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15 March 2022, Volume 43 Issue 5
Basic Research
Effect of Iron-Catalyzed and Metmyoglobin Oxidizing Systems on Amino Acid Changes of Yak Myofibrillar Protein
BU Xinrong, WANG Huihui, SONG Yanyan, YU Qunli, HAN Ling, ZHANG Li, GUO Zhaobin, CHEN Cheng
2022, 43(5):  1-10.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201207-075
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In this study, the changes in amino acid content of yak meat myofibrillar protein under specific oxidative intensity metabolism were compared and analyzed in yak meat maturation and in the iron-catalyzed oxidizing system (IOS) and the metmyoglobin oxidizing system (MOS). The results showed that the contents of threonine, cysteine, glycine, alanine, leucine and lysine decreased significantly with aging time (P < 0.05). The contents of threonine, cysteine and arginine were significantly reduced with increasing oxidation intensity in both oxidizing systems (P < 0.05). In addition, the contents of methionine and tyrosine decreased significantly in IOS (P < 0.05), while the contents of glycine, leucine and lysine decreased significantly in MOS (P < 0.05). The results showed that different oxidizing systems were specific to the oxidation of amino acids of myofibrillar protein in yak meat. According to the change of amino acid composition and content, greater oxidative damage occurred in MOS compared with IOS.
Effects of Different Freezing Methods on Water State and Quality Characteristics of Non-fermented Dough
YANG Yong, ZHENG Shuaishuai, AI Zhilu, PAN Zhili, LI Zhen
2022, 43(5):  11-16.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210915-182
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Considering the different applications of freezing methods (commonly used in households, traditional industrial production, and research laboratories), three freezing methods were selected to freeze non-fermented dough, namely cryogenic refrigerator freezing (RF), spiral tunnel freezing (SF) and liquid nitrogen spray freezing (LF). This study compared the effects of the freezing methods on the various characteristics of non-fermented dough, including water state, texture characteristics, rheological characteristics and microstructure. The results showed that there were significant differences in the freezing rates of the three different freezing methods, showing a decreasing order of LF (1.33 ℃/min) > SF (0.31 ℃/min) > RF (0.08 ℃/min). Furthermore, with the decrease in freezing rate, the water loss rate after dough freezing showed an upward trend, the proportion of A21 (peak area of strongly bound water) and A22 (peak area of weakly bound water) showed a downward trend, and the texture quality and rheological properties of the thawed dough deteriorated. In particular, we observed an increase in hardness. The microstructural observation showed that as the freezing rate slowed down, the pores in dough became larger and the structural compactness became poorer. In conclusion, the quality of the thawed dough treated by LF was the closest to that of fresh dough, followed by SF and RF. Therefore, LF, an emerging technology to be developed, is superior to SF, while RF is not conducive to maintaining the quality of flour-based foods.
Bactericidal Kinetics of Ultraviolet C Light-Emitting Diodes against Bacteria on Food Contact Materials and Factors Influencing It
XIANG Qisen, DONG Shanshan, FAN Liumin, MA Yunfang, BAI Yanhong
2022, 43(5):  17-25.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210719-209
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Ultraviolet C light-emitting diodes (UVC-LEDs) are a new UV light source with various advantages, such as environmental friendliness, high efficiency, and long life span. In the past few years, UVC-LEDs have shown great potentials in the food industry. This work aimed to investigate the inactivation kinetics of foodborne bacteria on the surface of food contact materials by UVC-LEDs and the factors influencing it. The results showed that UVC-LEDs caused higher inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 than Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on food contact materials. The number of L. monocytogenes inoculated on glass, oriented polypropylene (OPP) film, stainless steel, and kraft paper decreased from an initial value of 5.45, 5.56, 5.11, and 5.47 (lg (CFU/cm2)) to 0.60, 0.70, 1.04, and 5.08 (lg (CFU/cm2)), respectively, after UVC-LEDs treatment at 800 mJ/cm2. Similar results were obtained for E. coli O157:H7 inactivation on these food contact materials. Both Weibull model (R2 > 0.922) and Biphasic model (R2 > 0.960) fitted well the inactivation curves of both bacteria. The bactericidal effect of UVC-LEDs against bacteria on glass, OPP film, stainless steel and kraft paper decreased in that order, which might be related to the surface roughness and hydrophilicity of food contact materials. The above results indicate that the antimicrobial effect of UVC-LEDs may be affected by microbial species as well as surface characteristics of food contact materials.
Non-enzymatic Browning Kinetics of Tamarind Seed Coat Proanthocyanidins System Affected by Food Formulation Factors
SU Chenlu, AI Lianzhong, WU Yan, LAI Phoency, WANG Yi, ZHANG Hui, SONG Zibo
2022, 43(5):  26-38.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210617-202
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This study was executed to investigate the non-enzymatic browning kinetics and key phenolic composition of tamarind seed coat proanthocyanidins extract (TSPA) with different food formulation factors in order to elucidate the effects of food formulation factors and thermal storage on the key proanthocyanidin compounds, and to infer the possible mechanism of non-enzymatic browning. TSPA, prepared with 55% (V/V) ethanol, had total phenolic content of (397.1 ± 3.1) mg/g, mainly consisting of total proanthocyanidins (tannins) at (218.3 ± 3.9) mg/g. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) results indicated that the main proanthocyanidin components of TSPA were procyanidins B2 (PCB2), epicatechin (EC), protocatechuic acid (PCA), and caffeic acid hexoside (CAH). The results of zero-order browning kinetics showed that under different conditions of TSPA concentration, ethanol concentration, pH, and food additives (metal ions except Cu2+, thickening gums, and protectants), the browning rate constant (k0) of TSPA was 0.020 7–0.158 1 d-1 (R2 = 0.969–0.999) during storage at 55 ℃ for 6 days. Addition of 1.0 mg/mL ginseng flower extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the browning degree of TSPA (at 1 mg/mL in 5% (V/V) ethanol). At pH 3.0–3.8 browning was reduced. Addition of 5 mmol/L metal ions significantly reduced the content of phenolic compounds in TSPA; Ca2+ and Cu2+ reduced the contents of PCB2 and EC by 96%–98%, decreased PCA content by 33% and 38%, respectively, and Na+ and Zn2+ reduced phenolic content by 10%–25%. The results of principal component analysis indicated that (-)-epicatechin-3,5-digallate (ECdG), PCA, PCB2 and EC were key for browning. Possible responses related to changes in the phenolic composition of TSPA were roughly deduced. This study may provide a theoretical basis for understanding the non-enzymatic browning mechanism of TSPA and controlling it.
