Table of Content

15 March 2018, Volume 39 Issue 5
Basic Research
Degradation Kinetics and Stability of of Anthocyanins from Blueberry
LI Enhui, JIAO Xinyao, WANG Chenge, WANG Yuehua, WANG Weisheng, LIU Gang, LI Dongnan, MENG Xianjun, LI Bin
2018, 39(5):  1-7.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805001
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The effects of pH, temperature, light intensity, oxidant and reducing agent on the stability of anthocyanins from blueberry were determined by pH-differential method. Results showed that the thermal degradation of anthocyanins at different pH values followed a first-order kinetic equation, and the stability of blueberry anthocyanins under acidic conditions was stronger than under weakly acidic and neutral conditions. The anthocyanins were sensitive to temperature as evidenced by a significant increase in the degradation rate (k) as well as a significant decrease in the half-life (t1/2) and the decimal reduction time (D value) with the increase of temperature. At pH 6.0, the activation energy (Ea) was the lowest (44.77 kJ/mol), while the highest value (83.73 kJ/mol) was observed at pH 1.0. The thermal degradation reaction was a non-spontaneous endothermic process. Both light and H2O2 accelerated the degradation of anthocyanins, and the two degradation processes obeyed a first-order kinetic equation. The degradation rate was 0.014 8 d-1 under light condition, and the half-life was 47 d. The degradation rate increased with the increase of H2O2 concentration. In addition, the degradation of anthocyanins was inhibited by 0.2% Na2SO3, but promoted by 0.05%, 0.1% or 0.15% Na2SO3.
Effect of Konjac Glucomannan on Quality and in Vitro Starch Digestibility of Noodles
CAI Panfu, LI Bing, LIANG Yi, LI Lin, WANG Xue, ZENG Yongxin
2018, 39(5):  8-13.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805002
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In this paper, the effect of added konjac glucomannan (KGM) on the quality and in vitro starch digestibility of noodles was studied. A texture analyzer, a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and an in vitro starch digestion model were employed to investigate the impact of adding 0–5.00% (m/m) KGM on the texture and cooking properties and in vitro starch digestibility of noodles. The results showed that the water-absorbing capacity and swelling index of noodles increased with the increase of KGM addition, while the cooking loss firstly increased and then decreased, reaching its minimum value with 2.50% KGM addition. The texture profile analysis (TPA) properties of noodles were enhanced with increasing amount of KGM added, while the firmness was reduced. Incorporation of KGM could slow down the release of sugars during in vitro starch digestion, leading to a reduction in the predicted glycemic index (pGI) of noodles. The pGI value of noodles incorporated with 5.00% KGM was reduced by 12.22% when compared to the control. These results suggested that the nutritious quality of noodles could be improved by supplementing KGM, and the best quality was obtained with addition of 2.50% KGM.
Structure Characteristics of Emulsion Formed during Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil
JIANG Lianzhou, WANG Limin, SUI Xiaonan, BI Shuang, DING Jian, ZHANG Liang, GAO Yu, HU Yingying, LI Yang
2018, 39(5):  14-19.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805003
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Emulsion formation during enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybean oil is an important bottleneck restricting the popularization of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction. The particle size distribution and spatial distribution of lipids and proteins in emulsions obtained after different times (1, 2, 3 h) of enzymatic hydrolysis of soybeans were characterized by dynamic light scattering and laser scanning confocal microscopy. The mechanism for the attenuation of fluorescence intensity in emulsions was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy based on hydrophobic interaction of chromophores, disulfide bonds and oil-protein interactions. The results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the cleavage of proteins in emulsions into small peptides, which fell off from the surface of the oil droplets, leading to the aggregation of the oil droplets. The particle size increased with extended hydrolysis time, and the number of oil droplets decreased correspondingly, becoming irregular in shape. Laser scanning confocal microscopy showed that the fluorescence intensity was attenuated with increasing hydrolysis time. The Raman spectral intensity of chromophores from the emulsion resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of whole soybean flour was dramatically reduced as compared with that from soybean protein isolate (SPI) at the same hydrolysis time and it decreased with the increase in hydrolysis time. These findings led us to conclude that hydrophobic oil-protein interaction in emulsions shielded the intermolecular hydrophobic groups and masked the chromophores, thus resulting in a reduction of fluorescence intensity.
Moisture Distribution and Texture Properties of Transglutaminase-Induced Soybean Protein Isolate Gels
TIAN Haijuan, HU Yaohui, YU Hansong, WANG Yuhua, PIAO Chunhong, LIU Junmei, DAI Weichang, LIU Jingsheng
2018, 39(5):  20-25.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805004
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The water distribution, texture properties and microstructure of modified soybean protein isolate (SPI) gels induced by transglutaminase (TGase) were detected using a low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NRM) instrument, a texture profile analyzer (TPA), and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The obtained results showed that increasing percentage of 11S globulin in modified SPI was significantly correlated with the moisture distribution, texture properties and microstructure of SPI gels. The transverse relaxation time (T2) decreased first and then increased with increasing the 11S globulin percentage from 60% to 80% (m/m). Besides, the viscosity, hardness and chewiness all declined. The thermal stability of SPI gels showed an initial increase followed by a decrease, and the lowest enthalpy change (ΔH) was observed with 70% 11S globulin, indicating reduced water loss. The microstructure of SPI gels with 60% and 70% 11S globulin presented a flat surface with smaller and relatively homogenous pits.
Effect of Combination of Gum Arabic and Guar Gum on Duck Blood Gel Properties
YANG Xuesong, SUN Yangying, PAN Daodong, CAO Jinxuan, LU Yin, ZHANG Zhiqiang, CAI Xiaojun
2018, 39(5):  26-32.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805005
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In this study, gum arabic, guar gum and their combination were separately added to duck blood. Our aim was to investigate the effect of edible gums on the quality of duck blood curd. The textural properties, water-holding capacity and microstructure of duck blood curd were measured. The results showed that gum arabic and guar gum could extremely significantly improve the hardness, springiness, resilience and other textural properties as well as water-holding capacity of duck blood curd (P < 0.01). The effect of gum arabic on the gel properties was more significant, while the water-holding capacity was significantly enhanced by guar gum. We found a synergistic interaction between gum arabic and guar gum. Combined gums could improve the gel properties. The duck blood curd showed the best quality when 3.5 g/L gum arabic-guar gum mixture at a ratio of 7:3 was added; hardness, springiness and water-holding capacity of the product were 4 217.33 g, 0.88 and 66.97%, respectively. The microstructure showed that the addition of edible gums could produce duck blood curd with a continuous, homogeneous and dense network structure, resulting in significantly improved gel properties and water-holding capacity.
Effect of Simulated Digestion in Vitro on Powders, Crude Extracts and Components of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Stems
MEI Nana, LOU Zaixiang*, WANG Hongxin, KOU Xingran, MENG Yingxia
2018, 39(5):  33-39.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805006
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The effects of three simulated digestive juices on the in vitro digestion of submicron and common powders, water and alcohol extracts, and crude dendrobine and polysaccharide from Dendrobium nobile Lindl. stems were investigated by using a model gastrointestinal system. The dissolution rates of dendrobine and polysaccharide were evaluated. By using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method and iron exchange chromatography, we determined the changes in the molecular weight, reducing sugar content and monosaccharide composition of polysaccharide after digestion. The polyphenols in digestive juices were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). Results showed increasing dissolution rate of dendrobine during digestion. Submicron powder digestion showed the highest dendrobine dissolution rate of (21.46 ± 0.52)%. On the contrary, the lowest dissolution rate of (8.74 ± 0.50)% was observed for the crude dendrobine. The dissolution rate of polysaccharide from the water extract was the highest among all the samples. Furthermore, during oral and gastric digestion, the submicron powder showed a higher dissolution rate of polysaccharide compared to the common powder, whereas the opposite was observed during intestinal digestion. In addition, simulated gastrointestinal digestion reduced the molecular weight of polysaccharide, and increased reducing sugar content, but did not produce any monosaccharides. The polyphenols from Dendrobium nobile Lindl. showed an increasing trend in simulated gastric juice, but generally decreased in simulated intestinal juice.
