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Table of Content

15 January 2018, Volume 39 Issue 1
Invited Papers
On the Relationship between Food Nutrition and Immunometabolism
PANG Guangchang, CHEN Qingsen, HU Zhihe, XIE Junbo
2018, 39(1):  1-15.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801001
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A growing number of studies on food nutrition and function are concentrated on the metabolic and immunomodulatory effects, which have become the focus of diet and health research. Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hyperlipidemia and cancer as diseases associated with modern lifestyle have become a public health problem which scientists have to face. Scientists once believed that these diseases can be overcome by immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Unfortunately they also found that the activation and reproduction of immune cells depend on glucose leading to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) similarly as do diabetes and cancer. This means that when the immune system is activated, cancer cells may also be activated. Moreover, when immune cells migrate to the cancer microenvironment, immunosuppression or immune anergy may occur. Apparently, immune activity is closely related to cellular signal transduction and metabolism, both of which experience a nutrient sensing-dependent metabolic reprogramming and aerobic glycolysis. Therefore, scientists define the term “immunometabolism” to describe the metabolic reprogramming of immune cells upon activation, aiming to find the control mechanism and inner linkage between Warburg effect and immune cell activity and further to seek a new avenue for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this review, we focus on immunometabolism and future prospects of functional food and nutrition.
Basic Research
Effect of Enzyme Combinations on Baking Properties of Bread with Fermented Glutinous Rice
ZHANG Kexin, JIANG Hui, TANG Xiaojuan, SU Xiaoqin, XU Yan, HUANG Weining, LI Ning, Arnaut FILIP
2018, 39(1):  16-21.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801002
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In this study, glutinous rice was fermented by traditional Chinese starter culture (Qu in Chinese) and used in bread making. The quality of bread and dough was evaluated through rheological analysis, biochemical analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy and sensory evaluation. The quality of bread with fermented glutinous rice was compared with that of common wheat bread, and it was improved by enzyme addition. The results showed higher contents of free sulfhydryl and extractable α-amino nitrogen in dough with fermented glutinous rice than control dough, suggesting that fermented glutinous rice had a detrimental effect on the formation of gluten network in dough, declining the cohesiveness and elasticity of the resulting bread and decreasing the sensory score for taste. However, fermented glutinous rice resulted in bread with more attractive flavor and better color. Addition of enzyme combinations enhanced the structure of the gluten network and significantly improved the quality of bread with fermented glutinous rice, making it much more popular than common wheat bread.
Inhibition of Mixed Spice Extract on Biogenic Amine Formation in Harbin Dry Sausage
SUN Qinxiu, DU Hongzhen, LI Fangfei, ZHENG Dongmei, KONG Baohua
2018, 39(1):  22-28.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801003
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This study investigated the inhibitory effect of addition of different amounts (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg) of mixed spice extract (from a 1:1:1 mixture of cinnamon, clove and star anise) on the formation of biogenic amines (BAs), as well as its influence on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of Harbin dry sausage during fermentation. Results showed that the extract significantly concentration-dependently inhibited the formation of BAs (tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, 2-phenethylamine and tryptamine), and reduced the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the growth of aerobic bacteriad (P < 0.05). But addition of 0.5 g/kg the extract resulted in the appearance of an unacceptable flavor. Therefore, adding 0.3 g/kg mixed spice extract into dry sausage was the best for inhibiting the accumulation of BAs and improving the sensory quality of sausage.
Protein Precipitation from Egg White with Polyethylene Glycol and Its Application for Ovalbumin Separation
WEN Chongwei, ZHAO Yeqing, SHI Li, OUYANG Zhen
2018, 39(1):  29-35.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801004
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This work was carried out to investigate the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecular weight, PEG dosage and pH value of egg white on the precipitation rate of ovalbumin (OVA), ovotransferrin (OVT) and lysozyme (LYZ), and further to establish a new procedure for the separation of OVA from egg white. It was found that OVA, OVT and LYZ could be precipitated by PEG 4000, 6000, 8000 or 10000. In addition, the precipitation rate of OVA, OVT and LYZ was significantly influenced by PEG dosage and pH. By addition of 12% PEG and at pH 7.5, the maximum difference between the precipitation rates of OVA, OVT and LYZ was observed. This result was also obtained when pH was adjusted to 5.5. Therefore, OVA could be produced by the following procedure. PEG 4000 was added into egg white (pH 7.5) until its concentration reached 12%, and then the supernatant was collected after centrifugation as OVA with a recovery of 95.1% and a purity of 88.1%. The purity was increased to 99.7%, while the recovery was decreased to 87.3% by adjusting the pH to 5.5 and collecting centrifugal supernatant. This purification procedure was simple and easy to operate and could facilitate large-scale production and application of OVA in food and medicinal fields.
Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Scales and Skin of Asian Seabass
LIAO Wei, XIA Guanghua, LI Chuan, QIU Changxu, LI Yongcheng, SHEN Xuanri
2018, 39(1):  36-41.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801005
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Pepsin-soluble collagen was extracted from the scales and skin of Asian seabass, and their physicochemical properties were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), amino acid composition analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, zeta potential and solubility measurement. The yields of scale collagen and skin collagen were 2.3 and 47.3 g/100 g (dry weight), respectively. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that both collagens contained [α1(I)]2α2(I) and were characterized as type I collagen. DSC indicated that denaturation temperatures (Td) of scale and skin collagen were 37.54 and 36.74 ℃, respectively. Based on FT-IR spectra and X-ray diffraction spectra, after pepsin treatment, the triple-helical structure of the collagens was still intact. Zeta potential studies indicated that scale and skin collagen had a net charge of zero at pH 6.40 and 6.64, respectively. Both collagens exhibited high solubility under acidic and low salt concentration conditions.
Correlation Between Egg External Quality and Respiration Intensity
WANG Jiaojiao, WANG Qiaohua, MA Meihu, WANG Bin
2018, 39(1):  42-46.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801006
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The storage and preservation of egg has always been the focus of research in the egg industry. It has been demonstrated that egg quality has a close relationship with respiratory intensity. In order to further clarify the relationship between these two variables, chicken eggs from the same breed with different external qualities were selected and measured for respiration rate with a respiration rate mater. The correlation of respiration intensity with egg mass, egg shape index, egg specific gravity, shell mass, shell thickness, shell percentage and shell strength was analyzed using SPSS 19.0 software package. The results indicated that respiratory intensity was significantly positively correlated with egg mass (P < 0.05) and egg shape index (P < 0.05). A significantly negative correlation was observed between respiration intensity with both shell thickness and shell percentage (P < 0.05). However, the correlation of respiration intensity with shell strength, egg specific gravity and shell mass was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). In addition, there was a significantly positive correlation between egg specific gravity and shell strength, thickness and percentage (P < 0.01). A significantly positive correlation between shell strength and shell thickness was also observed (P < 0.01). In summary, it can be concluded that among the egg external quality parameters investigated, egg mass, egg shape index, shell thickness and shell percentage have the greatest effect on respiration intensity.
A Method to Determine Risk Weight in Dietary Exposure Assessment to Heavy Metals in Vegetables and Fruits
CHENG Jiaqian, WANG Junping
2018, 39(1):  47-52.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801007
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This paper is focused on assessing the health risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals from vegetables and fruits in the Tanggu district of Tianjin. A microwave digestion system was used to digest food samples for the determination of the concentrations of Cr, As, Cd, Hg and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that heavy metal contents of some samples exceeded the standard limits. The over-standard rates of Pb in vegetables and fruits were higher than 10%. In order to accurately assess the contribution rates of hazardous heavy metals to health risk, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was introduced to determine their risk weights. The exposure assessment and the target hazard quotient (THQ) were used to quantify the risk. Based on the THQ value combined with the overstandard rates of heavy metals, the risk weight was calculated. The results showed that the risk weights of Cr, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were 0.141 1, 0.157 0, 0.341 1, 0.040 4 and 0.320 4, and the risk levels decreased in the order of Cr, Pb > As, Cr > Hg at the average exposure level. The contribution rates of these metals to health risk based on the daily intake and the overstandard rates was determined. This study may provide a new method for evaluating the risk levels of multiple hazardous substances in foods.
