Table of Content

15 May 2019, Volume 40 Issue 9
Basic Research
Antifungal Activity and Possible Mode of Action of Induced Disease-Resistant Components in Orange Peels against Penicillium italicum
PENG Yang, YANG Shuzhen, ZHANG Meihong, CHENG Yunjiang, PENG Litao
2019, 40(9):  1-6.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180421-276
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In our previous study, we demonstrated that inoculation of orange peels with Actinomucor elegan could induce the accumulation of disease-resistant components, red in color. Here, the red pigments were collected and purified to evaluate their antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum and the possible mode of action was investigated. The results showed that at concentrations of 50–200 μg/mL, the red pigments exhibited strong antifungal activity in a dose-dependent manner as demonstrated by the ability to inhibit spore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth and biomass accumulation. Furthermore, the red pigments altered cell wall structure and chitin distribution, and reduced the content of chitin in the cell wall. They destroyed cell membrane permeability and decreased ergosterol and total lipid contents in the cell membrane, thereby affecting the normal function of the cell membrane. Our results demonstrated that the red pigments can be used as a promising natural alternative to chemical fungicides for controlling postharvest diseases of citrus fruits.
Modelling Growth Kinetics of Salmonella and Background Microorganisms in Chicken
PENG Yabo, LI Xiaoting, FANG Ting, LI Changcheng, WEI Zhaoyi, TIAN Yuxin, CHEN Qinwen, LIU Wanning
2019, 40(9):  7-15.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180812-117
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The main objective of this study was to develop the primary and secondary models to describe the growth kinetics of Salmonella and background microorganisms in chicken. Samples inoculated with a cocktail of two Salmonella serotypes, S. typhimurium (CICC22956) and S. enteritidis (CICC21482) were incubated at 8, 12, 16, 20, 25, 30, 33, 37, 40 or 43 ℃. Salmonella grew well at all temperatures (12 to 43 ℃) except at 8 ℃. The growth kinetics of Salmonella and background microorganisms at the temperatures were analyzed by curve-fitting to the Huang and Baranyi models using the USDA Integrated Pathogen Modelling Program. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two models in terms of their ability to accurately predict the growth of Salmonella and background microorganisms in chicken. Three secondary models, the Ratkowsky square-root (RSR) Huang square-root (HSR), and Cardinal models, were all could be used to evaluate the effect of temperature on the growth rate of bacteria. The Cardinal model underestimated the growth rates of the microorganisms at low temperatures. The minimum and maximum growth temperatures of Salmonella predicted by the HSR model (7.81 and 49.67 ℃, respectively) were closer to the literature reported values. The Ratkowsky square-root model was more suitable for describing the growth rate of the background microorganisms in a wide temperature range. These results may be useful for the food industry and the regulatory bodies to predict the growth of Salmonella in chicken and to perform risk assessments concerning the presence of this pathogen in meat products.
Effect of Myofibrillar Water on Chicken Quality during Thawing as Studied by Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
CHENG Tianfu, YU Longhao, JIANG Yi, ZHANG Yifei, ZHAO Monan
2019, 40(9):  16-22.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180509-146
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between myofibrillar water distribution and mobility and chicken meat quality during thawing by transverse relaxation times (T2) of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Chilled chicken breast (32 h after slaughter) was used as the control and frozen chicken breast with a core temperature of ?20 ℃ was thawed by five different methods: refrigeration, microwave (modes 1 and 2) and ultrasonic (180 and 200 W). The distribution of water T2 relaxation times and quality characteristics of meat samples were measured, and the correlation between them was analyzed. The results showed that during the thawing process, the T2 distribution in meat samples changed significantly; compared with the control group, the immobilized water (T22, 40–50 ms) in all treatment groups except for microwave 2 was transformed into free water (T23, 100–250 ms). Thawing by microwave 2 and 200 W ultrasonic resulted in the emergence of the strongly bound water population (T20, 0–0.1 ms). The correlation analysis showed that the area proportions of T20, T21, and T22 peaks were significantly positively correlated with the water-holding capacity (WHC), tenderness and juiciness of meat samples (P < 0.01), and were significantly negatively correlated with thawing loss and cooking loss (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Shear force was significantly negatively correlated with the area proportion of T20 (P < 0.05) and T22 (P < 0.01) peaks. The thawing methods had no significant effect on the appearance or flavor of meat samples (P > 0.05). The microwave 2 thawed meat sample had the closest texture and juiciness to the control group, and was higher in overall acceptability, while the opposite was observed for the thawed meat samples from refrigeration and ultrasonic treatment. Therefore, the mobility of myofibrillar water during thawing has a significant impact on the quality of chicken meat, and microwave 2 can better prevent meat quality deterioration during thawing.
Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on the Activity and Conformational Unit of Endogenous Proteases from Hairtail Surimi
LUO Huabin, LIN Lu, GAO Xing, Lü Liangyu, LI Gaoshang, CHEN Yanting, ZHANG Jinjie, YANG Wenge
2019, 40(9):  23-28.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180405-057
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Endogenous proteases in fish are one of the important causes of surimi gel degradation. In this study, to investigate the effect of electron beam (EB) irradiation on endogenous myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBSP) and cathepsin L (Cat-L) in hairtail surimi, the activity and optimum temperature of both enzymes after being treated with different doses of EB irradiation were determined, and the secondary structure changes were studied by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the activity of endogenous MBSP and Cat-L decreased with the increase of irradiation dose; especially Cat-L activity decreased significantly at 9 kGy. The optimum temperature of both control and irradiated MBSP was 55 ℃, whereas the optimum temperature of Cat-L decreased from 55 ℃ to 45 ℃ after irradiation at 3 or 9 kGy. EB irradiation resulted in the transformation of secondary structure units in MBSP and Cat-L, thus leading to conformational change and weakening their ability to degrade myofibrillar protein. In conclusion, EB irradiation can affect the secondary structure and activity of endogenous MBSP and Cat-L from hairtail surimi. The appropriate dose of EB irradiation can effectively inhibit the activity of endogenous proteases in surimi, thereby weakening the degradation of myofibrillar protein and consequently facilitating the formation of surimi gel.
Effects of Two Feeding Regimens on Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism-Related Gene Expression in Sunit Sheep
YUAN Qian, WANG Bohui, SU Lin, YAO Duo, WANG Debao, ZHAO Lihua, JIN Ye
2019, 40(9):  29-34.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180327-369
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The effect of different feeding systems on fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in Biceps femoris from Sunit sheep was investigated. A total of 20 twelve-month-old sheep were allocated to two feeding regimens with 10 animals each (half each gender): grazing and stall feeding. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), sterol regulatory element binding protein1-c (SREBP1-c), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors γ (PPARγ), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid dehydrogenase 1 (FADS1) and fatty acid dehydrogenase 2 (FADS2) genes was evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that meat from grazing sheep had significantly lower amounts of saturated fatty acids than stall-fed sheep (P < 0.05). The contents of palmioleic acid and oleic acid as monounsaturated fatty acids and the contents of α-linolenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as unsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher than in the stall-fed group (P < 0.05). The expression of SREBP1-c gene was significantly lower in the grazing group (P < 0.05) whereas the expression of DGAT, HSL, and FADS2 genes were significantly higher compared with the stall-fed group (P < 0.05). The expression of PPARγ gene and saturated fatty acid content had a significantly negative correlation with each other (P < 0.05). Thus, in terms of fatty acid composition, meat from grazing animals had a higher nutritional value. Furthermore, the nutritional quality of meat from stall-fed sheep could be improved by regulating the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes.
Correlation between Mitochondrial Change and Myoglobin Oxidation in Beef during Chilled Storage of Beef
ZHANG Tonggang, LI Yalei, LUO Ruiming, MA Mengbin, ZHOU Yaling
2019, 40(9):  35-40.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180409-103
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In order to explore changes in mitochondrial function and structure during the chilled storage of beef, the mitochondrial damage was evaluated by observation of the internal and external ultrastructure of mitochondria using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. With the increase of storage time up to 21 d, Flameng score was increased from 0.986 8 to 2.533 8, indicating that the mitochondrial structural integrity gradually decreased; there were significant positive correlations between mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and ATP content with correlation coefficients of up to 0.936 and 0.926 (P < 0.01), reflecting the close relationship between mitochondrial structure and function. Moreover, mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was significantly positively correlated with the relative content oxymyoglobin (r = 0.885, P < 0.01), while mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly negatively correlated with the relative content of metmyoglobin (r = 0.902, P < 0.01), indicating that changes in mitochondrial structure and function are closely related to meat color stability.