Mechanism Underlying Quality Changes during Frozen Storage of Leavened Pancake Cooked by Different Cooking Methods
PENG Xiaoru, LI Xueqin, PAN Li
2022, 43(5):  39-45.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210319-239
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Leavened pancake plays an important role in the traditional Chinese diet. It has good taste and fermented flavor, making it popular with consumers. However, the quality of leavened pancake will decrease and the mouthfeel and flavor deteriorate as it is stored for a long time. Therefore, the quality deterioration of leavened pancake during storage is always a bottleneck restricting its industrial production and circulation. In this work, the changes of water mobility, starch crystallinity, starch thermal properties and microstructure in steamed or baked leavened pancake during frozen storage were evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in order to reveal the mechanism underlying the quality changes of leavened pancake cooked by different methods during frozen storage. The results showed that the moisture contents of the two cooked samples decreased gradually during frozen storage, a higher level being observed in steamed leavened pancake compared to baked one. For both samples, the relaxation peak area of weakly bound water decreased, while the relaxation peak area of free water increased gradually during frozen storage; the extent of starch crystallinity increased during frozen storage, being higher in steamed leavened pancake than in baked one, and the extent of starch crystallinity in baked leavened pancake gradually decreased with baking time. The gelatinization onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature and gelatinization enthalpy did not obviously change during frozen storage and the microstructure of steamed and baked leavened pancake changed from a continuous matrix to a thin broken state.
Analysis of Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Edible Agricultural Product Traceability System Based on Muti-criteria Decision Making (MCDM)
WANG Xinping, CHAI Shangsen
2022, 43(5):  46-54.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201130-312
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This paper aims to discuss the factors that affect the effectiveness of China’s quality and safety traceability system for edible agricultural products in order to provide scientific guidance for the implementation of the system. Based on integration of eight industry experts’ opinions by the Delphi method, the grey decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (Grey-DEMATEL) method combined with fuzzy interpretive structural modeling (FISM) was adopted to analyze the effectiveness of the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) model for the agricultural product traceability system, and 18 factors influencing the current agricultural product traceability system were evaluated in four main dimensions. The results showed that: 1) the factors comprised a three-layer hierarchical structure including the fundamental, intermediate and apparent layers; 2) the current principal supervisory responsibility, consumer awareness about agricultural products traceability and the implementability of the traceability system were the fundamental factors affecting the effectiveness of the agricultural product traceability system; 3) consumer willingness to trace agricultural products, consumer satisfaction with agricultural products traceability, information disclosure and sharing capability, and emergency response capability are the apparent factors that affect the effectiveness of the traceability system; 4) Emergency handling capability, information disclosure and sharing capability are the key success factors for the effectiveness of the traceability system. Based on these results, we suggested that: 1) for the construction of efficiency evaluation indicators, attention should be paid to the quantification and weighting of apparent and fundamental factors in order to better reflect the current agricultural products traceability system and its effectiveness; 2) for efficiency improvement, appearance factors should be improved in a positive feedback manner by improving fundamental factors, releasing old efficiency and focusing on key success factors and efficiency construction, thereby in a negative feedback manner providing new efficiency for the system, and promoting the achievement of the efficiency goal of the current agricultural product traceability system.
Food Engineering
Effects of Ultra-high Pressure Treatment on the Preparation of Slowly Digestible Starch from Glutinous Rice by Temperature-Cycled Retrogradation
WU Yijin, ZHENG Fangyuan, LIN Li, GAO Yuchen, DU Xianfeng
2022, 43(5):  55-61.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210203-050
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Slowly digestible starch (SDS) was prepared separately from glutinous rice flour (with 7.97% protein) and glutinous rice starch (with 0.58% protein) by ultra-high pressure (100, 300 and 500 MPa) combined with temperature-cycled retrogradation (holding at alternating temperatures of 4 and 25 ℃ for 1, 3 and 7 days with 24 h intervals). The influence of ultra-high pressure (UHP) treatment on the purity, thermal properties, gelatinization properties and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of SDS was evaluated. The experimental results showed that the purity of SDS prepared from glutinous rice starch was higher than that prepared from glutinous rice flour. After 7 days of temperature-cycled retrogradation, the purity of SDS prepared from glutinous rice starch with UHP treatment at 500 MPa reached a maximum level of 30.32%. The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) experiments showed that the enthalpy change of the SDS samples increases after temperature-cycled crystallization. The rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA) experiments demonstrated that the retrogradation value and final viscosity of SDS from glutinous rice starch decreased and the purity increased with increasing pressure. The FTIR spectra illustrated that the proportion of short-range ordered structure in SDS from glutinous rice starch was higher than that from glutinous rice flour.
Effect of Ultrasonic Combined with Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water Treatment on Quality Changes of Vacuum-Packaged Sea Bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) during Refrigerated Storage
LAN Weiqing, ZHANG Bingjie, ZHOU Dapeng, MO Yaxian, FENG Haojie, XIE Jing
2022, 43(5):  62-68.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210118-198
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In order to investigate the combined effects of ultrasound and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the quality changes of vacuum-packaged sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) during refrigerated storage, fresh sea bass fillets were treated with ultrasonic (US) at 20 kHz and 600 W, slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), their combination (US + SAEW), or sterile water (as control) for 10 min and then stored in a refrigerator at 4 ℃. Total viable count (TVC), Psychrobacter count (PC), and physicochemical properties such as pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content, water migration, water-holding capacity (WHC)) and indicators lipid oxidation were measured every three days during storage. The results showed that the US and SAEW treatments inhibited the increase in TVC and PC during storage, and obviously slowed down the increase in pH and TVB-N content as compared to the control group. The US treatment greatly improved WHC. The SAEW treatment inhibited lipid oxidation in fish while improving WHC. Compared to the control group, the combined treatment provided the best quality preservation, and extended the shelf-life of refrigerated vacuum-packed sea bass by 6 days at least.
Effect of Sterilization Temperature on Lipid Oxidation and Quality Attributes of Marinated Eggs
ZHANG Qing, YUAN Nuo, ZHANG Xiaofei, PENG Yijiao, GUO Hong, ZHAO Jinhong
2022, 43(5):  69-75.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201207-072
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The effects of different sterilization temperatures on the conjugated diene acid (CDA) value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content, fatty acid profile, color, texture and sensory characteristics of marinated eggs were investigated. The results showed that sterilization temperatures below 95 and 105 ℃ significantly inhibited the increase in CDA and TBARS content, respectively. With increasing sterilization temperature, there was no significant change in the total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P > 0.05), while the total content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased, and a significant increase was observed when the sterilization temperature was 105 ℃ (P < 0.05). In contrast, the total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) significantly decreased with increasing sterilization temperature (P < 0.05). When the sterilization temperature was 121 ℃, PUFA/SFA ratio significantly declined (P < 0.05) and the highest n-6/n-3 ratio was observed among all conditions. In addition, the color parameters L* and b* values decreased, and a* value increased with increasing sterilization temperature. Sterilization at 105 ℃ resulted in higher hardness, springiness, chewiness and overall sensory scores than at any other temperature. This study indicates sterilization at 105 ℃ can cause less lipid oxidation, and maintain the nutritional value of fatty acids in marinated eggs and its sensory quality, which will provide a scientific basis for the selection of proper sterilization temperature by marinated egg producers.
Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Quality of Tomato Seed Oil
ZHOU Jing, LIU Wenyu, CHEN Youzhi, FU Chenggang, LIU Lingzhen, SONG Qiufeng, WEI Changqing
2022, 43(5):  76-83.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201201-012
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of four different preparation processes, namely, cold pressing, hot pressing, solvent extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, on physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, and the contents of beneficial lipid concomitants and volatile components in tomato seed oil. The results showed that the contents of fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol in tomato seed oils obtained by different methods differed significantly (P < 0.05), with the highest total phenol content (88.43 mg/kg) being in the hot-pressed oil and the highest contents of tocopherol (707.26 mg/kg) and sterol (2 442.66 mg/kg) being in that obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results of gas chromatography (GC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that extraction was more favorable for the retention of unsaturated fatty acids than pressing, and hot pressing was more likely to induce the production of secondary oxidation products such as aldehydes and ketones; by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS), 38, 42, 32 and 32 volatile components were identified in the oil samples obtained by cold pressing, hot pressing, solvent extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, respectively, with the major ones being aldehydes (7.47–18.09 μg/g). By principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster heatmap analysis, the four samples were clearly distinguished from each other. The conclusion of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the quality control of tomato seed oil.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Protective Effect of Ellagic Acid on Aristolochic Acid I-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice
SUN Hui, FU Qian, DAI Chenxi, YUSUF·Arslan, SHU Guangwen, DENG Xukun
2022, 43(5):  84-90.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210320-253
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Objective: To investigate the protective effect of ellagic acid (EA) on acute kidney injury induced by aristolochic acid I (AAI). Methods: Totally 40 Kunming mice, half male and half female, were randomly divided into four groups: healthy, model (AAI at 10 mg/(kg mb·d)), low-dosage EA (AAI at 10 mg/(kg mb·d) + EA 10 mg/(kg mb·d)), and high-dosage EA (AAI at 10 mg/(kg mb·d) + EA 30 mg/(kg mb·d)). Different dosages of EA were given to mice by gavage daily for 12 days. The acute kidney injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of AAI starting from day 7. On day 12, all the mice were sacrificed for measurement of renal function indicators such as renal index, urine protein, urea nitrogen, and creatinine. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson staining were performed to examine renal histopathological changes. Biochemical assay kits were used to determine oxidative stress indicators in the kidney including glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to detect the levels of inflammatory factors in mice. Western blot and qPCR were used to detect the expression levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)-related factors in the kidney. Results: EA significantly improved renal function indexes and renal histopathological changes in mice with AAI-induced acute kidney injury, and restored oxidative stress indexes in the kidney to nearly normal levels. In addition, EA significantly down-regulated the levels of inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in the serum of the mouse model and reduced the transcription of the genes encoding TNF-α and IL-1β in the kidney. Further experiments revealed that EA considerably decreased the phosphorylation levels of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) α and NF-κB p65 proteins in the kidney of the mouse model (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and inhibited the transcription and translation of NLRP3 inflammasome components including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), caspase-1 and IL-1β. Conclusion: EA ameliorates AAI-induced acute kidney injury in mice possibly through a mechanism related to blocking of AAI-induced renal inflammation by interfering with the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway.
Effect of Polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum on Hyperglycemia, Blood Lipid and Gut Microbiota of Diabetic Rats
WU Ruiting, FU Wangwei, WAN Min, WU Wei, YAO Yufei, LI Wenjuan
2022, 43(5):  91-102.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201203-046
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Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. The gut microbiota play a vital role in its occurrence and development. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide in type 2 diabetic rats, and its influence on gut microbiota structure and metabolites. Methods: Wistar rats were fed a high-sugar and high-fat diet for 8 weeks, then injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to establish a diabetic animal model. Subsequently, the diabetic rats were separately administered with double-distilled water, metformin, and Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide at three different doses, 100, 50 and 25 mg/kg mb. After 4 weeks of administration, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin (INS) were determined, and intestinal pathological changes were examined. Meanwhile, in order to observe the effect of Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide on the gut microbiota in diabetic rats, feces were collected for 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. Moreover, fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide protected the intestinal tissue of diabetic rats, and exerted an anti-diabetic effect by regulating blood glucose, lowering blood lipids and ameliorating insulin resistance. Furthermore, it regulated the species composition of the intestinal microbiota in diabetic rats by significantly increasing the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria, up-regulating the abundance of beneficial Lactobacillus, Roseburia, Bifidobacterium, Oscillospira, Ruminococcus and Coprococcus, consequently enhancing the secretion of short-chain fatty acid butyric acid, and down-regulating the relative abundance of Prevotella and CF231, thereby reducing propionic acid content. Conclusion: Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide can regulate blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Its action mechanism may be related to regulation of the gut microbiota structure and consequently the secretion of SCFAs, which can be absorbed by intestinal cells or enter the blood circulation to protect tissues.
Preventive Effect and Mechanism of Ganoderma lingzhi Polysaccharides on Acute Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice
YE Liyun, CHENG Bing, MA Shuili, HAO Jinbin, MENG Guoliang, FU Junsheng, WU Xiaoping
2022, 43(5):  103-110.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210320-254
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Objective: To explore the preventive effect and mechanism of Ganoderma lingzhi polysaccharides on acute alcoholic liver injury in mice. Methods: G. lingzhi polysaccharides were extracted by hot water extraction and identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Mice were randomly divided into five groups: blank, model, G. lingzhi mycelial polysaccharides (GLMPS) (200 mg of GLMPS/kg mb), G. lingzhi fruiting body polysaccharides (GLFPS) (200 mg of GLFPS/kg mb), and positive control (300 mg of biphenyl diester/kg mb). Sobering-up and drunkenness time, liver index and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in all groups. RNA was extracted from the liver tissue of experimental mice for transcriptomic analysis of the action mechanism of G. lingzhi polysaccharides and its verification by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results: Both G. lingzhi polysaccharides prolonged the drunkenness time of mice with alcoholic liver injury, shortened the sobering-up time, decreased the liver index, inhibited the increase in MDA, increased the levels of CAT and SOD, and significantly improved cellular swelling and foam-like changes, GLFPS being more effective than GLMPS. Totally 94 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that these DEGs were mainly related to the metabolic processes of fatty acids and monocarboxylic acid, insulin-like growth factor, and glutathione transferase activity. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment results showed that the main pathways involving DEGs were glutathione metabolism, cytochrome P450, and retinol metabolism. The real-time fluorescence qPCR results showed that the up-regulation or down-regulation of genes in response to alcohol was alleviated in the GLFPS group, proving the accuracy of transcriptomic analysis. Conclusion: G. lingzhi polysaccharides effectively prevent acute alcoholic liver injury, and its mechanism may be related to regulation of the expression of the genes associated with glutathione metabolism, cytochrome P450, and retinol metabolism.
Cold Storage Properties and Lipid-Lowering Efficacy of Black Tea Superfine Powder with Different Particle Sizes
TU Zheng, LIN Jiazheng, CHU Feiyang, YE Yang
2022, 43(5):  111-117.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201210-111
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In order to explore the cold storage properties and lipid-lowering efficacy of black tea superfine powder with different particle sizes, in this study, the physicochemical properties and lipid-lowering capacity of black tea superfine powders with particle sizes of 26.116 (about 600 mesh), 9.612 (about 1 600 mesh) and 4.338 μm (about 3 600 mesh) were evaluated after refrigerated storage at 4 ℃ for 180 days. The results showed that the contents of tea polyphenols (18.17%) and thearubigins (11.82%) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the 600-mesh tea powder than in the 1 600-mesh (17.36% and 10.76%, respectively) and 3 600-mesh (16.93% and 10.42%, respectively) ones after cold storage, while the content of theabrownines (3.96%) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in the 1 600-mesh (4.67%) and 3 600-mesh (4.89%) tea powders. In addition, all the three tea powders significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity with half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 560.672–591.521 μg/mL and significantly improved body mass (392.5–396.3 g) and the serum levels of total cholesterol (1.756–2.052 mmol/L), triglycerides (3.611–4.308 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.004–3.097 mmol/L) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.268–1.456 mmol/L) in obese rats after 35 days of gavage, with no significant differences being observed among these tea powders (P > 0.05). In summary, larger particle size of black tea superfine powder in the range of 600–3 600 mesh are beneficial to maintain its chemical components during cold storage, and have similar lipid-lowering effects in obese rats.
