L by 5.56% and 13.89% compared with the control group, respectively. This study may provide a new insight into dietary intervention for in general populations in cadmium exposure regions.
Pigment Composition and Anticancer Effect on Hepatoma Carcinoma of Greening Garlic
LIU Wei, WANG Jingya, CHEN Haixia
2018, 39(21):  135-141.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821020
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Objective: To investigate the inhibitory effect of two pigments extracted from greening garlic on hepatoma carcinoma. Methods: Green garlic was extracted with 75% cold ethanol and the crude extract was separated by AB-8 macroporous resin column chromatography to obtain blue pigment (BP) and yellow pigment (YP). The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2- thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide method was used to investigate the inhibitory effect of purified BP-1 and YP-3 on the proliferation of HepG2 cells. An H22 tumor-bearing mouse model was established and 80 H22 tumor-bearing mice were divided into 8 groups: model group, positive control group (cyclophosphamide, CTX, 20 mg/kg), BP low-, middle- and high-dose groups (L-BP, M-BP, H-BP; 75, 150, 300 mg/kg), and YP low-, middle- and high-dose groups (L-YP, M-YP, H-YP; 75, 150, 300 mg/kg) for 14 days, with the aim to study the effects of the pigments on tumor growth, immune organ index, and water and food efficiency. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver and the levels of cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in serum were measured. Pathological analysis of tumor tissues in mice was carried out. Results: Compared with the model group, the tumor volume in the BP and YP groups were significantly smaller (P < 0.05) accompanied by a slower growth rate of transplanted tumors, and the thymus and spleen indexes were significantly increased (P < 0.05), suggesting improved immune function and inhibited tumor growth in H22 tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, both pigments increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, decreased the content of MDA, and consequently attenuated liver inflammation. Compared with the model group, the expression levels of IL-2 and TNF-α in the treatment groups were increased (P < 0.05), and the expression level of VEGF was decreased by 63%. Conclusion: BP and YP from green garlic have anticancer activity on hepatoma carcinoma, which lays the foundation for the development of garlic-based functional foods.
Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Peony Stamens on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Toxicity in RAW264.7 Cells
LUO Lei, GUAN Ningning, YANG Yongqing, ZHANG Bingjie, MA Liping, ZHU Wenxue
2018, 39(21):  142-148.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821021
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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of flavonoids from peony stamens (PSF) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in RAW264.7 cells. Methods: This experiment was divided into blank, model, control and low-, medium- and high-dose PSF groups. RAW264.7 cells were injured by H2O2 and the cell viability was measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inside the cells and in the culture medium were determined by commercial kits. Results: The flavonoids at concentrations in the range of 10–30 μg/mL significantly enhanced the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the flavonoids at all concentrations could increase total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), SOD and CAT and GSH content, reduce MDA content in the cultured cells and culture medium and improve LDH activity in the cells. Conclusion: Flavonoids from peony stamens can enhance the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells and protect them against H2O2-induced toxicity in a dose-dependent manner.
Sport Fatigue-Alleviating Effect of Ophiocordyceps lanpingensis
KONG Na, YU Hong, ZHANG Yanyan, GE Feng
2018, 39(21):  149-154.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821022
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Objective: To investigate the anti-fatigue effect of Ophiocordyceps lanpingensis (OL) in mice. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into five groups: negative control (orally administered with distilled water), positive control (administered with 600 mg/(kg·d mb) of American ginseng) and OL low-, medium- and high-dose (gavaged with OL powder at doses of 450, 900, and 1 800 mg/(kg·d mb) , respectively) groups. After administration for 30 days, the weight-loading swimming time as well as blood lactic acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glycogen (LG) and antioxidant enzyme activities and other fatigue-related blood parameters in the mice were determined. Results: Ophiocordyceps lanpingensis could increase the weight-loading swimming time of mice at all doses (P < 0.05); the mice from the middle- and high-dose group showed significantly reduced levels of BUN after exercise (P < 0.05); the mice from the high-dose group and the positive control group could significantly improve LG level (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, Ophiocordyceps lanpingensis improved blood hemoglobin and blood sugar levels, increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced blood malondialdehyde content. Conclusion: Ophiocordyceps lanpingensis has an anti-fatigue effect in mice.
