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Table of Content

15 February 2019, Volume 40 Issue 3
Basic Research
Extraction Kinetic Modelling and Structural Characteristics of Polysaccharides from Linze Jujube Fruit
XU Ye, LIU Xiaofeng, WANG Yonggang, REN Haiwei, LIU Jichao, ZHANG Xuan, FAN Wenguang, YANG Mingjun
2019, 40(3):  1-8.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171028-329
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The extraction of polysaccharides from Linze jujube fruit (LZJP) by hot extraction followed by ethanol precipitation was studied. The physicochemical properties and microstructure of LZJP were analyzed. Based on Fick’s first law of diffusion, the mass transfer kinetics of polysaccharides at different temperatures and solid to solvent ratios were investigated and a kinetic model was established for the extraction process. The key model parameters including rate constant, relative extraction rate, activation energy and half-life were calculated. The experimental data were found to be well fitted to the kinetic model and the extraction process obeyed first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 19.266 kJ/mol, indicating that hot water extraction could enable effective extraction of polysaccharides from Linze jujube fruit. Purification of LZJP by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography yielded homogenous polysaccharides LZJP3 and LZJP4, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that LZJP3 and LZJP4 were acidic polysaccharides and β-pyran polysaccharides. Atomic force microscopy indicated that LZJP3 molecules were loosely arranged with uniform size and shape and that LZJP4 had a small amount of globular aggregates and a large number of dispersions with unequal sizes. Scanning electron microscopy showed that LZJP3 was flaky with a smooth but slightly damaged surface; LZJP4 was branched with a?wrinkled and dry surface.
Variation of Umami Taste and Identification of Umami Peptides during Thermal Treatment of Yeast Extract
Aygul·ALIM, SONG Huanlu, LIU Ye, ZOU Tingting, ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Songpei
2019, 40(3):  9-15.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180123-306
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In this study, yeast extract was subjected to thermal treatment at different temperatures, and the changes in the contents of nucleotides and umami amino acids, as well as peptide components were determined. The sensory properties were evaluated by electronic tongue. A difference in the umami intensity of yeast extract when treated at different temperatures was observed for each concentration. The umami taste was strongest upon treatment at 110 ℃. Four umami taste peptides were separated and purified by ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography and ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). They were identified as Gln-Leu, Pro-Glu-Thr, Ala-Pro-Ala and His-Val.
Bioavailability of Carotenoids in Restructured Carrot Chips
HOU Chunhui, YI Jianyong, BI Jinfeng, JIN Xinwen, PENG Jian, LIU Jianing, ZHAO Yuanyuan, LIU Changjin
2019, 40(3):  16-23.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171220-234
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The effects of processing methods and mastication levels (chewing 5, 15 and 30 times) on the digestion characteristics and bioavailability of carotenoids in restructured carrot chips, carrot chips and fresh carrots were investigated by using an in vitro digestion model. Significant differences in the average particle size of the digesta of fresh carrots and carrot chips were observed (P < 0.05). The average particle size of the digesta was gradually increased with increasing extent of mastication, indicating that more particles suspended in the digesta after mastication could readily cause fluocculation. Confocal fluorescence microscopic observation showed that lipid droplets were bound to the samples to form large aggregates in the mouth. Lipid droplets were dispersed in the gastric digesta, and then were digested to form micelles in the small intestine, which was positively related to the bioavailability of carotenoids. The content of carotenoids was the highest and the bioavailability of carotenoids was the lowest in fresh carrots. However, although the content of carotenoids in restructured carrot chips was lower than that in other chips, the bioavailability of carotenoids in the sample was higher, and chewing degree showed no significant influence on the bioavailability of carotenoids in it (P > 0.05). In conclusion, restructured carrot chips are effective in supplementary carotenoids as a snack food due to the superior digestive behavior and bioavailability of carotenoids.
Comparison of Different Kinetic Models for Tea Polyphenols Released from Poly-(vinyl alcohol) Films into Water
CHEN Chenwei,, XU Zhewei, MA Yarui, XIE Jing,,, ZHANG Qinjun, TANG Zhipeng, YANG Fuxin,
2019, 40(3):  24-29.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171128-336
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Different kinetic models describing tea polyphenols (TP) released from poly-(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films into water were investigated. The release behavior of TP was studied through release experiments. The experimental data were fitted to four kinetic models and the goodness of fit of the models was analyzed. The results showed that the percentage of released TP from PVA films decreased with increasing TP content. The Fickian model and the Fickian+ first-order kinetic model could simulate TP release well (R2 ≥ 97.27), with the latter being more effective than the former. Although the Weibull model exhibited worse goodness of fit than the above two models (R2 ≥ 85.21), it could simulate TP release well during the period from the beginning to the initial equilibrium stage (R2 ≥ 92.20). The short-term release model showed good fitness (R2 ≥ 91.32). However, its diffusion coefficient was different considerably from the value obtained by the Fickian model and the Fickian+ first-order kinetic models. Among the four kinetic models, the fitness of the Fickian + first-order kinetic model was the best closely followed by the Fickian model. The Weibull model could simulate TP release behavior well during the period from the beginning to the initial equilibrium stage. The short-term release model was not suitable for simulating and evaluating TP release behavior from PVA films during the whole release process.
Identification, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Phytosterols in Avocado
TIAN Dandan, LI Yan, MEI Xiaohong,
2019, 40(3):  30-35.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171016-118
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The phytosterols extracted from avocado using saponification method were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and their antioxidant and antibacterial activity were studied. β-Sitosterol, campesterol, cholesterol and stigmasterol were detected at levels of 59.47, 30.36, 15.34, and 2.72 mg/100 g in the phytosterols by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. The phytosterols had significant scavenging capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical with half maximal inhibitory concentration of 6.82, 35.92 and 17.08 μg/mL, respectively, using VE as the control. The antibacterial activity of the phytosterols against three tested strains, as determined by inhibition zone method, was in the descending order of Bacillus subtilis > Staphylococcus aureus > Salmonella > Escherichia coli, indicating that the phytosterols from avocado had good antibacterial activity.
Fat Deposition and Related Gene Expression in Sheldrake Duck of Different Ages
XU Siyu, ZHENG Heyang, LIU Tao, SUN Yangying, CAO Jinxuan, PAN Daodong,
2019, 40(3):  36-41.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171023-253
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To investigate the effect of age on fat deposition in sheldrake ducks and the influence of intramuscular fat on meat quality, four groups of Shaoxing sheldrake ducks of different ages were selected. Fat disposition and meat quality were investigated by measuring intramuscular fat content, subcutaneous fat content, abdominal fat percentage, pH, shear force, and cooking loss. In order to understand the relationship between the expression of CIDEa, FAS and ATGL genes and fat disposition, the fluorescence values and expression levels of these genes were measured by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the fat content significantly rose with increasing age (P < 0.05), and the intramuscular fat content was positively correlated with the change in pH and shear force value and negatively correlated with the change in cooking loss. The expression levels of CIDEa and FAS genes were higher in fat-rich tissues, and CIDEa gene expression was significantly higher in older ducks (P < 0.05). The findings of this study can provide a theoretical basis for understanding the effect of age on fat disposition in sheldrake ducks and the influence of intramuscular fat on meat quality.