Regulatory Effect of Mulberry Leaf Alkaloid on D-Galactose-Induced Intestinal Flora Disturbance in Mice
HE Yan, HUANG Xianzhi, WEI Zheng, HAO Qilin, DING Xiaowen
2022, 43(5):  118-126.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210313-176
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of mulberry leaf alkaloids on the improvement of D-galactose-induced intestinal flora imbalance in mice, so as to provide a basis for the development and utilization mulberry leaf alkaloids. Methods: D-galactose was used to establish a mouse model of oxidative damage, and then the mice were administered intragastrically with mulberry leaf alkaloids at low (50 mg/kg mb), medium (100 mg/kg mb) and high (200 mg/kg mb) doses. After 45 days of administration, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) in small intestine tissue were measured, and high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the changes of α-diversity, β-diversity and bacterial composition in the cecum contents of mice. Results: Compared with the model group, the level of ROS in the high-dose mulberry leaf alkaloid group was reduced by 30.34% (P < 0.05), and the activity of SOD and the content of Trx-1 were increased by 63.59% and 123.75%, respectively (P < 0.05). Mulberry leaf alkaloids significantly improved intestinal flora diversity, adjust the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroides, decrease the relative abundance of potentially harmful bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Helicobacter and Mucispirillum, and increase the abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria like Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Among the three doses of mulberry leaf alkaloids, the high dose was the most effective. In conclusion, mulberry leaf alkaloids can effectively improve the diversity reduction and structural disorders of intestinal flora caused by oxidative stress, which may be related to the antioxidant properties of mulberry leaf alkaloids.
Black Soybean Peptides Protect against Liver Injury Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice
LI Sijin, SONG Chunli, WANG Xinhui, REN Jian
2022, 43(5):  127-132.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201208-095
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The protective effects of black soybean peptides (BSPs) on liver injury induced by high-fat diet in mice were investigated. Healthy male ICR mice were selected and adaptively fed for 7 days, and then randomly divided into a normal group and a model group according to body mass. The mice in the model group were fed high-fat diet continuously for 5 weeks to establish an animal model of liver injury. Afterwards, the mice with liver injury were further randomly divided into 5 groups: model, positive drug, low-dose BSP (400 mg/kg mb), medium-dose BSP (800 mg/kg mb), and high-dose BSP (1 000 mg/kg mb). The mice in the experimental groups were orally administered with BSPs for 4 weeks. Physiological and biochemical indicators, inflammatory factors and nuclear transcription factors, and hepatic histomorphological changes in the mice were measured. The results showed that the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in the mice treated with BSPs significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in comparison with the model group. The contents of glutathione (GSH) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) increased significantly (P < 0.01). The medium and high doses of BSP caused a significant decrease in the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) (P < 0.01). Overall, we concluded that black soybean peptides possess potential antioxidant activity in vivo and reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammatory factors, and thus can be used as a candidate to protect mice from high-fat diet-induced liver injury.
Dark Tea with Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Improves Glucose Metabolism and Lipid Metabolism Disorders Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice
XIAO Jie, HOU Can, CHEN Xin, YING Jian, ZHU Xuan, WANG Liming, NIU Xinghe, TANG Pei’an, LI Song, HAO Binxiu, CHANG Guosheng
2022, 43(5):  133-142.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210316-218
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In this study, we investigated the effects of dark tea with Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae on body mass growth (BMG), fasting serum glucose (FSG), glucose tolerance (GT), serum insulin, serum lipids and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice with metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet. Our data showed that intervention with the tea at a dose of 0.75–3.00 g/kg mb lowered FSG in the mouse model of metabolic disorders. The intervention at 3.00 g/kg mb improved GT and ameliorated early hepatic fat deposition. Hepatic total cholesterol was decreased significantly in the middle-dose (1.50 g/kg mb) intervention group. Moreover, consumption of the dark tea reversed the change in gut microbiota relative abundance induced by the high-fat diet and decreased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, the dark tea inhibited the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus but increased the abundance of Clostridium and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that lactate dehydrogenase and 6-phospho-β-glucosidase, key enzymes of glycolysis, were down-regulated, resulting in inhibition of the synthesis of lipoteichoic acid associated with the enrichment and adhesion of Gram-positive bacteria. Based on these findings, we speculated that dark tea with Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae may protect the intestinal epithelial barrier and regulate fatty acid absorption, bile acid metabolism and lipolysis, thereby ameliorating glucose metabolism and liver fat deposition. Thus, this tea is expected to be a potential healthy beverage regulating the gut microbiota and improving glucose and lipid metabolism.
Screening Lactobacillus plantarum Strains with Potential to Protect Human Intestinal Epithelium HT-29 Cells against Injury Caused by Escherichia coli or H2O2
MA Changlu, LIU Qing, LI Shurong, ZHANG Lijuan, TUO Yanfeng
2022, 43(5):  143-150.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210421-299
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Probiotic Lactobacillus strains can exert anti-inflammatory or antioxidant activities after colonization in the gut, which is beneficial for the host’s intestinal health. In this study, eight L. plantarum strains isolated from traditional fermented dairy foods in Xinjiang, China, were evaluated for their protective effects on HT-29 human intestinal epithelial cells against injury caused by Escherichia coli or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Among these strains, L. plantarum 35 showed the highest adhesion capacity to HT-29 cell monolayers, and it reduced E. coli adhesion to HT-29 cells by displacement, competition, and exclusion, with inhibition rates of 42.60%, 59.17%, and 60.19%, respectively. L. plantarum 35 and its crude exopolysaccharide (EPS) inhibited E. coli from stimulating HT-29 cells to produce interleukin-8 (IL-8), protected HT-29 cells against injury induced by H2O2, increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in HT-29 cells. Therefore, L. plantarum 35 and its crude EPS have the potential to inhibit inflammatory bowel disease induced by E. coli O157.
Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Milk-Derived Sleep-Promoting Peptide in Vitro and Antioxidant Effect on Caenorhabditis elegans in Vivo
LIU Xingyu, CAO Sufang, ZHU Qiuyi, ZENG Zhi’an, LIU Qian, LI Jun, LIU Guo, LI Yifeng, CHEN Yunjiao, CAO Yong
2022, 43(5):  151-157.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201211-121
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The antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a sleep-promoting peptide from bovine milk were evaluated in this study. Four in vitro methods, namely 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays, were used to evaluate its antioxidant activity. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as a model organism to evaluate its anti-oxidant and anti-stress capacity in vivo. The results showed that the peptide scavenged 44.27% of DPPH, 18.37% of superoxide anion, 37.22% of hydroxyl radical and 24.83% of ABTS radical at 0.1 mg/mL. In addition, the sleep-promoting peptide obviously extended the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, protected against oxidative stress and heat stress, improved the mobility of Caenorhabditis elegans without damaging its reproductive ability, significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the sleep-promoting peptide has good antioxidant and anti-stress effects both in vivo and in vitro, and thus shows promise for wide application.
