食品科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (22): 158-165.doi: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190927-329

• 生物工程 • 上一篇    下一篇

腌制臭鸡蛋中微生物多样性分析及关键物质含量测定

陈伟,李杨,谷新晰,谈苏慧,卢海强   

  1. (1.河北农业大学食品科技学院,河北 保定 071001;2.河北农业大学教务处,河北 保定 071001)
  • 出版日期:2020-11-25 发布日期:2020-11-26
  • 基金资助:
    河北省高等学校科学技术研究项目(QN2018005); 河北省食品科学与工程学科“双一流”建设资金项目(2016SPGCA18)

Diversity of Microbial Community and Key Substances in Naturally Fermented Stinky Egg

CHEN Wei, LI Yang, GU Xinxi, TAN Suhui, LU Haiqiang   

  1. (1. College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, China;2. Dean’s Office, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, China)
  • Online:2020-11-25 Published:2020-11-26

摘要: 采用高通量测序技术对臭鸡蛋卤汁中的细菌16S rDNA V3-V4区和真菌ITS1区域进行测序,探究腌制臭鸡蛋卤汁中微生物群落组成和多样性;测定臭鸡蛋样品中的关键物质含量(游离氨基酸、水解氨基酸、生物胺和胆固醇)。结果表明,臭鸡蛋卤汁中共鉴定3 460 个可操作分类单元(operational taxonomic unit,OTU),真菌和细菌分别有712 个和2 748 个OTU,其中7 个细菌门和6 个真菌门,68 个细菌属和41 个真菌属。细菌的优势菌门为盐厌氧菌门(Halanaerobiaeota,53.96%),优势菌属为盐厌氧菌属(Halanaerobium,53.89%);真菌的优势菌门为子囊菌门(Ascomycota,35.04%),优势菌属为蜡蚧菌属(Lecanicillium,11.64%)。经测定,臭鸡蛋中含有6 种常见生物胺中的3 种,分别是色胺((69.02±0.74)mg/kg)、组胺((8.33±0.53)mg/kg)和酪胺((129.45±1.12)mg/kg);臭鸡蛋样品中游离氨基酸和水解氨基酸质量分数为(3.42±0.111)%(6.89±0.440)%,其中游离氨基酸含量为鲜鸡蛋的11.4 倍,臭鸡蛋样品中总胆固醇、甘油三酯和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量相比于鲜鸡蛋分别减少44%、47%和30%,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量相比于鲜鸡蛋增加了59%。本研究明确了臭鸡蛋中的菌群结构和优势菌属,为探究臭鸡蛋发酵机制,规范其生产和质量安全提供了理论依据。

关键词: 臭鸡蛋;微生物菌群;生物胺;食品安全;发酵食品

Abstract: The bacterial 16S rDNA V3-V4 region and the fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) region in stinky egg brine were sequenced by high-throughput sequencing technology to explore the microbial community composition and diversity. The contents of key substances including free amino acids, hydrolytic amino acids, biogenic amines and cholesterol in stinky eggs were determined. The results showed that a total of 3 460 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified including 712 and 2 748 OTUs for fungi (belonging to 41 genera in 6 phyla) and bacteria (belonging to 68 genera in 7 phyla), respectively. Among them, the dominant bacterial phylum was Halanaerobiaeota (53.96%), and the dominant bacterial genus was Halanaerobium (53.89%); the dominant fungal phylum was Ascomycota (35.04%), and the dominant fungal genus was Lecanicillium (11.64%). Three of the six common biogenic amines were found in stinky eggs, which were tryptamine ((69.02 ± 0.74) mg/kg), histamine ((8.33 ± 0.53) mg/kg) and tyramine ((129.45 ± 1.12) mg/kg). The contents of free and hydrolytic amino acids in stinky eggs were (3.42 ± 0.111)% and (6.89 ± 0.440)%, respectively. The content of free amino acids was 11.4-fold higher than that of fresh eggs, and the contents of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were 44%, 47% and 30% lower than those of fresh eggs, respectively, while the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 59% higher than that of fresh eggs. This study provides a theoretical basis for exploring the fermentation mechanism of stinky eggs and standardizing their production and quality safety.

Key words: stinky eggs; microbial community; biogenic amines; food safety; fermented food

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