Bioactive Components of Hibiscus Flower and Their Antioxidant Activity
HUANG Caijiao, LI Anping,, LI Jianzhou, WANG Xiaohong
2019, 40(3):  42-47.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180107-069
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This study aimed to investigate and correlate the bioactive components and antioxidant activity of flowers from five varieties of Hibiscus syriacus and different polar solvent extracts from Hibiscus syriacus L. for the purpose of providing a theoretical basis for deep processing and breed of hibiscus flower. The bioactive components were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that the contents of total polyphenols and total flavonoids in five varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were consistently in the decreasing order of Hibiscus syriacus L., Hibiscus syriacus f. paeoniflorus, Hibiscus syriacus cv. Lavandula Chiffon, Hibiscus syriacus cv. Shigyoku and Hibiscus syriacus f. elegantissimus. A similar order was observed in the antioxidant activity. The contents of polyphenols and total flavonoids in the flower of Hibiscus syriacus L. were the highest, which were 17.33 and 12.68?mg/g, respectively, and it had the strongest antioxidant activity with ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt? (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity of 1.58?mmol/g, 6.82 and 17.96?mg/g, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the antioxidant activity and the contents of total polyphenols and total flavonoids (P < 0.01), but the correlation with anthocyanin content was not significant (P > 0.05). All solvent extracts from Hibiscus syriacus L. had antioxidant activity. The highest total reducing power (6.16 mmol/g) was observed in the n-butanol extract, accompanied by the strongest DPPH radical (15.50?mg/g) and ABTS radical scavenging capacity (40.71?mg/g). Eight compounds from the n-butanol extract were identified including kaempferol-O-hexose-C-glucoside, apigenin, kaempferol-O-hexose-C-hexose glycoside isomers, apigenin-C-diglycoside, apigenin-glycoside glucoside, behenylphenol-3-O-rutinoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, and cyanidin-3-malonyl glucoside.
Effect of Different Heat Treatments on the Stability of the Emulsion Formed during the Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil
LI Hong, QI Baokun, ZHONG Mingming, ZHU Jianyu, SUN Yufan, HU Miao, WANG Huan, LI Yang
2019, 40(3):  48-55.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180117-219
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In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of different heat treatments (55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 ℃) on the stability of the emulsion formed during the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybean oil. The ζ-potential and particle size distribution were measured, and microscopic observation, sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic characterization were carried out. It was found that as the temperature increased, the ζ-potential and particle size of the emulsion increased significantly, and the viscosity decreased faster. Upon heating at a low temperature, the subunit distribution of the emulsion protein almost remained unaltered. The molecular mass of the subunit initially increased followed by a more significant increase when the heating temperature was increased to 85 ℃, and then to 95 ℃. After heating, α-helix content decreased while random coil content increased; the higher the heating temperature, the more significant the change. The fluorescence intensity of the protein decreased and fluorescence quenching was observed with increasing temperature.
Purification of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Shrimp Heads and Shells and Their Antioxidant Protection in Caenorhabditis elegans
WANG Jin, ZHANG Feng, ZHOU Aimei, HUANG Weichao, WANG Shuhui, LUO Xuguang
2019, 40(3):  56-63.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180103-030
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Highly pure peptides with strong antioxidant activity in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysates of heads and shells of Penaeus vannamei by sequential ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and preparative liquid chromatography. Furthermore, Caenorhabditis elegans were used to determine the antioxidant activity in vivo of the obtained antioxidant peptides. The results showed that the ultrafiltration fraction with molecular mass of 3–10 kDa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. Further purification by gel filtration chromatography and preparative liquid chromatography could obtain a mixture of antioxidant peptides with a purity of 70%. The investigation of antioxidant activity in vivo showed that Caenorhabditis elegans fed with the purified antioxidant peptides laid more eggs and had higher survival rate under heat stress as well as significantly longer lifespan (P < 0.05), while the effect was not significantly different from that of VC (P > 0.05), indicating that the antioxidant peptides obtained in this study had protective effect against oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans similar to that of VC and therefore could have potential application value.
Effect of Panicle Type and Endosperm Composition on Viscoelasticity of Cooked Rice
CHEN Yun, Lü Wenyan, LU Fei, CHENG Haitao, MA Zhaohui, CHEN Hengxue
2019, 40(3):  64-70.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171017-158
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Northern erect panicle type rice is one of the important super-rice strains. However, the palatability of this kind of rice is generally unsatisfactory. In this study, 70 samples of erect panicle type and non-erect panicle type rice were chosen to identify the variability in the palatability of erect panicle type rice and to analyze the possible causes. Textural analyzer and rapid viscosity analysis (RVA) were used to detect the viscoelasticity of cooked rice and rice starch, respectively; meanwhile, the differences in rice protein and apparent amylose contents and amylopectin fine structures (Fa, Fb1 + 2 and Fb3) were analyzed. The results showed that: 1) all samples were classified by the Ward method into three categories, and erect panicle type rice could not classified into one of these categories; moreover, the categories with high proportions of erect panicle type rice possessed low adhesiveness and stringiness, high hardness and chewiness, small breakdown and high setback value, which revealed poor palatability, and endosperm composition presented high apparent amylose content (AAC), protein content (PC) and Fb3 content as well as low Fa/Fb3 ratio; 2) generally, viscoelasticity had a close correlation with AAC, Fb3 content and Fa/Fb3 ratio, but the correlation among these categories was different. Compared with RVA characteristics, texture properties had greater correlation with endosperm composition; 3) the major texture parameters were closely related with the RVA results. All the above results indicate that there may be no direct correlation between panicle type and viscoelasticity. Some erect panicle type rice cultivars have poor palatability such as high hardness and low viscosity which may be related to endosperm starch composition. Compared with RVA characteristics, texture analyzer is a more direct and simpler method to evaluate rice palatability.
Effect of Postmortem Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Xinjiang Duolang Sheep
YAN Xianglin, REN Xiaopu, LIU Rui, CHENG Yuping, ZHANG Wangang, ZHOU Guanghong
2019, 40(3):  71-77.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171024-273
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This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of postmortem electrical stimulation (ES) on the meat quality of Duolang sheep, a local breed raised in Xinjiang. The results showed that ES significantly increased the rate of pH decline and reduced purge loss and cooking loss of ovine longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle at day 1 postmortem (P < 0.05). The myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) of LD muscle in the ES group was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05), but the shear force in the ES group at day 1 postmortem was significantly lower when compared to the control group, indicating improved meat tenderness. The L* and b* values at day 3 postmortem were significantly decreased by ES (P < 0.05). The anaerobic glycolysis rate of the muscle during the early postmortem stage (within 14 h) was significantly accelerated in the ES group. The degradation rate of glycogen, adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate and the generation rate of lactic acid, adenosine monophosphate and inosine monophosphate were significantly increased by ES (P < 0.05). Comparison of three different ES groups (30, 60 and 90 s) showed that the best ES time to improve the meat quality was 60 s. Finally, we concluded that ES for 60 s at a voltage 70 V and at a frequency of 50 Hz has application potential in postmortem carcass handling of Duolang sheep.
Effect of in Vitro Digestion on Antioxidant Activity of Antioxidant Peptides from Marrow Seeds
CHEN Lihua, ZHU Chuchu, LI Ranran
2019, 40(3):  78-86.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20170829-343
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In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for the preparation of antioxidant peptides from marrow seed meal for improved reducing power and scavenging capacity against hydroxyl and DPPH radicals. The changes in the free amino acid composition, molecular mass distribution and antioxidant activity of the antioxidant peptides after simulated gastrointestinal digestion in vitro were studied. The results showed that the optimal conditions were obtained as follows: substrate concentration 6%, alkaline protease 3%, and enzymatic hydrolysis at 55 ℃ for 90 min at pH 8.5. The scavenging percentages against hydroxyl and DPPH radicals and reducing power of the hydrolysate obtained under these conditions were (58.19 ± 0.80)%, (60.27 ± 1.73)% and 0.49 ± 0.01, respectively. The antioxidant peptides with a molecular mass of less than 3 kDa, 3-5 kDa and more than 5 kDa were separated from the hydrolysate. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, these antioxidant peptides contained 41.72%, 36.94% and 33.93% free amino acids, respectively, and the digested peptides consisted mainly of peptide fragments with a molecular mass of less than 500 Da account for 73.50%, 60.15% and 53.30% of the total amount, respectively. The hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity increase by 26.04%, 29.06% and 34.43%, respectively, ,and the reducing power increased by 50.98%, 64.53% and 67.35%, respectively when compared with those before digestion. The results of this study provide useful data for the production and application of antioxidant peptides from marrow seeds as a functional antioxidant.