Effect of Bamboo Shoot Dietary Fiber on Rheological Properties, Moisture Distribution and Microstructure of Frozen Dough
ZHANG Hua, LI Yinli, LI Jiale, ZHAO Xuewei, BAI Yanhong, ZHANG Yanyan
2018, 39(1):  53-57.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801008
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In this paper, the functional and physiochemical properties of rice dietary fiber (RDF), soybean dietary fiber (SDF) and bamboo shoot dietary fiber (BSDF) were compared. The water-holding, oil-binding, swelling and nitrite and cholesteroladsorbing capacities of BSDF were 17.85 g/g, 10.14 g/g, 9.63 mL/g, 4.82 μmol/g and 6.88 mg/g, respectively, which were significantly better than those of RDF and SDF. The effect of adding different amounts of BSDF on the rheological properties, water distribution and microstructure of frozen dough were studied. The results showed that addition of BSDF improved the viscoelasticity of frozen dough, altered the moisture distribution as indicated by significantly decreased transverse relaxation time (T22), and increased the water-holding capacity. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that BSDF changed the microstructure of frozen dough, leading to a more uniform arrangement of the starch granules and the gluten network. This study will hopefully provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of BSDF on frozen dough quality.
Antimicrobial Activity of Thymoquinone against Cronobacter sakazakii
SHI Chao, SUN Huihui, SUN Zheng, GUO Du, ZHANG Wenting, SUN Yi, CHEN Yifei, XIA Xiaodong
2018, 39(1):  58-64.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801009
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of thymoquinone (TQ) against Cronobacter sakazakii strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of TQ against C. sakazakii and its effect on microbial growth kinetics were determined. Changes in intracellular ATP concentration, intracellular pH (pHin), membrane potential and membrane integrity were measured to elucidate the possible antimicrobial mechanism. Cell morphology changes were also observed under a field emission scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the MICs of TQ against C. sakazakii strains ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/mL, and TQ exposure resulted in a longer lag phase and lower specific growth rate compared to the control. TQ affected the cell membrane permeability of C. sakazakii, as evidenced by a reduction in intracellular ATP concentration from 6.52 to 0.27 and 0.17 μmol/L and a decrease in pHin from 5.69 to 5.22 and 4.99 at MIC and 2 × MIC, respectively. TQ at both tested concentrations caused 80% and 22% reduction in cell integrity, respectively. In addition, cells treated with TQ showed hyperpolarized cell membrane. Field emission scanning electron microscopy illustrated that C. sakazakii cells exposed to TQ exhibited a more wrinkled surface compared with the smooth surface of untreated cells. In conclusion, TQ exerts its antimicrobial action partly by causing excessive permeability of the cell membrane and changing cell morphology. These findings suggest that TQ has potential application in controlling C. sakazakii in foods.
Emulsifying Activity and Stability of Sugar Beet Pectin
CHEN Hao, ZHANG Kaihua, LIU Shiyong, YUE Xiaoqiang, GAN Jing, QIU Shuang, JI Aiguo, YIN Lijun
2018, 39(1):  65-72.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801010
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Sugar beet pectin (SBP) is an acidic anion polysaccharide extracted from beet pulp. The backbone of SBP is comprised of rhamnose and galacturonic acid, which are rich in neutral sugar side chains, including rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and fructose. The proteins are covalently attached to the end of the neutral sugar side chains, contributing to the excellent emulsifying properties of SBP. This paper focuses on a comparison of the emulsifying properties of SBP and citrus pectin (CP). The effects of the growing area of sugar beet pulp, pectin concentration, pH, thermal treatment and storage time on the emulsifying properties (including drop size distribution, average particle size, zeta-potential, and turbidity) of the pectin were investigated. It was found that the geographical origin of sugar beet pulp showed a great influence on the protein composition in SBP. The drop size of the emulsion prepared with citrus pectin was much larger than that of SBP emulsion, and the former also exhibited poorer emulsifying activity. Emulsions coated with 10–25 mg/mL sugar beet pectin maintained good stability during the storage period (four weeks), while the droplet size of citrus pectin emulsion increased significantly. Emulsion droplet size remained stable in the swrange of pH 2–6. The droplet size of CP emulsion increased significantly during thermal treatment (25–85 ℃). This study verified that SBP exhibited excellent emulsifying activity and emulsion stability.
Interaction of ε-Poly-L-lysine with Ovalbumin and Its Influence on Antibacterial Activity
TAN Zhilei, WU Yanan, FANG Siqi, SUN Xiaoguang, LIANG Li, GUO Fengzhu, JIA Shiru, ZHOU Bin
2018, 39(1):  73-77.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801011
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The purpose of this study was to characterize the interaction of cationic ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) with anionic ovalbumin and investigate the influence of this interaction on the antimicrobial efficacy of ε-PL. The interaction was characterized by measuring the ζ-potential and turbidity of ovalbumin-ε-PL complex solution. The results showed that ovalbumin interacted with ε-PL molecules, forming complexes with different electrical charges. In addition, the antimicrobial efficacy of ε-PL against Escherichia coli decreased, likely due to strong electrostatic binding of ε-PL to ovalbumin molecules and consequently reducing its interaction with the negative charge on the of microbial surface. The model of ε-PL interaction with ovalbumin and bacteria proposed in this study helps further reveal the interaction of ε-PL with protein and the influence of this interaction on the antimicrobial efficacy of ε-PL in complex food systems.
Effect of Sesamolin on the Quality of Soybean Oil during the Frying Process
ZHANG Lixia, LU Xin, SONG Guohui, WANG Meng, SUN Qiang, HUANG Jinian
2018, 39(1):  78-83.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801012
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The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of added sesamolin on some physicochemical properties of refined soybean oil such as fatty oil composition and VE content during the frying of at 180 ℃ of potato strips. Results showed that adding sesamolin could inhibit the increase of peroxide value, anisidine value and viscosity of soybean oil and the decline of transmittance, but had no significant influence on acid oil (P > 0.05). Moreover, addition of sesamolin prolonged the oxidation induction time of soybean oil, retarded the drop of total unsaturated fatty acid content and attenuated the loss of (β + γ)-VE, δ-VE and total VE while it did not significantly affect α-VE. Therefore, sesamolin protects against lipid oxidation in soybean oil during frying and has potential applications in the oil and fat industry as well as food industry.
Changes in Tenderness and Water-Holding Capacity and Underlying Mechanism during Beef Stewing
SUN Hongxia, HUANG Feng, DING Zhenjiang, ZHANG Chunjiang, ZHANG Liang, ZHANG Hong
2018, 39(1):  84-90.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801013
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the changes in beef tenderness and water-holding capacity during stewing by examining cooking loss rate, Warner-Bratzler shear force, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), sarcomere length and low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) characteristics. Results showed that cooking loss percentage increased significantly with increasing heating temperature (P < 0.05). Warner-Bratzler shear force overall increased with increasing temperature despite a decrease from 45 to 55℃ and from 75 to 95 ℃. Meanwhile, MFI significantly increased as temperature rose from 55 to 65 ℃ (P < 0.05), which may be ascribed to the liberation of actin from actomyosin, which also contributed to the decreased tenderness at 55 ℃. LF-NMR analysis indicated that both transverse relaxation time (T21) and peak area (A21) decreased significantly. Sarcomere length and cooking loss percentage also decreased significantly with increasing temperature from 55 to 65 ℃. These results demonstrated that controlling the temperature in the range of 55–65 ℃ is critical during beef stewing, which could provide a theoretical basis for processing Chinese braised beef at low temperature.