Inulin and Soybean Dietary Fiber Improved the Intestinal Flora and Metabolites in Mice Fed a Beef-Containing Diet
WU Mingyue, KONG Xiangli, ZHANG Tianyang, FENG Xirui, XU Jinghan, XU Xiaoxi
2022, 43(5):  158-167.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201205-062
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Undigested components from a large intake of red meat can be fermented by the intestinal flora to form harmful metabolites, thereby destroying intestinal homeostasis and increasing the risk of colon cancer and cardiovascular diseases. To explore the effect of dietary addition of inulin or soybean dietary fiber (SDF) on the intestinal flora and metabolites in mice fed a beef-containing diet, male C57BL/6Cnc mice were randomly divided into a blank control group, a beef group, a beef plus inulin group, and a beef plus SDF group. The intestinal flora structure of mice was detected by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon contents were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the content of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) in the kidney was determined. The results showed that in the beef group, the diversity of intestinal flora decreased significantly (P < 0.05), the abundance of Firmicutes, Lactobacillus and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 increased, and the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Faecalibaculum decreased; the contents of SCFAs in the colon contents decreased, and the content of TMAO increased significantly (P < 0.05). Dietary addition of inulin or SDF significantly improved the diversity of intestinal flora in mice (P < 0.05); inulin increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcaceae_UCG_014, while SDF increased the abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibaculum. Both dietary fibers increased the content of SCFAs in the colon contents and decreased the concentration of TMAO in the kidney (P < 0.05). In conclusion, beef intake does have a negative impact on the intestinal flora and metabolites in mice, and this effect can be blocked by addition of dietary fiber to the diet, thereby reducing the risk of various related diseases. These results can provide a theoretical and scientific basis for the development of a reasonable diet and personalized precise nutrition in the future.
Packaging & Storage
Exogenous Melatonin Ameliorates Postharvest Chilling Injury of Apricot Fruit by Modulating Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism
HE Huan, LIU Zhaoxue, ZHANG Yalin, ZHANG Huanhuan, LU Yujia, ZHU Xuan
2022, 43(5):  168-174.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210114-154
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In this study, the effects of melatonin on chilling injury and reactive oxygen metabolism were investigated during the storage of postharvest apricot fruit at (0 ± 1) ℃ and 90%–95% relative humidity. ‘Saimaiti’ apricots were impregnated with different concentrations of melatonin (50, 100 and 200 μmol/L) at 0.05 MPa for 2 min and then at atmospheric pressure for 8 min before storage. Distilled water was used as a control. Chilling injury incidence and chilling injury index were periodically recorded, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, cell membrane permeability, superoxide anion radical production rate, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured in apricot fruit. Compared to the control group, melatonin treatment obviously reduced chilling injury incidence and index in apricot fruit (P < 0.05), and 100 μmol/L melatonin was the most effective in reducing chilling injury. Furthermore, apricot fruit treated with melatonin increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), inhibited the accumulation of superoxide anion radical and H2O2, reduced membrane lipid peroxidation, and maintained membrane integrity. These results suggested that the inhibition of exogenous melatonin on chilling injury of apricot fruit was closely related to the regulation of reactive oxygen metabolism. These findings can provide a theoretical basis for the application of melatonin in controlling chilling injury of postharvest apricot fruit.
Effect of Pre-harvest Spray Application of Diethyl Aminoethyl Hexanoate on the Energy Metabolism in Longan Fruit Pericarp during Postharvest Storage
LIN Yixiong, LIN Yifen, CHEN Yihui, WANG Hui, LIN Hetong
2022, 43(5):  175-184.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201210-109
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The effect of pre-harvest spray application of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) at a concentration of 10 mg/kg on the energy metabolism in the fruit pericarp of postharvest ‘Fuyan’ longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. cv. Fuyan) during storage was investigated by measuring the contents of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), energy charge, the activities of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide kinase (NADK), and the contents of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The results demonstrated that compared with the control group, pre-harvest spray application of DA-6 displayed higher levels of ATP, ADP and energy charge, higher activities of H+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase in pericarp plasma membrane, vacuolar membrane and mitochondrial membrane, higher activity of NADK, higher contents of NADPH and NADP, and lower amounts of AMP, NADH and NAD. These data indicated that pre-harvest spray application of DA-6 could maintain the energy requirement for normal physiological metabolism of postharvest longan fruit, keep the balance between intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations to maintain the structural integrity and the function of plasma membrane, vacuolar membrane and mitochondrial membrane, and eventually delay pericarp browning of longan fruit.
Effect of Different Packages during Transportation on Shelf-Life Quality of Kiwifruit
XUE Jie, LI Huan, WANG Xianglan, RAO Jingping
2022, 43(5):  185-193.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201201-011
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Different packages have different effects on reducing vibration damage during the transportation and storage of fruits. The aim of this work was to study the effects of three packaging methods during long-distance transportation on the shelf-life quality of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. ‘Huayou’) at room temperature and low temperatures. The results showed that the three packaging methods significantly reduced the mass loss rate, respiration rate and ethylene production of kiwifruit during its shelf-life, and inhibited the decrease in protopectin content. The firmness and vitamin C content of kiwifruit with box packaging were significantly higher than those with flat packaging (P < 0.05), and soluble solid content (SSC) was significantly lower than that from flat packaging (P < 0.05). On the other hand, no significant difference in the relative conductivity among the three packaging groups was observed (P > 0.05). In conclusion, box packaging is more effective in preventing vibration damage and delaying the quality deterioration of kiwifruit than flat packaging.
Effect of Nitric Oxide Fumigation on the Quality of Dried Apricots
DENG Hao, WANG Xiawei, DILIXIATI·Yilidana, WEI Jia, ZHANG Zheng, YANG Haiyan, WU Bin
2022, 43(5):  194-202.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201201-017
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The application of sulfur?dioxide?(SO2) treatment to dried apricots causes many problems such as bleaching, off-odor and high SO2 residues. In order to address these issues, the effect of nitric oxide (NO) fumigation before or after drying on the quality of dried apricots was studied. In this experiment, Xinjiang-grown Diaogan apricots were used to prepare dried apricots. The changes in physiological indexes, NO residue and sensory quality of dried apricots stored at (25 ± 1) ℃ were determined. The results showed that NO fumigation maintained moisture content, water activity (aw), color and nutritional quality well, inhibited the increase in browning degree and total color difference, delayed the decrease in the levels of total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) and reducing sugars (Rs), and inhibited microbial growth. NO fumigation followed by drying and NO fumigation again was more effective in maintaining the storage quality of dried apricots. Both the residues of NO3- and NO2- in dried apricots were lower than the limits of the national standard (GB 2762-2017). This study may provide theoretical and technical support for the industrial application of NO fumigation in the preservation of dried apricots.