Adsorption Behavior and Mechanism of Attapulgite When Used in Oil Bleaching
ZHOU Lingqun
2019, 40(3):  87-93.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180808-075
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In this study, attapulgite was used as an adsorbent in the bleaching process of soybean oil, and its adsorption behavior and mechanism were explored by physical characteristics, kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. Our investigation showed that attapulgite mainly consisted of small crystal bunches and monocrystals with pore size distributed in the range of 1.5–10.0 nm. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption capacity of attapulgite increased with elevating temperature, while the adsorption pattern kept stable. Kinetic analysis showed that attapulgite could rapidly adsorb minor components like chlorophyll. The adsorption rate onto attapulgite in hexane followed the decreasing order: chlorophyll > linoleic acid > phosphatide > carotenoid, whereas the adsorption rate in soybean oil followed the decreasing order: chlorophyll > carotenoid > free fatty acid > phosphatide. All the results revealed that the mechanism of oil bleaching with attapulgite was via pore filling adsorption accompanied by hydrogen bond adsorption and chemical adsorption.
Food Engineering
Rapid Preparation of Cyanidin-3-glucoside from Mulberry Fruit by Preparative Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography
RAN Guojing, JIANG Xinwei, LI Haoyi, CHEN Junliang, LI Xusheng, SUN Jianxia, BAI Weibin
2019, 40(3):  94-100.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180108-094
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Rapid large-scale preparation of monomeric anthocyanins has always been a problem in the industrialization of anthocyanins. Preparative medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) has great potential for application in the food industry. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was purified by preparative MPLC using a C18 column from the anthocyanins extracted from mulberry fruit, containing only a few kinds of anthocyanins. The results showed that a total of three chromatographic peaks were separated. The second peak was confirmed to be composed of cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) and C3G by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS), and C3G accounted for 73.56% of the total amount as calculated by the peak area normalization method. The purity of C3G was over 98% when the peak was collected in several fractions, and a total of 650 mL of C3G was obtained in one operation. The preparative MPLC method has the advantages of large sample loading volume, simple operation and low cost and can provide a useful tool for rapid and large-scale production of C3G.
Sensory, Texture and Nutritional Quality of Dried Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) as Affected by Different Drying Methods
ZHAO Yuanyuan, YI Jianyong, BI Jinfeng, WU Xinye, PENG Jian, HOU Chunhui
2019, 40(3):  101-108.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171108-091
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The effect of hot-air drying (HAD), short- and medium-wave infrared radiation drying (IRD) and freeze drying (FD) on the rehydration properties of dried shiitake mushrooms and the quality of rehydrated mushrooms was studied in order to obtain dried shiitake mushroom with better rehydration properties. The results showed freeze dried mushrooms had higher rehydration rate than the dried samples obtained by HAD and IRD, which was attributed to the high porous structure. The highest rehydration ratio (9.22) was reached at 60 min and the rehydrated product was similar in appearance to the fresh sample. Moreover, the shear force and chewiness of the rehydrated FD mushroom were 1 352.99 and 232.54 g, respectively, which were smaller than those of other rehydrated dried samples, indicating that the rehydrated FD mushroom was soft and easy to cut. Additionally, there was no difference in the aroma of rehydrated samples of shiitake mushrooms dried by HAD, IRD and FD, as indicated by similar electronic nose response curves. Furthermore, higher contents of protein (0.42 mg/g) and VB2 (0.71 × 10-3 mg/g) were detected in the rehydration solution of FD shiitake mushrooms compared with other dried samples, suggesting that FD samples are rich in nutrients and the nutrients are more easily dissolved during processing. In conclusion, FD has the potential to be used to produce high-quality dried shiitake mushrooms with better rehydration properties.
Effect of High Pressure Microfluidization Treatment on the Properties of Thermal Glutelin Aggregates
XING Beibei, ZHANG Tingting, ZHAO Qiang, XIONG Hua
2019, 40(3):  109-115.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171026-309
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In this study, natural rice glutelin was modified by acid-heat treatment (pH 2.0, 90 ℃ for 30 min). As a result, we obtained fibrous protein aggregates, and we further treated the protein aggregates by high pressure microfluidization (HPM) at different pressure levels (35, 70, 105 and 140 MPa). The samples without heat or high pressure treatment were used as a control. The effects of high pressure treatment on physicochemical properties were investigated by comparing the morphology, particle size, ζ potential, surface hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl content, thermal properties, rheological properties, emulsifying properties and secondary structure of the treated and untreated samples. The results showed that after HPM treatment, the structure of the protein aggregates became loose, and the particle size increased from (146.93 ± 1.04) to (184.77 ± 4.82) nm. The total sulfhydryl content increased first and then decreased, and so did the emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability, at 70 MPa reaching a maximum of (30.08 ± 0.75) m2/g and (150.58 ± 2.03) min, respectively. Small changes were observed in ζ potential and surface hydrophobicity, but thermal stability and apparent viscosity were affected by HPM treatment. The secondary structures of α-helix and β-turn increased, while β-sheet reduced. Lower pressure could result in further protein aggregation, and higher pressure could lead to depolymerization. The sample modified by 70 MPa treatment had good emulsifying properties and thermal stability.
Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Immunogenicity and Conformation of Tropomyosin from Shrimps (Solenocera melantho)
GUAN Aiyan, LUO Huabin, MEI Kalin, ZHANG Jinjie, XU Dalun, LOU Qiaoming, YANG Wenge, LU Tongxia
2019, 40(3):  116-121.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180125-345
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In order to illustrate the relationship between the conformation change of shrimp tropomyosin (TM) after electron beam (EB) irradiation and its immunogenicity, TM extracted from Solenocera melantho was irradiated with different EB doses (0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 kGy). The secondary structure and surface hydrophobicity of the irradiated TM were analyzed by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, and the immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding capacity was determined using Western blot and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that EB irradiation reduced the content of TM and changed its secondary structural composition of. The α-helix content decreased, while the β-sheet and random coil contents as well as the surface hydrophobicity increased with the increase of irradiation dose; meanwhile, the IgG-binding capacity decreased. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that EB irradiation could decrease TM immunogenicity by changing its conformational structure, which provides a theoretical basis for the application of EB irradiation to decrease the potential allergenicity of Solenocera melantho meat.
Effects of Different Oil Extraction Methods on Functional and Structural Properties of Protein Extracted from Cottonseed Meal
FU Jiayang, MA Mengting, GUO Ying, JIANG Fan, DU Shuangkui
2019, 40(3):  122-128.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180110-129
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This study was conducted to analyze the functional properties and structural characteristics of proteins extracted from hot-pressed solvent extracted cottonseed meal (HCM), cold-pressed solvent extracted cottonseed meal (CCM) and subcritical fluid extracted cottonseed meal (SCM) by ultrasonic-assisted alkaline hydrolysis. The results indicated that each of the four proteins contained two major subunits (about 50 and 45 kDa) and showed one endothermic peak. The initial temperature, denaturation temperature and enthalpy change were 85.6–87.8, 94.3–97.7 ℃ and 5.6–7.9 J/g, respectively. The protein isolated from HCM (HCMPI) had the lowest disulfide bond level along with many low-molecular mass subunits. The secondary structures of the proteins isolated from SCM (SCMPI) and CCM (CCMPI) showed less β-sheet and more α-helix and β-turn. HCMPI showed the highest denaturalization temperature. SCMPI had high water-absorbing capacity, oil-absorbing capacity, emulsion stability, foaming characteristics, surface hydrophobicity, and fluorescence intensity. CCMPI had higher water-absorbing capacity, oil-absorbing capacity, surface hydrophobicity, and fluorescence intensity than HCMPI. The denaturation level of SCMPI was lowest, suggesting better retention of the natural structural properties and functional properties.