Effects of Vacuum and Atmospheric Frying on the Microstructure and Bioactive Compounds of Red Cabbage
YIN Pei, LOU Leyan, CHEN Honglin, CHEN Jianchu, YE Xingqian, LIU Donghong
2019, 40(9):  41-47.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180411-148
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The effects of vacuum and atmospheric frying on the microstructure, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of purple cabbage were studied. The results showed that compared with atmosphere frying, vacuum frying could significantly reduce the water content of red cabbage (P < 0.05). The structure of vacuum-fried samples was more loose and porous, while the structure of atmospheric-fried samples was more dense. Both frying methods could reduce the contents of L-ascorbic acid and glucosinolates in red cabbage. However, under the same thermal driving force, the retention rate of vacuum frying was significantly higher than that of atmospheric frying (P < 0.05). With the increase of frying temperature, the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of the vacuum fried group were gradually increased, and the increments were significantly higher than those in the atmospheric fried group (P < 0.05). To sum up, compared with traditional atmospheric frying, the red cabbage crisp produced by vacuum frying has better quality in microstructure and bioactivity.
Effect of Huanglongbing on the Quality of Newhall Navel Orange
WANG Qiang, CHEN Jinyin, XU Mingsheng, SHEN Yonggen, ZHOU Ming, ZHU Fengni, LU Jianqing, CHENG Hongzhen
2019, 40(9):  48-53.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180329-394
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Newhall navel oranges were used to evaluate the effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) on fruit quality such as appearance, physicochemical properties, bioactive ingredients and essential oil components. Results showed that infection with HLB could decrease single fruit mass, prevent the peel from turning yellow, remarkably reduce soluble sugars and soluble solids contents, representing fruit maturity, and ultimately result in significant quality deterioration. Moreover, the contents of hesperidin in the peel and pulp increased significantly, and the number of volatile components in the essential oil also increased by 90.90% after the infection. In conclusion, the eating quality of HLB-infected navel oranges is severely reduced and cannot meet the requirements of consumers. But the increased contents of functional ingredients such as fiber and hesperidin highlight the necessity of byproduct extraction for rational utilization of orange resources. This study provides a theoretical basis for the comprehensive utilization of HLB-infected navel oranges.
Decontamination Effect of Atomization Spraying with Different Organic Acids on Broiler Carcass Surface
ZHAO Shengming, LI Ningning, YIN Shuai, MA Xiaotong, KANG Zhuangli, ZHU Mingming, WANG Zhengrong, HE Hongju, MA Hanjun
2019, 40(9):  54-60.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180411-154
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In this study, the decontamination effects of atomization spraying with lactic acid, propionic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, gluconic acid, sotassium sorbate or sodium pyrophosphate (2% by mass each) on broiler carcasses from a slaughterhouse were determined together with the influence of organic acid combinations on the quality of broiler carcasses during storage. Results indicated that citric acid, propionic acid and tartaric acid exhibited better efficacy in reducing bacterial counts on broiler carcasses surface including total lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta and Enterobacteriaceae. The combination of 1% citric acid, 0.5% propionic acid and 0.5% tartaric acid was more effective than each alone while having little influence redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and lightness (L*) values. During 11 days of storage, quality indexes such as total plate count, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were obviously decreased in the combination treatment group. Taken together, combined organic acid treatment has significant decontamination effect on broiler carcasses and thus can be used to prolong the shelf life of the products.
Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment on Myofibrillar Protein Structure of Cultured Large Yellow Croaker
ZHANG Dengke, ZHANG Huien, ZHU Yanjie, YANG Jupeng, LEI Yesi, YANG Hua, LOU Yongjiang
2019, 40(9):  61-67.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180409-113
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In this paper, large yellow croaker was subjected to ultra-high pressure treatment at pressures of 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 MPa for different durations of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min for modification of myofibrillar proteins. The endogenous fluorescence intensity of myofibrillar proteins was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry, the myofibrillar protein functional structure was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the secondary structure was determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine the information about chemical groups in the proteins, and the microstructure changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity and maximum emission wavelength of myofibrillar proteins were influenced by pressure and holding time, and the maximum fluorescence emission intensity increased with the increase in the variables. Ultra-high pressure treatment affected the tertiary structure of myofibrillar proteins and enhanced the polarity of the surrounding environment of amino acid residues. Ultra-high pressure also affected the secondary structure; the content of α-helix structure gradually decreased with the increase in pressure and holding time. Moreover, ultra-high pressure affected protein conformational changes and caused protein denaturation; the degree of denaturation, directly affecting the microstructure of myofibrillar proteins, was positively correlated with pressure and holding time. Conclusively, the secondary and tertiary structure of myofibrillar proteins from cultured large yellow croaker was changed after ultra-high pressure treatment, causing protein denaturation and accordingly quality changes of fish meat.
Food Engineering
Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Protein Structure and Physicochemical and Foaming Properties of Liquid Egg White
LI Gongzhong, ZHAO Ying, WANG Juntong, CHI Yujie
2019, 40(9):  68-75.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180419-248
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The effect of pulsed ultrasonic treatment on the foaming properties, Raman spectroscopy, endogenous fluorescence spectroscopy, static rheological properties, particle size, physicochemical properties and structural characteristics of liquid egg white (LEW) was investigated. Correlation analysis was also conducted. The results showed that the disulfide bond conformation of egg white protein (EWP) was changed by ultrasonic treatment, and the viscosity and total sulfhydryl group content of LEW were decreased accordingly. LEW was still a pseudoplastic fluid after ultrasonic treatment. The particle size, surface sulfhydryl content, thermal denaturation enthalpy (ΔH) and α-helix and β-sheet contents of EWP gradually decreased with increasing ultrasonic treatment time up to 15 min, whereas the endogenous fluorescence intensity and surface hydrophobicity increased. The tryptophan residues tended to be exposed on the protein surface. Meanwhile, the foaming capacity was gradually improved, and the foam stability was reduced marginally. The micromorphology of the foam was smaller and more evenly and closely arranged after ultrasonic treatment. The content of β-sheet continued to decrease with increasing ultrasonic time, whereas the opposite was observed for particle size, surface sulfhydryl content, ΔH, α-helix content, intensity ratio of tryptophan residues (I1 363/I1 338) ratio, endogenous fluorescence intensity and surface hydrophobicity. Meanwhile, foaming capacity gradually decreased, while foam stability increased. The correlation analysis showed that foam capacity was positively correlated with I1 363/I1 338 ratio and surface hydrophobicity, and negatively correlated with surface sulfhydryl content, ΔH, average particle size, and α-helix content. In addition, foam stability was negatively correlated with surface hydrophobicity.
Effect of Ultra High Pressure on Sensory Quality, Microstructure and Sarcoplasmic Protein Properties of Sauced Sheep Stomach
LIU Yangming, HOU Ran, ZHAO Wei, LU Shiling, WANG Qingling, LI Wenhui, DONG Juan
2019, 40(9):  76-82.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180409-098
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In this paper, vacuum packaged sauced sheep stomach was used to evaluate its sensory quality as affected by ultra high pressure (UHP) treatment. UHP treatments were carried out under varying conditions of pressure (100, 250 and 400 MPa) and holding time (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min) and at a constant temperature of 25 ℃. The physicochemical and functional properties and sarcoplasmic protein characteristics were studied by the biuret method, circular dichroism spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy in order to investigate the effect of UHP on the microstructure and sarcoplasmic protein characteristics of sauced sheep stomach. The results showed that sensory quality significantly differentiated between UHP-treated and untreated samples. UHP treatment led to exposure of internal groups on the protein surface and alterations in the protein secondary structure. After the treatment, the contents of the stable secondary structures α-helix and β-sheet increased and decreased respectively, while the contents of irregular β-turn and random coil did not significantly change. In addition, UHP treatment caused an increase in carbonyl content, surface hydrophobicity and turbidity, and a decrease in total sulfhydryl content, free ammonia content and solubility. UHP treatment under 400 MPa and 25 ℃ for 20 min could cause moderate oxidative denaturation of sarcoplasmic protein, changes in the microstructure, and eventually improve the sensory quality of sauced sheep stomach.