A Comparative Study on Postharvest Cold Tolerance in Salicylic Acid-Deficient Mutant (NahG) and Wild-Type Tomato Fruits
DING Yang, ZHAO Ruirui, SUN Cunyi, SHEN Lin, SHENG Jiping
2022, 43(5):  203-209.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210104-038
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In this study, postharvest salicylic acid (SA)-deficient mutant (NahG) and wild-type (WT) tomato fruits were stored at 4 ℃ for up to 28 days. Chilling injury symptoms were observed, and chilling injury index, the activities of phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase D (PLD), lipoxygenase (LOX), polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulase, and the contents of proline, lignin, cellulose, total phenols and catechinic in the fruits were measured during the storage period. Compared with the WT fruit, chilling injury index and the activities of PLC, PLD, LOX, PG and cellulase in the NahG fruit were lower, whereas the contents of proline, lignin, cellulose, total phenols and catechinic were higher. These results suggest that the degradation of cell membrane and cell wall is alleviated and the contents of cold tolerance-related compounds are increased in the NahG fruit. Therefore, it had stronger cold tolerance than the WT fruit.
Development of Polyethylene Film with Improved Antibacterial Activity Based on Phase-Transited Lysozyme
WANG Zhan, FU Xing, DONG Shijian, LI Shugang
2022, 43(5):  210-217.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201116-172
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The objective of this study was to modify polyethylene (PE) film for better antibacterial capacity via phase transition. Lysozyme solution at 2 mg/mL was mixed with an equal volume of tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) solution at 10 mmol/L. The modification efficiency of PE film by amyloid-like aggregates produced from phase transition in the lysozyme solution was evaluated at different reaction times. The results indicated that the average size of phase-transited lysozyme particles increased from 531.2 to 2 305 nm with increasing reaction time up to 60 min. According to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the surface of modified PE film was grafted with hydrophilic groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups. In addition, the oxygen content increased, and the elements S and P were found in the surface coating but not in the native film. The coating formed at 120 min was homogenous and compact without excessive fusion, and it stably adhered to the PE film under different temperature conditions. The modified PE film showed better antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus than the uncoated one, thus providing a better packaging environment for foods.
Effect of Harvesting Method on the Quality and Volatile Flavor Compounds of Agaricus bisporus
SHAO Yangyang, GAO Haiyan, LIU Ruiling, FANG Xiangjun, CHEN Hangjun
2022, 43(5):  218-226.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210906-056
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Objective: To explore the effects of harvesting methods on the quality changes and volatile flavor compounds of Agaricus bisporus during storage. Methods: At harvest, Agaricus bisporus were divided into two groups: cutting out and not cutting out the root, and then stored at 4 ℃ for up to 15 days. The apparent quality, nutritional quality, browning-related enzyme activities, and flavor components of Agaricus bisporus were measured during storage. Results: The non-cutting method significantly inhibited the increase in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in Agaricus bisporus during storage, attenuated membrane damage caused by lipid preoxidation, and delayed the decrease of the contents of nutrients such as total phenols and soluble sugars. In total, 55 and 50 volatile components were detected in Agaricus bisporus without and with roots during storage, respectively. The relative odor activity value (ROVA) analysis showed that 1-octene-3-ol, benzyl alcohol and 3-octanone were the dominant flavor compounds in Agaricus bisporus. The contents of isovaleraldehyde and 3-octanone increased significantly during the late storage period, both of which could be considered as an indicator of quality deterioration in Agaricus bisporus. This study further found that the contents of isovaleraldehyde and 3-octanone in the root-cutting groups was higher than those in the non-root-cutting group. Conclusion: At harvest, the non-root-cutting method can delay the browning and softening deterioration of Agaricus bisporus after harvest, and inhibit its flavor deterioration.
Effects of Different Packaging Methods on the Quality and Metabolism of Mango Fruit during Simulated Low-Temperature Transportation and Storage
WEI Saichao, XIE Jing
2022, 43(5):  227-234.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201205-063
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In order to investigate the protective effect of mango commercial packaging (wrapping paper and plastic net) and other packaging methods (gourd-like inflatable membrane and inflatable bag) on mangoes during transportation, Vietnamese green mangoes were subjected to simulated transportation experiments on a vibration table at 13 ℃ and 180 r/min for 24 hours, followed by storage at 13 ℃ for up to 20 days. The changes in yellowing rate, disease index, mass loss rate, moisture content and distribution, hardness, propectin and soluble pectin contents, respiration intensity, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) level, relative conductivity, and the contents of titratable acid, total soluble solids (TSS) and vitamin C (VC) were measured during the storage period. The results showed that inflatable bag packaging significantly delayed the yellowing of mangoes and the occurrence of disease, reduced the losses of free water and mass, and decreased the peak values of respiratory intensity and ACS content. The slowest increase in relative conductivity and TSS content was observed for inflatable bag packaged mangoes during low-temperature transportation and storage. Wrapping paper packaging slowed down the rate of change in the contents of propectin and soluble pectin, plastic net packaging slowed down the rate of decrease in hardness and reduced VC loss, and gourd-like inflatable membrane packaging restrained the decrease in titratable acid content. Therefore, both kinds of commercial packaging and gourd-like inflatable membrane packaging had poor protective effects on mangoes during transportation, while inflatable bag packaging significantly reduced the damage caused by transportation to mangoes and maintain higher commodity characteristics of mangoes. These results provide a theoretical reference for mango cushioning packaging and postharvest storage and preservation technology.
Difference in Energy Metabolism between the Peel and Juice Sac of Red-Fleshed Pomelo Fruit
WANG Yonghong, WEN Jiayi, LIU Shunzhi, HU Weirong
2022, 43(5):  235-243.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201015-136
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In order to study the difference in energy metabolism between the peel and juice sac of red-flesh sweet pomelo fruit during postharvest storage, the water contents, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, energy-related matter contents, energy metabolism-related enzyme activities and energy charge (EC) in three fruit tissues (juice sac, white cortex and peel) as well as the contents of total soluble solid (TSS) and lignin in juice sac were measured during storage at room (25 ℃ as a control) or cold temperatures (8 ℃). The results showed that after 80 days of storage, the contents of TSS and lignin in juice sac increased, whereas water and MDA contents decreased compared to those at harvest. The energy metabolism-related enzyme activities varied significantly among fruit tissues. For all three tissues, a decrease in the levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and EC was observed, together with an increase the level of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), indicating that juice sac granulation may be related to energy metabolism. Compared to the control group, cold storage maintained the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO), H+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase in the late storage period as well as the levels of ATP, ADP and EC, inhibited the increase in AMP content, maintained the water content of juice sac and white cortex, and repressed the increase in lignin and TSS contents, thereby maintaining the fruit quality and prolonging the storage period of pomelo.