Analysis of in Vitro Intestinal Microbial Metabolites of Procyanidin A2 and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activity
YANG Guangmei, LI Tongyun, ZHANG Yuying, YANG Ruili, LI Wu
2018, 39(21):  155-159.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821023
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The metabolites of procyanidin A2 (PCA2) were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatographyquadrupole- time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) after incubation with the rat intestinal microbiota in vitro. The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging ability of PCA2 and its metabolites at different incubation times were measured and compared. PCA2 was degraded by 77.28% at 6 h and by 90.07% at 24 h of incubation. Eight metabolites were identified namely: 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, epicatechin, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, B type proanthocyanidins, 5,7,2’-trihydroxyflavanone, and three unknown compounds. The antioxidant capacity of PCA2 was enhanced significantly after incubation. T-AOC, DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging ability after incubation for 6 h were significantly increased by 2.01, 2.16 and 1.34 times, respectively compared with that before incubation. The results suggested that the activity of PCA2 might be partially attributed to its intestinal microbial metabolites.
Mechanism by Which Lactobacillus paracasei FM-M9-1 Repairs D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice
WANG Ying, XIA Xiudong, DONG Yue, LIU Xiaoli, ZHOU Jianzhong
2018, 39(21):  160-165.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821024
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Objective: To analyze the mechanism by which Lactobacillus paracasei FM-M9-1 repairs oxidative damage in mice. Methods: A mouse model of oxidative damage was induced by D-galactose. The model mice were gavaged with strain FM-M9-1 at low and high doses of (5.01 ± 0.05) × 1010 and (5.01 ± 0.05) × 108 CFU/mL for 60 successive days, separately. Vitamin C was used as a positive control drug. Afterwards, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl groups in renal and hepatic tissues were measured. We also examined the expression levels of Sod, Gsh-Px, Nrf2 and Trx by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results: The administration of FM-M9-1 significantly enhanced SOD and GSH-Px activities and reduced MDA and protein carbonyl contents. At the transcriptional level, qPCR analysis suggested that the gene expression of Sod, Gsh-Px, Nrf2 and Trx in mice administered with FM-M9-1 increased. Conclusion: Strain FM-M9-1 can alleviate oxidative stress by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibiting lipid and protein oxidation, and up-regulating the expression of antioxidant function-related genes. Overall, strain FM-M9-1 is a promising probiotic candidate for application in functional foods and antioxidant supplements.
Effect of Wild Rice Seeds (Zizania latifolia) on Lipid Metabolism and Inflammatory Factor Expression in Rats
WANG Jing, LIU Yang, ZHANG Hong, WANG Shaokang, SUN Guiju
2018, 39(21):  166-170.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821025
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Objective: To evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of wild rice seeds (Zizania latifolia) on blood lipids and inflammatory factor levels in some tissues of high-fat fed rats with insulin resistance. Methods: Totally 50 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: negative control, insulin resistance model, high-dose wild rice, low-dose wild rice and rice flour groups. Before and after these animals were fed for 8 weeks, body mass and total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured. The SPSS 18.0 software was used to analyze the experimental data. Results: Compared with the insulin resistance model and rice flour groups, body mass and the levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in rats administered with wild rice at both doses declined significantly (P < 0.05), and the level of HDL-C increased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the insulin resistance model group, the level of TNF-α and IL-6 in the high-dose wild rice group significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Both the low-dose and high-dose groups showed a significantly increased level of IL-6 in comparison with the negative control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Wild rice seeds have the potential to improve insulin resistance in high-fat diet fed rats, likely by reducing blood lipids and regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines.
Effect of Total Organic Acid from Wild Apricot on Blood Lipid and the Expression of Related Genes in Hyperlipidemic Rats
Aygul·AHMAT, WANG Miaoying, PENG Zhenfei, FENG Yali, WANG Xiaoyan, Guzalnur·GENI
2018, 39(21):  171-176.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821026
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Objective: To investigate the effect of total organic acid from wild apricot (TOAWA) on blood lipids and to explore the hypolipidemic mechanism of TOAWA in hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: A rat model of hyperlipidemia was established by orally feeding high-fat emulsion. Rats administered with Xuezhikang, a hypolipidemic agent were used as a positive control group. Commercial kits were employed to measure blood lipids and apolipoprotein. The mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) in liver were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and the effect of TOAWA on blood lipids and pathological changes in liver was evaluated. Furthermore, the hypolipidemic mechanism of TOAWA was explored. Results: TOAWA could significantly decrease the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P < 0.01) and apoprotein B (Apo-B) (P < 0.05), and increase the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.05), apoprotein A-1 (ApoA-I) and ApoA-I/Apo-B ratio in the serum of hyperlipoidemic rats (P < 0.01). The mRNA expression levels of PPAR-α and LDL-R were decreased in the liver of hyperlipidemic rats compared with normal ones, and they were increased by intervention with TOAWA. Besides, the degree of hepatic steatosis was alleviated by TOAWA. Conclusion: TOAWA can decrease blood lipid levels in hyperlipoidemic rats by altering the level of apolipoprotein in serum and upregulating the mRNA expression levels of PPAR-α and LDL-R in liver and improving liver function.