Comparison of Membrane Separation and Alcohol Precipitation for the Separation of Crude Polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus
CAI Ming, CHEN Si, LUO Shaolei, YANG Kai, SUN Peilong
2019, 40(9):  83-90.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180508-112
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We compared the effects of membrane separation and alcohol precipitation on the separation efficiency and antioxidant activity of crude polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus. Five different methods including alcohol precipitation, nanofiltration, nanofiltration + alcohol precipitation, microfiltration + nanofiltration and microfiltration + nanofiltration + alcohol precipitation were used in this study to obtain crude polysaccharides from the hot water extract from Hericium erinaceus, designated A-He P, B-He P, C-He P, D-He P and E-He P, respectively. The separation efficiencies of the five methods and the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of the crude polysaccharides were compared. Results showed that microfiltration + nanofiltration was the best method for the separation of crude polysaccharides. This method gave a polysaccharide yield of 10.08% and a purity was 43.01%, and recovered 80.34% of the polysaccharides in the extract. All five crude polysaccharides exhibited the typical absorption peaks of pyran-type glucan and β-glycosidic bond in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. In addition, these polysaccharides contained protein, and the protein content in B-He P was higher than that in C-He P, indicating that some proteins could be removed by microfiltration. Moreover, the crude polysaccharides had antioxidant capacity as evaluated by reducing power, ·OH, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays; D-He P had the best antioxidant capacity.
Effect of High Pressure Homogenization Cooperated with High Acyl Gellan Gum on Stability and Rheological Properties of Liquid Egg with Green Pepper Juice
CHI Yujie, ZHANG Haokai, CHI Yuan, WANG Juntong
2019, 40(9):  91-98.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180402-016
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In the present study, the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) treatment cooperated with high acyl gellan gum (HA) on the stability coefficient, water-holding capacity (WHC), rheological behavior, particle size distribution and ζ-potential of liquid egg with green pepper juice (LEGP) was investigated. We further explored the effect on the rheological properties and stability of LEGP. The results showed that HPH could increase the stability coefficient, WHC, yield strength, apparent viscosity and ζ-potential and decrease the particle size, indicating the potential of HPH to effectively enhance the stability of LEGP. Meanwhile, HPH had a good synergistic effect with HA in markedly improving the stability of LEGP, as indicated by the observation that this combination increased the stability coefficient, WHC, yield stress, apparent viscosity and ζ-potential and led to smaller particle size and more homogeneous size distribution compared with HPH alone. Notably, upon homogenization at 150 MPa, LEGP with HA had the maximum stability coefficient and WHC. Rheological behavior of HPH treated LEGPs with and without could be described using the Herschel-Buckley model and both samples were pseudoplastic fluids with a yield value. LEGP with HA had the maximum yield stress index, apparent viscosity, elastic modulus, pseudoplasticity and ζ-potential and the minimum particle size, and thus had the highest stability upon homogenization at 150 MPa.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Effect of Methionine Restriction on Gut Redox Status, Inflammation and Microbiota in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice
ZHANG Yuanhong, YANG Yuhui, WANG Yanan, ZHANG Jiahong, GUO Haitao, SHI Yonghui, LE Guowei
2019, 40(9):  99-106.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171226-333
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Purpose: To investigate the effect of dietary methionine restriction (MR) on gut redox status, inflammation and microbiota in high-fat diet-fed mice. Methods: Twenty-seven male C57BL/6 mice were randomly and equally divided into control group (C: 0.86% methionine and 4% lard oil), high-fat diet group (HM: 0.86% methionine and 20% lard oil), high-fat diet with MR group (LM: 0.17% methionine and 20% lard oil). Body mass was recorded weekly. After 12 weeks, the mice were killed to collect blood plasma, cecum, ileum and colon. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and LPS-binding protein (LBP) contents were examined. Some indicators of oxidative stress in ileum and colon were determined. The expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA in ileum were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted from cecal contents for analysis of microbiota changes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. DNA was extracted from colonic contents for analysis of microbiota changes by high throughput sequencing. Results: Compared with HM, LM significantly decreased body mass, plasma TC, TG and LDL-C, and colonic malondialdehyde (MDA) level (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In contrast, LM significantly increased plasma HDL-C (P < 0.01), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in ileum (P < 0.05), and GSH/GSSG ratio and MDA level in colon (P < 0.05). Similarly, LM significantly decreased the plasma levels of LPS and LBP, the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA in ileum (P < 0.05), but significantly increased the Shannon-Weiner index and even index of cecal microbiota (P < 0.05) and the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Oscillospira in colonic contents (P < 0.05). Conclusion: MR can improve the intestinal redox status, inflammatory response and gut microbiota in high-fat diet-fed mice.
Effect of Apigenin on 3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol Induced Renal Injury and Mitochondrial Fission and Fusion in Rats
ZHONG Yujie, SHI Zhenqiang, JIN Chengni, WANG Xiaorui, LI Xuan, HAN Jiahui, XUE Wei, WU Peng, PENG Xiaoli, XIA Xiaodong
2019, 40(9):  107-114.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20171121-268
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To assess the effect of apigenin (API), a functional food factor, on 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-chloro 1, 2-propanediol, 3-MCPD)-induced mitochondrial fission and fusion, the protective effect of API on renal injury was investigated. A total of 36 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 animals each: control group, solvent control (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) group, 3-MCPD group, and low-, middle- and high-dose apigenin group. Rats in the experimental groups were administrated via oral gavage with 3-MCPD (30 mg/kg mb) alone or in combination with apigenin at different doses for 28 days. Body mass and food intake were recorded daily during the experimental period. Finally, the rats were sacrificed to harvest kidney, liver and brain tissues. Rinal tissue sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were observed by microscopy. Renal mitochondrial fission and fusion and transcription factor expression were examined. The results showed that apigenin significantly alleviated the loss of appetite, renal tissue swelling, the increase of kidney/body mass ratio, the irregularity of renal tubular and collecting ducts epithelium and glomerular and renal capsular lesions in rats exposed to 3-MCPD. In addition, apigenin significantly attenuated the up-regulation of DRP1 and FIS1 and the down-regulation of MFN1, MFN2, PGC1, NRF1 and TFAM. At the protein level, apigenin alleviated the increase of mitochondrial fission, the decrease of mitochondrial fusion and the down-regulation of transcription factor NRF2 induced by 3-MCPD. This study suggested that apigenin could protect rats from 3-MCPD induced renal injury via up-regulating the expression of mitochondrial transcription factors and alleviating abnormal mitochondrial fusion and fission.
Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Extract on Apoptosis Induction in Human Esophageal Cancer Cells ECA109
GUO Fangming, LI Shugang, SONG Guanling, DING Yusong, FENG Gangling, NIU Qiang, XU Shangzhi, HU Yunhua
2019, 40(9):  115-121.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180202-024
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Purpose: Grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) is considered to be an antitumor bioactivator. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of GSPE in inducing cell apoptosis in human esophageal cancer cell line ECA109 and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods: ECA109 cells were treated with 10 μmol/L BAY11-7082 and GSPE at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL for 24 h. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry were used respectively to measure cell proliferation and apoptosis; inflammatory cytokines and Bax/Bcl-2 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with double antibodies; the mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot. Results: GSPE at all concentrations tested could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in ECA109 cells, increasing the apoptotic rate from 54.44% to 82.80%. ELISA results showed that GSPE and BAY11-7082 both could significantly inhibit the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and C reactive protein (CRP) (P < 0.05). The results of qPCR and Western blot showed that BAY11-7082 and GSPE could activate caspase-3 and suppress NF-κB signaling. Conclusion: GSPE can induce cell apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in ECA109 cells by inhibiting the production of inflammatory factors through suppressing NF-κB signaling pathway and activating caspase-3.