Effects of Wall Materials on Properties and Release Characteristics of Vanilla Essential Oil Microcapsules
LIU Shuangshuang, NA Zhiguo, XU Fei, CHU Zhong, ZHANG Yanjun,
2019, 40(3):  129-134.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171101-012
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Sustained-release microcapsules were prepared by spray-drying using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), β-CD + maltodextrin (MD), octenylsuccinate starch sodium (OSS) or casein (CS) as wall material and vanilla essential oil as core material. A comparative evaluation of four wall materials was made based on microcapsule yield, encapsulation efficiency, solubility, releasing rate, and emulsion stability. The results showed that vanilla essential oil microcapsules with OSS as wall material (VO-OSS) had the highest yield (84.17%) with an encapsulation efficiency of 78.04%, and the reconstitution properties, solubility (96.31%) and emulsion stability (97.82%) were good. vanilla essential oil microcapsules with β-CD + MD as wall material (VO-MD) showed the lowest yield (71.37%) and encapsulation efficiency (61.18%). VO-OSS showed the smallest particle size of 190 nm. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation showed that VO-OSS had a smooth spherical appearance. After 10 days of storage at 60 ℃, VO-OSS remained 54.62% vanillin, which indicated that the sustained-release property of VO-OSS was higher than three other kinds of microcapsules. In conclusion, OSS is the best wall material for vanilla oil microcapsules based on all indicators.
Impact of Cold Plasma Cold Sterilization Processing Time and Voltage on Fresh Pork Lipid Oxidation
MENG Jingyi, HUANG Mingming, WANG Jiamei, XIAO Shulan, ZHANG Jianhao, YAN Wenjing
2019, 40(3):  135-141.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171207-079
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The lipids extracted from fresh pork were air-packaged with a polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene (PET/PE) double-layer composite and thereafter treated by cold plasma cold sterilization. The effect of cold plasma cold sterilization processing time and voltage on lipid oxidation was investigated. To analyze the impact on the activation energy (Ea) for primary and secondary lipid oxidation, kinetic models were built. The results indicated that primary and second lipid oxidation were significantly promoted with increasing voltage up to 80 kV, processing time up to 80 s and storage time and the effect of voltage was greater than that of processing time. Furthermore, the increase in processing time and voltage could markedly reduce the Ea for secondary lipid oxidation. The Ea for primary lipid oxidation decreased with increasing voltage, while it followed a parabolic relationship with increasing processing time, which was fitted as follows: y = ? 0.005 3x2 + 0.464 1x + 20.684 (R2 = 0.974 4), and the maximum Ea for primary lipid oxidation of 30.84 kJ/mol was observed upon cold plasma cold sterilization processing for 43.8 s. The Ea for secondary oxidation was lower than that for primary oxidation under the conditions: voltage 30–80 kV and processing time 30.7–80.0 s, demonstrating that intramuscular fat is prone to secondary oxidation. The above findings lead to the conclusion that lipid oxidation in fresh pork is prone to occur when processed by cold plasma cold sterilization, making cold plasma cold sterilization potentially suitable for low-temperature short-time processing of pork products as a new technology to promote lipid oxidation.
Effect of Different Drying Methods on Quality of Dendrobium officinale Stems
HAN Shuting, WANG Wanxin, YUAN Guoqiang, CHANG Ping, DONG Lanying, WANG Zengli
2019, 40(3):  142-148.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180712-167
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In this study, we compared the effect of three different drying methods: hot-air drying, intermittence microwave drying and vacuum freeze drying on the color and main bioactive components of Dendrobium officinale stems. The results showed that the best hot-air drying conditions were 90 ℃ and 4 h, the best microwave drying conditions were irradiation at 550 W for 48 min with 30 s intervals, and the best vacuum freeze drying duration was 11 h. The intermittence microwave dried sample had significantly higher contents of total polyphenols and polysaccharides than did the hot-air dried one, while no marked difference in total flavonoid content existed between them, suggesting that both classes of compounds could be preserved better during intermittence microwave drying. Vacuum freeze drying process was most effective in preserving the polysaccharides and color of Dendrobium officinale stems. Under the best drying condition, the maximum and average drying rate followed a decreasing order of intermittence microwave drying > hot-air drying > vacuum freeze drying. From the above results, we conclude that intermittence microwave drying has the greatest potential for application due to the advantages of fast drying rate and less destruction of bioactive phytochemicals.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Effects of Fish Collagen Peptides on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Redox Status in Mice Fed with High-Fat Diet
TIAN Xu, YANG Yuhui, WANG Yanan, ZHANG Jiahong, GUO Haitao, SHI Yonghui, LE Guowei,
2019, 40(3):  149-157.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20170807-093
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Objective: To investigate the effects of fish collagen peptides (FCPs) on hepatic lipid metabolism and redox status in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups (18 animals per group) based on body mass: including control normal diet (CON), high-fat diet (HF) and high-fat diet with 1% added FCPs (PHF) groups. Body mass was recorded on a weekly basis. The animals in each group were randomly assigned according to body mass into two groups which were sacrificed at the end of the 11th and 22th week, respectively. Average daily feed intake (ADFI) and apparent fat digestibility (AFD) were determined. Hepatic triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and free fatty acid (FFA) were examined. The mRNA expression levels of key regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism such as acety1 CoA-carboxylase 1 (ACC-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and carnitine palmity1 transferase 1 (CPT1) were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The levels of hepatic redox status indicators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were determined. Results: After 22 weeks, in comparison to the HF group, the PHF group showed significantly increased levels of ADFI, fat and energy intake (P < 0.05). The concentrations of hepatic TG and FFA, and the ratios of adipose vacuoles and infiltration area were markedly decreased in the PHF group (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of CYP7A1, PPARα and CPT1 in liver was significantly up-regulated in the PHF group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, FCPs improved the redox status due to markedly decreased hepatic ROS (P < 0.05), and significantly increased T-AOC and GSH-Px (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dietary intervention with 1% FCP can markedly decrease fat accumulation in liver and regulate liver lipid metabolism by improving hepatic redox status and accelerating lipid catabolism in HFD-fed mice.
Effect of C-Phycocyanin as a Food Pigment on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells
HAO Shuai, YAN Yan, LI Shuang, HUANG Weiwei, WANG Chengtao
2019, 40(3):  158-164.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20170929-418
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) on the survival rate, morphology, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The results showed that C-PC could significantly reduce the survival rate and growth rate of A549 cells (P < 0.05). It also could induce apoptosis by up-regulating the mRNA and protein expressions of the Bax and Bad genes and down-regulating the mRNA and protein expressions of the Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl genes. In addition, C-PC could regulate the expression of G1/S check point-related genes, thereby causing G1 phase arrest. These results indicated C-PC had a significant inhibitory effect on A549 cells, which could provide the essential theoretical basis for the development of new anti-cancer food colorants.
Astaxanthin Regulates Liver Lipid Metabolism and Circadian Gene Expression
ZUO Zhengyu, SHAO Yang, LIU Yang, BU Yiran, WANG Hualin, LI Na, LIU Zhiguo
2019, 40(3):  165-172.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171127-328
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In the current study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin (AX) against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) via a circadian rhythm-related mechanism. A high-fat and high-cholesterol diet was adopted to build an NAFLD mouse model. Male SPF C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: normal chow (control), HFD model, and HFD + AX groups. After 12 weeks of feeding, blood biochemical indexes such as triglyceride, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), as well as liver injury indexes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined. Morphological variations of liver tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to examine the expression levels of genes related to liver lipid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism and circadian rhythm. The results showed that body mass, liver/body mass ratio and obesity index of mice in the HFD group were significantly higher when compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Both liver/body mass ratio and obesity index dropped dramatically after dietary supplementation of AX (P < 0.01). High-fat fed mice showed higher blood lipid levels (except HDL-C); in particular, a significant increase was observed in LDL-C. Dietary supplementation of AX effectively reduced TC and LDL-C, increased HDL-C, and improved lipid metabolism when compared with the HFD group. HFD significantly increased the levels of serum ALT and AST and caused liver injury (P < 0.001). These effects could be significantly rescued by AX (P < 0.01). Moreover, AX could remarkably improve the expression of key enzyme genes related to liver lipid metabolism including fatty acid synthase and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase. In addition, AX also increased the expression of cholesterol 7α- hydroxy-lase, promoted cholesterol oxidation in liver. AX regulated the expression of these genes in a circadian rhythm-dependent way. AX could alleviate or correct the disorders of clock circadian regulator gene expression and circadian expression of brain and muscle ARNT-like 1 and key genes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver of HFD fed rats, which suggested that AX played a regulatory role in improving the rhythmicity of hepatic metabolism disorder caused by high-fat diet.
