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15 March 2021, Volume 42 Issue 5
Basic Research
Non-covalent Interaction Mechanism between Fetal Bovine Serum and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside and Its Effect on Antioxidant Activity of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside
MAI Qiying, FAN Yawei, DENG Zeyuan, ZHANG Bing
2021, 42(5):  1-8.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200108-096
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Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and evaluation of antioxidant activity were used to study the stability of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) under different cell culture conditions. Simultaneously, we explored the effect of incubation with fetal bovine serum on the stability of C3G and its antioxidant activity as well as the underlying mechanism. The results showed that fetal bovine serum could non-covalently bind to C3G, thereby improving the stability of C3G. C3G was degraded into protocatechuic acid and resorcinol under cell culture conditions, which obeyed zero order kinetics. At the same time, C3G could quench the endogenous fluorescence of fetal bovine serum in a static quenching manner, and the interaction between them was dominated by the hydrophobic force. C3G had little effect on the microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues in fetal bovine serum, but it could reduce the α-helix proportion and loosen the secondary structure of fetal bovine serum. In addition, fetal bovine serum did not significantly affect 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity or total antioxidant capacity of C3G, but it could significantly reduce its 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity (P < 0.05). In general, non-covalent binding of C3G to fetal bovine serum can improve the stability of C3G and affect its antioxidant activity, as well as the conformation of fetal bovine serum.
Screening of α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Cereal Phytochemicals and Underlying Molecular Mechanism
SHI Jiayi, ZHANG Ran, LIANG Fuqiang, CHENG Yuxin, ZHANG Tai
2021, 42(5):  9-16.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201107-070
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The present study aimed to screen potential human α-glucosidase inhibitors from cereal phytochemicals. A database containing 265 cereal phytochemicals was established and 10 cereal phytochemicals with α-glucosidase inhibitory potential were selected according to the molecular docking results combined with their ADME and Lipinski properties. Results showed that the inhibitory activity of apigenin and two common C-glycosylated flavones, vitexin and isovitexin, on α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae decreased in that order, which is inconsistent with the molecular docking results. Further molecular dynamic and weak interaction analysis revealed that while all the above phytochemicals could stably bind to the key amino acid residues, their anti-α-glucosidase activities differed from one another, which may be due to the fact that glycoside substitution enhanced the steric hindrance and as a result, the movement trajectory of vitexin and isovitexin in the active pocket of α-glucosidase differed from that of apigenin. These results will provide a scientific basis for the screening and structural modification of human α-glucosidase inhibitors from cereal phytochemicals.
Antioxidant Properties of Five Phycocyanins with Different Purities
MEI Xing, WANG Guang, TIAN Rui, LIU Yu, XIA Lanxin, TIAN Cheng, LI Wei, CHENG Chao
2021, 42(5):  17-23.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200209-059
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In order to explore the antioxidant functional group in phycocyanin, the antioxidant activities of five different phycocyanins were determined by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, pyrogallol autooxidation and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays, and their relationship with protein content, chromophore content and phycocyanin purity was analyzed. The results showed that in the FRAP and ABTS radical cation systems, the antioxidant activity of phycocyanins, dominated by electron transfer, was positively correlated with protein content, indicating that the protein components are mainly responsible for the antioxidant effect of phycocyanins. In the pyrogallol autooxidation system, the antioxidant activity of phycocyanins was positively correlated with protein content but negatively correlated with chromophore content, indicating that the antioxidant activity of phycocyanins is attributed to the protein components. In the ORAC system, the antioxidant activity of phycocyanins was positively correlated with chromophore content and phycocyanin purity, indicating that the chromophore plays a principal role in the antioxidant effect of phycocyanins.
Quality Changes of Oysters during Steaming
GUO Xun, ZENG Mingyong, DONG Shiyuan
2021, 42(5):  24-31.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200229-333
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In order to systematically study the quality changes of oysters during steaming, the basic chemical components and cooking loss of oysters were measured at different steaming times (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min), the texture properties were analyzed by texture profile analysis (TPA), and the volatile components were determined by headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Meanwhile, sensory evaluation was carried out using a trained panel and instrumental assessment was performed using an electronic tongue and an electronic nose. The results indicated that during steaming, the water and crude fat contents of oysters were significantly reduced, and the total sugar and crude protein contents were significantly increased; the flavor, taste, and appearance changed significantly. Based on the sensory quality and the internal temperature, the steaming degree was divided into six levels. The TPA results showed that the hardness and elasticity of the abdominal tissue and adductor muscle of oysters were significantly enhanced after 4 min of steaming (P < 0.05). Totally 48 volatile flavor substances were identified in steamed oysters, belonging to eight chemical classes. During the steaming process, the amounts of aldehydes and ketones increased first and then decreased, and the amounts of esters and ethers decreased continuously and significantly. The odor activity value (OAV) analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that dimethyl sulfide, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and E-2-nonenal were the key flavor substances in steamed oysters. According to the taste activity value (TAV), betaine, soluble sugars, free amino acids, and nucleotides made significant contributions to the taste of steamed oysters, and their contents significantly changed during the steaming process (P < 0.05). In summary, this study provides reference for quality control during the steaming of oysters.
Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Discrimination and Quantitative Modelling of Microorganisms on Cucumbers during Storage
LIU Xueru, LI Xin, YIN Yong, YU Huichun, YUAN Yunxia, LI Mengli
2021, 42(5):  32-38.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200312-191
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In order to realize the rapid and real-time monitoring of the changes in the number of microorganisms on cucumbers during storage based on the endogenous fluorescence information of microorganisms on them, and to provide a basis for predicting microbial spoilage, three-dimensional fluorescence information was collected on the surface of cucumbers at different storage times. The polynomial interpolation method was used to remove the Rayleigh scattering in the original spectra, and Savitzky-Golay polynomial smoothing and denoising were performed. Meanwhile, in order to avoid the metabolism of microorganisms on cucumbers from interfering with the fluorescence signal analysis, the core consistency diagnostic (CORCONDIA) method was used to estimate the number of components. By using the alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm, the three-dimensional fluorescence array was decomposed according to the number of components, yielding the relative excitation intensity spectrum, relative emission intensity spectrum and relative concentration matrix of each component. The results showed that the number of components was 4 when the function value was more than 60%. Among the four components obtained by the ATLD algorithm, components 1 and 3 had a special bimodal structure, and their characteristic excitation and emission spectra were consistent with the fluorescence fingerprints of tryptophan and tyrosine as the major endogenous fluorescent substances in microorganisms, and the tryptophan represented by component 1 had a high fluorescence quantum yield. The fluorescence region integration method was used to quantitatively analyze the total fluorescence of tryptophan-like regions with high and low excitation in the characteristic spectrum of component 1, and the functional relationship between the integral value of standardized region and the number of microorganisms was constructed by multiple stepwise regression analysis. The regression results showed that the determination coefficient of the regression model constructed by two-element four-power stepwise regression analysis was 98.309 8%. The prediction model was validated using samples not involved in its establishment, and the relative error of the obtained number of microorganisms was 1.037 1%. These results indicated that the model for monitoring changes in the microbial load on the surface of cucumbers during storage could provide basis for monitoring vegetable spoilage in real time.
Corn Peptide: Desalting by Nanofiltration and Antioxidant Activity
WANG Xiaojie, QU Yue, LIU Xiaolan, MA Rui
2021, 42(5):  39-45.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200303-042
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In the present study, corn antioxidant peptide was desalted using a nanofiltration membrane with molecular mass cut-off of 150 Da. The desalting process was evaluated with respect to membrane flux, conductivity, Na+ concentration, desalting efficiency and antioxidant of nanofiltration product, and the protective effect of the desalted peptide on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cell model was determined. The results showed that the desalination conditions were as follows: pressure 20 bar, frequency 50 Hz, temperature 20 ℃, number of nanofiltration cycles 5, and volumetric concentration factor in each nanofiltration 2. Under these conditions, the desalting efficiency was 70.73%, and the recovery of short peptide was 96.73%. Compared to that before nanofiltration, the conductivity was decreased by 33.86%, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacities were increased by 21.55% and 35.93%, respectively, while the ferrous ion chelating capacity was reduced by 7.38%. The desalted corn peptides at 75 μg/mL remarkably increased the viability of H2O2-induced Caco-2 cells by increasing the activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase).
Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ)-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of the Molecular Mechanism by Which Superchilling Preserves the Quality of Chilled Tibetan Fragrant Pig Meat
YANG Feiyan, GU Xuedong, SUN Shuguo, LUO Zhang, XIE Siwei, HUANG Wenyang
2021, 42(5):  46-54.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200924-292
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Changes in the proteomic profile of chilled Tibetan fragrant pig meat during superchilling (–2 ℃) and cold (4 ℃) storage were investigated by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), and its relationship with changes in total aerobic count (TAC), physicochemical properties (total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content and elasticity), and protein secondary structures (β-sheet and β-turn relative content) were evaluated. The results showed a slower rate of changes in TVB-N content, springiness, and the relative contents of β-sheet and β-turn in meat was found during storage for 16 days at –2 ℃ than at 4 ℃. Proteomic analysis showed that a total of 179 differentially expressed proteins were identified between meats stored at the two temperatures. Among these proteins, 143 were found to significantly differ in abundance. In total, 97 proteins with differential abundance were found between meats stored at the two temperatures for 0 and 16 days, 61 out of which were found to be shared. The differentially expressed proteins mainly included structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, stress proteins and calmodulins. The correlation analysis indicated that myosin, tropomyosin and calpastatin expression level were significantly negatively correlated with TAC, TVB-N content and β-turn relative content (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and significantly positively correlated with springiness and β-sheet relative content (P < 0.01), while heat shock protein expression level had opposite correlations with the physicochemical properties and protein secondary structures. Therefore, we conclude that superchilling can effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms and protein catabolism in pig meat, reduce the changes in TVB-N and protein secondary structure, and maintain elasticity, thereby preserving meat quality. This study provides a reference for in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism for quality preservation in pig meat by superchilling and exploring reasonable storage conditions.