Characteristics of Intramuscular Connective Tissue in Low Sodium Dry-Cured Meat during Processing
LIU Chenghua, LI Shun, ZHANG Yawei, LIU Shixin, HUANG Xiaochuang, CHEN Dongdong, PENG Zengqi
2018, 39(1):  91-98.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801014
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The effect of low sodium salt on intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) during the processing of dry-cured pork from M. longissimus dorsi was investigated. At the end of post-ripening, the thickness of secondary perimysium of low sodium-cured samples was 0.72 μm lower (P < 0.05), and the thermal solubility of collagen was 0.91% higher than that of normal salt-cured samples (P < 0.05). On the other hand, no significant differences existed in total collagen, the thickness of primary perimysium or pyridinoline cross-linking between the two groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the normal salt group, the relative contents of α-helix and β-turn in the low sodium group were decreased by 11.69% and 13.41%, respectively (P < 0.05); in contrast, aggregated strands and random coil were increased by 46.88% and 5.82%, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, low sodium salt can further promote the degradation of IMCT than normal salt during the processing of drycured pork.
Factor Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Fruit Quality Traits of Introduced Fig Cultivars
GULNISA Kasim, MUHTAR Zari, ZHANG Dongya, GUO Jing, AJAR Abla, SHENG Wei, ABUDUREXIT Rahman
2018, 39(1):  99-104.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801015
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The study aimed to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for the fruit quality of 5 fig cultivars and to provide evidence for the selection of fine cultivars. Totally 5 fig cultivars introduced into and grown in Xinjiang from Shandong, ‘Blanrick’, ‘Fengchanhuang’, ‘Violette Solise’, ‘Meiliya’ and ‘Bojihong’ were collected to determine 4 appearance indexes and 10 nutritional quality indexes and these were subsequently evaluated by correlation analysis and factor analysis. Besides, these cultivars were sorted according to their comprehensive quality scores. The results showed that the intercultivar variations of 14 fruit quality traits were different; the highest difference was observed for vitamin C, fruit weight, titratable acid, sugar to acid ratio, solid to acid ratio and magnesium content were at a moderate level, and the rest varied relatively less. Moreover, different correlations among all quality indexes were found depending on cultivar. By factor analysis, 3 common factors with an eigenvalue greater than 1 were extracted, cumulatively contributing to 93.486% of the total variance. The contribution rate of the first common factor including fruit weight, fruit longitudinal diameter, titratable acidity, sugar to acid ratio, solid to acid ratio, and iron, magnesium and calcium contents was 47.242%, the contribution rate of the second common factor including fruit transverse diameter, fruit shape index and vitamin C content was 27.150%, and the contribution of the third common factor including soluble sugar, soluble solids and potassium content was 19.094%. Using the comprehensive quality evaluation model, the fruit quality of 5 fig cultivars was ranked in the decreasing order of ‘Blanrick’, ‘Meiliya’, ‘Violette Solise’, ‘Bojihong’ and ‘Fengchanhuang’.
Food Engineering
Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Properties of Coacervated Lycopene Microcapsules
WANG Luhui, XU Tongcheng, LIU Lina, HUANG Guoqing, XIAO Junxia
2018, 39(1):  105-110.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801016
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In this paper, microcapsules containing lycopene were prepared by the complex coacervation method with soybean protein isolate (SPI) and chitosan (Ch) as wall material and the effects of the addition of various amounts of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the encapsulation efficiency and properties of microcapsules were investigated. The results indicated that microcapsules with good dispersibility and an angle of repose of 50o were obtained with addition of 20 mg/mL CMC, which demonstrated reduced particle size and ζ potential and sharply increased microcapsule yield and encapsulation efficiency of 64.3% and 74.2% along with a release rate of 12.0% compared with those without CMC. Thus, addition of CMC to the reaction system could increase the dispersibility, flowability, microcapsule yield and microencapsulation efficiency, and reduce the particle size, ζ potential and lycopene release rate in acidic medium of microcapsules in a dosedependent manner. Meanwhile, added CMC enhanced the stability of microcapsules upon exposure to 100 ℃. To conclude, addition of CMC to SPI-Ch coacervation system could greatly improve the processing performance of the resultant lycopene microcapsules. This study may lay a theoretical foundation for extending the applicability of lycopene in the food industry.
Effect of Ultrasound and Glutamine Transaminase Treatments on the in Vitro Digestibility of Emulsified Lard
XU Xiaonan, LIU Yuanfa, LI Jinwei, JIANG Jiang
2018, 39(1):  111-117.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801017
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The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of ultrasound-induced lipid crystal rearrangement and whey protein concentrate (WPC) cross-linked with glutamine transaminase (TG) as emulsifier on the in vitro digestibility of emulsified lard and to investigate the change in unadsorbed protein concentration among different formulations of emulsified lard. Particle size, zeta-potential, free fatty acid profile and microstructure of emulsified lard were investigated to evaluate its in vitro digestibility. The results showed that ultrasound and TG treatments had different impacts on emulsified lard. Ultrasound treatment decreased the unadsorbed protein concentration and stability of the emulsion compared with the nontreated control, while TG treatment rendered the emulsion more sable. Moreover, the ultrasound-treated sample exhibited significantly larger average droplet size and increased release of free fatty acids (P < 0.05), and its zeta-potential was also much lower than the control. In the presence of TG cross-liked WPC, the droplet size of the emulsion became smaller and significantly less free fatty acids were released during digestion when compared with the ultrasound-treated sample (P < 0.05). Overall, ultrasound treatment rendered emulsified lard more digestible, while TG treatment slowed down the digestion of emulsified lard.
Isolation and Purification of Anthocyanin from Blueberry by Sequential Medium Pressure Column Chromatography on Macroporous Resin and Sephadex LH-20
YU Zeyuan, ZHAO Jianhui, LI Xingguo, XU Yaqin, TANG Xue, YANG Yu
2018, 39(1):  118-123.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801018
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In this study, the anthocyanins of blueberry were isolated and purified by sequential medium pressure column chromatography using macroporous resin and Sephadex LH-20. The static adsorption and desorption of blueberry anthocyanins on six different types of resins was compared, and the separation process of anthocyanins by macroporous resin adsorption chromatography was optimized. The results showed that D101 resin gave the best separation efficiency and its adsorption behavior obeyed a multi-molecular layer adsorption. Under the following conditions: column pressure 1 MPa, temperature 25 ℃, anthocyanins concentration 0.073 mg/mL, and elution with 80% ethanol at a flow rate of 5 mL/min, the purity of anthocyanins increased by 13.67 folds from 5.53% to 75.58%. A purified anthocyanin fraction was obtained by subsequent Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, which was identified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside using highperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) with a purity of 90.88%.
Effect of CO2 Enrichment and LED Light Supplementation on the Quality and Volatile Compounds of Tomato Fruits
YUE Dingyi, ZHANG Jing, ZHAO Jiantao, ZOU Zhirong
2018, 39(1):  124-130.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801019
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This study investigated the effect of adding different concentrations of CO2 and LED light supplementation in the greenhouse during autumn and winter on the quality and volatile components of tomato fruits from the ‘Jinpeng No. 1’ cultivar. Results indicated that treatment with 1 200 μL/L CO2 + LED supplementation significantly improved the soluble solid, total acid and soluble protein contents in tomato fruits, and the fruit weight, and also increased the lycopene content and fruit coloration while significantly reducing the content of nitrate nitrogen in fruits. Headspace solid phase extraction and gas chromatographymass spectrometry were used to analyze the volatile components of tomato fruits under different treatments. Results showed that CO2 enrichment and LED light supplementation increased the contents such as 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ketone, β-ionone and hexanal in tomato fruits and types of characteristic compounds, making the fruity aroma stronger and richer.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Effect of Dietary DHA-Phosphatidylserine on DHA Level of Body Tissues in Developing Mice
WU Fang, WANG Dandan, WEN Min, XUE Changhu, WANG Yuming
2018, 39(1):  131-135.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801020
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Objective: To investigate the comparative effects of post-weaning dietary docosahexaenoic acidphosphatidylserine (DHA-PS) and DHA-triglyceride (DHA-TG) on DHA concentration and fatty acid composition of lipids in various tissues of developing mice. Methods: ICR female mice were fed n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficient diet during maternal pregnancy and lactation, and the weanling (3-week old) ICR-strain male mouse pups were randomly assigned to three groups, which were fed three different types of diets including n-3 PUFAs deficiency (n-3 PUFAs Def group), DHA-TG (DHA-TG group) and DHA-PS (DHA-PS group), respectively. After 2 weeks of feeding, all mouse pups were sacrificed, and cortex, testis, liver, and red blood cells were harvested for detecting DHA level and fatty acid composition of lipids. Results: Compared to the n-3 Def group, the concentration of DHA in developing mouse tissues in the DHA-TG and DHA-PS groups was significantly increased, whereas the concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) were decreased. The DHA-PS group exhibited significantly higher DHA levels in erythrocytes, liver triglyceride and phospholipid but lower DHA level in testis compared with the DHA-TG group. There was no difference in DHA level in cortex between the two groups. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of DHA-PS and DHA-TG significantly increased the level of DHA in the tissues of developing mice, but resulted in different accumulation patterns of DHA and DHA-PS more effectively increased DHA contents in the liver and erythrocytes.