Effect of Casein Non-phosphopeptide Combined with Resistance Exercise on Muscle Mass in Rats
ZHANG Na, GUO Qingqi, LIU Xiaofei, GUAN Huanan, GUO Changhui, Ikeda SHINYA, SHI Yanguo
2018, 39(21):  177-182.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821027
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The cross-sectional areas of trunk and lower limb muscle groups, psoas major muscle groups, back muscle groups, beta scapular muscle groups, and left upper limb muscle groups in rats administered with casein non-phosphopeptide (CNPP), a byproduct of the production of casein phosphopeptide (CPP) were determined using a transverse spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner. The results showed that the cross-sectional areas of trunk and lower limb muscle groups, back muscle groups, beta scapular muscle groups, and left upper limb muscle groups from no exercise (NE) rats administered with moderate-dose CNPP were significantly 1.19, 1.16, 1.24 and 1.93 times greater than those of the blank group on day 50, respectively (P < 0.05). The increases in the cross-sectional areas of trunk and lower limb muscle groups, back muscle groups of resistance exercise (RE) rats after administration of high-dose CNPP were significantly higher than those of NE rats (P < 0.05), and also significantly higher than those of RE rats administered with lactalbumin at the same dose (P < 0.05). These findings have demonstrated that a combination of physical exercise and dietary supplementation with CNPP can synergistically improve muscle mass in rats.
Effect of Partially Defatted Flaxseed Meal on Blood Glucose in Rats Fed with High-Fat High-Sugar Diet
LI Peipei, HUANG Qingde, XU Jiqu, ZHANG Yali, MA Congcong, DENG Qianchun
2018, 39(21):  183-188.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821028
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Currently, there is considerable interest in the utilization of flaxseed cake. The effect of partially defatted flaxseed meal (PDFM) processed from flaxseed cake on blood sugar levels in rats fed with a high-fat high-sugar diet was investigated in the present study. SD rats were divided into 6 groups (n = 9): normal, high-fat high-sugar model, acarbose treatment (positive control), low-dose PDFM (5% PDFM), middle-dose PDFM (10% PDFM) and high-dose PDFM (20% PDFM) groups. After intervention for 8 weeks, fasting blood glucose was measured, and glucose tolerance test was carried out. Then, the rats were sacrificed and dissected to observe the internal organs and determine liver index, pancreas index and abdominal fat index as well as glycosylated hemoglobin, liver glycogen and serum lipid. The results showed that 1) fasting blood glucose levels in the model, low-, medium-, and high-dose PDFM groups were (7.15 ± 1.22), (6.34 ± 0.48), (5.82 ± 0.36), and (5.03 ± 0.32) mmol/L, respectively, which were found to contain 5, 1, 0 and 0 rats with fasting blood glucose levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L, indicating that PDFM could inhibit hyperglycemia and diabetes development in high-fat highsugar diet fed rats, and the anti-hyperglycemia effect was highly dose dependent and significant in the middle- and high-dose groups compared with the model group (P < 0.05); 2) middle- and high-dose PDFM was as effective as acarbose in reducing reduced fasting blood glucose, which was (5.14 ± 0.33) mmol/L in the acarbose treatment group. Taking into consideration its effect on all above parameters, PDFM has great potential as an auxiliary hypoglycemic agent.
Regulatory Effect of Tea Polyphenol Extracts from Huangshan Maofeng Tea on the Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Cyp3a11
ZUO Dan, LIU Dong, LI Shiqi, QIN Yifei, SUN Haiyan, MING Jian
2018, 39(21):  189-195.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821029
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In this paper, we explored the effect of tea polyphenols from Huangshan Maofeng tea on the mRNA and protein expression levels of the drug-metabolizing enzyme Cyp3a11 and pregnane X receptor (PXR) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) and Western blot. We further used the transient co-transfection reporter gene assay to verify the role of PXR in regulating Cyp3a11 expression. The results showed that the tea polyphenols at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/(kg·d) could significantly induce the mRNA and protein expression of PXR and Cyp3a11. Reporter gene screening showed that the tea polyphenols at doses of 100, 200 and 300 μg/mL could significantly enhance cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) luciferase activity by (3.86 ± 0.05), (4.82 ± 0.72) and (5.38 ± 0.11) folds through the PXR pathway as compared to the solvent control group. Therefore, tea polyphenols from Huangshan Maofeng tea can significantly upregulate CYP3A4 expression via activating the PXR-CYP3A4 pathway.