Ethephon Accelerates Wound Healing in Ginger Rhizomes by Modulating Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Secondary Metabolite Production
ZHU Jie, LI Canying, SUN Lei, GE Yonghong
2022, 43(5):  244-251.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201126-266
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Ginger rhizomes are subject to mechanical damage during harvest, handling, and transportation, and ethephon has been reported to promote plant wound healing. In this study, the effect and mechanism of ethephon treatment after harvest on wound healing in ginger rhizomes were investigated. The results indicated that 50 mg/L ethephon treatment retarded mass loss, and enhanced the contents of hydrogen peroxide, total phenolic compounds and lignin in ginger rhizomes during the wound healing process. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism were increased in the ethephon-treated ginger rhizomes. The accumulation of phenolic compounds and lignin during wound healing were correlated with a significant increase in peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities. These findings suggest that ethephon treatment can promote the wound healing process of ginger rhizomes by modulating key enzyme activities involved in ROS metabolism and the phenylpropanoid pathway to enhance antioxidant capacity and accumulate secondary metabolites.
Reviews
Progress in Lateral Flow Immunochromatographic Assays for Monitoring Pathogenic Factors in Milk
GAO Pingping, REN Yuwei, YANG Xinyan, YANG Tao, WANG Zhenghui, SONG Yang, MAN Chaoxin, JIANG Yujun
2022, 43(5):  252-263.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200926-326
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As the demand for dairy products increases, the issue of their safety has aroused widespread concern. Real-time, rapid and accurate detection of pathogenic factors in milk is an important guarantee for solving this issue. In recent years, the development of lateral flow immunochromatographic assays (LFIA) has provided good conditions for on-site detection of pathogenic factors in dairy products. This article describes the principle of LFIA for the monitoring of pathogenic factors in milk, and reviews the current status of the application of chromogenic reaction enhancement strategies, and new nanomaterials alone or combined with nucleic acid amplification and smartphone technology for sensitivity enhancement. Meanwhile, two major high-throughput detection methods, the multi-line and multi-strip ones, are summarized. We hope that this review will provide important theoretical guidance for rapid, highly sensitive and high-throughput field monitoring of pathogenic factors in milk.
Advances in Research on the “Resistant Starch-Intestinal Flora-Metabolite” Nutrition Axis
HE Shuqi, TONG Mingyao, LEI Suzhen, ZHANG Yi, ZENG Hongliang
2022, 43(5):  264-274.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210223-258
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Resistant starch is not easily digested and absorbed in the small intestine, but it can be utilized by the large intestinal microflora to produce metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, which in turn can regulate the intestinal microfloral balance and bile acid metabolism. Therefore, this article puts forward the “resistant starch-intestinal flora-metabolite” nutrition axis to systematically summarize the mechanism of action by which RS mediates the production of metabolites by regulating the intestinal microflora. It compares the effects of intestinal microbial fermentation on the apparent, crystal and molecular structure of RS, describes the relationship of the structural characteristics of RS with the intestinal community structure, the production of short-chain fatty acids and the excretion of bile acids, and summarizes the mechanism of RS for improving metabolic diseases by regulating the intestinal microflora and intestinal metabolites. Besides, an outlook is given on future studies on the pathways of the interaction among resistant starch, the intestinal microflora and bile acid, and on the mechanism of RS interaction with bile acids and short-chain fatty acids in metabolic diseases.
Effect of Intervention Measures on Salmonella during the Production of Ready-to-Eat Dry Fermented Sausages and Mechanism for Stress Response in Salmonella
XIANG Xianyu, HUANG Jing, LIU Aiping, ZHOU Kang, LIU Shuliang, AO Xiaolin
2022, 43(5):  275-285.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200911-144
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Ready-to-eat dry fermented sausage is favored by consumers. It has a unique flavor and is nutritious. However, ready-to-eat dry fermented sausage is a potential source of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, since it may be contaminated by Salmonella and is not sterilized during the production process. This article reviews the reduction of Salmonella in the production process of ready-to-eat dry fermented sausages and the mechanisms for stress response in Salmonella. We expect that this review will provide a reference for the selection of measures to reduce Salmonella in the production of dry fermented sausages and the development of new decontamination measures for Salmonella.
Progress in the Application of Proteomics in Meat Product Authentication
ZHANG Yingying, KANG Chaodi, ZHANG Mingyue, WANG Juanqiang, ZHAO Wentao, LI Yingying
2022, 43(5):  286-294.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201206-065
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Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has been gradually applied in the authentication of meat products, which can identify, detect and quantify specific biomarker proteins or peptides, providing an effective technical means for confirming the true attributes, contents and sources of species. This article briefly introduces the proteomics workflow, and gives a detailed overview of the extraction, identification, thermal stability and screening principle of species-specific peptides. Meanwhile, this article describes the application of proteomics in the detection and identification of animal-derived and non-meat protein components in meat products, and discusses prospects for future directions.
Overview on Recent Applications of Novel Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction Materials for Sample Pretreatment for Food Analysis
LI Yinlong, NIE Xuemei, YANG Minli, GUO Wei, CHEN Fengming, ZHANG Feng
2022, 43(5):  295-305.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210224-273
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Technology trends in sample pretreatment, a crucial step in the analysis of complex samples, are of great significance to the development of analytical chemistry. Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is a novel sample pretreatment technique using magnetic or magnetizable materials as adsorbents. Thanks to its advantages including easy operation, short extraction time, strong anti-interference ability and good biocompatibility, MSPE represents one of the most promising approaches in the field of sample pretreatment. In recent years, with the rapid development of various adsorbent preparation techniques, novel magnetic nanomaterials-based MSPE is widely used for the isolation and enrichment of a variety of compounds in foods. In this review, we summarize the up-to-date advances in the application of MSPE based on graphene/graphene oxide (G/GO), carbon nanotube (CNT), metal organic framework materials (MOFs), covalent organic framework materials (COFs), molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), nanocomposite materials or functional polymer materials in food safety detection, and we discuss future development prospects in this field.
Recent Advances in Techniques for Tetrodotoxin Detection and Species Identification of Tetrodotoxic Fish: A Review
XIE Ruibin, LI Hui, ZHANG Juan, YU Wenjie, WANG Nan, GAO Jie, LIU Shufang, CHEN Ailiang
2022, 43(5):  306-315.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210218-192
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Tetrodotoxin (TTX) poisoning caused by consumption of puffer fish is one of the major causes of death related to food poisoning in coastal areas of China. Tetrodotoxin poisoning occurs rapidly, and there are no specific antidotes at present. Therefore, detecting the content of TTX or identifying the species of puffer fish as a source of TTX is useful for better analysis, management and control of the risk of TTX poisoning. In this article, the detection techniques of TTX and the methods for species identification of tetrodotoxic fish are reviewed, which could be of great significance for preventing puffer fish poisoning and rational utilization of puffer fish resources, and future prospects are discussed. We hope that this review will help early warn and reduce food poisoning caused by puffer fish and promptly identify the cause after it happens.
Heterocyclic Amines in Chinese Traditional Meat Products: A Review
CHENG Yiqun, LEI Yang, ZHOU Xinghu, JIN Fuyuan, WANG Changbao, HUANG Ming
2022, 43(5):  316-327.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200927-338
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Chinese traditional meat products are very popular in China, and their production is a complicated process usually accompanied by the generation of numerous contaminants at high levels. As a class of thermally induced contaminants, heterocyclic amines (HAs) are widely present in proteinaceous food products and have strong carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Compared to Western-style meat products, HAs are more easily generated and maintained in Chinese traditional meat products, posing a more prominent problem of potential food safety risks. This article highlights the recent achievements in the analysis of HAs contents in Chinese traditional meat products and their reduction and control techniques. Deficiencies in existing studies in this regard and the latest research trends are discussed. We believe that this review will help boost the safety of Chinese traditional meat products.