Water-Soluble Advanced Glycation End Products from Bread Crust Cause Oxidative Damage to Human Kidney Tubular Epithelial Cells
JIA Benpan, YUAN Xiaojin, FAN Zhiyi, HU Jing, LI Juxiu
2018, 39(1):  136-141.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801021
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Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a class of compounds that are formed during thermal processing and storage of foods, which are significantly associated with various chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and kidney diseases. In the present study, bread crust extract (BCE), rich in AGEs, was obtained from bread crust through water extraction, and we investigated if BCE could cause intracellular oxidative stress and cell damage in human kidney tubular epithelial cells (HKCs). HKCs were treated with different BCE concentrations for determining the appropriate concentration of BCE by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide assay for use in subsequent experiments. The effect of BCE on intracellular oxidative stress balance and the degree of cell damage was evaluated by detecting the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in supernatants. The results indicated that the level of ROS in HKCs was increased along with increasing BCE concentration after being cultured with different concentrations of BCE for 24 h, and reached a maximum value at 8 and 12 mg/mL. Intracellular MDA contents increased significantly at 4 and 8 mg/mL of BCE (P < 0.01), but markedly declined at 12 mg/mL (P < 0.05). On the contrary, intracellular SOD activity was reduced with increasing concentration of BCE, and significantly decreased at BCE concentrations of 8 and 12 mg/mL. The level of secreted LDH was increased with increasing BCE concentrations, and the increase was highly significant at 8 and 12 mg/mL (P < 0.01). Therefore, BCE can cause serious damage to HKCs via elevating intracellular ROS levels, inhibiting total SOD activity and thereby promoting lipid peroxidation reaction, altering the cell membrane permeability, and consequently improving extracellular LDH activity.
EGCG Inhibits LPS-Caused Polarization of Macrophages into M1 Phenotype via the NF-κB Pathway
WU Qiong, WANG Lefeng, ZHANG Yansong, TANG Xiaofang, ZHANG Xianyi, LI Lu, SHU Yao, HUANG Cheng, LIAO Jinzhu, WANG Fulong, LI Wenjuan
2018, 39(1):  142-148.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801022
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Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the anti-inflammatory effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and its effects on macrophage polarization. Methods: Primary cultures of mouse peritoneal macrophages were divided into 4 groups: control, 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), 25 μmol/L EGCG, and 25 μmol/L EGCG + 1 μg/mL LPS groups. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Cell proliferation was monitored by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. NO generation was analyzed by Griess method. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and NF-κB p65 proteins was detected by using Western blot analysis. Results: EGCG and/or LPS were no significant effect on cell proliferation or apoptosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Compared with the LPS group, EGCG could significantly inhibit the LPS-induced increasing in ROS, NO, TNF-α and IL-1β in peritoneal macrophages (P < 0.01), thereby consequently suppress the polarization of macrophages into M1 phenotype and consequently exerting anti-inflammatory effects. Compared with the LPS group, the expression of TLR4 protein in macrophages and the expression of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 in nucleus were significantly decreased in the EGCG + LPS group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: EGCG could inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the underlying mechanism may be related to the blocking of the polarization of macrophages into M1 phenotype via the TLR4-mediated NF-κB pathway.
Hypoglycemic Effect of Combined Extract of Pumpkin, Yam, Kudzuvine Root, and Mulberry Leaves on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice
ZHAO Lei, WANG Xin, JIANG Fei, WANG Chengtao, XU Baocai, WANG Wenxia
2018, 39(1):  149-155.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801023
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Objective: The objective of this research was to study the hypoglycemic effect of the combined extract of pumpkin, yam, kudzuvine root and mulberry leaves on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods: A diabetic mouse model was induced by alloxan. Another 10 mice served as a normal group. The model diabetic mice were randomly divided into model group, positive group (acarbose, 200 mg/kg mb) and low and high dose treatment groups (12 and 36 g dry raw material/kg mb). After intragastric administration for 4 weeks, we studied the effect of the combined extract on the body weight, food and water intake, fasting blood glucose level, glycogen, serum insulin, glycosylated serum protein (GSP), glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) and antioxidant status of diabetic mice. Results: The major bioactive components of the combined extract were pumpkin polysaccharide, yam polysaccharide, and puerarin at levels of (0.93 ± 0.04), (1.01 ± 0.06), and (0.28 ± 0.01) g/100 g dry raw material, respectively. Compared with the model group, the body weight and glycogen content of mice in the intervention group were significantly improved, while the food and water intake, fasting blood glucose, GSP and GHb were decreased significantly. The insulin sensitivity was also improved. The hypoglycemic effect of the high dose group was better than that of the low dose group. Meanwhile, compared with the model group, the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver of mice administered with the combined extract were increased, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased. Thus, it was suggested that oxidative stress in diabetic mice was improved by administration of the combined extract. Conclusion: The combined extract of pumpkin, yam, kudzuvine root and mulberry leaves can effectively reduce the blood glucose level of alloxan-induced diabetic mice and improve oxidative stress.
Modulation of Probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus on Gut Microbiota in Mice
ZANG Kaili, JIA Yan, CUI Wenjing, MA Xinying, WANG Yong, ZHAO Linsen, ZHAO Pei, YE Lei, YAN Yali, CHEN Qingsen
2018, 39(1):  156-164.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801024
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Objective: To explore the role of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus helveticus TS206 in regulating the intestinal microflora in mice and to unravel the mechanisms by which probiotics can maintain intestinal flora homeostasis. Methods: Male BALB/c mice were divided into probiotic, control and blank groups. The probiotic and control groups were respectively gavaged with L. helveticus suspension and an equal volume of normal saline once a day for 7 consecutive weeks, respectively. The blank group did not receive gavage. Stool samples were collected every week for extracting genomic DNA by means of a commercial kit. The V6 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene was subjected to highthroughput sequencing by using the Ion torrent personal genome machine system and the obtained data were analyzed using bioinformatic tools and multivariable statistical analysis. Results: All sequence reads were delineated into 1 617 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a 97% similarity level, belonging to 8 major bacterial phyla, with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes being the dominant ones in all groups, accounting for 97.49% of the total number of sequences, among which Firmicutes showed the highest abundance of more than 70%. The strain S24-7, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Rikenellaceae, and Bacteroidaceae were the dominant bacterial families, and the Enterobacteriaceae population in the probiotic group was lower than in the control group and fell during the administration period. Totally 53 key OTUs were significantly associated with the bacterial community structure in the intestine of the two groups of mice as determined by linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis, of which, 27 OTUs were enriched in the control group, belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Clostridium, and 26 OTUs in the L. helveticus TS206 group, belonging to Clostridium, whose abundance level was higher than in the control group, Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroides. Principal component analysis showed that the fecal microbial communities of the probiotic group were completely separated from those of the control group. Overall there were significant differences in the structure of intestinal flora between the two groups, and the OTUs in the groups showed a negative correlation. Conclusion: L. helveticus TS206 can change the structure of intestinal flora, inhibiting the growth of harmful microbes, promoting the proliferation of beneficial bacteria proliferation and consequently maintaining the structure of the intestinal flora at a steady state.