Change in Cytokines and Th1/Th2 Cell Balance in Guinea Pigs Induced by Shrimp Products with Reduced Allergenicity
HU Zhihe, WANG Xingxuan, WANG Lijuan, WU Zijian, XUE Lu
2019, 40(9):  122-131.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180624-449
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The objective of this work is to explore the correlation of serum cytokines in guinea pigs with food allergy and to deduce the impact of food allergy on the type 1/type 2 T-helper (Th1/Th2) cell balance. Mouse models of food allergy were induced by Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) products with reduced allergenicity, shelled shrimp, shrimp meat and shrimp protein. Phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) was used as the negative control, and untreated shrimp protein was used as the positive control. Serum was collected from the allergic guinea pigs for the detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine (HIS) and cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that serum IgE levels in the guinea pigs sensitized by untreated shrimp protein and stimulated by shrimp protein with reduced allergenicity and the proteins extracted from shrimp meat and shelled shrimp with reduced allergenicity were (3.905 ± 0.120), (4.813 ± 0.188) and (5.199 ± 0.327) U/mL and HIS levels were (16.437 ± 1.120), (19.656 ± 1.080) and (21.071 ± 1.732) μg/mL, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the changes in serum IgE and HIS and allergenicity in the challenged animals. The changes in the serum levels of IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α were positively correlated with the allergenicity of shrimp products. These changes in cytokines were consistent with the changes in IgE and HIS contents. On the other hand, the change in IL-10 was negatively correlated with the allergenicity of shrimp products. Therefore, these seven cytokines had a good correlation with food allergy. Serum IFN-γ level did not show any correlation with the allergenicity of shrimp products, while the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 was decreased with the increase of allergenicity. Therefore, it is speculated that the Th1/Th2 cell balance in guinea pigs with food allergy is shifted towards Th2 cells.
Effect of Citric Acid on Insulin Sensitivity in Hyperlipidemic Mice
WANG Miaoying, Aygul·AHMAT, CAO Mengli, Alyae·WBLI
2019, 40(9):  132-138.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180203-039
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Objective: To explore the effect of citric acid (CA) on the regulation of blood lipids and insulin sensitivity in hyperlipidemic mice. Methods: KM mice were used to establish a hyperlipidemic animal model. Xuezhikang, a lipidlower drug in China, was used as a positive control, and low, medium and high-dose citric acid was given orally to the mouse model. Blood lipids and insulin levels were measured by commercial kits. The mRNA expression levels of glucose- 6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) in liver and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate the effect of citric acid on blood lipids and insulin sensitivity in hyperlipidemic mice. Results: Compared with the blank control, the serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the hyperlipidemic model (HM) group was significantly increased, and serum HDL-C was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). Contrary results were observed when comparing the citric acid intervention and positive control groups with the HM group (P < 0.01), while there was no significant difference between the former ones and the blank control (P > 0.05). Compared with all other groups, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2 h postoral glucose tolerance test glucose levels were significantly higher in the HM group (P < 0.01), and glucose metabolism was significantly lower (P < 0.01). Fasting insulin (FIN) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the HM group were significantly higher and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was significantly lower than in the blank control (P < 0.01). FIN, HOMA-IR and ISI in the citric acid intervention and positive control groups were different from those in the HM group; citric acid significantly increased ISI and decreased FIN and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 at high dose; P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P < 0.05 at medium dose; P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 at low dose) compared with the HM group, whereas all three dose groups showed no significant difference from the blank control (P > 0.05). The expression of G-6-Pase mRNA in liver in the HM group was significantly higher than in the blank control group (P < 0.01) and the citric acid intervention and positive control groups (P < 0.05 ), whereas the opposite was observed for the expression of GLUT-4 mRNA in skeletal muscle in the HM group versus the other groups. Conclusion: Citric acid can regulate blood lipid levels and improve insulin sensitivity in hyperlipidemic mice.
Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum WW on Lipid Profiles of Hyperlipidemic Rats
GUO Jingjing, WU Rina, AN Feiyu, LI Yang, ZHU Xinyuan, WU Junrui
2019, 40(9):  139-145.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180312-145
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This research was undertaken in order to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum WW on lipid profiles of hyperlipidemic rats. A total of 32 SD male rats (5 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control (A); high-fat diet model (B), skim milk control (C), and bacterial suspension intervention (D). The rats in group A were fed a normal diet plus sterile water, while those in the remaining groups were fed a high-fat diet plus sterile water, sterile skim milk and the bacterial suspension of this strain (1 × 1010 CFU/mL), respectively. The volume of intragastric administration was 10 mL/kg mb. After the 12-week experimental period, serum, tissue and fecal samples were collected for measurement of lipid profiles. The results showed that there was no significant difference in kidney, spleen or heart indexes among the four groups (P > 0.05). Liver index was significantly higher in group B and C than in group A and D (P < 0.05), indicating that L. plantarum WW was safe without toxic side effect and could reduce the accumulation of fat in the liver. Serum and liver lipid levels in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (P < 0.05), indicating that the hyperlipidemic rat model was successfully established. Compared with group B, serum and liver lipid levels in group D significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and total bile acid (TBA) in feces increased significantly (P < 0.05). Therefore, L. plantarum WW can promote the excretion of cholesterol, and consequently reduce cholesterol in rats. This strain can be used as a potential probiotic in alleviating hyperlipidemia and functional foods.
Effect of Procyanidin B2 on Intestinal Microorganisms in D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model
ZI Yuge, XU Yue, XIAO Ying, WU Qiguo, YIN Zhiting, ZHOU Yiming, ZHOU Xiaoli
2019, 40(9):  146-151.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180402-005
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The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of procyanidins B2 on the intestinal microflora in D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Thirty C57/BL mice were randomly and equally divided into control, aging model and procyanidins B2 treatment groups. After an experimental period of seven weeks, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as a lipid peroxidation marker were detected in the duodenum and colon. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene of the intestinal flora was performed using an Illumina MiSeq platform to explore the relationship between procyanidin B2 and the intestinal flora in aging mice. The contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in mouse feces were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the activity of antioxidant enzymes was significantly decreased in the duodenum and colon of aging mice, and the content of MDA was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After intervention with procyanidins B2, antioxidant enzyme and MDA levels were restored to values not significantly different from normal (P > 0.05). The major differential intestinal microorganisms were norank-f-Bacteroidales-s24-7, Bacteroides, Blautia, unclassified-Lachnospiraeae, Ruminiclostridium, Lachnospiraeae-NK4A136, and Roseburia among all groups of mice. Compared with the control group, the proportion of norank-f-Bacteroidales-s24-7 in the aging group was decreased significantly, and the proportions of the other strains were increased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the aging group, the proportions of norank-f-Bacteroidales-s24-7, Roseburia, Lachnospiraeae-NK4A136 and Bacteroides were significantly increased in the mice treated with procyanidins B2, while the proportion of Blautia, unclassified-Lachnospiraeae, and Ruminiclostridium was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Accordingly, procyanidins B2 could regulate the contents of SCFAs in aging mice to improve the intestinal environment, thereby delaying the aging process.
Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Sea Cucumber Cerebroside on the Differentiation of Preadipocytes
WANG Meiling, LIU Yaxuan, LI Chenman, LIU Yuanyuan, FU Meng, WANG Jingfeng
2019, 40(9):  152-158.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180120-279
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This study aimed to observe the effect of sea cucumber cerebroside on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3- L1 preadipocytes and to explore the underlying mechanism. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay was used to explore the effect of cerebroside on the proliferation of preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes by the traditional cocktail method, and oil red O staining and triglyceride content of mature adipocytes were used to evaluate whether sea cucumber cerebroside could change lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) genes and those associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were measured by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The transfer of β-catenin protein to the nucleus was measured by Western blotting. Sea cucumber cerebroside could significantly inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes without cytotoxicity (P < 0.01). The results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα genes and those associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were significantly inhibited by sea cucumber cerebroside. Western blotting results showed that sea cucumber cerebroside could significantly increase the content of β-catenin protein in nuclei (P < 0.01). In conclusion, sea cucumber cerebroside can inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The mechanism is related to the transcription factors PPARγ, C/EBPα and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Component Analysis of Petroleum Ether Extract from Ferula lehmannii Boiss and Evaluation of Its Protective Effect on Gastric Mucosal Injury
ZHONG Chaoyi, TIAN Honglei, ZHAN Ping, WANG Peng, ZHOU Wenjie
2019, 40(9):  159-165.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180220-177
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Purpose: The present study aimed to characterize the chemical profile of petroleum ether extract from Ferula lehmannii Boiss and evaluate its gastroprotective activity, so as to provide an experimental basisfor the development of functional foods with antioxidant activity and gastric mucosal protection. Methods: The gastroprotective activity of Ferula lehmannii Boiss was investigated using an animal model of gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid. Totally 60 rats were divided into normal, model, ranitidine (positive control, at 0.03 g/kg), and high, medium and low-dose petroleum ether extract groups (1.0, 0.2 and 0.04 g/kg mb). The components of the extract were analyzed by gas-phase chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The administration lasted for 2 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, all rats were sacrificed to collect stomach samples for evaluation of antioxidant indexes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and protective factors of gastric mucosa such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO). The change in gastric mucosal injury area was considered to evaluate the protective effect of the extract against gastric mucosal injury, and the percentage of injury inhibition was calculated. Results: Totally 25 compounds were identified from the extract, including terpenoids (49.47%) and sulphur-containing compounds (24.01%). The petroleum ether extract significantly attenuated gastric mucosal damage and reduced lesion area by 7.68 to 13.10 mm2 on average compared with other experimental groups. Compared with the model group, the extract at the high dose gave the maximum percentage of injury inhibition of 31.84%, increased SOD activity by 37.27%, decreased MDA level by 32.51%, and augmented the contents of PEG2 and NO by 22.41% and 28.13%. Conclusion: The petroleum ether extract from Ferula lehmannii Boiss can exert protective effect against chronic gastric mucosal injury, and the mechanism may be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant capacity.