Effect of Lipid Oxidation on Myofibrillar Protein Oxidation, Structure and Functional Characteristics
ZHAO Bing, ZHANG Shunliang, LI Su, ZHOU Huimin, REN Shuang, LI Jiapeng, CHEN Wenhua, ZHAO Yan, WANG Shouwei
2018, 39(5):  40-46.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805007
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The promotion effect of fat oxidation on myofibrillar protein oxidation was studied by establishing a protein oxidation model with different degrees of lipid oxidation, and its influence on the properties and structural characteristics of myofibrillar protein was also explored. The results showed that free radicals produced by fat oxidation could promote protein oxidation. With the increase of fat oxidation, the degree of myofibrillar protein oxidation showed a significant increase as indicated by significant changes in the contents of carbonyl, sulfhydryl and di-tyrosine (P < 0.05), whose values were 4.12, 81.33 nmol/mg, and 563.36 AU, respectively when the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value was 2.5 mg/kg. As a result, the surface hydrophobicity of the protein gradually rose, whereas its rheological properties such as storage modulus and loss modulus decreased. The stable secondary structures of α-helix and β-fold were partially destroyed and transformed into unstable β-turn and random coil. Thus, the structure and functional characteristics of myofibrillar protein showed significant changes with increasing degree of oxidation.
Effect of in Vitro Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion on Bioactive Components and Antioxidant Activities of Six Kinds of Black Foods
LU Jun, DUN Huiyu, XIANG Xiaozhe, FU Chunya, MO Kaidi, ZENG Xian
2018, 39(5):  47-56.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805008
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The changes in the release and antioxidant activity of bioactive components from six kinds of black foods (black rice, black tartary buckwheat, rye, black soybean, black gram, black millet) during in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion process were investigated. The results showed that after 2 h simulated gastric digestion, the highest release rates of polyphenols and flavonoids were observed from black millet and black soybean, reaching 28% and 41%, respectively. On the other hand, rye and black gram showed the highest release rates of both compound classes (113% and 52%) after another 2 h of simulated intestinal digestion. Furthermore, black soybean, black millet and black rice exhibited the highest increase in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (114%), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (31%) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity (28%) during simulated gastric digestion, while the highest increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (161%), FRAP activity (124%) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (199%) were observed for black tartary buckwheat, black millet and black rice during simulated intestinal digestion. Simulated digestion of six kinds of black foods with pepsin, tyrisin and bile significantly enhanced the release of polyphenols and flavonoids and antioxidant activity. In particular, black rice possessed the strongest antioxidant activity both before and after digestion; after gastrointestinal digestion, its antioxidant activity was determined to 4 531.79 μmol Trolox/100 g md in DPPH radical scavenging assay, 3 729.69 μmol Trolox/100 g md in FRAP assay, and 3 727.14 μmol Trolox/100 g md in ABTS radical scavenging assay, 200%, 171% and 383% higher than those before digestion, respectively. Black rice is therefore a promising black food.
Feasibility of Characterizing Water States Based on Isothermal Adsorption Models: A Case Study of Water Desorption of Glutinous Rice Flour
ZHANG Hua, DUAN Ruiqian, ZHAO Xuewei, FENG Zhiqiang
2018, 39(5):  57-65.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805009
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The distribution of water in different states and the characteristics of the water states are crucial for food materials. As the result of interactions between water and the solid matrices, isothermal water adsorption inevitably reflects the energy state of adsorbed water. The Caurie and Henderson models, which are often used in food research, together with four composite isothermal adsorption models were applied to model the water desorption of glutinous rice flour. The results were used to elaborate the practicability and limitation of characterizing the states of adsorbed water based on isothermal adsorption models. Composite isothermal adsorption models made it possible to understand the distribution of water in different states and its evolution with water activity from the water adsorption data. Fitting performance evaluation was not enough to identify the most suitable composite model. Additional confirmation by other techniques were necessary in some cases. Judging whether the unique assumption of a model was satisfied or not was a feasible strategy for identifying the most suitable model for food materials.
Flavor Quality of Adlay Seed Beverage with Different Anti-Lipid Oxidation Treatments
XU Peizhen, DING Zhuhong, WANG Qianqian, LIN Zi, MENG Man
2018, 39(5):  66-70.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805010
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This research was conducted to study the effect of different combinations of antioxidants on lipid oxidation and flavor quality of adlay seed (Coix lachryma-jobi L.) beverage during storage at (37.0 ± 0.5) ℃. The best antioxidant treatment was selected. Our aim was to provide a theoretical guidance for the development of antioxidants for use in fatcontaining beverage. Adlay seed beverage was added with different levels of vitamin E, tea polyphenols, rosemary or their combinations and flavor changes during subsequent storage were evaluated by measurement of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, sensory evaluation and electronic tongue. The results showed that composite antioxidant treatments (0.01% VC + 0.01% rosemary, 0.01% VC + 0.01% tea polyphenols, and 0.01% VC + 0.01% VE) could significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation in adlay beverage (P < 0.05) and flavor deterioration. Simultaneous addition of 0.01% VC and 0.01% rosemary was found to be the best antioxidant treatment to obtain minimum TBA value, good sensory quality and minimum response of bitter taste sensor on the electronic tongue.
Effect of Pre-Emulsified Palm Oil with Porcine Plasma Protein on Gel Characteristics of Pork Meat Batters
ZHU Dongyang1, KANG Zhuangli1,*, HE Hongju1,*, HU Mingming2, HUANG Qingji2, MA Hanjun1, ZHAO Gaiming3, XU Xinglian4, WANG Huhu4
2018, 39(5):  71-75.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805011
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The effect of substituting pork back-fat (25% and 50%) with pre-emulsi?ed palm oil (with porcine plasma protein) on gel characteristics, water distribution and migration characteristics, and rheological property of pork meat batters was investigated. It was shown that addition of pre-emulsi?ed palm oil significantly increased the L* value, b* value, cooking yield, hardness and springiness (P < 0.05). The L* value, b* value, cooking yield, hardness and springiness were the highest when the substitution level was 50%. The batter with 50% substitution had the highest G’ value at 80 ℃. The results of low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) indicated that the gel with palm oil emulsion had shorter relaxation time T22 and greater T21 peak area ratio, but it showed decreased T22 peak area ratio, suggesting decreased water mobility and increased immobile water. Consequently, the water-holding capacity was improved.
Effect of Eucheuma spinosum on Gelation and Rheological Properties of Chicken Breast Batters
WANG Xixi, LI Kang, HUANG Qun, HE Dan, AN Fengping, XU Zhengjin, FU Lingyun
2018, 39(5):  76-80.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805012
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The gelation and rheological properties of chicken breast batters as affected by the addition of Eucheuma spinosum were evaluated with respect to changes in color, water-holding capacity, texture characteristics, gel strength and storage modulus (G’). The results showed that L* and W values of chicken breast batters significantly decreased with increasing addition level (P < 0.05), while 0.4% Eucheuma spinosum added improved a* value and water-holding capacity significantly. Moreover, addition of Eucheuma spinosum increased hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness value, and decreased adhesiveness value, as well as enhanced gel strength. Dynamic rheological measurements indicated that G’ value of chicken breast batters initially slowly, then rapidly decreased, and finally steeply increased with increasing temperature from 20 to 46 ℃, then to 56 ℃ and finally to above, respectively. G’ value significantly increased during cooling. The final G’ value increased with increasing addition level. This study showed that addition of Eucheuma spinosum could increase the gelation and rheological properties of chicken breast batters and consequently improve product quality.
Correlations between Skin Color and Carotenoid Contents in Wolfberry
MI Jia, LU Lu, DAI Guoli, HE Xinru, LI Xiaoying, YAN Yamei, QIN Ken
2018, 39(5):  81-86.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805013
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Carotenoids is one of the major classes of functional components in wolfberry. Total carotenoid content and composition are generally analyzed by colorimetry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after organic solvent extraction; however, these methods are complicated, time-consuming and expensive. The paper aims to analyze the relationship between skin color characteristics with carotenoid composition in wolfberry for the purpose of establishing a quick method for estimating the carotenoid composition and contents of wolfberry. The color of nine different accessions was quantitatively analyzed with a CM-5 colorimeter, and the relationships between the color values and carotenoid contents were discussed. The results showed that the color of wolfberry peel differed obviously among accessions. Total carotenoid content was correlated significantly positively with redness (a) but negatively with chromaticity (h) (P < 0.05). Brightness (L) and h were positively correlated with zeaxanthine content, and a and saturation (c) were positively correlated with zeaxanthin dipalmitate content. Accordingly, the content and composition of carotenoids in wolfberry could be conveniently determined by instrumental measurement of skin color. The method was simple and without the use of organic solvent and could provide a theoretical and technical basis for wolfberry breeding and quality evaluation.