Neoagarotetraose Protects Mice against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Dyslipidemia by Modulating Gut Microbial Composition and Function
LI Jing, ZHANG Na, SONG Jia, MAO Xiangzhao, XUE Changhu, TANG Qingjuan
2018, 39(1):  165-171.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801025
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Purpose: To investigate the possible mechanism of neoagarotetraose (NAT) in regulating lipid metabolism. Methods: Male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group, exhaustive exercise group and NAT intervention group. A wheel-track treadmill was used in this study to propose an exhaustive exercise protocol. The animals in both the exhaustive exercise and NAT groups were subjected to exhaustive exercise, while those in the control group maintained normal physical activity. After sixteen consecutive days of treatment, serum lipid parameters were measured and fecal samples were collected to investigate gut microbiota changes by metagenome sequencing. Our results showed that the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in serum increased sharply (P < 0.05) after exhaustive exercise, while serum triglycerides (TG) concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) indicating that exhaustive exercise could be an important cause of lipid metabolism disorder. Our data also showed that NAT treatment resulted in a profound change in the gut microbiome structure, which subsequently led to widespread shifts in its function. Meanwhile, our findings suggested that NAT may protects mice against dyslipidemia induced by exhaustive exercise through modulating the gut microbial composition, improving the lipid metabolism signal pathway of the microbiota, and regulating enzymes activities involved in fatty acid oxidation and lipid synthesis.
Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Tartary Buckwheat on Physiological Metabolism and Intestinal Flora in Mice with High-Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia
ZHOU Xiaoli, LIU Taiyi, YAN Beibei, WANG Hong, XIAO Ying, ZHOU Yiming
2018, 39(1):  172-177.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801026
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The objective of this work was to ascertain the effect of dietary supplementation of tartary buckwheat on the physiological metabolism and intestinal flora of dyslipidemic mice. For this purpose, a mouse model of dyslipidemia was created by feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD). Changes in serum lipid metabolism-related indicators and the intestinal flora were determined respectively by high performance liquid chromatography and the plate count method and were correlated with each other. The results showed that HFD induced lipid metabolic disturbance and that both protein and starch from tartary buckwheat significantly reduced serum lipid levels in dyslipidemic mice to almost normal values (P < 0.05). The number of beneficial intestinal bacteria (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus) in the tartary buckwheat starch and protein intervention groups was significantly higher than in the HFD group (P < 0.05), and the number of harmful bacteria (Escherichia coli) was significantly lower (P < 0.05). Furthermore, correlation analysis indicated that both tartary buckwheat starch and protein could adsorb bile acid and cholesterol and consequently promote their excretion, thereby regulating serum lipid metabolism and the intestinal microbial flora balance. Meanwhile, the increased proportion of intestinal priobiotic bacteria and the decreased proportion of harmful bacteria promoted lipid metabolism modulation and oxidative stress inhibition. Therefore, tartary buckwheat regulates blood lipid metabolism most likely by promoting bile acid salt excretion, regulating the intestinal flora balance, and improving oxidative stress.
Protective Effect of Active Peptide-N on D-Galactose-Induced Aging in Mice
CHEN Yu, LIU Hongji, YOU Qianqian, YUAN Jinglin, SONG Qi, HAO Dan1, LIU Dong, LAN Haijing, LI Quanyang
2018, 39(1):  178-184.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801027
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Herein, we evaluated the effect of active peptide-N as a new anti-aging agent on aging model mice. For this purpose, an aging model was established by subcutaneously injecting mice with D-galactose (200 mg/(kg·d)) once daily for nine weeks. Thereafter, the mice was separately orally administered with multiple emulsion containing active peptide-N at doses of 2.5, 25.0 and 125.0 μg/ (kg·d). The open field and the Morris water maze test were used to evaluate the locomotor activity and learning and memory ability of mice. Furthermore, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the serum, and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain tissue of mice were measured. The results showed that active peptide-N multiple emulsion could significantly improve the locomotor activity and learning and memory ability of D-galactose-induced aging mice. The activity of serum GSH-Px was improved by 28.38% (P < 0.05), the concentration of serum MDA was decreased by 26.19% (P < 0.05), and the brain AChE activity was increased by 23.26% in the treated groups (P < 0.05) compared with the aging model group. These results demonstrate that active peptide-N multiple emulsion has an obvious anti-aging effect in D-galactose-induced aging mice.
Therapeutic Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 Fermented Milk in Constipated Mice
CAO Yongqiang, ZHANG Jian, ZHENG Zhe, MEI Xueyang, WANG Shijie, ZHU Hong, YANG Zhennai
2018, 39(1):  185-191.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801028
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In this study, the therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 fermented milk on constipation was examined by using a mouse model of constipation induced by loperamide hydrochloride. After 15 days of feeding with the fermented milk at low (1 × 107 CFU/mL), middle (1 × 108 CFU/mL) and high (1 × 109 CFU/mL) dosages, the constipated mice had a significant increase in defecation and fecal moisture content (P < 0.05) as well as increased intestinal propulsion rates of 57.3%, 67.3% and 71.3%, respectively, when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Analysis of short chain fatty acids in feces by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed significantly increased contents of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid in the treated mice (P < 0.05) along with more diverse short chain fatty acids than compared with the control mice. Histological analysis of distal colon tissue showed that the colon mucosa of the treated mice remained intact with orderly cell arrangement, while that of the model control mice was reduced in thickness with shallower pits. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in colon tissue using c-kit antibody showed that feeding constipated mice with the fermented milk significantly increased colonic ICC, indicating increased ICC activity and intestinal movement. These results showed that L. paracasei N1115 fermented milk had a positive therapeutic effect on constipation.
Protective Effect of Mulberry Juice Concentrate on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Spleen of Rats
LIU Yafei, PENG Xinyan, HE Hongjun, JIN Chengwu, SU Shufei, YANG Xiaoshuai
2018, 39(1):  192-199.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801029
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The intention of this study was to explore the protective effect of mulberry juice concentrate (MJC) on D-galactose-induced damage in the rat spleen. A rat model of aging was induced by D-galactose. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control, model, positive control (VE), and low-, medium- and high-dose MJC treatment groups. The activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level of spleen homogenate were measured by using test kit. The levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were determined; the spleen index and the expression levels of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were measured as well. Moreover, histomorphological examination was performed to evaluate the effect of MJC on oxidative damage in the rat spleen. The results showed that compared to the model group, the medium- and high-dose MJC groups could improve the activity of T-SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in spleen tissue (P < 0.05). MJC at all three doses decreased MDA level (P < 0.05) and TNF-α and IL-6 expression levels, and increased spleen index. High-dose MJC could significantly increased T-SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activity to 113.22, 90.17 and 7.67 U/mg protein, decreased MDA level to 13.59 nmol/mg, and enhanced spleen index to 4.12 mg/g compared to the model group, all of which reached the levels of the normal control group and positive control group (P > 0.05). In addition, the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the high-dose group were decreased to 56.95 and 76.83 pg/mL. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 was attenuated by MJC at all doses, and the best effect was found at high dose. Hematoxylin and eosin staining also indicated that MJC could protect spleen structure, increase the number of lymphocytes and improve hyperemia. These results showed that mulberry juice concentrate has a significant protective effect on oxidative damage in the spleen of rats.