Purification and Composition Analysis of Antitumor Compounds from Styela plicata against Lung Cancer A549 Cells
MAO Kailin, LIN Fang, XU Teng, YU Zuoting, ZHOU Hailong
2018, 39(21):  196-202.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821030
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To evaluate the antitumor efficacy of the methanol extracts from the tunic and viscera of Styela plicata, the inhibitory effect on proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells was measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and the effect on cell morphology and apoptosis was examined using an inverted microscope, a fluorescence-activated cell sorter and a fluorescence microscope. Besides, the chemical composition of potent antitumor fractions was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the methanol extracts from the tunic and viscera of Styela plicata could inhibit the growth of human lung cancer A549 cells at a concentration equal to or greater than 100 μg/mL but not at lower concentrations (25–75 μg/mL). In vitro tests showed that 8 column chromatographic fractions significantly inhibiting the growth of A549 cells were separated from the methanol extracts and among these, column eluted fraction 6 from visceral methanol extract (VCEF-6) separated from the visceral methanol extract exhibited the strongest antitumor activity with a half inhibition concentration of 168.7 μg/mL at 24 h. Further observation and analysis using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscope showed that the inhibitory effect of VCEF-6 on cell proliferation was related to induction of cell apoptosis. GC-MS analysis showed that VCEF-6 contained 22 known compounds, including 6 sterols, 6 alkanes, 6 aliphatic acid esters and 4 aromatic compounds. In conclusion, VCEF-6 has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of A549 cells and induces cell apoptosis in vitro.
Biotransformation of Ginkgo biloba Pollen Flavonoid Glycosides by Lacbacillus perolens B2 and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities
QIU Jiying, WEI Chaozhi, CHEN Xiangyan, YANG Jinyu, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Leilei, WANG Yifen, LI Dapeng
2018, 39(21):  203-209.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821031
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Objective: This paper describes the effect of biotransformation by Lacbacillus perolens B2 on the flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Ginkgo biloba pollen. Methods: The yields and high performance liquid chromatography of the ethanol extracts of G. biloba pollen and its bioconverted products and their fractions in petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol phases were analyzed, and their in vitro antioxidant activities were evaluated by 2-2’-azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities. By the protective effect on H2O2-induced injury in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages, their cellular antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Results: After bioconversion by L. perolens B2, the yields of all the extract and fractions were increased. The main flavonoid glycosides of G. biloba pollen were transformed into flavone aglycones such as kaempferol, enriched in the ethyl acetate phase. The in vitro antioxidant activities were improved as well, and the ethyl acetate extractable fraction of the biotransformation products showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity. Cell experiments showed that the extracts of G. biloba pollen and its biotransformation products and their ethyl acetate soluble fractions could alleviate H2O2- induced apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The biotransformed extract and its ethyl acetate soluble fraction had stronger ability to protect RAW264.7 macrophages from H2O2-induced damage than their native counterparts. The biotransformed ethyl acetate soluble fraction had the highest protective ability, and it could completely protect RAW264.7 macrophages from H2O2-induced damage at a concentration of 15 μg/mL. Conclusion: L. perolens B2 can biotransform the major flavonoid glycosides of G. biloba pollen into flavone aglycones such as kaempferol and significantly improve the yields, in vitro antioxidant activities and protection against H2O2-induced injury in RAW264.7 macrophages of the crude extract and its fractions in various organic solvents (P < 0.05). The biotransformed ethyl acetate soluble fraction has the highest antioxidant activity.
Protective Effect of Hawthorn Pectin Oligogalacturonide Extract against Ultraviolet B-Induced Oxidative Damage and Photoaging in HaCaT Cells
LIU Suwen, WU Zhanyi, YOU Lu, CHANG Xuedong
2018, 39(21):  210-218.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821032
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In this study, the protective effects of hawthorn pectin oligogalacturonide extract against oxidative damage and photoaging induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) in HaCaT cells were explored. HaCaT cells were cultured and divided into four groups, including control group, radiation (30 mJ/cm2) group, low-dose (5 μg/mL oligogalacturonide extract) with 30 mJ/cm2 radiation group, and high-dose (10 μg/mL oligogalacturonide extract) with 30 mJ/cm2 radiation group. Cell viability was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tetrazolium (MTT) method. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected using commercial kits, and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxyproline (Hyp) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also measured. The secretion levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that the cell viability of HaCaT cells significantly decreased after UVB exposure. Low- and high-dose hawthrown pectin oligogalacturonide extract had a significant growth promoting effect on UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells (P < 0.05). In addition, the extract significantly increased the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT, decreased LDH activity, ROS level and MDA content, augmented hydroxyproline concentration, and reduced the secretion levels of MMP-1, TNF-α and IL-6 compared with the model group. The mRNA expression levels of MMP-1, TNF-α and IL-6 as determined by realtime polymerase chain reaction were in agreement with the production of MMP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6. Therefore, hawthrown pectin oligogalacturonide has a protective effect against UVB radiation-induced oxidative damage and photoaging in HaCaT cells.