Effect of Salt Stress on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation and Protein Composition in Germinated Brown Rice
CHEN Chunxu, WANG Liqin, GUO Yuanxin, DING Zhigang, YANG Jianting, XIA Dingsheng
2018, 39(5):  87-92.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805014
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In this paper, in order to provide a scientific basis for the evaluation of the nutritional value of germinated brown rice and for new product development from this plant material, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity, respiration rate and four protein components in germinated brown rice from Nanjing 46 japonica rice were measured under salt stress. The results showed that salt stress reduced the germination rate of brown rice and increased respiration rate. GABA concentration and GAD activity reached their highest levels of 121.714 9 mg/100 g mf and 5.784 5 U/g mf on the 3rd day under salt stress. Under normal and salt stress conditions, similar trends were observed for the albumin content in germinated rice, which decreased followed by an increase. The globulin content in germinated rice under normal conditions gradually fell, while it rose firstly and then decreased under salt stress. Under salt stress, the gliadin content remained almost unchanged. The glutenin content showed an increase followed by a decrease under both normal and salt stress conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that the large subunits were degraded into smaller ones during germination, which were essential for physiological activities. On the 2nd day, the 28.6 and 58.7 kDa subunits of albumin and the 24.4 and 40.0 kDa subunits of globulin were significantly degraded. Gluten began to accumulate on the 3rd day, but no significant changes were observed for its major subunits. The minor subunit (15.8 kDa) of gliadin was greatly degraded.
X-Ray Computed Tomography for Non-Destructive Quantification of Semi-Sweet Biscuit Texture
WANG Yanjie, TIAN Jinhe, SONG Linlin, ZHANG Chaohui, ZHANG Mingxia
2018, 39(5):  93-98.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805015
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X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to explore texture characteristics of semi-sweet hard biscuit, and the correlations between physical properties and CT index were also evaluated. The results showed that the internal texture of the biscuits could be distinctly observed two-dimensionally and three-dimensionally by means of CT reconstruction. CT indexes (CT density, porosity, and average cross-sectional area of bubbles) exhibited significant correlations (R > 0.9, P < 0.05) with protease dosage, sodium metabisulfite (SMS) concentration and biscuit physical properties (thickness and apparent density), indicating that biscuit texture variations with protease or SMS could be quantitatively determined by CT method. When similar reductions in gluten strength were applied to the biscuit dough by protease and SMS, significant differences were found in biscuit physical properties and CT indexes between two kinds of biscuits (P < 0.05) as well as in distribution patterns of average cross-sectional area of bubbles, suggesting that biscuit texture variations with reducing gluten strength by different methods could also be measured by CT method. Therefore, CT method is effective in qualitatively and quantitatively testing biscuit texture, providing valuable information for biscuit production and research.
Synthesis and Pyrolysis of 2-L-Aspartic Acid-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose
LU Changtong, CHEN Zhifei, MA Yuping, HOU Pei, FU Yufeng, ZHENG Fengyang, LI Chenggang, SUN Zhitao, GAO Mingqi, ZHANG Zhan
2018, 39(5):  99-105.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805016
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2-L-Aspartic acid-2-deoxy-D-glucose was synthesized from D-fructose and L-aspartic acid monopotassium salt, and it was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopy. The thermogravimetric behavior, thermal pyrolysis behavior and antioxidant activity of 2-L-aspartic acid-2-deoxy-D-glucose was investigated using thermo gravimetry-derivative thermo gravimetry (TG-DTG), on-line pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and reducing capacity assays, respectively. The results showed that the synthetic product was confirmed to be the target compound. The target compound has a pyrolysis temperature of 187.8 ℃ and a total weight loss of 91.26% at 700 ℃. The number of pyrolysis products from the compound increased with reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products included heterocyclic hydrocarbons, ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, phenols, olefins, alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons and other compounds, which had baking, sweet aroma, burnt-sweet, cocoa-like incense, floral and milky aroma notes. The synthetic product possessed strong DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing capacity and could be regarded as a potential antioxidant.
Physicochemical and Adsorption Properties of Ultramicro Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Soybean Hull
GUO Zengwang, MA Ping, DIAO Jingjing, LI Chaoyang, QUAN Zhigang, MAN Yonggang, ZHANG Liping
2018, 39(5):  106-112.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805017
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The effect of ultrafine comminution on physicochemical and adsorption properties of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) from soybean hull was studied. The physicochemical properties included particle size, specific surface area, water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, viscosity curve, and cation-exchanging capacity. The in vitro adsorption capacity for fats, cholesterol, bile salts, glucose and heavy metals of IDF samples were determined. The results showed that the water-holding capacity and oil-holding capacity of IDF powder with a particle size of 16.24 μm were 2.31 and 5.27 g/g, respectively, which were 1.07 and 2.53 g/g higher than those of the sample with a particle size of 61.21 μm, respectively. The viscosity value and cation exchange capacity also showed significant changes. The adsorption capacity for fat, cholesterol, bile salt, glucose and heavy metals of ultrafine IDF were significantly increased especially for samples with a particle size of 28.27 and 40.17 μm. Conclusively, ultrafine comminution could significantly improve physicochemical and adsorption properties of insoluble dietary fiber from soybean hull, which would provide a theoretical reference for intensive processing of soybean hull.
Food Engineering
Combination of Protein Solubilization and Denaturation under High Hydrostatic Pressure to Reduce the Allergenicity of Shelled Shrimp
WANG Xingxuan, HU Zhihe*, LIU Lanyu, WANG Lijuan, XUE Lu, WU Zijian
2018, 39(5):  113-120.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805018
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The objective of this work was to reduce the allergenicity of Pacific white shrimp meat by combination of protein solubilization and denaturation induced by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment. The shelled shrimp was treated at different pressures (0.1–900.0 MPa), and the suitable conditions for protein solubilization and denaturation were determined. The results showed that pressurization at 200.0 MPa for 30 min was beneficial to the solublization of shrimp protein; at pressures ≥ 500.0 MPa, protein denaturation occurred; the minimum allergenicity of shelled shrimp was obtained at 600.0 MPa pressure. The allergenicity was reduced by over 80% after sequential treatment for 30 min at 200.0 MPa, followed by another 30 min at 600.0 MPa. Therefore, the allergenicity of shelled shrimp can be reduced by HHP treatment, and the effect can be enhanced by combination of protein solubilization and denaturation at the appropriate pressure.
Amphiphilic Cholic Acid-Modified Chitosan Microcapsules as Vitamin A Carrier
SONG Lijie, GUO Qian, LI Xiang, HUANG Jingjing, HU Mengxin
2018, 39(5):  121-127.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805019
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Cholic acid (CA) possesses special facial amphiphilic structure with unusual distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. Accordingly, this biological molecule can self-assemble to form micelles or superstructures in vivo and in vitro, which incorporate liposoluble and water soluble substances separately. The polymers containing cholic acid reserved these properties. Inspired by the facial amphiphilicity and self-assembly properties of cholic acid, amphiphilic cholic acidmodified chitosan was synthesized in this work. First, water-soluble hydroxyethyl chitosan was synthesized by reacting alkalified chitosan with 2-chloroethanol. Then, cholic acid was chemically bonded to hydroxyethyl chitosan using 1-ethyl- 3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as the catalyst to obtain amphiphilic chitosan. The chemical structure of CA-modified chitosan was characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The self-assembly behavior of amphiphilic chitosan in aqueous solution was investigated by pyrene fluorescence probe method. The size of chitosan microcapsules loading vitamin A was investigated by dynamic light scattering. The results showed that amphiphilic chitosan could effectively encapsulate vitamin A in aqueous solution. Vitamin A in the microcapsules was mainly released in simulated intestinal fluid, while it executed controlled release in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH 7.4). These results demonstrated that this kind of microcapsules is useful in the fields of food and medicine.
Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Potato Starch
ZHANG Kuiliang, DAI Yangyong, HOU Hanxue, DONG Haizhou, LI Xiangyang, ZHANG Hui, LIU Chuanfu, ZHANG Yujie
2018, 39(5):  128-134.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805020
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This investigation was done in order to study the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the microstructure and physicochemical properties of potato starch. The microstructure and physicochemical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA), and polarized light microscopy (PLM). The mechanochemical effect of ultrasonic treatment on potato starch was revealed. The results showed that due to the loose structure of the internal elongated hilum region of potato starch granules, ultrasonic treatment caused significant mechanochemical effects on potato starch. With the increase of ultrasonic time, the inner part of potato starch granules gradually experienced the stages of stress, aggregation and agglomeration. After ultrasonic treatment, the structure of potato starch granules was changed, consequently leading to significant changes in its physiochemical properties.
Effect of Ultrasonic Thawing Method on Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat
ZHANG Xin, SONG Lei, GAO Tian, ZHANG Lin, JIANG Yun, LI Jiaolong, GAO Feng, ZHOU Guanghong
2018, 39(5):  135-140.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805021
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The effect of ultrasonic thawing method on quality characteristics of chicken breast meat was investigated. Water thawing (15 ℃) was taken as the control group while four experimental groups were set up: thawing at different ultrasonic powers (15 ℃; 120, 180, 240 and 300 W). The differences in quality parameters of the thawed samples were analyzed. The results showed that compared with the control group, the a* value of thawed chicken breast in the experimental groups increased significantly, and thawing time and total bacterial count decreased (P < 0.05). However, the thawing loss and T23 peak area ratio of all ultrasonic thawing treatments were significantly higher (P < 0.05), and pH, L* value, total protein solubility, and myofibril protein solubility were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The shear force, total protein solubility and myofibrillar protein solubility in the 120 and 180 W groups were significantly higher compared with 240 and 300 W ultrasonic treatment (P < 0.05), and T23 peak area ratio was significantly lower (P < 0.05). Furthermore, significantly lower total bacterial count was resulted from ultrasonic thawing at 180 W than at 120 W (P < 0.05). Overall, ultrasonic thawing treatment could effectively improve the thawing rate along with a significant improvement in the freshness of chicken breast meat; however, it had a detrimental effect on the water-holding capacity and color and exacerbated the degree of protein denaturation and the least negative effect was observed at 180 W.
Effect of Different Drying Methods on the Quality of Tricholoma matsutake
SHI Fang, LI Yao, YANG Yaxuan, TANG Yu, WU Surui, MING Jian
2018, 39(5):  141-147.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805022
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Tricholoma matsutake was subjected to hot air drying (HAD), vacuum-freeze drying (VFD) and microwave vacuum drying (MVD), respectively. Quality attributes of the dried samples including nutrients, amino acids, and volatile flavor components were compared in order to provide a theoretical basis for choosing the optimal drying process for T. matsutake. The results showed that browning was caused by thermal processing, but VFD maintained the color of Tricholoma matsutake. The contents of protein, fat and total sugar were increased after drying. The VFD sample had the highest contents of protein (247.74 mg/g) and total sugar (207.19 mg/g) and lowest fat content (30.63 mg/g). The MVD sample presented the highest fat content (39.33 mg/g) and lowest total sugar content (166.99 mg/g). The HAD sample contained the lowest protein content (226.01 mg/g). The HAD and VFD samples, respectively, had the highest and lowest total phenols contents (7.42 and 3.89 mg GAE/g). The total amount of amino acids in dried samples was in the decreasing order of VFD > MVD > fresh > HAD, and the first limiting amino acids in T. matsutake were methionine and cysteine. A total of 21, 36, 31 and 31 volatile flavor components were detected in fresh, HAD, VFD and MVD samples, respectively. Some new alcohols, aldehydes, esters and hydrocarbons were generated in the HAD sample, which contributed to the rich flavor and aroma of T. matsutake. MVD could better protect the major volatile flavor components of fresh T. matsutake. In conclusion, MVD is a relatively ideal drying method for T. matsutake.
Odor Removal of Garlic by Embedment in Potato Starch
GUAN Ping, ZHANG Liming, HAO Limin, ZHANG Zhihan, LI Mengnan
2018, 39(5):  148-154.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805023
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In order to protect the active ingredients and mask the unpleasant smell of fresh garlic, physical milling treatment was used to entrap garlic organosulfur compounds (OSCs) into the helical cavity of potato starch. This process was optimized for improved the encapsulation efficiency (EE) of allicin and deodorization efficiency (DE) and deodorization efficiency. The resulting product was structurally characterized. The optimum experimental conditions were determined as 3:1 and 2.5 h for ratio between potato starch and garlic (dry basis) and milling time, respectively, yielding an EE value of (90.63 ± 1.11)% and a sensory score of 95 points. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photos indicated that starch granules were destroyed, resulting in the formation of an agglomerate structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the crystallinity of starch decreased. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis confirmed that the thermal stability of the sample was improved. According to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results, all 11 OSCs in fresh garlic were detected in the sample. This study suggested that potato starch might be a well stabilized carrier of OSCs in fresh garlic via milling method, which is effective to decrease the malodorous flavor of garlic and improve the stability of OSCs in fresh garlic.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Relationship between Microecologics and the Expression of Short Chain Fatty Acids Synthesis Genes in Key Bacterial Genera in the Regulation of Intestinal Flora Structure in Populations with Constipation and Diarrhea
ZANG Kaili, JIANG Yan, SUN Yong, CHEN Qingsen, ZHAO Linsen, ZHAO Pei, CUI Wenjing, MA Xinying, YAN Yali
2018, 39(5):  155-165.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805024
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This study was devised to explore the ability of probiotics to regulate the gut microbiota in healthy, constipated and diarrheal populations. These populations were asked to ingest three different microecologics: storyose tetrahydrate (Sta), probiotics power (PP), and probiotics preparations (PPrs) at a fixed dose at fixed times daily for 6 weeks. Fresh fecal samples were collected for DNA extraction. The V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM and short- chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces was quantified by gas chromatography. The sequencing data was used to make diversity analysis by multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the most identified sequences were from Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, accounting for 94.37% of the total number of sequences. Ingestion of probiotics significantly increased the structural diversity of intestinal flora in the tested populations. Significant growth rates were observed for the intestinal bacteria associated with SCFAs, such as Blautia and Lachnospira in the Lachnospiraceae family and Faecalibacterium and Oscillospir in the Ruminococcaceae family. Furthermore, Blautia and Faecalibacterium were positively correlated with SCFAs. In addition, changes in both the contents of SCFAs and the corresponding intestinal microbial communities were related to the composition of probiotics. Propionic acid content significantly was increased by Sta ingestion; moreover, the contents of acetic acid and butyric acid were likewise increased at about 2 weeks along with rapid and highly efficient growth of the SCFAs-producing strains for all three populations. PP caused an increase in acetic acid but led to a decreasing trend of propionic and butyric acid, accompanied by significant growth of the SCFAs-producing bacteria. After taking PPrs, the contents of acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly increased in the subjects, and the fecal content of SCFAs in constipated and diarrheal populations was close to that in healthy people. Concomitantly, the exogenous probiotics such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Parabacteroides showed a significant increase, and the relative abundance of possible pathogenic bacteria decreased, indicating that PPrs exert greater regulation on the gut microbiota structure. In addition, enterotype analysis showed that Bacteroides and Prevotella could be adjusted driven by the diet, thus changing the enterotype, but no significant change was achieved by simply using the microecologics. In summary, the gut microbiota structure of populations with gut diseases can be adjusted toward the normal after ingestion of microecologics through increasing the bacterial community diversity and the expression of fecal SCFAs. Microecologics can sustainably inhibit harmful bacteria and promotes beneficial bacteria in the gut, thereby maintaining the stability of intestinal flora structure. The results of 16S rDNA PCR amplification and sequencing show that probiotics can change the overall structure of the intestinal flora in patients with constipation and diarrhea, and the composite PPrs are more effective than single Sta and PP.