Preventive Effect of Polyphenols Isolated from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits on Atherosclerosis in Rats
HE Zhongmei, LI Cheng’en, DUAN Cuicui, ZHAO Yujuan, GAO Lei, LUAN Chang, ZHANG Lianxue, LI Shengyu
2018, 39(1):  200-206.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801030
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Objective: A rat model was used to investigate the preventive effect of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruit polyphenols (ASFP) on atherosclerosis (As) and the underlying mechanism was explored. Methods: The atherosclerosis model was built by feeding rats with high-fat diet (HFD) combined with intraperitoneal injection with vitamin D3. Forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): control, HFD, HFD + low-dose ASFP and HFD + high-dose ASFD groups. The rats from the ASFD-treat groups were daily administered with 150 or 75 mg/(kg·d) ASFP during the HFD feeding period of 12 days, while those from the control and HFD groups were given an equal volume of normal saline. Serum biochemical parameters were detected and atherosclerosis index (AI) was calculated at the end of administration. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the atherosclerosis lesion in the aorta of rats. The expression levels of adhesion molecules in the aorta and key genes involved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were measured by Western blot. Results: The levels of blood lipids, adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines in rats were significantly decreased by ASFP compared with the model group. In addition, after treatment with ASFP, aortic lipid deposition was reduced and the structure of disordered layers was significantly improved compared with the model group. Furthermore, the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), phospho-p38 (p-p38) and phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in the rat aorta were significantly down-regulated by treatment with ASFP compared with the model group. Conclusion: ASFP plays an important role in preventing atherosclerosis, which may be related to the reduction of blood lipids and the inhibition of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways, thereby inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines.
Effect and Mechanism of 1-Deoxynojirimycin on Lipid Metabolism in Obese Mice
WANG Ling, ZENG Yitao, HUANG Xianzhi, DING Xiaowen
2018, 39(1):  207-212.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801031
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This study explored the regulatory effect of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) on lipid metabolism in obese mechanism rats as well as the underlying mechanism of action to provide valuable information for the development of DNJ-based antilipemic and antidiabetic agents. An obese mouse model was created by feeding mice on a high-fat diet, and then all mice were fed on a normal diet for 40 days. During this period, the animals in the experimental groups were gavaged with DNJ at different doses (8.0, 4.0 and 2.0 mg/ (kg·d)). At the end, serum biochemical indicators, serum adipocytokines, and the enzyme activities involved in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Compared with the negative control group, DNJ at 8.0 mg/(kg·d) reduced the body weight of obese female and male mice by 9.06% and 14.07%, decreased liver fat content by 4.13% and 27.82%, intra-abdominal fat to body weight ratio by 9.00% and 34.30%, serum total cholesterol (TC) level by 11.57% and 35.13%, triglyceride level by 46.89% and 30.65%, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level by 28.86% and 7.00%, free fatty acid (FFA) content by 10.60% and 10.20% and visfatin level by 38.44% and 26.76%, increased adiponectin level by 29.66% and 26.96%, decreased acetyl CoA carboxylasec (ACC) activity in the liver by 17.03% and 15.52% and fatty acid synthetasein (FAS) activity by 23.53% and 21.13%, and elevated carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) activity by 20.38% and 17.20% and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) activity by 11.00% and 16.29%, respectively. These results suggested that when combined with less energy intake, DNJ can improve blood lipid levels, reduce fat accumulation and control body weight by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis and accelerating fatty acid oxidation. In addition, DNJ has a better effect on male mice than female ones.
Hypolipidemic and Anti-Obesity Effect of Nobiletin and Its Role in Prevention of Fatty Liver in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats
FENG Konglong, ZHU Xiaoai, CHEN Tong, PENG Bo, ZHANG Liqun, DAI Weijie, LIU Xin, CAO Yong, CHEN Yunjiao
2018, 39(1):  213-220.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801032
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Objective: The effect of nobiletin on the body weight, serum lipids and liver of rats exposed to a high-fat diet were investigated. Methods: Totally 56 male SD rats were randomly divided into seven groups: normal control group, highfat diet control group, positive control groups (orlistat and fenofibrate), and low-, middle- and high-dose nobiletin groups (high-fat diet + 0.02%、0.04%、0.08% nobiletin). The rats in the normal control group were fed normal diet, while the remaining groups were fed high-fat diet plus the corresponding drugs for six weeks. Then serum lipid parameters, body weight, body fat weight, organ weight to body weight ratios and liver histopathology were examined. Results: Nobiletin could inhibit body weight gain induced by high-fat diet in rats, reduce Lee’s index, food utilization rate and fat to body weight ratio, and decrease serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with the fastest rate of decrease being observed for TG. Compared with the high-fat control group, liver index and serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities in the nobiletin treatment groups were decreased, and fatty degeneration of the liver was improved. Conclusion: Nobiletin can reduce serum lipids and prevent obesity and fatty liver.
Effect of Sargassum fusiforme Polysaccharides with Different Relative Molecular Weights on Learning and Memory Ability in Mice Model of Memory Impairment Induced by Raceanisodamine
LIU Hongchao, YING Miaomiao, SHI Wenzheng, XIE Jun, YANG Jingya, WANG Zhihe
2018, 39(1):  221-225.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801033
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The effects of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide (SFPS) and its fractions separated by ultrafiltration (SFPSⅤ and SFPSⅣ) on the learning and memory ability in mice were investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. A mouse model of memory impairment was established by intraperitoneal injection of racemic anisodamine, and Morris water maze place navigation test was used to evaluate the learning and memory ability. The results showed SFPS could improve the learning and memory ability in mice with memory impairment. Compared with the model group, medium-dose SFPSⅤ significantly shortened the mean escape latency and increased the number of crossing the platform (P < 0.05). SFPS with lower molecular weight was the most effective in improving the learning and memory ability among the polysaccharides tested and was superior to piracetam (P < 0.05). The underlying mechanism may be related to the antioxidant activity of SFPS. These findings may provide some useful guidance for the application of SFPS and the study of its activity.
Hypoglycemic Effect of Grape Seed Polyphenols in Diabetic Rats and Its Underlying Mechanism
QIU Ju, ZHU Hong, LU Lingang
2018, 39(1):  226-231.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801034
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Objective: To investigate anti-diabetic effect of grape seed polyphenols (GSP) in type Ⅱ diabetic rats, and to illustrate its underlying mechanism from the perspective of pancreatic islet damage and insulin expression. Methods: A rat model of type Ⅱ diabetes was established by injecting streptozotocin (STZ) to male SD rats. The diabetic rats were randomly divided to STZ model group, GSP treatment group (50 mg/(kg·d)), and acarbose treatment group (positive control group). GSP was administrated to diabetic rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg mb per day for 8 weeks. Serum glucose, insulin, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were tested after the last administration. Islet cell damage and insulin expression were detected using immunohistochemical staining. Results: GSP decreased serum glucose level, increased OGTT, and promoted insulin secretion in diabetic rats (P < 0.05). In addition, GSP improved STZ-induced islet cell damage and increased insulin expression (P < 0.05). Serum SOD activity was increased by administration of GSP, while MDA content was decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A long-term intervention with low-dose GSP can effectively regulate blood glucose in diabetic rats. GSP promotes insulin secretion by rescuing islet cell damage, thereby decreasing fasting serum glucose level and increasing OGTT, which may be associated with its potent antioxidant activity in vivo.
Effect of Polysaccharides from Liquid Culture of Cordyceps sinensis CAMT 63341 on Behavior and Immunity Organ Indexes of Mice
CAI Chuangwei, HUANG Xiaoyue, NIE Fanghong, XU Defeng, HAO Jiangwei
2018, 39(1):  232-237.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801035
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This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of polysaccharides from the liquid culture of Cordyceps sinensis CAMT 63341 on body weight, emotion, cognition and immune function in mice. Totally 60 healthy male mice were randomly divided into blank control, positive control and experimental groups. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides were taken as positive control, and the animals in the experimental groups were given Cordyceps sinensis CAMT 63341 polysaccharides at high, middle, and low doses, respectively. After continuous feeding for 30 days, elevated plus maze test, shuttle box test, and delayed type hypersensitivity test were conducted and the body weight and thymus and spleen organ weight to body weight ratios were recorded. Compared with the blank control group, the mice fed with Cordyceps sinensis CAMT 63341 polysaccharides exhibited dose-dependently accelerated body weight gain, increased number of open arm entries and extended time spent on the open arm of the maze, improved active avoidance response and shortened latent period of passive avoidance in shuttle box test, and increased thymus and spleen organ weight to body weight ratios, with statistically significant differences being observed in the high-dose group (P < 0.05 or 0.01), which was similarly effective to Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. Therefore, polysaccharides from the liquid culture of Cordyceps sinensis CAMT 63341 can promote body weight gain, improve emotion, and enhance cognition and immune function in mice.