Structure of Airborne Microbial Communities in Different Slaughter Areas of Poultry Slaughterhouse
DAI Baoling, XIAO Yingping, SUN Fenglai, WANG Peipei, GUI Guohong, DAI Xianjun, YANG Hua
2018, 39(21):  219-223.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821033
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In order to understand the distribution and structure of airborne microbial communities in poultry slaughterhouses, the quantity of airborne microorganisms in different areas of a slaughterhouse in Zhejiang province before and after slaughter was compared by measuring the total number of colonies, and total bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from the air samples and used as a template to amplify and sequence the V3–V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene by high throughout sequencing. The results showed that there was a difference in the number of airborne microorganisms in different slaughter areas of the poultry slaughterhouse and the microbial quantity after slaughter was higher than before slaughter. Especially, the total number of colonies after slaughter was 71% higher than before slaughter in the poultry hanging area. High throughput sequencing showed no significant differences in the diversity, structure and abundance of bacterial communities before and after slaughter for all slaughter areas (P > 0.05). The majority of the identified bacteria belonged to 6 phyla, and the dominant bacteria were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, with total relative abundance of more than 84%. In the top 10 genera, Staphylococcus and Acinetobacter were the dominant bacteria, accounting for 36.90% and 13%, respectively. In addition, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas and Escherichia as conditional pathogenic bacteria accounted for 33.75%, 4.65% and 0.90% in the top 35 genera, respectively. These data suggested that there were some differences in the number of airborne bacteria in different slaughter areas, and a certain number of conditional pathogens were detected in air samples from each area. In conclusion, this study provides a scientific basis for the traceability of microbial contaminants in chicken and improving poultry slaughterhouse hygiene management.
Effect of Dietary Flaxseed Powder on Intestinal Flora Structure in Healthy Adults
WANG Hanlin, WEI Junshu, LI Chenhui, JING Yaping, ZHAO Tang, ZHANG Xuegui, ZHANG Chunjiang
2018, 39(21):  224-229.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821034
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The intestine is an important organ for metabolism in the human body. It is home to a large number of bacteria that play a vital role in the metabolic process. Flaxseed is rich in essential fatty acids, dietary fiber, lignans and other nutrients, and it has the function of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, improving intestinal function, and regulating estrogen levels and so on. In order to explore the effect of ingestion of flaxseed on the human intestinal flora, healthy adult volunteers were recruited for receiving dietary intervention with flaxseed (0.6 g/(kg·d)) for 21 d. We collected fecal samples at the before and after the experimental period for high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and high-throughput gas chromatography analysis. The data showed that the intestinal microbial diversity (Shannon index) was increased after the intake of flaxseed, while the proportion of the dominant bacteria of Firmicutes in obese populations was down-regulated, and the content of short-chain fatty acids in all fecal samples was increased. This experiment proved that the intake of flaxseed could change the intestinal microflora structure of healthy adults, increase the intestinal microbial diversity, and promote the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in intestine, maintaining the intestinal microenvironment and preventing intestinal diseases. In additional, some changes in the structure of the intestinal microflora may be beneficial to prevent the risk of obesity.
Packaging & Storage
Effect of Volatile Monomers from Hanseniaspora uvarum on Controlling Postharvest Gray Mold of Strawberry
YU Wei, SONG Yue, SHE Zhonglu, XI Yuting, GUO Hongna, JIANG Chunhao, XIAO Hongmei
2018, 39(21):  230-236.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821035
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The effects of 21 volatile monomers from Hanseniaspora uvarum on spore germination and mycelial growth of the gray mold Botrytis cinerea were evaluated under in vitro conditions. This study also determined the efficacy of ethyl 3-hydroxybhexanoate, ethyl caprate, cinnamaldehyde and ethyl caprylate to control postharvest gray mold in strawberries. The results showed that all volatile monomers except lauric acid inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination of Botrytis cinerea, which was completely inhibited by cinnamaldehyde at 62.5 and 625 μL/L, respectively. All four volatile monomers tested suppressed the occurrence of gray mold, maintained the color, and inhibited the decrease of total soluble solids, titratable acid and hardness of postharvest strawberry. Among these, cinnamaldehyde had the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against strawberry gray mold disease with good commercial prospects.