Hepatoprotective Effect of Wild Blueberry Grown in China on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
DING Huanhuan, JING Zhixing, XU Jianfeng, LIU Haiquan, ZHAO Yong
2019, 40(3):  173-177.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171030-359
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Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of wild blueberry grown in China on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: High-fat diet-induced obese mice were administrated with low, medium and high-dose blueberry homogenate (10, 20 and 40 g/(kg·d)) or blueberry anthocyanins (0.006, 0.012 and 0.024 g/(kg·d)) by gavage for 6 weeks. Then the activities of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and the contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the sera of the mice as well as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and the contents of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenates were determined. Results: Compared with the fatty liver model group, low-dose blueberry homogenate and medium- and high-dose blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced the activities of AST and the ALT in mice (P < 0.05). Medium- and high-dose blueberry homogenate improved LDL-C content. Both the homogenate and anthocyanins at all doses significantly decreased TC and TG contents (P < 0.05) and at the medium and high doses could significantly increase T-AOC and GSH content and reduce MDA content in the liver of mice (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Anthocyanins from wild blueberry grown in China have good protective effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Different Astaxanthin Geometric Isomers and Their Protection against Oxidative Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans
LIU Han, CHEN Xiaofeng, LIU Xiaojuan,, HE Liping, CAO Yong
2019, 40(3):  178-185.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171010-056
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In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity of different geometric isomers of astaxanthin (all-trans, 9-cis, and 13-cis) was studied as well as the protective effect against oxidative stress in vivo. The results showed no significant difference among these geometric isomers of astaxathin (P > 0.05) in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging capacity, but in terms of 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging capacity, 9-cis astaxanthin was significantly better than 13-cis and all-trans astaxanthin (P < 0.05); in terms of total antioxidant capacity, 9-cis astaxanthin was significantly better than 13-cis astaxanthin (P < 0.05) although there was no significant difference between 13-cis and all-trans astaxanthin (P > 0.05). Under the condition of oxidative stress induced by paraquat (PQ), all geometric isomers of astaxathin could significantly increase the survival rate of Caenorhabditis elegans (P < 0.05) and their effects were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, 9-cis and all-trans astaxanthin could significantly reduce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nematodes by 56.05% and 15.07%, respectively (P < 0.05), and there was a significant difference between the 9-cis group and other treatment groups (P < 0.05). Therefore, all three geometric isomers of astaxathin exhibit antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative stress, and 9-cis astaxathin has better antioxidant activity than all-trans and 13-cis astaxanthin.
Toxicological Assessment of Bacillus thuringiensis 29.118 Isolated from Chouguiyu, a Traditional Chinese Fermented Fish Product
YANG Peizhou, ZHU Xingxing, CAO Lili, ZHENG Zhi, CHENG Jieshun, JIANG Shaotong
2019, 40(3):  186-193.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20170716-319
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The microbial flora involved in the characteristic flavor formation of Chouguiyu, a traditional Chinese fermented fish product made of mandarin fish, is derived from the natural environment. Whether this microflora is safe for human health is arousing great concerns from customers and even the whole society. Nevertheless the toxicology of Bacillus thuringiensis 29.118, a dominant strain isolated from Chouguiyu, is yet unclear. Acute oral toxicity, genetic toxicology, and microscopic observation of colon after 30 days of feeding were applied to assess the toxicity of B. thuringiensis 29.118 to mice in this study. The results showed that the oral median lethal dose (LD50) for mice was higher than 4 000 mg/kg mb, and at a dose of 2 000 mg/kg mb no acute oral toxicity was observed. B. thuringiensis 29.118 had no distinct genetic toxicity to mice. All mice grew well after 30 days of feeding, and no significant difference existed in seven serum indexes and three liver indexes (P > 0.05); no distinct pathological symptoms were observed in liver and colon tissues. The tested dose of B. thuringiensis 29.118 was much higher than the actual one. Therefore, B. thuringiensis 29.118 was regarded to be safe based on our toxicological assessment.
Packaging & Storage
Preparation and Property Analysis of Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Reinforced Collagen Fiber Film
CHENG Shan, WANG Wenhang, TENG Anguo, ZHANG Kai, ZHOU Jingyang, WU Zinan
2019, 40(3):  194-201.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171030-345
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Protein-polysaccharide coaggregation based on electrostatic interactions (ionic bond and van der Waals force) has potential application for improving the performance of edible films. The effect of addition of different amounts of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (with negative charges) on the properties of acid-swollen collagen fiber (with positive charges)-based films was investigated in this study. The results showed that the film-forming suspension began to aggregate and even could not form a film with the addition of excessive CMC (more than 10%, on the basis of collagen fiber mass). The ζ-potential value of the film-forming suspension decreased significantly with the increase in CMC concentration (0%–5.0%); however, no obvious change was observed in pH. At the same time, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images showed that the film microstructure became rougher, the film thickness was increased and consequently the light transmittance was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with the increase in CMC concentration. Moreover, the tensile strength and Young’ modulus of the composite films significantly increased with increasing CMC concentration (P < 0.05), while the extension at break decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The water vapor permeability of the composite film containing 5.0% CMC was (32.41 ± 0.86) g/(m·s·Pa) and its oxygen barrier property and swelling kinetics were improved significantly as compared to the control (P < 0.05). Additionally, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis indicated the incorporation of CMC improved the thermal stability of the composite film. It can be concluded that CMC could combine with collagen fiber by electrostatic interaction when added to the film-forming suspension, thereby improving the mechanical strength and barrier properties of the resulting film. The combination of CMC and collagen fiber provides a powerful tool for improving the properties of edible films.
Effect of Thermal Treatment Temperature on Properties of Gelatin-Konjac Flour Composite Films
XU Yeqiong, WENG Wuyin,
2019, 40(3):  202-207.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171008-027
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of thermal treatment temperature on physicochemical properties of gelatin-konjac flour composite films such as solubility, contact angle, microstructure and thermal stability. As a result, the film solubility (FS) and protein solubility (PS) in warm water at 30 ℃ were 45.62% and 28.83%, while those in hot water at 90 ℃ were 74.32% and 71.44%, respectively. Both FS and PS were gradually decreased with increasing thermal treatment temperature. The band intensities of α and β chains of proteins dissolved at 30 ℃ were decreased with increasing thermal treatment temperature, while no obvious changes were observed for the proteins dissolved at 90 ℃. The contact angles on the gelatin side and the konjac flour side of composite films were 107.14° and 88.53°, respectively, both of which were increased after thermal treatment. The water vapor permeability was decreased, whereas both the b* value and transparency were increased with the increase of thermal treatment temperature. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, the gelatin and konjac flour layers in composite films were integrated gradually, and the thermal stability was increased as the thermal treatment temperature increased. It was concluded that the water resistance, surface hydrophobicity, moisture barrier properties and thermal stability of gelatin-konjac flour composite films could be improved by increasing thermal treatment temperature.