Effects of Food Composition and Processing Methods on Bioavailability of Plant Secondary Metabolites
LI Mengjie, HU Tan, PAN Siyi
2022, 43(5):  328-337.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210719-223
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The consumption of plant secondary metabolites-rich foods shows a positive effect on the regulation of human health. However, due to their poor solubility and chemical instability, the bioavailability of those secondary metabolites is usually low. The destruction of food composition caused by food processing is an important condition for the release of plant secondary metabolites, while food composition affects the absorption of plant secondary metabolites. In this review, we summarize the effects of different food components such as lipids and proteins as well as food processing methods such as thermal processing, mechanical processing and fermentation on the bioavailability of plant secondary metabolites. We expect that this review will provide a theoretical basis for improving the bioavailability of plant secondary metabolites in the daily diet.
Progress in the Application of Slurry Ice Technology in Seafood Preservation during Cold Chain Logistics
BAO Hairong, JIN Sulaiman
2022, 43(5):  338-345.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200904-045
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Slurry ice is a new environmental-friendly refrigerant with great potential in the low-temperature preservation of aquatic products. It has multiple advantages including faster cooling rate, lower final cooling temperature, better embedding capacity, and causing less mechanical damage to the products than traditional ice. The application of slurry ice can effectively maintain the marketable appearance and physicochemical characteristics of the products, extending the shelf life. This review summarizes the preparation methods and characteristics of slurry ice. The focus is on the application of slurry ice in different stages of the distribution of aquatic product and the present status of slurry ice combined with other technologies. The limitations of the application of slurry ice are also analyzed. We hope that this review can provide a theoretical basis for further improving its commercial application in the cold chain of aquatic products.
Progress in Understanding the Health Promoting Effect of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin
XIA Minquan, LI Xiaomeng, LIU Cong, CAI Zhaoxia
2022, 43(5):  346-355.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201211-133
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As an important immuneoactive component in eggs, yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) shows great competitiveness in research and production due to its good stability, high safety, low cost, easy availability, strong immune activity, and no drug resistance. This article highlights the significant advantages of IgY as a good antibiotic substitute in the prevention and treatment of viral and bacterial diseases. Also, IgY has great potential in the regulation of nutrient metabolism balance, intestinal microflora and immune homeostasis by affecting key rate-limiting enzymes, and relevant receptors and inflammatory factors specifically. Proper diet and targeted delivery of foodborne IgY may be a new perspective on inflammation regulation, disease control, nutritional balance or homeostasis, and oral microencapsulated IgY is expected to be a new approach against increasing public health emergencies (such as COVID-19 pandemic).
Progress in Understanding the Antiobesity and Lipid-Lowering Mechanism of Gingerol
LI Yawen, LI Xusheng, YUAN Yangbing, BAI Weibin, JIAO Rui
2022, 43(5):  356-362.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201120-215
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Globally, the prevalence of obesity is rising. Gingerol, a major bioactive phenolic compound in ginger, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial functions and has the potential to improve obesity. In recent years, many studies have explored the mechanisms of the antiobesity and lipid-lowering action of gingerol. In this article, we review the antiobesity and lipid-lowering mechanisms of gingerol with respect to its effect on adipocyte growth, fatty acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism and the intestinal flora, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the development and comprehensive utilization of gingerol as a potential ingredient in functional foods and medicine.
Progress in Understanding Interaction of Polysaccharides with Intestinal Flora
LIU Rongyu, WANG Hao, ZHANG Ziyi, SONG Dongxue, CHEN Jinrui, JI Chenfeng
2022, 43(5):  363-373.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201113-147
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A polysaccharide is a macromolecular polymer composed of more than 10 monosaccharide molecules through condensation and dehydration, and it is an essential substance for life. However, most plant polysaccharides cannot be digested by enzymes encoded by the human genome. The intestinal flora consists of a variety of microorganisms that reside in the gastrointestinal tract of the host, including Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as well as lesser quantities of Actinobacteria and Protebacteria, which can secrete polysaccharide-degrading enzymes to promote the digestion and absorption of polysaccharides. Non-digestible polysaccharides and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the fermentation products can further regulate the composition of the intestinal flora, improve intestinal function, and participate in regulating the expression of anti-pathogenic?microorganism, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor genes, thereby treating diseases and maintaining health. This article summarizes recent progress in understanding the interaction between polysaccharides and the intestinal flora, which will provide a scientific basis for further studies on human health and rational diets.
Progress in Esterification Modification, Purification and Characterization of Resveratrol
HU Xiaoning, LI Tian, GUO Qin, LI Ningyang, ZHANG Yu, QU Yang, WANG Xinping, TANG Xiaozhen, WANG Qiang
2022, 43(5):  374-382.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201201-021
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Resveratrol is a non-flavonoid polyphenolic compound, and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-tumor effects. It has a high melting point and poor lipid solubility and is insoluble in water, which limits its application in the food and medical fields. Esterification modification can reduce the melting point, greatly improve the lipid solubility and bioavailability of resveratrol, and enhance its health benefits. Thus, this article focuses on reviewing recent studies on resveratrol properties, esterification modification methods, separation and purification techniques and characterization methods, and it also discusses future research directions.
Progress in Rapid Detection of Fluoroquinolone Residues in Foods
SUN Minjun, GAO Xue, XU Yangxin, LIU Xiuying, LI Jianrong
2022, 43(5):  383-391.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200930-377
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Fluoroquinolones are a class of potent antibacterial agents which are widely used in the prevention and treatment of animal diseases in the animal husbandry and aquaculture industries. However, with the occurrence of irregular medication, the problem of veterinary drug residues in foods has become increasingly prominent. Therefore, developing fast, convenient and efficient detection methods for fluoroquinolone residues is of great significance to ensure food safety. This article reviews the application of fluorescence analysis in the detection of fluoroquinolone residues in foods, highlighting its excellent detection performance, and it also presents an outlook on fluorescence methods for the analysis of fluoroquinolone residues in foods. We expect that this review will provide a reference for the detection of fluoroquinolone residues in foods.
Establishment and Change of Intestinal Microbiota in Early Life and Its Implications on Infant Health
LIANG Shengnan, ZHAO Lina, CHEN Qingxue, ZHAO Li, SHI Jialu, YUE Yingxue, GUAN Jiaqi, LI Bailiang, HUO Guicheng
2022, 43(5):  392-400.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210123-252
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There are abundant microbial communities in the human intestine, some of which have begun to colonize in it even before birth. The period from gestation to 2 years old is the window of opportunity for the development of the intestinal microbiota. During this period, its composition is susceptible to a variety of factors such as gestational age, delivery mode, feeding pattern, antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics, environmental factors and host genes. The intestinal microbiota is crucial to infant development throughout its life and closely related to the health of infants. This review discusses the periods of colonization and change of the intestinal microbiota in early life and the factors affecting it, highlights the importance of the intestinal microbiota to infant growth and development, and puts forward the necessity of developing new foods.