Protective Effect of Silymarin on Acrylamide-Induced Oxidative Damage in HepG2 Cells
LI Liang, ZHAO Xiaoduo, LIU Wei, SUN Hongyang, ZHAO Hongyu, SHAO Meili
2018, 39(1):  238-242.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801036
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This study was designed to study the effect of silymarin on the proliferation of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and its preventive effect on the hepatotoxicity caused by acrylamide produced during food processing and to discuss the underlying mechanism. The effect of silymarin on the proliferation of HepG2 cells and its protective effect on acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. By use of fluorescence probe 2,7-dichlorodi-hydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFHDA) method, the change in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) of HepG2 cells was detected, and the markers of oxidative damage to lipid, protein and DNA (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine) were colorimetrically detected. The activities of the intracellular antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured with commercial kits. Our data revealed that the silymarin at 12–96 μg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on HepG2 cells and could increase cell viability and the enzyme activities of CAT, SOD and GSH-Px, reducing intracellular ROS levels and oxidative damage induced by acrylamide to lipid, protein and DNA in HepG2 cells. Therefore, silymarin can protect hepatic cells from oxidative damage caused by food-derived acrylamide.
Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and in Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Turmeric Oil
LU Caihui, MOU Dehua
2018, 39(1):  243-249.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801037
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Objective: To investigate the antiinflammatory, analgesic and in vitro antioxidant effects of turmeric oil. Methods: Xylene-induced mouse ear swelling and carrageenan-induced mouse paw swelling tests were used to comprehensively evaluate the antiinflammatory effect. The analgesic effect of continuous intragastric administration of turmeric oil was evaluated by hot plate pain threshold and the number of writhing responses induced by acetic acid. The in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated by determining the scavenging capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals, total antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation. Results: Turmeric oil at different doses showed different antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. At the same time, both gastrointestinally digested and native turmeric oil had good antioxidant effect in a dose-dependent manner. Total antioxidant capacity of turmeric oil was better with a half maximal effect (EC50) of 0.75 mg/mL. Overall, however, the antioxidant effect of gastrointestinally digested turmeric oil was better than that of its untreated counterpart.
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Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase Pathway in Arginine-Induced Disease Resistance in Postharvest Tomato Fruit
JI Nana, MIN Dedong, LI Fujun, SHAO Shujun, ZHANG Xinhua
2018, 39(1):  250-257.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801038
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of arginine treatment on the occurrence of postharvest gray mold in ‘Zhongshu No. 4’ tomato fruit and the role and mechanism of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway in arginine-induced disease resistance during storage at (25 ± 1) ℃. The results indicated that 5.0 mmol/L arginine was the most effective treatment in reducing the incidence of gray mold and lesion area in tomato fruit in the concentration range of 0.0–10.0 mmol/L. Moreover, 5.0 mmol/L arginine treatment increased NOS activity and nitric oxide (NO) content. Total phenol content and the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase were also enhanced remarkably. Besides, the expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PR2a, PR2b, PR3a and PR3b) were induced significantly. However, these effects were partially counteracted by Nω-nitro-L-arginine, an inhibitor of NOS. Our results indicate that arginine-induced resistance to gray mold in postharvest tomato fruit may be due to promoting the NOS pathway.
Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Treatment on Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh-Cut Pineapples
JI Yue, LI Jing, WANG Lei, JIN Peng, ZHENG Yonghua
2018, 39(1):  258-263.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801039
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The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut pineapples during storage were investigated. Intact pineapples were fumigated with 0, 1, 10 or 100 μmol/L MeJA at 20 ℃ for 12 h, then cut into pieces and stored at 15 ℃ for 48 h. The results indicated that MeJA treatment promoted the increases of total phenol content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, inhibited the decrease of total soluble solid and titratable acid content, but had no significant effect on color or total plate count (P > 0.05). Moreover, treatment with 10 μmol/L MeJA was the most effective in improving the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate- 4-hydroxylase, delaying the decrease of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, thereby promoting the accumulation of total phenols and total flavonoids and enhancing the DPPH radical scavenging activity of fresh-cut pineapples during storage. These results suggest that MeJA treatment can maintain the quality and improve the antioxidant activity of fresh-cut pineapples.
Effects of Energy Level and Cell Wall Metabolism on Aril Breakdown in Grape Fruits
ZHANG Qun, ZHOU Wenhua, TAN Huan, LIU Wei
2018, 39(1):  264-272.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801040
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In order to understand the relationship of aril breakdown with energy levels and cell wall metabolism in harvested grapes, the ultrastructural changes in the inner pericarp were examined during the early and late stages of storage. ‘Red globe’ grapes were subjected to CaCl2 immersion combined with chitosan coating or heat treatment and then stored at (4.0 ± 0.5) ℃, and the untreated samples were used as a control. Changes in aril breakdown index, hardness, decay percentage, cell membrane permeability, energy contents (adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)), energy charge (EC), cell wall-degrading enzyme activities and cell wall components were monitored at regular intervals during storage. The results indicated that aril breakdown index, decay incidence and cell membrane permeability increased, hardness and energy contents declined, and the activities of the cell walldegrading enzymes polygalacturonase (PG), pectinesterase (PE) and cellulase (Cx) ascended with storage time; however, β-galactosidase (β-Gal) activity dropped during the first 30 days, followed by a sharp increase. The contents of cell wall components such as protopectin, cellulose and semi-cellulose continuously decreased during storage, while water-soluble pectin dropped after an initial increase. Furthermore, the ultrastructure of the inner pericarp was damaged as indicated by the appearance of large holes. Aril breakdown index showed a highly significant inverse correlation with ATP and ADP contents and the contents of cell wall components (P < 0.01), a highly significant positive correlation with PG, PE and Cx activities (P < 0.01), and a significant inverse correlation with AMP level (P < 0.05), but it had no significant correlation with EC or β-Gal activity (P > 0.05). In conclusion, combined treatment with calcium chloride and chitosan or heat could delay aril breakdown in grapes by maintaining the integrity of the cell membrane and high energy status, inhibiting the transformation of protopectin to water-soluble pectin, inhibiting the activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes (PG, PE and Cx), and suppressing the degradation of cell wall components (proto-pectin, cellulose and semi-cellulose), and chitosan coating was significantly more effective than heat treatment (P < 0.05).
Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Treatment on Postharvest Quality of Agaricus bisporus
LI Jing, LI Shunfeng, LIU Lina, GAO Shuaiping, WANG Anjian, TIAN Guangrui
2018, 39(1):  273-278.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801041
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To determine the optimum conditions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment, the effects of GABA treatment at different concentration for different times on the weight loss, hardness and color of Agaricus bisporus were investigated during cold storage (at 4 ℃ and relative humidity of 85%). Moreover, the changes in total phenol, ascorbic acid, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activities were measured. The results showed that GABA treatment could decrease the mass loss rate and maintain the hardness and color of A. bisporus, and the suitable treatment condition was 5 mmol/L GABA for 5 min. Under this condition, the mass loss rate of A. bisporus on the 12th day was 44.76%, which was lower than that of the control group, and the hardness and L* value were 28.54% and 9.41%, which were higher than those of control group, respectively. Meanwhile, GABA treatment could promote the accumulation of total phenols and ascorbic acid, decrease the activities of PPO and POD, and improve the activity of PAL. Thus, the storage quality of A. bisporus was well maintained, and the storage life was prolonged by suitable GABA treatment.