Quality Changes in Crude and Refined Fish Oil at Different Storage Temperatures
SONG Gongshuai, ZHANG Mengna, PENG Xi, ZHU Fengxian, SHEN Qing, DAI Zhiyuan
2018, 39(21):  237-244.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821036
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In order to evaluate the stability of crude and refined fish oil at different storage temperatures, fish oil samples were stored in four thermostats at 35, 25, 15 and 5 ℃ for 120 days, respectively and changes in physicochemical indexes (acid value, peroxide value, and anisidine value), fatty acid profile, and volatile compounds were detected at regular intervals during the storage period. The results showed that the effect of storage temperature on the quality of fish oil was significant and the higher the temperature, the worse the stability and the greater the quality changed. Moreover, the stability of refined fish oil was worse than that of crude fish oil. During the storage period, the acid value, peroxide value and anisidine value of fish oil increased significantly; the content of total saturated fatty acid (SFA) increased, and the content of total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) decreased, thereby decreasing the overall degree of unsaturation. In addition, the volatile flavor compounds 1-penten-3-ol, nonanal, hexanal, 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone, acetic acid, and butyric acid changed significantly, greatly affecting the overall flavor of fish oil. The results from the present study will provide a theoretical basis for improving the storage stability and prolonging the shelf life of fish oil.
Effect of Different Modified Atmospheric Conditions on Physicochemical Properties and Volatile Flavor Compounds of Microwaved Spicy Diced Chicken during Refrigerated Storage
REN Sijie, HU Lülin, SHEN Qing, CHEN Jianchu, YE Xingqian, LIU Donghong
2018, 39(21):  245-252.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821037
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To investigate the effects of different modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions on the quality of microwaved spicy diced chicken (MSDC) during cold storage, MSDC was packaged with different gas proportions: A: 100% N2, B: 10% O2 + 90% N2, C: 20% O2 + 80% N2, D: 20% O2 + 40% N2 + 40% CO2; E: 20% O2 + 80% CO2. All samples were stored at 4 ℃ for 30 days. Changes in peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total microbial count (TMC), pH, sulphur content, and the contents of major volatile compounds were determined during the storage period. The results showed that POV, TBA value and TMC increased significantly and sulphur content decreased markedly during storage. High O2 levels negatively affected fat oxidation and the growth of microorganisms. Carbon dioxide could inhibit the growth of microorganisms and decrease fat, protein oxidation. In addition, different MAP conditions and different storage durations had significant impacts on the types and contents of major volatile compounds.
Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment on Postharvest Physiology and Storage Quality of Anxi Persimmon Fruit
WANG Hui, CHEN Yanhua, LIN Hetong, CHEN Yihui, LIN Yifen
2018, 39(21):  253-259.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821038
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The effect of treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on the postharvest physiology and storage quality of Anxi persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. f. cv. Anxi) fruit was investigated. The fruit were treated with 1.35 μL/L 1-MCP for 12 h, and stored at (20 ± 1) ℃ and 85% relative humidity. The results showed that compared with the control fruit, 1-MCP treatment effectively reduced the respiration intensity, inhibited the change in the chromaticity values of a*, b*, C* and L* and hue angle (h) of the fruit surface, inhibited the decrease of chlorophyll content and the increase of carotenoid content in pericarp, and reduced the increase of red index, thus maintaining better color appearance. In addition, 1-MCP treatment maintained higher fruit firmness and higher contents of total soluble solid, titratable acid, total sugars, sucrose, reducing sugar, vitamin C and tannin. Moreover, 1-MCP treatment reduced fruit mass loss. Therefore, it can be concluded that 1.35 μL/L 1-MCP treatment can delay fruit ripening and senescence, as well as improve the quality of Anxi persimmon during postharvest storage.
Preparation and Characterization of Sodium Alginate-Gelatin-Ellagic Acid Blended Film
JIAO Xinxin, ZHAO Lei, WANG Kai, HU Zhuoyan
2018, 39(21):  260-265.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821039
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Five sodium alginate and gelatin-based films incorporated with ellagic acid were prepared at different pH values by casting method. The properties and structure of the films were characterized by opacity, mass loss percentage, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, the diameter of inhibition zone of bacterial growth, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that opacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity of the films was increased significantly by adding ellagic acid, and the film properties were also affected by changing pH. All the blended films exerted antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphyloccocus aureus especially against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and Salmonella). The film prepared at pH 9.0 had the best performance, with opacity of 15.54, water solubility of 0.38%, water vapor transmission coefficient of 0.74 × 10-10 g/(m·s·Pa), and DPPH radical scavenging rate of 57.42%. According to the FTIR spectra and SEM, all films had a complete morphology and structure, and were well cross-linked with good compatibility.