Effect of Mulberry Leaf and Bitter Melon Powder Blend on Blood Glucose, Blood Lipid and Antioxidant Status in Mice
WANG Zuwen, QIN Yingrui, HUANG Xianzhi, DING Xiaowen
2019, 40(9):  166-172.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180119-272
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This study was intended to investigate the effect of mulberry leaf and bitter melon powder blend on blood glucose, blood lipid and antioxidant status in normal mice. The mice were administered with four different concentrations of the blend for 30 days. Body mass, blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism and antioxidant indicators were measured during the experimental period. As a result, the blend exerted a significant inhibitory effect on body mass gain in mice compared with the control group and the effect remained unchanged at higher concentrations. Compared with the normal control group, the blend at 0.20 g/mL had no significant effect on blood glucose levels, although it resulted in a decrease in glucose area under the curve (AUC) of 14.18% and 15.69%, an increase in hepatic glycogen level of 2.93 and 2.98 times, a reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC) of 17.19% and 18.92%, a decrease in triglycerides (TG) of 15.00% and 16.79%, a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 41.67% and 45.83% and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) of 64.52% and 72.22%, as well as an increase in hepatic glycogen of 193% and 198%, a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) level of 36.71% and 37.73%, an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of 41.77% and 48.41% and an increase in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of 29.04% and 27.21% for female and male mice, respectively. These results suggested that mulberry leaf and bitter melon powder blend can regulate body mass, blood glucose, glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism and antioxidant status without causing any adverse health effects in normal mice.
Chinese Rice Wine Inhibits Contraction Activity of the Isolated Rat Small Intestine through Intestinal Myenteric Plexus
WANG Cong, ZHAO Pan, ZHOU Yanan, WANG Tianxia, SUN Haiji
2019, 40(9):  173-178.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180104-043
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Objective: The aim is to explore the effect and mechanism of Chinese rice wine (CRW) on the contraction activity of the isolated small intestine of rats. Methods: The isolated small intestine was treated separately with low, medium, high concentrations of CRW, alcohol and CRW without polyphenols. A RM6240 multi-channel physiological signal acquisition system was used to record intestinal motility. The protein expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in intestinal myenteric plexus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results: Compared with the control group, medium and high-dose CRW (3.5% and 10.0%, V/V) obviously inhibited the amplitude of intestinal contraction with percentage inhibition of 58% and 100%, respectively. Medium-dose ethanol had no significant impact on intestinal contraction, but high-dose ethanol significantly inhibited the amplitude of intestinal contraction with a percentage inhibition of 47.5%. Medium and high-dose CRW without polyphenols significantly inhibited the contractile amplitude of the isolated small intestine by 48% and 67%, respectively, but the efficacy was inferior to that of CRW. Compared with the control group, the expression of ChAT in intestinal myenteric plexus in the CRW group significantly decreased, while the expression of NOS significantly increased. Conclusion: The effect of CRW on contraction of isolated small intestine is related to its ingredient ethanol and polyphenols, by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine (ACh) as an excitatory neurotransmitter and enhancing the release of NO as an inhibitory neurotransmitter from intestinal myenteric plexus. CRW can affect the activity of neurons in the myenteric plexus, inhibit the movement of small intestine, and slow down the hyperactivity of gastrointestinal function, which will provide new clues to the health-benefiting effects of CRW.
Effect of Lactobacillus on Blood Lipids in Type 2 Diabetic Mice Fed High-Glucose and High-Fat Diet
GAO Weihua, LIU Lu, WANG Fen, PANG Xiaoyang, ZHANG Shuwen, LU Jing, DUAN Jiangyan, Lü Jiaping
2019, 40(9):  179-187.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180122-296
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Objective: To study the effects of two Lactobacillus strains on blood glucose, blood lipids, serum inflammatory cytokines, liver antioxidant level, pancreatic pathology, and the expression of the genes encodig interleukin-10 (IL-10) and adiponectin (adipoq) in epididymal adipose tissue in diabetic mice. Methods: Out of six Lactobacillus strains, two Lactobacillu casei strains (SY13 and D36) were selected for their potent lipid-lowering effect in terms of cholesterollowering ability, and acid and bile salt tolerance in vitro. The diabetic mouse model was established by feeding mice a highglucose and high-fat diet and injecting them with streptozotocin (STZ). Totally 100 male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups of 25 mice per group: control, model, SY13 and D36 groups. The control group was fed a normal diet, while all the other groups were given a high-glucose and high-fat diet. The SY13 and D36 groups were additionally administered by gavage with Lactobacillu casei SY13 and D36, respectively. Some of the mice were scarified at the end of the sixth, tenth and fourth week of administration for the detection of blood glucose, blood lipids and other related biochemical indexes. HE staining was used to observe the pathological change of pancreatic tissues, and the mRNA expression of IL-10 and Adipoq genes in epididymal adipose tissues were detected by reverse transcription quantative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: L. casei SY13 and D36 had high cholesterol-lowering capacity, and strong acid and bile salt tolerance. Compared with the model group, both strains significantly repressed the increase in blood sugar and serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and increased the levels of serum high-density lipoprotein chrolestserol and anti-inflammatory factor interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P < 0.05). In addition, they significantly increased the activity of glutatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver and decreased malondialdehyde (P < 0.05). The strains also improved glucose metabolism disorders, obviously alleviated the pathological changes of islet and adenocytic cells, and promoted the mRNA expression of IL-10 and Adipoq genes in adipose tissues. Conclusion: Lactobacillus casei SY13 and D36 can significantly improve glucose and lipid metabolism in mice with diabetes induced by a high-glucose and high-fat diet combined with STZ injection.
Molecular Mechanism of Cordyceps militaris Polysaccharides in Regulating the Immune Function of Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells
MIAO Yue, REN Guihong, ZHEN Dong, ZHAO Fei, SONG Hui
2019, 40(9):  188-194.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180122-294
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In recent years, the immunomodulatory activity of fungal polysaccharides has become a hot spot in the field of health foods. In the present study, Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (CMP) were used to investigate the mechanism for its immunoregulatory effect on macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Thiazolyl blue assay results showed that CMP had no cytotoxicity and at doses of 100 and 200 μg/mL could significantly promote the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells. The neutral red staining, Griess and ELISA results showed that CMP at a concentration of 25–200 μg/mL increased the phagocytic activity and the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion increased first and then decreased after reaching the highest value at 100 μg/mL. Inhibitor neutralization assay showed that CMP was significantly less able to induce immune response in RAW264.7 cells when Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) and mannose receptor (MR) were inhibited, indicating that both TLR4 and MR were CMP-activated macrophage receptors. Western blot results showed MAPK signaling was also involved in CMP-induced secretion of NO, TNF-α and IL-1β in RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, TLR4 and MR/MAPK signal transduction pathways play an important role in CMP-induced immune response in macrophage RAW264.7 cells.
Transcriptomic Analysis of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids from Yak Butter Inhibiting Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cells
YUAN Jinying, SUN Wancheng, LUO Yihao, DING Jianxia
2019, 40(9):  195-200.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180805-030
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The purpose was to investigate the effects of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) from yak butter on the proliferation of human breast cancer cell line (SK-BR-3). Free fatty acids (control) and BCFA from yak butter were applied to breast cancer cells for 24 h for transcriptomic analysis, and then the proliferation of cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The transcriptome results revealed that the differentially expressed genes such as FOS, FADS2 and TP53 associated with cancer, fatty acids and apoptosis were down-regulated, implying the inhibitory effect of BCFA on the growth of human breast cancer cells, which was also confirmed by the results of flow cytometry, MTT analysis and DAPI staining.