Optimization of Combinations of Cuminum cyminum L., Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. and Brassica juncea L. Essential Oils Using Mixture Design for Higher Antifungal Effect against Postharvest Fungi in Four Fruits and Vegetables
XIONG Libo, QIN Qiang, HU Peifang, GUO Jia, XIA Yibin, ZHANG Zhong, BI Yang, GE Xiangzhen
2019, 40(3):  208-216.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171010-068
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In this study, Cuminum cyminum L., Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Brassica juncea L. oils were extracted by steam distillation and their components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using micro-dilution method and agar diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and colony diameter of three essential oils against Trichothecium roseum, Penicillium expansum, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium sulphureum in fruits and vegetables were determined. The enhanced simple-centroid mixture design was used to establish a mathematical model to determine the best blend ratio of essential oils for higher antifungal effect employing response surface methodology and analysis of variance. The results showed that the extraction rates of essential oils from cumin, pricklyash and mustard were 2.29, 2.52 and 1.12 mL/g, respectively. The major chemical constituents in cumin oil were sebacic aldehyde (21.89%), β-pinene (20.49%), γ-terpinene (18.37%), 3-carene-10-aldehyde (10.98%), and p-cymene (8.89%). The major chemical constituents in pricklyash were linalool (15.05%), dipentene (11.79%), linalyl acetate (11.17%), β-pinene (9.33%) and (-)-4-terpineol (6.04%), and eucalyptol (4.62%). The major chemical components in mustard oil were allyl isothiocyanate (50.97%) and 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene (44.91%). The antibacterial effect of cumin, pricklyash and mustard essential oils when blended at a ratio of 36.11:19.45:44.44 was the best against each of the four fungi with significant interaction (P < 0.05) and good synergism being observed between the three oils. The results of this study demonstrated that mixture design could be useful to determine the optimum blend ratio of different essential oils for better antimicrobial effect at lower dosage, thereby providing methodological guidance for saving the dosage of natural bacteriostatic agents when used to preserve fruits and vegetables.
Biocontrol of Postharvest Blue Mold (Penicillium italicum) on Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Fruit by Sophorolipid and Underlying Mechanism
ZHAO Jingfang, HE Yin, TANG Jie, LONG Xiaoqin, ZENG Kaifang, ZENG Fankun
2019, 40(3):  217-223.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171207-090
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A pathogenic fungal strain was isolated from naturally infected satsuma mandarin fruit. On the basis of morphological characteristics, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) sequence analysis and pathogenicity test, the pathogen was identified as Penicillium italicum. The in vitro test showed that the growth of Penicillium italicum was completely inhibited at a sophorolipid concentration of 0.1 g/L; in the fruit test, the smallest lesion diameter and the lowest incidence of blue mold were observed at a sophorolipid concentration of 35 g/L. Treatment with 35 g/L sophorolipid effectively enhanced disease resistance in inoculated satsuma mandarin fruit by increasing the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL). Our experimental results offer a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of postharvest blue mold in satsuma mandarin fruit.
Microbial Community Diversity Analysis of Prepared Sea Bass Fillet (Lateolabrax japonicus) with Beer during Partially Frozen Storage under Modified Atmosphere Packaging
WU Yanyan, QIAN Xixi, ZHU Xiaojing, LI Laihao, YANG Xianqing, HU Xiao, LIN Wanling
2019, 40(3):  224-230.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171113-156
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This study aimed to reveal changes in the microbial communities in prepared sea bass fillet with beer and the essence of spoilage during partially frozen storage under modified atmosphere packaging for the purpose of providing a theoretical basis for optimizing processing conditions and promoting the product. Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology was used in this study to analyze the diversity of the microbial communities during storage at ?3 ℃ under modified atmosphere packaging in comparison with storage at 4 ℃ under vacuum packaging. The results showed that the dominant microorganisms of prepared sea bass fillets during storage were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Vacuum-packaged unseasoned sea bass fillets stored at 4 ℃ showed more abundant microbial diversity than modified-atmosphere packaged prepared sea bass fillets with beer stored at ?3 ℃. On the 4th day of storage, the common spoilage bacterium Brochothrix began to be detected in the unseasoned sea bass fillets, on the 10th day, the abundance of Brochothrix and Pseudomonas rapidly increased, and even Shewanella began to appear, causing complete spoilage of sea bass fillets. The spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas and Shewanella began to appear in modified-atmosphere packaged sea bass fillets with beer on the 20th day. Afterwards, due to inhibition by CO2, the abundance of spoilage bacteria gradually decreased, Pseudomonas grew rapidly towards the end of the shelf life, and Psychrobacte appeared at the end, causing complete spoilage of sea bass fillets. Therefore, the combined application of seasoning with beer, modified atmosphere packaging and superchilled storage can effectively extend the shelf life of sea bass fillets.
Proteomic Study of the Color Stability of High-Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaged Steak during Chilled Storage
YANG Xiaoyin, ZHANG Yimin, ZHU Lixian, MAO Yanwei, DONG Pengcheng, LUO Xin,
2019, 40(3):  231-237.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171112-126
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The objective of this study was to understand the mechanisms underlying changes in the color stability of high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaged (HiOx-MAP) steak during storage. The variations in meat color traits and sarcoplasmic proteome of longissimus dorsi steaks after different storage periods (0, 5, 10 and 15 days) were compared. The results suggested that the color stability of steaks decreased over time, which may be due to a significant decrease in metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) during storage. The proteomic analysis revealed that a total of 20 differentially abundant proteins were identified during storage, 15 proteins of which were closely correlated with meat color traits and were identified as enzymes involved in glycolytic and energy metabolism (pyruvate kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase isozyme 2, malate dehydrogenase, and flavin reductase). The expression levels of these metabolic enzymes were downregulated to different extents with increasing storage time, thereby reducing NADH and NADPH levels and consequently meat color stability. Moreover, the decrease in meat color stability also may be related to the down-regulation of myoglobin expression during storage. Oxidative environments could induce the expression of peroxiredoxin-2, heat shock protein and protein DJ-1 to resist oxidative stress, and these proteins were closely correlated with meat color parameters. These findings indicate that the influence of high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging on meat proteome will directly determine changes in meat color stability throughout storage.
Improved Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Xiaobai) during Storage at Near Freezing Temperature
CUI Kuanbo, FAN Xinguang, YANG Zhongqiang, LI Zhongxin, CAO Jiankang, JIANG Weibo
2019, 40(3):  238-244.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171129-355
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The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of near freezing temperature storage versus storage at 0–1 ℃ and 4–6 ℃ on the antioxidant activity and quality of postharvest Xiaobai apricot fruit. The results showed that the freezing point of the fruit was determined to be ?2.3 ℃. Compared with two other storage temperatures, storage at near freezing temperature (?1.5 to ?2.0 ℃) could effectively inhibit respiration rate and ethylene production rate and therefore reduce decay incidence of apricot fruit by suppressing accumulation of membrane permeability and malondialdehyde content. In addition, apricot fruit maintained higher antioxidant capacity and higher contents of total phenols and total flavonoids as well as higher contents of major organic acids at the later stage of near freezing temperature storage. Better fruit quality was maintained during 84 days of near freezing temperature storage. Therefore, near freezing temperature storage should be recommended for improving the storage quality and antioxidant capacity of postharvest apricots.
Changes in Main Storage Quality Indices of Brown Rice under Dynamic Temperature and Humidity Conditions
LIU Xin, YAO Yuanhang, CHEN Wenruo, GU Jiayuan, WANG Yan, CHEN Yinji
2019, 40(3):  245-250.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20170926-387
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Objective: To investigate the changes in the main physiological and biochemical indexes of brown rice during storage under dynamic temperature and humidity conditions for the purpose of establishing the optimal conditions for safe storage of brown rice. Methods: Samples of brown rice with initial moisture contents of 15%, 17%, 19% and 21% were stored for 240 days under dynamic conditions of low (Group L), medium (Group M) and high (Group H) temperatures. The changes in germination rate, fatty acid value and catalase activity were examined and the change in moisture migration pattern was?assessed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Results: The germination rate and catalase activity decreased significantly with the increase of storage time, the fatty acid value increased first and then decreased, and the quality of brown rice was deteriorated. The higher the initial moisture content in brown rice, the higher the free water content. High temperature could cause disordered water migration, transforming bound water into free water and consequently increasing free water content. The higher the moisture content and the temperature, the more susceptible brown rice is to mildew. The storage temperature had a significant effect on germination rate, fatty acid value and catalase activity. The initial moisture content also had a significant effect on germination rate and fatty acid value. Conclusion: Both initial moisture content and storage temperature have significant effects on the quality characteristics of brown rice. To prevent the occurrence of quality deterioration, the safe storage period for brown rice with normal (15%) and high moisture content (17% and 19%) is 120 days. Low or medium temperature can extend the safe storage period for brown rice with normal water (15%) to 180 days.