Effect of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on the Quality of Muscles from Different Parts of Scophthalmus maximus
JING Yuexin, ZHAO Yunping, ZHANG Jinhao, LIU Fang, LIU Huihui, LI Zhenduo, WANG Gongming, ZHANG Jian
2018, 39(21):  266-272.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821040
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In order to explore the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on the quality of Scophthalmus maximus, the upper dorsal, lower dorsal, upper abdominal and lower abdominal muscles of the fish were monitored for changes in pH, thawing loss, cooking loss, shear force, texture properties and the types of water molecules after different freeze-thaw cycles. The results indicated that pH value first increased and then decreased during freeze-thaw cycles and the maximum value was observed after one cycle. As the number of freeze-thaw cycles increased, exudate loss during thawing and cooking and the contents of crude protein and polysaccharide in the exudates significantly increased (P < 0.05). After 5 freeze-thaw cycles, the upper dorsal and lower abdominal muscles showed the lowest and highest thawing loss of 18.54% and 23.85%, respectively, and the lower dorsal and upper abdominal muscles showed the lowest and highest cooking loss of 31.32% and 32.66%, respectively. In addition, the hardness, gumminess and chewiness gradually increased, the springiness declined, and the shear force dropped significantly (P < 0.05). T2 relaxation time revealed that all four muscles showed almost no change in bound water and a decrease in free water, with the greatest decrease (from 45.43 to 19.36) being observed for the upper dorsal muscle during freeze-thaw cycles. Therefore, freeze-thaw cycles significantly reduce the quality of Scophthalmus maximus, and this effect increases with increasing number of freeze-thaw cycles.
Effect of Preharvest 1-(2-Chloropyridin-4-yl)-3-phenylurea Treatment on Fruit Firmness and Cell Wall Degradation of ‘Qinmei’ Kiwifruit during Cold Storage
LI Yuanyuan, LUO Anwei, LI Lin, SU Miao, LIN Zhiying, SONG Junqi, BAI Junqing, FANG Yimeng
2018, 39(21):  273-278.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821041
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The effect of preharvest forchlorfenuron (1-(2-chloropyridin-4-yl)-3-phenylurea, CPPU) treatment on fruit firmness and cell wall degrading enzyme activities in ‘Qinmei’ kiwifruit during cold storage was studied by dipping young fruits with 0, 5, 10 or 20 mg/L CPPU solution 28 days after flowering. Control fruits were dipped in water. All fruits were dipped for 3–5 s. The results showed that CPPU treatment accelerated the decline in fruit firmness and the contents of protopectin and cellulose and increased the content of soluble pectin and cell wall degrading enzyme activities, including polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), cellulase (Cx) and beta galactosidase (β-Gal). For all treatment groups, fruit firmness was significantly negatively correlated with soluble pectin content and PG and Cx activity (P < 0.01), and was significantly positively correlated with protopectin and cellulose contents (P < 0.01). The firmness of 20 mg/L CPPU treated fruits was significantly negatively correlated with β-Gal activity (P < 0.05). CPPU treatment enhanced the activity of cell wall degrading enzymes, sped up the degradation of cell wall components, accelerated fruit softening during storage, and reduced storability. In order to maintain the firmness of post-harvest kiwifruit and prolong the storage period, CPPU should not be used or used at a concentration at a concentration not exceeding 5 mg/L.
Effect of ClO2 Sterilization Combined with Chitosan Oligosaccharide Coating on Maintaining the Quality of Waxy Corn
GONG Kuijie, CHEN Lirong, QI Guodong, LI Xiaoyue, SUN Linlin, LIU Kaichang
2018, 39(21):  279-284.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821042
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In this paper, the separate and combined effects of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) sterilization and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) coating on bacterial growth inhibition, polyphenol and lignin content, lignin accumulation rate, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity and peroxidase (POD) activity in fresh waxy corn during storage were compared. It turned out that the combination of 200 mg/L ClO2 and 15 mg/mL COS exhibited a good inhibitory effect on pathogen infection. After 35 d of storage, total mold and yeast count in the combined treatment group was (2.30 ± 0.12) (lg(CFU/g)), which was significantly lower than that in the ClO2 ((3.78 ± 0.16) (lg (CFU/g))) and COS ((4.18 ± 0.09) (lg(CFU/g))) treatment groups (P < 0.05). The combined treatment could reduce lignin accumulation rate, and reduce and maintain polyphenol content to a low level. Furthermore, the combined treatment inhibited the rapid increase of PAL activity and reduce the level of phenylpropane metabolism. It could also reduce POD activity and keep it at a low level during storage, thus reducing lignin accumulation.