Packaging & Storage
Effects of Combinations of Antagonistic Strains on Quality and Disease Resistance of Postharvest Mango
GE Niannian, ZHOU Yi, TIAN Yaqin, SHAO Yuanzhi
2019, 40(9):  201-206.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180316-214
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Debaryomyces hansenii Y-1, Debaryomyces nepalensis T18 and Bacillus atrophaeus TE-7, isolated in our laboratory, were used to investigate their effects when used alone or in combination (Y-1 + TE-7, Y-1 + T18, T18 + TE-7) on the storage quality and disease resistance of mango fruit. The results showed that soaking treatment with Y-1 + TE-7 (1:1, V/V) for 20 min significantly inhibited the spore germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Moreover, Y-1 + TE-7 treatment could not only remarkably delay the changes in a* value, firmness, titratable acidity (TA) and soluble solids (TSS) content, but also enhance the activity of peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine amidase (PAL) and β-1,3-glucan (GLU) from 6 to 21 days of storage compared with either alone. This combination reduced the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) between 9 and 18 days of storage in comparison with either treatment alone. These observations suggest that Y-1 + TE-7 treatment can effectively improve the storage quality and increase disease resistance in mango fruit, and it can be potentially applied to postharvest handling of mango fruit.
Soluble Sugar-Mediated Yellowing Delay of Fresh-Cut Broccoli Florets (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Exposed to Fluorescence Irradiation
ZHANG Cuicui, MA Yadan, LI Linjie, PANG Lingyun, ZHAN Lijuan
2019, 40(9):  207-212.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180504-041
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Fresh-cut broccoli florets are very susceptible to yellowing, which seriously affects their sensory quality and commercial value. In order to slow down the yellowing of fresh-cut broccoli florets and prolong the storage period, the effect of fluorescence irradiation (24 μmol/(m2·s), 12 h/d) on the senescence and yellowing of fresh-cut broccoli were studied by ion chromatography analysis. The results showed that light treatment significantly maintained the chlorophyll content and reduced the yellowing index of fresh-cut broccoli in comparison to dark control (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, light irradiation induced the accumulation of glucose, sucrose, and fructose, increasing by 106%, 73%, and 70% from day 0 to 5, respectively. The content of endogenous glucose in fresh-cut broccoli pronouncedly increased with increasing concentration of exogenous glucose up to 120 mmol/L. In addition, yellowing index markedly declined (P < 0.05), and it was significantly negatively correlated with exogenous and endogenous glucose concentration with correlation coefficients of ?0.958 and ?0.878, respectively (P < 0.01). Therefore, fluorescence irradiation can retard the senescence and yellowing of fresh-cut broccoli florets presumably inducing the accumulation of soluble sugars, especially glucose.
Effect of Storage Temperature on Quality and Total Phenolic and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Content in Fresh-Cut Carrot
ZHU Huiwen, TANG Jing, JIN Peng, ZHENG Yonghua
2019, 40(9):  213-219.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180507-087
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The effects of different storage temperatures on the quality and total phenolic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of fresh-cut carrot were investigated. Fresh-cut carrots were cut into shreds and stored at 4, 10 and 20 ℃ for 6, 4 and 2 days, respectively. The results indicated that total bacterial count, mass loss rate and whiteness of fresh-cut carrot increased while total carotene and ascorbic acid content decreased during storage. Compared with storage at 10 and 20 ℃, low temperature storage at 4 ℃ significantly inhibited the increase of total bacterial count, mass loss rate and whiteness and the decrease of β-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. Moreover, total phenolic and GABA content as well as 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity increased steadily during storage, while L-phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity increased first and then decreased. Total phenolic and GABA content, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, and PAL and GAD activity were significantly higher when stored at 20 ℃ than at 4 and 10 ℃. These results indicated that conventional low temperature storage could maintain the quality of fresh-cut carrot, whereas storage at a higher temperature for a shorter period could promote the synthesis and accumulation of phenolic compounds and GABA while ensuring the quality and safety of fresh-cut carrot, thus enhancing the antioxidant activity and improving the nutritional value of fresh-cut carrot.
Enhanced Color Stability of Clear Chinese Bayberry Juice during Storage by Phenolic Acid
LOU Leyan, CHEN Hongji, YIN Pei, SHEN Qing, CHEN Jianchu, YE Xingqian, LIU Donghong
2019, 40(9):  220-227.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180413-178
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In order to enhance the stability of anthocyanins in it, Chinese bayberry juice was added separately with five different phenolic acids (tannic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid) as copigments and then stored at 4, 25 or 37 ℃ for 21 days. The anthocyanin concentration, color, antioxidant capacity and physicochemical indexes were measured every 3 days. Results showed that each of these phenolic acids could enhance the color stability, reduce the degradation rate of anthocyanins, extend the half-life of degradation, slow down the browning rate, and improve the antioxidant capacity of Chinese bayberry juice. Tannic acid and sinapic acid was the most effective copigments among the five phenolic acids. The half-life was 154.033 and 157.533 days for anthocyanins in Chinese bayberry juice with the addition of tannic acid and sinapic acid, 76.151 and 79.651 days longer than that of the control sample at 4 ℃ , respectively. However, tannic acid had a greater influence on the light transmittance, and it could result in turbidity easily. Therefore, sinapinic acid is the most suitable copigment for Chinese bayberry juice.
Quality Changes of Dried Allium ascalonicum Stored at Different Water Activities
PU Haoliang, WANG Liuqing, HU Qiuhui, PEI Fei, YANG Wenjian
2019, 40(9):  228-233.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20181209-108
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The quality deterioration of dried Allium ascalonicum caused by water absorption during storage is the dominant factor affecting its commercial value. Therefore, to explore the influence of different water activity (aw) levels on the quality changes of dried A. ascalonicum during storage, we analyzed the changes in water content and status, visual quality, microstructure, hardness, quercetin content and flavor properties of dried A. ascalonicum stored at aw levels of 0.33, 0.43, 0.67, 0.78, and 0.84. Results indicated that bound water was the dominant water status in dried A. ascalonicum. The content of bound water and its molecular mobility increased at higher aw, which could result in decolorization, hardness loss, tubular tissue adhesion, and increased quercetin loss in dried A. ascalonicum. At the end of storage, dried A. ascalonicum showed greater change in flavor characteristics at a 0.84 aw than at lower aw, having a musty flavor. In summary, this study provides a theoretical basis for loss reduction, quality control and shelf-life prolongation of dried A. ascalonicum during storage.
Plant Extracts Inhibit Postharvest Pathogens on Hot Pepper and Induces Rhizopus Resistance
HU Guangyao, LI Bincheng, LUO Chengyin, YI Youjin, XIA Bo, CAO Xi, ZHOU Jianzhong
2019, 40(9):  234-240.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180425-332
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Four species of postharvest pathogens from ‘Xiangyan 15’ hot peppers were isolated and identified as Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum nigrum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus spp.. The inhibitory effect of alcoholic extracts from nine plants including clove (Syzygium aromaticum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) and prickly ash (Zanthoxylunm bungeanum) on these pathogens was evaluated by growth rate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were measured by plate gradient dilution method. Furthermore, composite guar gum-pullulan coating incorporated with clove and cinnamon extracts was assessed for its ability to induce resistance to Rhizopus spp. in hot peppers by determination of lesion diameter, disease incidence, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxldase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The results showed that all four pathogens were 100% inhibited by clove and cinnamon extracts. Both plant extracts had an equal MIC of 1.25, 2.50, 2.50 and 5.00 mg/mL; and an equal MBC of 2.50, 5.00, 5.00 and 10.00 mg/mL against Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum nigrum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Rhizopus spp., respectively. The disease incidence and lesion diameter in hot peppers caused by Rhizopus spp. were effectively inhibited by the composite coating, which were decreases by 6.67% (P > 0.05) and 30.35% (P < 0.05), respectively after 8 d storage, compared with CK2 (wounded and inoculated with conidial suspension of Rhizopus spp.). Compared with CK1 (wounded and inoculated with sterile water) and CK2, the composite coating enhanced PAL activity by 45.91% and 24.54% (P < 0.05), POD activity by 22.15% (P < 0.05) and 12.54% (P > 0.05), and PPO activity by 80.00% and 28.57% (P < 0.05); and increased total phenolic content by 60.00% and 43.74% (P < 0.05), and total flavonoid content by 82.05% and 61.36% (P < 0.05), respectively. These results suggested that the composite coating containing clove and cinnamon extracts can induce resistance to Rhizopus spp. in hot peppers. Our data provide experimental support for the development of efficient, stable and safe preservatives for hot peppers.