Effect of 2,4-Epibrassionolide on Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Strawberry Fruit
LI Yuanyuan, WANG Li, ZHOU Mengjie, ZHANG Yu, JIN Peng, ZHENG Yonghua
2018, 39(1):  279-284.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801042
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The effect of 2,4-epibrassionolide (EBR) treatment on postharvest quality and antioxidant activity in strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa Duch. cv. Benihoppe) was investigated. The results showed that EBR treatment at 5.0 μmol/L had the most significant inhibitory effect on fruit decay during the storage period (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, EBR treatment inhibited the decrease of fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS) and vitamin C content, and maintained high levels of total phenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids during storage. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in strawberry fruit during storage were also induced by EBR, while lower content of H2O2 was observed in treated fruit compared to control fruit (P < 0.05). These results suggested that EBR improves the storability and quality of strawberry fruit during storage, which may be related to the maintenance of higher antioxidant activity.
Mechanism of Browning in Different Parts of Fresh-Cut Sweet Potato
WANG Liqun, LIU Shuo, YANG Chunxian, ZHANG Xinyi,YAO Shixiang, DENG Lili, ZENG Kaifang
2018, 39(1):  285-290.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801043
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In this paper, fresh-cut sweet potato ‘Yushu No. 17’ was divided into three parts including skin, peripheral and central part. The mechanism of browning in different parts of fresh-cut sweet potato was studied by measuring the browning index, the content of phenolic compounds and the activity of browning-related enzymes. The results showed that chlorogenic acid was the major browning substrate in sweet potato. There were differences in browning among different parts of freshcut sweet potato, with the most severe browning occurring in the skin, followed by the peripheral and central parts. The contents of total and free phenols in the skin were significantly higher than those in the peripheral and central tissues (P < 0.05), with a 3 to 4-fold increase being observed in the content of chlorogenic acid. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was the major enzyme responsible for the browning process of skin tissue. L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase promoted the accumulation of phenolic substances. The browning process of peripheral tissue was catalyzed by PPO and peroxidase (POD), while that of central tissue was mainly caused by POD. The moisture content of sweet potato tissue decreased with storage time.
Reviews
Progress in Biocontrol Yeast Agents for Preventing and Treating Diseases of Fruits
LI Qiaofei, ZHANG Hongyin, YANG Qiya, LIN Zhen, CHENG Yangyang, SUN Yiwen
2018, 39(1):  291-296.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801044
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Fruits are vulnerable to pathogen infection and consequently decay during growth and storage, which causes huge economic losses. At present, the prevention and control fruit diseases and postharvest preservation are primarily achieved by the use of synthetic fungicides. Chemical fungicides are commonly used to control diseases of fruits and vegetables because of their high efficiency and convenience. However, due to the development of resistance to fungicides in fungal pathogens, which causes harmful effects on the environment and human health, it is necessary to develop safer alternative methods without causing any adverse effects on the environment or human health. Biological control using biological control agents (BCAs) especially antagonistic yeasts has emerged as a very promising way to substitute synthetic fungicides to mitigate postharvest diseases of fruits. This review outlines the advantages and shortcomings of biocontrol yeasts in the prevention and control of postharvest diseases of fruits and discusses the current status and future prospects of biological control agents. We hope that this review will provide valuable information for commercial production and application of biocontrol agents.
Advances in Intestinal Flora Regulatory Mechanisms of Prebiotics in Premature Infants, Obesity Subjects and Elderly Populations
ZHENG Zhichang, CHEN Yingtong, GUO Juanjuan, GUO Zebin, ZHENG Baodong, LU Xu
2018, 39(1):  297-304.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801045
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The intestinal microflora is an indispensable part of the human body. Intestinal microbial diversity and the stability of microbial community structure are of great importance for human health. Clinical studies have shown that intestinal microbial populations play an important role in the development of disease for special populations. Prebiotics, as an important part of human diet, are mainly derived from non-digestible oligosaccharides and dietary fiber from plants. It has been demonstrated that prebiotics could selectively promote intestinal microflora proliferation and enhance metabolic activity. This paper is focused on the differences in intestinal microbial colonization among special populations including premature infants, obese people and the elderly based on the intestinal microbiota changes with age, as well as proposed mechanisms of prebiotics for regulating the the intestinal microbiota in the populations. We hope this review can provide a theoretical guideline for further research on the mechanism underlying prebiotic regulation of the intestinal microbiota and the development of prebiotic functional foods.
A Review of the Application of Infrared Spectroscopy in Chemical Analysis and Quality Control of Edible Mushrooms
YAO Sen, ZHANG Ji, LIU Honggao, LI Jieqing, WANG Yuanzhong
2018, 39(1):  305-312.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801046
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In recent years, infrared (IR) spectroscopy has caught much attention due to its characteristics of high accuracy, rapidity and nondestructiveness. With increasing maturation of IR spectroscopy and the development of the related theory, this promising technology has been widely applied to the quality control and chemical analysis of edible mushrooms. In this review, we have summarized the application of IR spectroscopy in the quality control and chemical analysis of edible mushrooms worldwide. This article presents a review of recent studies on the application of IR spectroscopy to identify different species, geographical origins and parts of edible mushrooms and quantify their chemical composition. In conclusion, this review is expected to provide valuable theoretical information for further development and utilization of edible mushrooms.
Progress in Rheology of Thickened Liquid Foods for Dysphagic Patients
ZHONG Lei, WU Liuna, ZHOU Lie, YAO Xianchao, LU Ling, CHEN Jianshe
2018, 39(1):  313-319.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801047
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Dysphagia has become a serious health issue that our society is facing today. Thickened liquids can effectively reduce the risk of aspiration pneumonia for dysphagic patients and are therefore widely used in the treatment and nursing of those patients. The appropriate application of thickened liquids is closely related to their rheological properties; therefore, rheology has become an important research topic in the design and manufacturing of dysphagia foods. In this paper, we review the state of the art in this research area. The rheology of thickened liquids and the existing methods for measuring their effectiveness are reviewed and the factors affecting the rheological properties of thickened liquids are elucidated. The difference and matching between the rheological properties of videofluoroscopic contrast agents and thickened liquid foods and the oral rheological discrimination of thickened liquids are also discussed. Our aim is to provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the development and production of thickened liquid foods in China.
Progress in Prevention and Control Systems against Economically Motivated Food Adulteration Prevention and Control System of Food in China and Abroad
LI Dan, WANG Shouwei, ZANG Mingwu, LI Xiaoman, ZHANG Kaihua, ZHANG Zheqi, ZHANG Ruimei, ZHOU Qingjie
2018, 39(1):  320-325.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801048
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In recent years, a serious of economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of food incidents, such as melaminetainted milk and horsemeat, have aroused wide concern among the public and caused serious harm to food safety and food trade. Therefore, worldwide research efforts have been made on the EMA problem. This article summarizes the current status of research on this topic including establishment of a basic database of EMA incidents, the characteristics of EMA incidents, the factors affecting EMA incidents and technological system for the prevention and control of EMA incidents. In order to better deal with the EMA problem, we propose that China should make more efforts to collect and analyze data on EMA incidents and develop a prevention and control mechanism suitable to its own national conditions.
Recent Advances in Analytical Techniques for Monosaccharide Composition of Plant Polysaccharides
GUO Yuanheng, ZHANG Lijun, CAO Lili, CHEN Jinjin, LIU Boyan, ZHAO Qingsheng, ZHAO Bing
2018, 39(1):  326-332.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201801049
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Plant polysaccharides are important medicinal and food resources. Quantitative analysis of the monosaccharide composition of plant polysaccharides plays a fundamental role in the investigation of polysaccharide structures and characteristics. The analytical process includes the degradation of plant polysaccharides, and the separation and detection of monosaccharides. This article reviews recent research on the degradation of plant polysaccharides and the chemical modification, separation and detection of the resulting monosaccharides, which will provide a theoretical basis for further study of plant polysaccharides.