Microbial Community Diversity Analysis of Chilled Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) with Different Packaging Treatments
WU Haihong, SUN Zhilan, ZHANG Xinxiao, LIU Fang, XU Weimin
2019, 40(3):  251-258.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171027-318
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Freshwater prawns were packaged in trays or under modified atmosphere (MAP, 50% CO2/50% N2) and subsequently stored at 4 ℃ for up to 6 days. In order to determine the shelf life, total viable counts (TVC) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) contents were determined during the storage period. Subsequently, the microbial community diversity was evaluated by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. The results indicated that the shelf life under air packaging and MAP was 2 and 4 days, respectively. A considerable difference in the microbial community structure was observed between the two packaging treatments. Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Shewanella were dominant spoilage bacteria in air packaging, which were the main microflora resulting in shrimp decay in low temperature storage. However, the counts of Flavobacterium and Shewanella were reduced dramatically and Pseudomonas was dominant in MAP packaged prawns. MAP could inhibit the growth of the dominant spoilage bacteria in air packaging and thus extend the shelf life of chilled prawns. However, Pseudomonas became new dominant bacteria because of the strong tolerance. These results provide a theoretical basis for ensuring the quality and safety of chilled prawns.
Effect of Clove Essential Oil Nanocapsules on Quality of Refrigerated Prepared Pork Patties
ZHANG Huiyun, HE Peng, LI Xinling, KANG Huaibin
2019, 40(3):  259-265.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171113-138
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In this study, clove essential oil-incorporated chitosan nanocapsules (CLEO-CNs) were produced by an ionic gelation method and their physical properties were studied. The effect of CLEO-CNS on the aerobic plate count (APC), lipid oxidation, color, pH, metmyoglobin (MMb) content and sensory quality of pork patties stored at (4 ± 1) ℃ for up to 8 days were investigated. The average size, zeta potential and polydispersity index of the prepared nanocapsules were 254.7 nm, 35.4 mV and 0.33, respectively. In vitro release evaluation showed an initial burst effect, followed by a slow CLEO release during 108 hours. Unencapsulated CLEO was useful to inhibit lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage in pork patties. But, its strong flavor and unsatisfactory color protection would limit its utilization in patties. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities decreased during cold storage. The use of CLEO-CNs considerably inhibited lipid oxidation and microbial growth and improved red color stability of pork patties while having no negative effects on sensory attributes of patties during cold storage. These results indicate that CLEO-CNs can be a promising nano preservative for extending the shelf life of pork patties.
Effect of Combined Ozone and Phytic Acid Treatment on Storage Quality of Fresh-Cut Fruit Cabbage
HAN Mengfan, JIANG Sirui, ZHONG Shurui, XU Yiqun, TAO Yang, HAN Yongbin
2019, 40(3):  266-272.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171118-228
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In order to improve the quality of fresh-cut fruit cabbage and extend the shelf life, ozone treatment (30 mg/L, 10 min), phytic acid immersion (0.5 mmol/L, 15 min), and their combination (0.5 mmol/L phytic acid immersion for 15 min followed by ozone treatment at 30 mg/L for 10 min) were used for the preservation of fresh-cut fruit cabbage, and untreated fresh-cut fruit cabbage was taken as a control. Fresh-cut fruit cabbage was cut into pieces with a dimension of 2 cm × 5 cm. After the above treatments, samples were packaged in polyethylene bags and then stored at 4 ℃. The physiological and microbiological properties of fresh-cut fruit cabbage were analyzed after storage for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. The results revealed that the highest contents of soluble sugar and soluble protein were recorded in the combined treatment group on day 8 of storage, which were 21% and 28% higher than those of the control, respectively. The combined treatment maintained higher levels of ascorbic acid, glucosinolate and isothiocyanate in fresh-cut fruit cabbage. Furthermore, the combined treatment elevated the content of total phenolics and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) while inhibiting the activities of peroxidase and catalase and reduced aerobic plate count by 2.10 (lg(CFU/g)) in comparison with the control. In summary, combined ozone and phytic acid treatment can improve the quality of fresh-cut fruit cabbage, and extend the shelf life.
Effect of Pre-harvest N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl)-N’-phenylurea Treatment on Cell Ultrastructure of Post-harvest ‘Qinmei’ Kiwifruit
LI Yuanyuan, LUO Anwei, SU Miao, LI Lin, BAI Junqing, LI Rui, LIN Zhiying, SONG Junqi
2019, 40(3):  273-278.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171107-081
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The effect of pre-harvest CPPU (N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N’-phenylurea) treatment on cell ultrastructure of post-harvest kiwifruit during cold storage was studied. The treatment was conducted by dipping young fruits in CPPU solution at a concentration of 0, 10 or 20 mg/L at 28 days after flowering. The results showed that CPPU treatment accelerated the degradation of kiwifruit cell wall and internal structure in a concentration-dependent fashion. Treatment with 10 mg/L CPPU accelerated the degradation of kiwifruit starch granules and intercellular substances, and promoted cell wall deformation and the appearance of intercellular spaces, thus resulting in a rapid decrease of kiwifruit firmness. Treatment with 20 mg/L CPPU resulted in severe deformation of kiwifruit cell wall, the vacuolization of mitochondria and the disappearance of mitochondrial internal structure, thereby leading to the complete degradation of starch granules and loss of adhesion between cells. These findings suggested that CPPU treatment accelerated the degradation rate of kiwifruit cell wall, mitochondria and starch during storage and damaged the integrity of organelles and membrane system, causing decreased fruit firmness and storability decreased, shortened storage life and quality deterioration. Therefore, CPPU treatment is not recommended in kiwifruit production.
Reviews
Food Safety Tracing Technology Based on Block Chain
LI Mingjia, WANG Deng, ZENG Xiaoshan, BAI Qianlan, SUN Yaojie
2019, 40(3):  279-285.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171026-299
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In recent years, food safety cases have occurred repeatedly. A safe, credible and transparent food safety tracing system is urgently needed to strengthen whole chain regulation on the food industry, improve the level of food security and protect public health. The problems with the current food safety tracing system are mainly concentrated on unstandardized information collection, unsafe data storage, the vulnerable central system, and unprotected privacy during information exchange between enterprises. Block chain technology, with the characteristics of distributed fault tolerance, anti-tampering and privacy protection, can be targeted to solve the problems with the current food safety tracing system. For the above purpose, this paper presents a block chain-based food safety tracing system. First of all, by analyzing the technical structure and properly introducing the block chain into food safety tracing system, block chain technology can be applied to the system’s database layer and communication layer. Then, the operation mechanism of the food safety tracing system is analyzed, and the effectiveness of the design scheme can be demonstrated by combining the specific application scenarios and practical cases.
Recent Advances in Application of Cold Plasma Technology in Meat Preservation and Processing
HAN Ge, CHEN Qian, KONG Baohua
2019, 40(3):  286-292.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180128-387
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As an emerging non-thermal processing technology, cold plasma has become a research hot spot. This technology has the advantages of safety, mildness, simple operation and low cost, making it promising for wide applications in the field of non-thermal food processing. Cold plasma can produce ozone, singlet oxygen, superoxide anion free radicals, hydroxyl radicals, nitrogen oxides and other reactive species in the excitation process and has a distinctive effect on microbial inhibition and nitrite production in meat and meat products. This paper summarizes different ways to produce cold plasma and analyzes the factors affecting its working efficiency. Furthermore, this paper also reviews recent progress in the application of cold plasma as a bacteriostatic agent and substitute for sodium nitrite in the preservation and processing of meat products. The effect of cold plasma on lipid oxidation in meat is discussed, and future prospects for its application are proposed as well. This article provides a theoretical basis for promoting the application of cold plasma technology in meat product processing.