Effects of Different Packaging Methods and Storage Conditions on the Quality of Two Low-Salt Cured Tilapia Fillets
WU Yanyan, ZHAO Zhixia, LI Laihao, LIN Wanling, DENG Jianchao, CEN Jianwei
2019, 40(9):  241-247.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180423-305
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In order to develop low-salt cured tilapia fillets (Oreochromis mossambicus) with prolonged shelf life, two lowsalt tilapia fillets developed in our laboratory, made with salt alone or in combination with potassium chloride, sodium malate and white sugar, were packaged in air (control), modified atmosphere or vacuum and then stored at 4 (refrigeration) or ?3 ℃ (superchilling). Quality indicators including drip loss, sensory score, pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N) content, and total bacterial count were determined during storage. Results showed that the sensory scores of the two low-salt cured tilapia fillets gradually decreased with storage time at each temperature, irrespective of the packaging method used, and the pH appeared to decrease first and then increase, while the drip loss, TBARS value, TVB-N content and total number of colonies showed an upward trend with increasing storage time. Overall, it was found that the combined treatment maintained better quality of low-salt tilapia fillets during storage than single salt. The quality of modified atmosphere packaged fish fillets was better than that of those packaged in vacuum and air. The shelf life of both low-salt cured tilapia fillets with modified atmosphere packaging was 12 days at 4 ℃ and 43 days at ?3 ℃, which was prolonged by 8 and 4 days at 4 ℃, and by 25 and 10 days at ?3 ℃ compared with those packaged in vacuum and air, respectively. Both low-salt cured tilapia fillets should be packaged in a modified atmosphere and stored at ?3 ℃ to maintain the product quality and extend the shelf life. This provides technical support for the processing of low-salt tilapia products.
Effect of Slurry Ice on the Quality and Water Mobility of Pacific White Shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) during Storage
LAN Weiqing, HU Xiaoyu, RUAN Dongna, LIU Shucheng, XIE Jing
2019, 40(9):  248-255.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180411-155
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In order to evaluate the effect of slurry ice on the storage quality and water mobility of shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei), fresh samples were treated with slurry ice (SI) and crushed ice (CI), respectively and thereafter stored at 4 ℃. Several physicochemical indexes (texture profile analysis (TPA), color difference, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity) and total viable count (TVC)) were measured daily during storage. On this basis, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging were employed to compare the effects of different ice treatments on the quality and water mobility of shrimps during storage. The results showed that the SI-treated shrimps maintained better texture properties (hardness and chewiness) than the CI-treated samples and there were significant correlations between the texture properties and L* and a* values as well as PPO activity for both treated samples (P < 0.05). In addition, TVB-N, TBARS and TVC of the SI-treated samples could be maintained at lower levels during the 10 day storage period, and the quality of these samples was significantly better than that of the CI-treated samples. The LF-NMR results indicated that the water mobility in the two groups increased during the whole storage period; the immobile water content (A22) significantly changed from the third day of storage onwards (P < 0.05), and the transverse relaxation time of immobile water (T22) and the free water content (A23) gradually and markedly increased over the entire storage period. Meanwhile, the water mobility and water loss were significantly inhibited by SI. The effect of SI in preserving the quality of Litopenaeus vannamei was better than that of CI, especially during the middle and late stages of storage (from Day 3 to 5). Compared to CI, SI treatment could extend the shelf life of shrimps by at least 2 days.
Inhibitory Effect of L-Cysteine against Monilinia fructicola on Postharvest Plum Fruit
LING Yang, DENG Lili, YAO Shixiang, ZENG Kaifang
2019, 40(9):  256-261.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20181109-098
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The objective of this work was to investigate the inhibitory effect of L-cysteine on brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on postharvest plum fruit. We explored the in vitro inhibitory effect and possible mechanism of L-cysteine at various concentrations (1, 10, 100 and 1 000 mg/L) on M. fructicola, and we further explored its effect on the control of postharvest brown rot on plum fruit induced by stab inoculation. The results showed that only 1 000 mg/L L-cysteine treatment could significantly delay the spore germination, inhibit the mycelial growth of M. fructicola, increase the membrane permeability and the leakage of intracellular nucleic acid, and destroy the cell membrane integrity (P < 0.05). Moreover, L-cysteine treatment at 1 000 mg/L could reduce disease incidence and lesion diameter in wounded and inoculated plum fruit when compared with the control fruit (P < 0.05), while at the other concentrations it had no significant effectiveness against brown rot on postharvest plum fruit.
Synergistic Effect of Ultrasound and Sodium Hypochlorite Treatment on Quality of Chilled Chicken Breast Meat
SUN Yongcai, SUN Jingxin, LI Peng, MU Hongyan, WANG Baowei, HUANG Ming, LI Yufeng, WANG Huhu
2019, 40(9):  262-268.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180413-168
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In order to reduce the concentration of sodium hypochlorite used to reduce its bacteria count, chicken breast meat was treated by the combination of ultrasound (300 W, on-off pulses of 1 s/1 s, 15 min) and sodium hypochlorite (30 mg/L). The effect of this combined treatment (U/SH30) on the bacterial decontamination and storage quality of chicken breast meat was evaluated through the determination of the total number of colonies, pH, color, tenderness, texture and water-holding capacity of chicken breasts during chilled storage (4 ℃). The results showed that U/SH30 treatment had no significant effect on pH, color or texture (P > 0.05), but decreased significantly total number of colonies (P < 0.05), and increased tenderness and water-holding capacity (P < 0.05) on day 0 compared with the control group (immersed for 15 min in sterile saline precooled to 4 ℃). Total number of colonies, pH, b* value, hardness and adhesiveness were lower, while springiness, L* value and a* value were higher than those in the control group from day 1 to 6. These results indicated that combining ultrasound with sodium hypochlorite can improve the tenderness and water-holding capacity while prolonging the shelf life of chicken meat.
Electrostatic Field Combined with Equilibrium Modified Atmosphere Packaging for the Preservation of Potatoes
ZHANG Minhuan, WANG Limei, WANG Zhizhou, DONG Tungalag
2019, 40(9):  269-275.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180429-390
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Electrostatic field treatment combined with equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging (EMAP) was studied as a potential method for extending the shelf-life of potatoes. Potatoes were packaged in EMAP using polylactic acid (PLLA) composite membrane whereas unpackaged potatoes served as the control. All potatoes were refrigerated at 4 ℃ and 85% relative humidity either with or without an electrostatic field. The sensory quality, gas composition, mass loss rate, a* value, dry matter content, total soluble solids content, starch content and VC content were evaluated after 0 to 150 days of storage. Results indicated that electrostatic field could significantly protect potatoes against greenish skins (P < 0.05)and sprout. The gas composition of high CO2 concentration (4.2%–8.0%) and low O2 concentration (7.7%–12.3%) was formed by EMAP in PLLA membrane. Electrostatic field combined with EMAP revealed the best preservation. The potatoes could still be eaten at the end of the storage period of about 150 days; the sensory score was the highest, the mass loss rate was the lowest, and the nutrients were maintained better. Therefore, the combaination of electrostatic field and modified atmosphere packaging are beneficial to the storage and preservation of potatoes.
Effects of Cinnamon Oil and Its Inclusion Complex with β-Cyclodextrin on Preserving the Quality of Fresh-Cut Watermelon
LI Ping, YAN Jingkun, CONG Fangdi, ZHANG Xin, CUI Jing
2019, 40(9):  276-282.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180416-217
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The effects of cinnamon oil (CO) and its inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on preserving the quality of fresh-cut watermelon were evaluated by examining their impacts on the changes of microbiological, physicochemical and sensory quality indicators. Untreated samples were used as controls. Results showed that mass loss rate, total bacterial count and titratable acid content of the fresh-cut watermelon showed an increasing trend during storage, while L* and a* values exhibited a downward trend. The content of soluble solids first increased and then decreased. In addition, the above indicators displayed slower changes during cold storage compared with storage at room temperature. Among all treatments, CO-β-CD inclusion complex (containing 0.040 8 g of CO per 100 g of watermelon) combined with 4 ℃ storage had the best preservative effect on fresh-cut watermelon by effectively inhibiting the increase of mass loss rate and titratable acid content, weakening browning degree, and maintaining higher soluble solid content. Moreover, the total number of microorganisms in watermelon subjected to this treatment was significantly lower than that in the control and other treatments (P < 0.05) and the sensory score was significantly higher compared with the control and CO treatment groups (P < 0.05), suggesting that this treatment could maintain the commerciality of fresh-cut watermelon. The stability of CO could be improved and its strong odor could also be masked after being embedded into β-CD. The inclusion complex could effectively maintain the quality and prolong the shelf life, and thus have a good prospect in the preservation of fresh-cut watermelon.