Extraction, Purification and Anti-Tumor Activity in Vivo of Long Chain Bases from Tilapia Head
YU Manman, XIA Guanghua, LI Chuan, SHEN Xuanri
2018, 39(5):  166-172.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805025
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Purpose: To investigate the extraction and purification of long chain bases from tilapia head (TH-LCB) and to assess their anti-tumor activity in vivo. Methods: The long chain bases were extracted into an organic solvent and purified. In addition, the anti-tumor activity of TH-LCB was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Annexin V assay, cell cycle analysis and Western blot. Results: TH-LCB significantly reduced the viability of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. After treatment with TH-LCB for 24 and 48 h, its half maximal inhibitory concentration were 42.207 and 39.494 μg/mL, respectively. TH-LCB increased the apoptotic rate, indicating that it reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis in K562 cells. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that TH-LCB caused accumulation cells in the sub-G0/G1 phase, being an indicative of apoptosis. Furthermore, TH-LCB also significantly increased the expression of caspase-3 in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: TH-LCB can inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells through inducing apoptosis, which may be correlated with the activation of caspase-3.
Effect of T-2 Toxin on Viscosity of DNA from Litopenaeus vannamei
NING Shouqiang, WANG Yaling, WANG Xiaobo, QIU Mei, SUN Lijun, GUO Junhao, PAN Xiaomei, LI Jianrong
2018, 39(5):  173-178.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805026
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The objective of this paper was to explore the effect of T-2 toxin on the viscosity of DNA from shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei). The conditions for the reaction between calf thymus DNA and T-2 toxin were optimized using response surface methodology. The reaction between shrimp DNA and T-2 toxin in vitro was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of T-2 toxin on DNA viscosity was examined after feeding shrimps with T-2 toxin for 20 days to cause accumulative poisoning. The results obtained showed that a T-2 toxin concentration of 2.70 ng/mL, a DNA concentration of 50 μg/mL and a reaction time of 43 min were determined to be the optimum conditions for the greatest effect of T-2 toxin on DNA viscosity. DNA viscosity rose with increasing concentration of T-2 toxin, reaching its maximum level at 2.70 ng/mL, followed by a decrease. The effect of T-2 toxin accumulation in shrimps on the viscosity of DNA was not clear. This result was dissimilar to the result in vitro. In conclusion, this study may be of great significance for understanding the toxicological effect of T-2 toxin on shrimps.
Effect of Casein Glycomacropeptide (CGMP) on the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines and Angiogenic Factors in HT-29 Cells
WANG Qiuping, JIA Yan, CAO Jiangming, ZHAO Pei, CUI Wenjing, MA Xinying, ZHAO Linsen, YAN Yali, CHEN Qingsen
2018, 39(5):  179-185.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805027
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The effect of casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) on the nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway in colorectal carcinoma cells was assessed in order to provide a theoretical basis for its anti-inflammatory activity. As an extension of our previous work investigating the influence of CGMP on the expression of COX-2, iNOS and GST-π in colon cancer HT-29 cells, this study determined whether the NF-κB signaling pathway in LPS challenged HT-29 cells was activated through observing p65 nuclear translocation by immunofluorescence microscopy. The challenged cells were treated with CGMP and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis factors in the cell cultures were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that 1 μg/mL LPS significantly activated the NF-κB signaling pathway, and resulted in optimized nuclear translocation of p65. CGMP at all investigated concentrations could inhibit the expression levels of inflammatory factors and angiogenic factors in HT-29 cells. Therefore, CGMP was capable of regulating the activated NF-κB signaling pathway and effectively restraining and improving the state of inflammation in colon cancer cells. This may be ascribed to inhibited expression of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors, consequently reducing inflammation degree.
Effect and Mechanism of Alkylamides from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. on Transcription of Critical Genes Associated with Protein Metabolism and Skeletal Muscle Protein Deposition in SD Male Rats
REN Tingyuan, KAN Jianquan
2018, 39(5):  186-191.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805028
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This study was done in order to understand the regulatory effect and underlying mechanism of alkylamides from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. on protein metabolism in rats. A total of 40 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups according to body weight: control group, high dose group (8 mg/(kg·d) alkylamides in soybean oil solution, ig), middle dose group (4 mg/(kg·d)), and low dose group (2 mg/(kg·d)). After 28 days of administration, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and amino acids in serum, as well as amino acids in skeletal muscle were assayed. The mRNA transcription levels of IGF-I, insulin growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in liver and IGF-I, IGFIR, myogenin (MyoG), myostatin (MSTN), μ-calpain (CAPN-1) and calpastatin (CAST) in skeletal muscle was analysed by qPCR. The results showed that alkylamides significantly increased the relative weight of skeletal muscle (P < 0.05) and decreased abdominal fat ratio (P > 0.05) when compared with the control. There was no significant difference in the relative weight of other organs. Alkylamides also significantly decreased BUN concentration and increased total protein concentration in serum. In addition, the mRNA expression of IGF-I, MyoG, CAPN-1 and CAST was significantly upregulated whereas the mRNA expression of MSTN was down-regulated in skeletal muscle. These results suggested that alkylamides increased the relative weight of skeletal muscle mainly through the up-regulation of MyoG and the downregulation of MSTN, promoting the growth of skeletal muscle. In addition, alkylamides could enhance protein metabolism in skeletal muscle through CAPN-1/CAST system and promote protein deposition.
Protective Effect of Melanin Extracted from Cuttlefish Ink Sacs on Diabetic Nephropathy in Mice
DONG Hui, XU Yangyang, WANG Chunlin, SONG Weiwei, MU Changkao, LI Ronghua
2018, 39(5):  192-198.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805029
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Objective: To determine the protective effect and underlying mechanism of melanin extracted from cuttlefish ink sacs on streptozocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice. Methods: Diabetic nephropathy was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (STZ). The experimental mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control, model control, positive control, low-dose (120 mg/kg), medium-dose group (240 mg/kg), and high-dose melanin (480 mg/kg) groups. After four weeks of oral administration, kidney index, kidney function and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured, and the kidneys were histologically examined. The mRNA expression of renal fibrogenic cytokines was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Compared with the model control group, the medium- and highdosage groups showed significantly enhanced kidney function (P < 0.01), increased antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), reduced mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and its receptors, and increased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-g (PPAR-g) (P < 0.01). Moreover, high-dosage melanin reduced extracellular matrix accumulation in the basal and mesangial regions of renal tubular cells and decreased tubulointerstitial fibrosis, while no significant differences were observed for the low-medium melanin group. Conclusion: Melanin from cuttlefish ink can relieve diabetic renal inflammation, likely by enhancing renal antioxidant capacity and inhibiting the overexpression of renal fibrogenic cytokines.
Tannic Acid Selectively Inhibits Site-Specific Phosphorylation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Consequently Blocks the Proliferation of Human Glioma Cells
RUAN Haihua, HU Shuangyan, ZHANG Chunchen, YU Long, ZHANG Zhen
2018, 39(5):  199-205.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805030
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Tannic acid (TA) possesses anti-tumor activity toward a broad range of tumor cells. However, it is hard for tannic acid to enter cells across the plasma membrane based on its chemical structure. How the signal of tannic acid is transduced into cells across the plasma membrane remains unclear. In the present study, we used human malignant glioma U87 cells, in which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling are over-activated, as a model to clarify the role of tannic acid in cell proliferation, EGFR phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator transcription (STAT) 1/3 signaling activation. The results showed that tannic acid treatment obviously inhibited the proliferation of human glioma U87 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tannic acid dramatically inhibited the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein but promoted the expression of Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein, thus resulting in a significant enhancement of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in human glioma U87 cells. Furthermore, we found that tannic acid enhanced the level of Bax in the mitochondria and promoted the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) to the cytoplasm, implicating the initiation of cell apoptosis. These results confirm the inhibitory role of tannic acid in cell proliferation. Further investigations revealed that tannic acid significantly inhibited the whole level of EGF-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation in human glioma U87 cells. By detecting the phosporylation of individual tyrosine sites of EGFR, we uncovered that tannic acid specifically weakened the phosphorylation of EGFR at Y1045 and Y1068, but had no effect at Y845 and Y992, indicating a inhibitory role of tannic acid in site-specific EGFR phosphorylation. Finally, tannic acid also blocked the phosphorylation and activation of ERK and STAT1/3, both of which were regulated by the phosphorylation of EGFR at Y1045 and Y1068. In summary, tannic acid inhibited site-specific phosphorylation of EGFR in human glioma U87 cells. As a consequence, the phosphorylation and activation of ERK and STAT1/3 were also inhibited by tannic acid, thereby accounting for the inhibition of the proliferation of human glioma U87 cells by tannic acid and laying a theoretical foundation for the anti-tumor activity tannic acid.
Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Peptides from Abalone Visceral Protein Hydrolysate
HE Chuanbo, SHAO Jie, WEI Haocheng, XIONG Hejian, WU Guohong, MA Ying, WU Jianyong
2018, 39(5):  206-212.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805031
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Peptides were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of abalone visceral proteins with alcalase followed by ultrafiltration. The molecular weights of most peptides were in the range of 192-938 Da as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), accounting for 76.3% of the total. The peptides were able to scavenge free radicals in vitro but the activity was much weaker than that of vitamin C (VC). The maximum percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity was 32.7%, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for hydroxyl radical scavenging was 2.1 mg/mL. Furthermore, the peptides exhibited significant antioxidant activity in vivo by increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of glutathione (GSH) in injured mice, and reducing the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl group content in a dose-dependent manner. The peptides augmented SOD activity and GSH content by 33.2% and 130%, and decreased MDA and protein carbonyl group content by 43.9% and 40.7%, respectively. The effect was close to or even better than that of the positive control. The immunomodulatory activity assay proved that the peptides increased voix pedis swelling by 77.1%, antibody level by 28.0%, splenic index by 24.9% and spleen index by 120%. Accordingly, we concluded that the peptides derived from abalone visceral proteins could enhance immune function in mice with respect to cellular immunity, humoral immunity, nonspecific immunity and immune organs and the effect was better than that of the positive control.
Protective Effect of Berberine on Oleic Acid-Induced Injury in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells via AMPK-eNOS Activation
ZHOU Hui, LIU Jing, HOU Wenfeng, WANG Yaoqing, ZHANG Wenyan, XU Bo, MA Chengjun, LI Ji, MENG Qingguo, SUN Xiling, WANG Zhenhua
2018, 39(5):  213-219.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805032
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Objective: To investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of berberine chloride on oleic acid (OA)-induced damage in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Methods: HAECs were treated with oleic acid alone or in combination with berberine, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-β-D-ribofuranoside), or the AMPK inhibitor compound C, respectively. Cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Intracellular lipid accumulation was observed after Oil Red O staining and determined by triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) assay kits. The secretion of nitric oxide (NO) by HAECs was detected by nitrate reductase assay. The phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was measured by Western Blotting assay. Results: OA exposure inhibited cell proliferation and resulted in lipid accumulation in HAECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Co-treatment with berberine resulted in no significant differences in all tested parameters compared with the normal control group and showed significantly improved cell viability compared with treatment with OA alone (P < 0.01). The degree of lipid infiltration was higher after OA treatment compared with the normal control group. OA concentration-dependently induced lipid accumulation in endothelial cells, while lipid accumulation was significantly reduced by added berberine. OA significantly decreased NO levels compared with the normal control group, but this decrease was significantly reversed by berberine; furthermore, berberine repressed the increase caused by OA in reactive oxygen species (ROS). OA inhibited AMPK activation and consequently significantly attenuated the levels of p-AMPK and p-eNOS (P < 0.01). Accordingly, berberine could reverse the reduced phosphorylation of AMPK and eNOS induced by OA, but this effect was antagonized by Compound C. Conclusion: Berberine can alleviate endothelial cell injury induced by oleic acid, which may be due to the activation of the AMPK-eNOS signaling pathway.
Total Alkaloids from the Seed Embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Ameliorate Inflammation in the Livers of Mice with Lipopolysaccharide/D-Galactosamine-Induced Acute Liver Failure
ZHANG Lang, HAO Ji, HUANG Xu, WU Chaoqun, FENG Tianhui, SHU Guangwen
2018, 39(5):  220-225.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805033
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Objective: To investigate the effect of total alkaloids from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera (TAENN) on inflammation in the livers of mice with acute liver failure (ALF) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (GalN). Methods: Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups including normal control, ALF model, TAENN low-dosage (30 mg/kg) and TAENN high-dosage groups (100 mg/kg). The drug was administered by gavage once a day. After 2 weeks, the model group and two TAENN groups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS and GalN. The contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and prostaglandine E2 (PGE2) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). NO contents in livers were examined by Griess’ method. The transcription of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in livers were analyzed by real-time PCR. The protein expression levels of iNOS and COX-2, and the phosphorylation levels of nuclear transcription factor -κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit at Ser536 in mouse livers were detected by immunoblotting. Results: TAENN declined the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (P < 0.01) in the sera and livers of ALF model mice. In the livers of ALF model mice, the contents of inflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2 were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in response to TAENN. Moreover, TAENN does-dependently declined the transcription of the encoding genes such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2 (P < 0.01) in livers. Consistently, the protein expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 were greatly reduced by TAENN (P < 0.01). Although the protein expression levels of p65 remained unchanged, the phosphorylation of p65 at Ser536 was remarkably inhibited after TAENN treatment (P < 0.01). Conclusion: TAENN inhibited inflammatory responses in the livers of mice with LPS/GalN-induced ALF. This anti-inflammation effect was associated with restrained NF-κB signaling and reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines and mediators.
Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk by Monte Carlo Simulation
GENG Mengmeng, XU Mingfang, WANG Yang, LI Ming, CHEN Gengnan
2018, 39(5):  226-233.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805034
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In order to detect aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) pollution in milk from a certain city in south China and quantify the health risk of AFM1 via dietary intake of milk for residents in the city, 379 fresh milk samples from different cow breeds (A, B, C, D and E) were collected during December 2015 to May 2016. AFM1 concentration in milk samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and a nonparametric probabilistic evaluation model was fitted to evaluate the health risk associated with dietary intake (exposure) of AFM1 using the @Risk software package by Monte Carlo simulation. The results showed that 75 of these 379 samples (19.79%) were found positive for AFM1 with mean and maximum concentration of 0.19 and 0.62 μg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of AFM1 in different milk sources were in the following descending order: D (0.22 μg/kg) > A (0.21 μg/kg) > C (0.20 μg/kg) > E (0.18 μg/kg) > B (0.13 μg/kg). The AFM1 concentration values for all investigated samples were fitted with the Pareto, Expon and Laplace distribution models, and the goodness of fit of the developed equations were checked by five statistical methods of Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), Chi-Squared test, Anderson-Darling test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results indicated that the AFM1 pollution in all milk samples conformed to the Pareto distribution with Risk Pareto (2.661 5, 0.029), (3.765 2, 0.029), (3.370 8, 0.029), (2.854 6, 0.029) and (2.423 5, 0.029) for A, B, C, D and E, respectively. After 10 000 iterations, the average daily exposure to AFM1 from the milk sources A, B, C, D and E were determined respectively as 0.000 23, 0.000 20, 0.000 21, 0.000 22 and 0.000 25 μg/(kg·d) by means of Monte Carlo simulation and the Bootstrap method according to the distribution characteristics of AFM1 pollution and the exposure assessment parameters, and the daily exposure to AFM1 from these milk sources at the 99th percentile were 0.000 82, 0.000 49, 0.000 57, 0.000 73, 0.000 97 μg/(kg·d), respectively. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk associated with dietary exposure to AFM1 through the consumption of milk for different populations was characterized by using the dietary exposure evaluation model based on combined margin of exposure (MOE) and hazard index (HI) values, respectively. It turned out that MOE values for all populations were significantly higher than 100 and that the HI values were higher than 1 at a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.005 μg/(kg·d) suggesting that although the results of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk evaluation were significantly different for different populations, the health risk associated with dietary intake of AFM1 from milk was very low. In conclusion, this study may provide useful information and guidance for milk quality and safety regulation and systematic risk assessment in the future.