Reviews
Progress in Bilayer Emulsions as a Delivery System for Functional Food Components
Lü Peifeng, WANG Di, GAO Yanxiang, YUAN Fang
2018, 39(21):  285-292.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821043
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Bilayer emulsion is a multilayer emulsion, and it is generally prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. Bilayer emulsion forms double interface layers that consist of some biopolymers (such as proteins and polysaccharides) or phospholipids and small molecular surfactants (Tween) via electrostatic adsorption or covalent bond on the surface of emulsion droplets. Compared with the traditional single layer emulsion, bilayer emulsion has more advantages in stability, resistance to environmental stresses (such as pH, temperature, and ionic strength) and the ability to protect encapsulated bioactive substances and control their release for use as a delivery system. Because of its unique advantages, bilayer emulsion has broad prospects for application in the food industry and functional foods. The present article reviews the preparation, interface layer components and stability of bilayer emulsions. The advantages and applications of bilayer emulsions in food industry are also presented.
Differences in Structural Lipids between Infant Formula and Breast Milk and Their Effects on Physiological Functions of Infants
XIE Yuejie, WANG Zhongming, XIONG Zhengwei, WANG Cun, RAN Yuanjiao, WANG Qiang
2018, 39(21):  293-298.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821044
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The difference between breast-fed and formula-fed babies can be attributed to the differences in the quantity and quality of various components between human milk and infant formula, especially the structure and type of triglycerides. This paper summarize the current status of our knowledge concerning the differences in structural lipids between various infant formulas and human milk and reviews the differences between two feeding patterns in digestion and absorption, feces excretion, fatty acid metabolism and so on, and the effects of various lipid structural lipids on infants’ physical health are also discussed.
Recent Progress in Research on Components and Functional Properties of Tea Tree Oil
GENG Xin, GAO Zhipeng, ZHANG Kaiqi, SONG Jingyi, XU Mengyue, ZHANG Jianyuan, XIAO Junsong, WU Hua
2018, 39(21):  299-307.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821045
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Tea tree oil is the common name for the volatile essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia leaves. In this paper, we review recent progress in the chemical components and quality and safety standards of tea tree oil. Meanwhile, the antibacterial and antifungal activity and mechanism of action of tea tree oil and its antiviral, insecticidal and antiinflammatory activity as well as its applications in the fields of medicine and food are summarized. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis for comprehensive utilization of tea tree oil.
Advances in Application of Pulsed Electric Field in Fruit and Vegetable Juice Sterilization
MA Yaqin, LI Nannan, ZHANG Zhen
2018, 39(21):  308-315.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821046
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The application of pulsed electric field (PEF) as a non-thermal pasteurization technology can maintain the safety, stability and fresh quality of fruit and vegetable juice, and PEF is a hot research subject and one of the most promising technologies in the food processing area due to the advantages of short operation time, low temperature and low power consumption. This manuscript reviews the mechanism and efficiency of sterilization of fruit and vegetable juice by PEF, the factors affecting the sterilization efficiency and the combined application of PEF with other technologies. Moreover, future prospects for its application in fruit and vegetable juice processing are discussed.
Progress in Research on Polysaccharides from Dendrobium Plants
ZHOU Sijing, LIU Guijun, ZHOU Min, YANG Suling, QIAO Yuchen, WANG Ping, GU Haike
2018, 39(21):  316-322.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821047
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As an important group of bioactive components in Dendrobium plants, polysaccharides possess many bioactivities such as anti-tumor, antioxidant and immuno-stimulatory properties. In this article, we summarize recent progress made in the extraction, purification, structure and bioactivities of Dendrobium polysaccharides.
Comparative Analysis of Pig Inspection and Quarantine Systems in the European Union and China and Its Enlightenment to China
LI Dan, ZANG Mingwu, GAO Shengpu, LI Xiaoman, ZHANG Kaihua, WANG Shouwei, ZHANG Zheqi, XUE Dandan, ZHANG Peng
2018, 39(21):  323-329.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821048
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The European Union (EU) is the world’s second largest pork producer and consumer and its live pig inspection and quarantine system is well established. A comparative analysis of the live pig inspection and quarantine systems in the EU and China is carried out in this paper with respect to the legal and regulatory systems, the supervisory responsibilities, the requirements for the qualifications and number of inspection and quarantine personnel, the charging systems, the scope and contents of inspection and quarantine. On the basis of our national conditions, some suggestions are put forward to improve the live pig inspection and quarantine system in China in four aspects.
Research Achievements in Bioactive Components, Pharmacological Effects and Applications of Cordyceps militaris
ZUO Jinhui, GONG Xiaoyan, DONG Yinmao, LI Li
2018, 39(21):  330-339.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201821049
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In this paper, the structures of bioactive components in Cordyceps militaris, such as nucleosides, polysaccharides, polypeptides, sterols and organic acids, are summarized. The recent domestic and oversea studies on pharmacological effects of Cordyceps militaris are reviewed, focusing on immunoregulatory, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, neuroprotective, sexual function-enhancing, and anti-radiation effects. Finally, the applications of Cordyceps militaris in the fields of food, medicine, health care and cosmetics are summarized.