Progress in the Research of the Interactions of Soy Isoflavones with Gut Microbiota
LIANG Wenou, ZHAO Lichao, FANG Xiang, WANG Li
2019, 40(9):  283-289.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180119-261
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Dietary intake of soy isoflavones has been demonstrated to be closely related to human health. The interaction of soy isoflavone glycosides with gut microflora can result in microbial transformation for significantly increased biological activity and bioavailability facilitating soy isoflavones to fully exert their physiological activity. Besides, soy isoflavones affect the microbial enzyme activities and change the microbial metabolic capacity in the colon by regulating the intestinal flora structure. This article reviews the interactions between soy isoflavones and gut microbes, with focus on the biotransformation of soy isoflavones by gut microbes and the regulation of gut microflora and its enzyme activities by soy isoflavones. The health effects of soy isoflavones and their intestinal metabolites are also addressed. This review aims to provide a theoretical basis for the study on the interactions between dietary components and intestinal flora in the field of human health promotion.
Recent Advances in the Role and Regulation of Energy Status in Senescence of Harvested Fruits and Vegetables
LI Meiling, LIN Yuzhao, WANG Hui, LIN Yixiong, LIN Hetong
2019, 40(9):  290-295.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20181128-333
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Energy is the basis for maintaining the normal physiological metabolism of postharvest fruits and vegetables. Recent studies have shown that energy deficiency is a vital factor inducing the senescence of harvested fruits and vegetables. This paper discusses the role of energy status in the senescence of harvested fruits and vegetables from the perspectives of its relationship with respiratory metabolism, reactive oxygen species and cell membrane integrity. Moreover, recent advances in the regulatory measures and mechanisms of energy status in harvested fruits and vegetables are reviewed. The expression characteristics and regulation of genes related to energy synthesis, transport, dissipation and perception, the initiating factors of the senescence process in harvested fruits and vegetables, and stress response to energy deficiency are also covered. This review aims to provide a basis for exploring the mechanism of senescence of postharvest fruits and vegetables from the perspective of energy and for the development of new preservation technologies.
Recent Progress in the Digestibility of Microcapsules Containing Lipids and Fat-Soluble Functional Ingredients
MA Tiezheng, QIAN Qiyao, WANG Jing
2019, 40(9):  296-301.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180508-127
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In recent years, the in vivo and in vitro digestibility of microcapsules is one of the major focuses in the field of microcapsule research. The digestibility of microcapsules in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract is summarized and analyzed as well as the effects of wall materials, microencapsulation methods and other factors on the release rate and bioavailability of the core material. Future prospects for the development and application of microcapsules are discussed. This review hopes to provide a useful basis for the research and industrial production of microcapsules as functional food ingredients.
Recent Advances of Procyanidins in Prevention and Control of Type II Diabetes
LIU Dan, DENG Jianjun, ZHANG Chao, ZHANG Jinghua, YANG Haixia
2019, 40(9):  302-308.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180131-441
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Diabetes mellitus, one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases, has become the third major disease after malignant tumor and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most prevalent form of diabetes. However, the pathogenesis of T2DM is still unclear so far. Procyanidins, a group of natural phytochemicals with a wide range of sources, high safety and good biological activity, can exert antidiabetic effect. The potential mechanism of action of procyanidins in the prevention and control of T2DM is systematically reviewed in this article.
Progress in Understanding the Relationship between Dietary Nutrients and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
YANG Xiaobing, JIN Mingyu, WU Xiaohe, YIN Hui, WU Xiaoyong
2019, 40(9):  309-315.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180129-404
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory intestinal disorders characterized by intestinal inflammatory cell infiltration and intestinal mucosal damage, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Epidemiological findings indicated that high fat intake increased the risk of developing IBD, the incidence of IBD was associated with increased intake of animal proteins, and dietary fiber intake was negatively correlated with the incidence of IBD. The pathogenesis of IBD is complex, including genetic factors and environmental factors, of which diet is one of the most important environmental factors. Currently, dietary nutrition intervention is an effective strategy for the prevention and control of IBD. In this review we summarize recent studies on the effects of dietary fat, proteins and carbohydrates on the pathogenesis of IBD, and analyze dietary intervention strategies against IBD from the perspective of dietary nutrients.
Progress in Structure-Function Relationship between Gelators and Oleogelation Based on Driving Force
GUO Shenglan, LAN Yaqi
2019, 40(9):  316-324.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180308-111
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Over the past decade, research on the oleogelation of vegetable oils using organogelators has become increasingly active due to growing consumer demand for reduced saturated fatty acids and zero trans-fatty acids and the requirement of the authorities concerned to ban the application of artificial trans-fatty acids. Numerous studies have demonstrated the huge influence of vegetable oil properties and gelator type on the physicochemical properties of oleogels. In this review, the effects of vegetable oils on oleogelation are briefly outlined, as well as the structure-function relationship between gelators and oleogels from the perspectives of three primary driving forces promoting oleogelation: van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking. This review will provide a valuable guideline for rational design of novel, efficient and inexpensive food-grade gelators.
Progress in Growth and Inactivation Modelling of Cronobacter sakazakii in Powdered Formula
NIU Hongmei, QI Cheng, WANG Xiang, LIU Qing, DONG Qingli
2019, 40(9):  325-331.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180321-276
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Powdered formula is rich in nutrients and easily contaminated by microorganisms. Cronobacter sakazakii is one of the major pathogens contaminating powdered formula. The present article reviews recent progress in growth and inactivation modeling of C. sakazakii worldwide. Modelling the growth of C. sakazakii can provide useful information for monitoring this pathogen and modelling its inactivation can reflects the efficacies of traditional and novel microbial control technologies as well as historical stress in killing it. Finally, existing problems in predictive modeling of C. sakazakii are discussed, and future research directions are outlined. We hope that this review will provide useful information for future research.
Review of Nutrition Formula Stability and Shelf-Life Prediction
FENG Xiaohan, ZHUANG Kejin, TIAN Fang, ZHU Zhenyu, XU Xin, MAO Yingyi, MAN Chaoxin, ZHANG Wei, ZHAO Yanrong, JIANG Yujun
2019, 40(9):  332-340.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180508-128
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During long-term storage of nutrition formulas, a series of chemical reactions and physical changes may be triggered by internal or external environmental factors (temperature, light and oxygen), reducing the nutritional value and affecting the physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of the products. Therefore, monitoring these changes and analyzing the factors that cause them are of great significance to shelf-life determination of the products. In this review, the kinds and characteristics of infant formula and food for special medical purposes, the major types of nutrition formulas marketed in China are outlined, and the current understanding of the stability of nutrition formulas is reviewed. Meanwhile, the influence of various factors including different packaging materials on the stability of nutrition formulas is discussed. The applicability of different shelf-life prediction models to nutrition formula is analyzed. It is expected that this review will provide valuable information for further studies of the stability of nutrition formula and the development of guidelines for stability evaluation in China.
Progress in Understanding the Effect and Mechanism of Metal Ions on Biofilm Formation of Lactic Acid Bacteria
ZHAO Jiawei, AO Xiaolin, ZHAO Ke
2019, 40(9):  341-346.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20180308-101
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Lactic acid bacteria have been widely used in various fermented foods, and their existence in human physiological flora plays a key role in human health. Therefore, the application of lactic acid bacteria has become a current research hotspot. The biofilm forming ability of lactic acid bacteria has attracted growing attention of researchers because the biofilm can effectively improve the environmental tolerance of lactic acid bacteria. Studies have shown that metal ions have a significant effect on the formation of biofilms among the various factors. This review paper discusses the influence and mechanism of metal ions on the biofilm formation of lactic acid bacteria, with the aim to provide a theoretical basis and future direction for clarifying the relationship between metal ions and the biofilm formation mechanism of lactic acid bacteria.