Antioxidant Activity in Vitro of Silybum marianum Seed Oil and Its Protective Effect on Oxidative Damage in Mice
ZHU Shuyun, ZHOU Yue, XIAO Xiang, DONG Ying, ZHU Shenghu
2018, 39(5):  234-238.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805035
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Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro and the protective effect of Silybum marianum seed oil on oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in mice. Methods: The scavenging capacity for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals and the total antioxidant capacity were determined to explore in vitro antioxidant activity of the seed oil. Furthermore, the effects of the seed oil on serum antioxidant enzyme activities and liver morphology were examined to evaluate its protective effect on oxidative damage in mice. Results: Silybum marianum seed oil had antioxidant capacity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. It could significantly increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in mice serum and protect the integrity of liver cell morphology in mice. Conclusion: Silybum marianum seed oil has antioxidant activity in vitro and possesses a protective effect on D-galactoseinduced oxidative damage in mice.
Effect of Consumption of Fermented Sausage Made with Oat Bran-Supplemented Fat Simulant on Lipid Levels and Serum Antioxidant Status in Rats
YANG Min, YANG Yong, WU Shitao, LI Binbin, ZHANG Nan, ZHANG Xueguang, HOU Qing, CHEN Hong, LIN Derong, LIU Aiping, LIU Yuntao, LI Jian, LIN Yan
2018, 39(5):  239-246.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805036
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Objective: To study the effect of the ingestion of fermented sausage formulated with oat bran-supplemented fat simulant (OBFS) against traditional fermented sausage (TFS) on lipid levels and antioxidant status in rats. Methods: A total of fifty-one healthy rats with average body weight of (70 ± 2) g were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank, control and experimental groups, which were fed on a basal diet alone or supplemented with 20% OBFS and 20% TFS, respectively. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum were measured at the end of 0, 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Results: Compared with the blank group, feed intake significantly decreased after 6 and 9 weeks in the experimental group (P < 0.05); body weight significantly increased after 3 weeks (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was noted after 6 and 9 weeks (P > 0.05); serum TC, TG and LDL-C were lower but not significantly different at all three time points (P > 0.05); HDL-C significantly decreased after 6 weeks (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed at other time points (P > 0.05); there was no significant difference in ox-LDL or MDA content at three time points (P > 0.05); SOD activity significantly increased after 9 weeks (P < 0.05). Compared with the comparison group, feed intake decreased after 3, 6 and 9 weeks in the experimental group, but was not significantly different (P > 0.05); body weight significantly decreased after 9 weeks (P < 0.05); TC, TG and LDL-C were not significantly different at three time points (P > 0.05); HDL-C increased but not statistically significantly after 6 weeks (P > 0.05); ox-LDL significantly increased after 3 weeks (P < 0.05); no significant difference in MDA was found at all three time points (P > 0.05); SOD activity significantly increased after 9 weeks (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Compared with TFS, OBFS could suppress appetite, control body weight, enhance serum TC and TG metabolism and increase serum antioxidant status.
Allergenicity in Vivo and in Vitro of Ovomucoid
WANG Lijuan, WU Zijian, LIU Lu, CHEN Yihua, PEI Gaoxin, WANG Yong
2018, 39(5):  247-251.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805037
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This work was performed to study the allergenicity of ovomucoid (OVO) and to establish an animal model for this purpose. The OVO-induced anaphylactic shock in guinea pigs and the Schultz-Dale response of intestinal smooth muscle from sensitized guinea pigs when it was in vitro exposed to OVO were observed. The results obtained were as follows: (1) All the guinea pigs stimulated by ovalbumin at different dosages suffered from anaphylactic shock and finally died. The systemic allergic reactions were extremely positive (the score was 4 points). The systemic allergic reactions induced by ovomucoid were similar to those induced by 1 mg/mL ovalbumin (P > 0.05) and were 100% positive (the score was 2.04– 3.68), causing the death of most of the animals. The effect of ovomucoid was dose dependent and an average score of 3.68 was observed at a dose of 4 mg/mL. (2) Ovomucoid was similarly effective as ovalbumin (P > 0.05) in enhancing smooth muscle contraction in Schultz-Dale reaction. Muscle contractility showed the highest percentage of change (538.5%) when stimulated with 2 mg/mL of ovomucoid. (3) Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels of guinea pigs stimulated by ovalbumin and ovomucoid were both obviously higher than those of the control group and their effects were dose dependent. In conclusion, the animal model developed (in vivo and in vitro) in this research allowed to detect the allergenicity of OVO and evaluate its elimination and reduction.
Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Juglans mandshurica Seed Shells Grown in Northeast China against Oxidative Damage in Mice
ZHANG Jintang, SHA Di, XIA Guangjun, XU Hongyan
2018, 39(5):  252-257.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805038
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The protective effect of flavonoids from seed shells of Juglans mandshurica (FSSJM) against oxidative damage in mice was explored. A mouse model of oxidative damage was built by X-ray radiation. Before radiation, using berbamine hydrochloride gavaged at 56 mg/(kg·d) as the positive control, FSSJM were consecutively given to mice by gavage at three different doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/(kg·d) for 14 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver tissues of 24 h radiated mice were determined by spectrophotometry. Liver tissues of 14 day radiated mice were observed morphologically, and the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 protein in liver and spleen were analyzed by immunohistochemisty. The results showed that FSSJM could increase the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in serum and liver of mice, decrease MDA content, and increase GSH content. Furthermore, FSSJM could repair damaged liver tissues, along with increasing Bcl-2 protein expression and decreasing Bax protein expression. Therefore, FSSJM can protect against radiation-induced oxidative damage.
Packaging & Storage
Variation and Underlying Mechanisms of Ca2+-ATPase Activity in Penaeus vannamei during Storage
ZHAO Ya, SHI Qilong, CAO Shumin
2018, 39(5):  258-264.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805039
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Penaeus vannamei meat with and without the addition of 5% (m/m) maltodextrin (PV-MD and PV) at various moisture contents (6.5%, 18.0% and 76.5%) were stored at four different temperatures (–78, –35, –18 and 5 ℃) to explore the mechanisms of quality changes and to improve the storage stability of Penaeus vannamei meat. The changes of Ca2+-ATPase activity with the above variables were analyzed and the kinetic model was established. The results showed that at the same moisture content, Ca2+-ATPase activity of Penaeus vannamei decreased with increasing temperature. Similarly, at the same storage temperature, Ca2+-ATPase activity of Penaeus vannamei decreased with increasing moisture. The rate of decrease in Ca2+-ATPase activity in PV-MD was lower than that in PV. During storage, the change of Ca2+-ATPase activity followed the second-order reaction kinetic model 1/C ? 1/C0 = kt. The reaction rate constant k increased with increasing temperature and moisture content, whereas k decreased with the addition of maltodextrin. This implies that the addition of maltodextrin to Penaeus vannamei meat can alleviate reaction rate and protein denaturation degree. During freezing and/or frozen storage of Penaeus vannamei, protein denaturation rate and degree was mainly affected by glass transition. But they were influenced by both water activity and glass transition during storage at 5 ℃.
Effect and Possible Modes of Action of Candida oleophila on Controlling Penicillium expansum in Apples
CAI Mengxuan, ZHOU Yahan, ZHANG Hongyan, DENG Lili, YAO Shixiang, ZENG Kaifang
2018, 39(5):  265-271.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805040
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In order to explore the effect and possible modes of action of Candida oleophila on controlling Penicillium expansum in apples, plate confrontation tests of the yeast against the pathogen were carried out and the bacteriostatic effect of volatile compounds produced by the yeast on the pathogen was investigated; furthermore, the strains were inoculated separately or together into wounds of apple fruits to observe yeast growth and the activities of enzymes related to postharvest disease resistance. The results showed that C. oleophila treated fruits had lower disease incidence and lesion diameters than the control (P < 0.05). C. oleophila could not produce antifungal secondary metabolites, and its volatile substance had no significant inhibitory effect on the growth of P. expansum (P > 0.05). C. oleophila could colonize and amplify quickly in apple peel, and inhibit the increase of disease incidence and lesion diameter in fruits. C. oleophila also could effectively enhance the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) (P < 0.05). Based on the above analysis, the inhibitory mechanisms of C. oleophila against P. expansum in apples are through inducing disease resistance and competing for space and nutrition.