Recent Advances in Improvement of GH11 Xylanases Thermostability by N-Terminal Modification
HOU Jie, JIANG Yuefeng, XIONG Ke, YANG Ran, LI Xiuting,
2019, 40(3):  293-299.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171020-219
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Xylanases have great potential industrial applications and are promising in the food, feed and paper-making industries. The application of xlanases in different fields is due to their versatile enzymatic properties, especially the outstanding thermostability. Therefore, the heat resistance mechanism of xylanases attracts much research interest. The thermostability of GH11 xylanases has been closely related to their N-terminal region, and many researchers have successfully constructed thermophilic xylanases by N-terminal modification. This paper reviews the factors influencing the thermostability of GH11 xylanases and the different techniques and methods used for N-terminal modification of xylanase for improving heat resistance, and prospects for possible?future applications are discussed. This review is expected to provide valuable information for improving the thermostability of GH11 family xylanases.
A Review of Viable but Nonculturable Pathogens in Milk and Dairy Products
ZHANG Jingfeng, WANG Li, CHEN Xun, XIE Hui, CAO Xiao, ZHAO Lichao
2019, 40(3):  300-306.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171022-233
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Bacteria can enter into the viable but nonculturable state (VBNC) under environmental stress, and cannot be detected by the conventional plate culture method. But they still have measurable metabolic activity, and can recover and produce virulence factors under suitable conditions. Milk and dairy products can be ideal bacterial culture media due to their rich nutrients. Several common pathogens in milk and dairy products are able to enter into the VBNC state, such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii, posing a serious threat to the safety of milk and dairy products. In this paper, recent progress in research on VBNC pathogens is summarized with respect to their physiological characteristics such as cell morphology and virulence. Moreover, the conditions to induce and resuscitate common VBNC pathogens in milk and dairy products and the methods used to detect these VBNC pathogens are reviewed. The aim of this review is to provide new ideas for studies on VBNC pathogens in milk and dairy products aiming to reduce their threat to public health and to improve the microbial safety of milk and dairy products.
Plant-Derived Toxins in Honey: A Review
ZHENG Yajie, LIU Xiubin, LIN Li, ZOU Chaolan, WU Xiaocui, WANG Jun,, ZENG Jianguo,
2019, 40(3):  307-316.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171103-043
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Honey is a natural sweetener and dietary supplement with a wide range of medicinal effects. Compared with developed European countries and the United States, China needs to make more efforts to elucidate the mechanisms for food poisoning following honey consumption and the toxic components of honey. In this article, we summarize cases of food poisoning associated with honey consumption with respect to clinical symptoms and causes namely plant-derived toxins as well as their toxicity in order to provide a basis for studying plant-derived toxic components in honey and for improving honey safety standards.
Recent Progress in Understanding Formation Mechanism of N-Nitrosamines in Processed Meat Products and Inhibition of N-Nitrosamines by Botanical Extracts
DENG Siyang, SHI Shuo, DONG Yidi, ZHANG Daiyu, LIU Qian, WANG Hao, XIA Xiufang
2019, 40(3):  317-322.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20170926-377
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N-Nitrosamines are recognized as potential chemical carcinogens that are formed in the reaction between a nitrosating agent and an amino group-containing substance during the processing of meat products under weakly acidic condition. The formation mechanism of N-nirtosamines in processed meat products, the factor that influences their formation and their potential health hazards (carcinogenicity and mutagenicity) are reviewed in this paper. The focus is on the nitrite-scavenging capacity and the nitrosamine formation-inhibitory capacity of natural botanical extracts (fruit and vegetable extracts, spice extracts, and herbal extracts) during meat processing. It is expected that this review will provide theoretical guidance for controlling the formation of nitrosamines during massive meat production.
A review on the Preparation and Application of Food Emulsion Gels
CUI Mengnan, LU Yao, GAO Yanxiang, MAO Like
2019, 40(3):  323-329.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171222-282
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An emulsion gel is a soft solid-like material. The emulsion gel types include but are not limited to protein-based emulsion gel and polysaccharide-based emulsion gel, which can be induced by heat treatment, acidification, the addition of divalent salts, and even enzymatic cross-linking with transglutaminase. The structure and properties of an emulsion have a significant impact on the structure and functions of the corresponding emulsion gel. Emulsion gels with specific functions can be obtained by adjusting the structural characteristics of the emulsion. Emulsion gels have been widely used as fat replacers and delivery systems in foods. After an extensive review of the literature over the past more than a decade, this paper presents a comprehensive summary of the preparation methods, physical and chemical properties and applications of different emulsion gels in order to provide theoretical support for wider applications of emulsion gels in the field of foods.
Recent Advances in Understanding the Adsorption and Resistance of Yeast to Heavy Metals and Molecular Mechanism for Intracellular?Detoxification of Heavy Metals
LI Lijie, HE Min, HE Yinfeng, SUN Yu
2019, 40(3):  330-337.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180827-282
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The use of beneficial yeasts for removing heavy metal contamination from foods and reducing the health risk of heavy metals to humans and animals has become a research hotspot in recent years. This article summarizes recent progress in understanding the heavy metal adsorption capacity of yeast and its resistance to heavy metals. Moreover, this article analyzes the mechanisms of intracellular detoxification of heavy metals in yeast principally at the molecular level with respect to glutathione synthesis, the genes and proteins associated with yeast detoxification of heavy metals, vacuolar sequestration of heavy metals and other transporter systems, and heavy metal chelation by metallothioneins and phytochelatins. Meanwhile, the key genes and proteins and their functional roles in the process of detoxification are also outlined. The aim is to provide theoretical evidence that supports the potential of yeast as a biosorbent in ecological environment protection and in reducing heavy metal contamination in fermented foods as well as the health hazards of heavy metals in humans and animals.
Dietary Fiber Regulates Lipid Metabolism through the Gut Microbiota: A Literature Review
WANG Chen, ZHONG Saiyi, ZOU Yuxiao
2019, 40(3):  338-347.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171016-114
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The intestinal flora plays a very important role in lipid metabolism through the interaction between host and diet. Dietary fibers from a wide variety of foods and their intestinal metabolites can improve lipid metabolism by selectively changing the gut microbiota composition, enhancing the level of short-chain?fatty acids and decreasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF). Understanding the regulatory effect of dietary fibers on lipid metabolism by improving the gut microbiota?composition provides new ideas for preventing and treating lipid metabolism disorder and related diseases. This article presents a review of the literature on the regulatory effect and mechanism of dietary fibers on lipid metabolism through the gut microbiota.
A Review of the Application of High-Throughput Sequencing Technology in Analysis of the Diversity of Microbial Communities Involved in the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages
WU Cheng, WANG Chunxiao, WANG Xiaodan, ZHOU Hongxiang, HUANG Yongguang, QIU Shuyi
2019, 40(3):  348-355.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171204-049
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High-throughput sequencing technology is one of the important methods used to analyze the diversity of microbial communities involved in the fermentation of alcoholic beverages. Compared with other technologies, this has the advantages of simplicity, high throughput, high sequencing speed and good accuracy. In this article, we describe the characteristics of high-throughput sequencing technology and commonly used high-throughput sequencing platforms. Our focus is on data analysis methods commonly used for the application of high-throughput sequencing technology to analyze the diversity of microbial communities involved in the fermentation of alcoholic beverages and on the current status of the application of high-throughput sequencing technology. The aim of this review is to provide useful information about the use of high-throughput sequencing technology for researchers?engaged in this field.