Effect of pH on NaClO2 Retention Rate and ClO2 Release Rate in Preservative Paper
LI Shilei, XIAO Shengling, LUO Yuying
2018, 39(5):  272-277.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805041
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This work was conceived to investigate the effect of pH on NaClO2 retention rate and ClO2 release rate in preservative paper through adjusting the pH of NaClO2 coating solution. The NaClO2 retention rate from paper A coated with sodium chlorite and the ClO2 release rate from the preservation system were calculated by iodometric titration method. In addition, the surface of paper A and paper B coated with tartaric acid was analyzed by attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed that with the increase of pH, the NaClO2 retention rate from paper A and the amount of ClO2 reacting with preservative components increased significantly. On the contrary, the total amount of ClO2 release from the preservation system decreased. At pH 14, the NaClO2 retention rate was the highest, and the retention time was the longest. Besides, the release time initially increased and afterwards decreased, and the release rate was initially high and then decreased. At pH 10, ClO2 was released for the longest time, and the release rate and amount could guarantee ClO2 concentration for the preservation of fruits and vegetables.
Study on the Construction of the Food Safety Traceability System in China
LI Jiajie, REN Yanan, WANG Yanjun, MA Wanzhen
2018, 39(5):  278-283.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805042
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Food safety traceability system has an irreplaceable position and function in the food safety management system as one of its important parts. In the process of establishing food safety traceability system, China has come across many challenges and difficulties in the past decade. China’s food safety traceability system is still under exploration and development. This review summarizes the current development of food safety traceability system in China. Major existing problems are analyzed and how to change the traditional concept of food safety traceability system is discussed. The roles government, enterprises and industry associations play and the relationship among them are also clarified. Finally, suggestions are put forward on how to establish the food safety traceability system in China.
Progress in Understanding Structures of Anthocyanins Derivatives in Red Wines
ZHANG Bo, HAN Shunyu, MA Tengzhen, ZHU Xia, LI Min
2018, 39(5):  284-295.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805043
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Color is one of the most important sensory properties of red wine, and the color of red wine not only determines its sensory quality but also has great impact on its intrinsic quality. Anthocyanins, an important class of naturally occurring water-soluble pigments in red wine, possess many important physiological functions and bioactivities. Meanwhile, some anthocyanin derivatives have been identified in recent years as an important supplement to the family of anthocyanins. The varieties, states and concentrations of anthocyanin derivatives in red wine have a significant effect on its color and aging potential. The present paper aims at a systematic review of the main anthocyanins found in red wine and the structural features, formation pathway, and physicochemical properties of anthocyanin derivatives. This review is expected to provide useful information for investigating the structures of anthocyanin derivatives in red wines.
A Review on Food-Grade Particle Stabilized Pickering Emulsion
JIAO Bo, SHI Aimin, LIU Hongzhi, LIU Li, HU Hui, YANG Ying, WANG Qiang
2018, 39(5):  296-303.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805044
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Recently much attention has been paid to food-grade particle stabilized Pickering emulsions due to their natural advantages and potential application in the field of foods. This paper summarizes recent progress in research on food-grade particle stabilized Pickering emulsions, with emphasis on the interfacial behavior of particles in Pickering emulsions as well as the preparation and characterization of particles for stabilizing Pickering emulsions and the application of Pickering emulsions in the food field. Meanwhile, problems existing in this field of research and its future direction are also analyzed.
Advances in Biological Activity and Application of Fish Skin Collagen-Derived Oligopeptides
YANG Min, WU Zhaoming, LI Jingjing, YAN Ze, ZHAO Hui, HU Jian’en, WU Long
2018, 39(5):  304-310.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805045
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China has a huge aquatic product processing industry. Fish processing generates a large amount of byproducts, especially fish skin. Recent research has found that the collagen-rich byproduct can be hydrolyzed by protease to produce a variety of peptides with specific physiological functions. Oligopeptides containing 2–20 amino acid residues draw especial research attention due to their excellent biological activity, bio-safety and easiness of absorption by the human body. The oligopeptides possess biological activities such as antioxidation, blood pressure control, chelating metal ions and immune regulation, and have promising application potential in the nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. So far, the research and development of fish skin-derived oligopeptides have been intensively reported. This paper focuses on recent advances in the preparation, biological activity and application of fish skin collagen-derived oligopeptides, in order to provide a basis for the development of functional peptide products and the efficient, value-added and sustainable utilization of aquatic resources in China.
A Review of the Dual Role of Dietary Polyphenols from Fruits and Vegetables on Regulation of Nrf2/Keap1 Signaling
LAI Dengni, QIN Si, ZHAO Lingyan, DENG Fangming
2018, 39(5):  311-320.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805046
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Fruits and vegetables are rich in polyphenolic compounds, in which the ortho phenolic hydroxyl groups are easily oxidized and have a strong ability to capture free radicals such as reactive oxygen species. Thus, these compounds can remove free radicals and quench active oxygen. Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2)/Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) signaling pathway is the most important protective signaling pathway to enhance antioxidant status in the body, which plays an important role in cellular antioxidant defense. In the present review, we describe Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway and its regulatory mechanism. The dual role of the signaling pathway in cancer chemoprevention and carcinogenesis promotion is discussed as well. The focus of this review is on the molecular mechanism by which serval typical dietary polyphenols affect this dual regulation. We expect that this review will provide a theoretical basis for developing healthy green food products containing plant polyphenols.
A Review of Relieving Effects of Bioactive Egg Components on Inflammatory Bowel Disease
ZHANG Mengya, ZHAO Yan, XU Mingsheng, YAO Yao, WANG Xiong, TU Yonggang
2018, 39(5):  321-328.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805047
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Inflammatory bowel diseases is a group of chronic and recurrent inflammatory disorders that occur in the intestine. Traditional drug therapy can relieve clinical symptoms, but may cause some side effects. Bioactive egg components are one of the hot research topics in the field of food science nowadays. Anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities of bioactive egg components have been confirmed. The development and application of biological egg components is expected to open new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory bowel disease. In this paper, we review recent advances in understanding the anti-inflammatory activity of egg derived amino acids, peptides, proteins and lipids, as well as the molecular mechanisms for the alleviation of inflammatory bowel disease by these bioactive components. Furthermore, potential directions for future research are discussed. The aim of this review is to provide a basis for further study and application of biological egg components.
A Review of Mechanisms and Factors Affecting Protein Oxidation in Meat
YUAN Kai, ZHANG Long, GU Dongchen, WU Na, TAO Ningping, WANG Xichang, LI Yujin, LIU Yuanping
2018, 39(5):  329-335.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805048
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With the rapid progress of processing technology and the change of our lifestyle, a wide variety of processed meat products have been more and more popular with consumers. However, the physicochemical properties and nutritional components of processed meat and its safety for consumption are susceptible to processing and storage conditions, leading to protein oxidation and frozen denaturation, lipid oxidation, postmortem metabolism, breeding of pathogenic bacteria and carcinogen formation. Protein oxidation, defined as a covalent modification, is one of the most significant changes in meat products, and it causes damages to the protein structure such as the modification of amino acid side chains, polypeptide chain rupture and protein cross-linking, thereby changing the gel properties, water-holding capacity, digestibility and nutritional quality of meat products. This paper reviews the current progress in the study of protein oxidation in meat with respect to protein oxidation mechanism, the evaluation indicators and the influencing factors.
High Fat Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Health
ZHAO Minjie, CAI Haiying, JIANG Zengliang, LI Yang, ZHANG Hui, FENG Fengqin
2018, 39(5):  336-343.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201805049
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Because of the popularity of high fat diet, the global prevalence of obesity and related metabolic comorbidities has increased considerably over the past decades. Growing evidence has implicated that the gut microbiota is closely related with obesity and associated metabolic disturbances induced by high fat diet. The composition of the gut microbiota can fluctuate markedly within an individual and between individuals, because of genetic and environmental factors (diet, drug administration and lifestyle). Diet provides nutrients for humans and animals, and the microbes in the gastrointestinal tract obtain their nutrients from food sources such as dietary fibres. It has already been confirmed that diet modulates the composition and functions of the gut microbiota in humans and other mammals. The gut microbiota participates in host functions that are related to the development of obesity, including energy harvest and expenditure, gut permeability and some inflammatory and immune reactions. In this review, we discuss current studies on mechanistic interactions between the gut microbiota and metabolic health, with the aim to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Despite the growing evidence describing the role of the gut microbiota in metabolic health, more investigations are needed to substantiate whether a causeand- effect relationship exists. And the evidence linking gut microbiota to host metabolism could allow for the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity and related metabolic comorbidities.