Antioxidant Activity in Vitro of Hydroxyproline Peptides
ZHANG Xuejiao, LIU Dengyong, Huimin David WANG
2021, 42(5):  55-60.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200310-172
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Hydroxyproline is a characteristic component of collagen and its existence in the peptide sequence enables collagen-derived oligopeptides to have high resistance to peptidase or protease. Oral hydroxyproline still exists in the form of peptides in the blood after gastrointestinal digestion. Small peptides containing hydroxyproline can be absorbed intact at the intestinal epithelial cell membrane and reach a high level in the plasma, indicating high absorption rate and bioavailability, and stable and potential biological activity. In this experiment, 15 small peptides containing hydroxyproline were evaluated for their antioxidant activities in vitro by 1,1-diphenyl-2-trinitrophenylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The results showed that among the small peptides, Leu-Hyp had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (23.6%). Leu-Hyp and Ile-Hyp exhibited the highest ABTS cation radical scavenging rates, 57.8% and 57.7%, respectively. The DPPH and ABTS cation radical scavenging capacity of the other small peptides were weak, with scavenging rates less than 15% or 0 for ABTS cation radical scavenging capacity. At a concentration of 3 mmol/L, the hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity of all small peptides were stronger, 30%-50% and 60%-80%, respectively. Collectively, the above results demonstrated that the 15 hydroxyproline-containing peptides had scavenging capacity for hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, and that Leu-Hyp and Ile-Hyp had the best antioxidant activity in vitro.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Allium mongolicum Regel and Its Extract on Deposition and Distribution of 4-Alkyl Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Adipose Tissues of Lambs
LIU Wangjing, LI Shuyi, DUAN Jiayu, DING He, QIAO Yajie, LIU Yurong, LÜ Kexin, GUO Yanli, AO Changjin
2021, 42(5):  61-67.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200217-172
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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with Allium mongolicum Regel and its extract on the deposition and distribution of 4-alkyl branched-chain fatty acids in adipose tissues of lambs. Sixty 3-month-old small-tailed Han rams (averagely weighing (23.67 ± 3.43) kg) were selected and randomly divided into four groups in a randomized block design, each containing five animals in triplicates. Four feeding treatments were used: 1) a basal diet without any supplementation as the control group, 2) basal diet supplemented with Allicum mongolicum Regel powder at 10 g/d for each sheep as the AMR group, 3) basal diet supplemented with Allicum mongolicum Regel water extract at 3.4 g/d for each sheep as the AWE group, and 4) basal diet supplemented with Allicum mongolicum Regel ethanol extract at 2.8 g/d for each sheep as the AFE group. The experiment lasted for 75 days, including a 15-day preliminary feeding period for adaptation and a 60-day experimental feeding period. At the end of the experiment, perirenal, dorsal subcutaneous, tail, and greater omental adipose tissue samples were collected to determine the contents of 4-alkyl branched-chain fatty acids. The results demonstrated that compared with the control group, dietary supplementation with Allicum mongolicum Regel and its extracts significantly decreased the concentrations of 4-methyloctanoic acid (MOA) in perirenal, dorsal subcutaneous and greater omental adipose tissues (P < 0.000 1), as well as the concentrations of 4-ethyloctanoic acid (EOA) in perirenal and dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissues (P < 0.000 1), and reduced EOA concentrations in greater omental adipose tissue (P = 0.062 0). In addition, dietary supplementation with Allicum mongolicum Regel and its extracts significantly decreased the concentrations of 4-methylnonanoic acid (MNA) in perirenal adipose tissue (P = 0.044 0), and lowered MNA concentrations in greater omental adipose tissue (P = 0.066 0). The deposition of the three 4-alkyl branched-chain fatty acids in various adipose tissues showed a decreasing order as follows: tail > dorsal subcutaneous > greater omental > perirenal. The concentration of MOA in dorsal subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly correlated with EOA concentration ([ρ] = 0.610, P = 0.001). The concentration of MOA in perirenal adipose tissue was significantly correlated with EOA concentration ([ρ] = 0.700, P = 0.001) and MNA concentration ([ρ] = 0.660, P = 0.001), and the correlation between EOA and MNA is weak ([ρ] = 0.570, P = 0.004). Therefore, Allicum mongolicum Regel and its extracts could reduce the deposition of 4-alkyl branched-chain fatty acids in dorsal subcutaneous, greater omental and perirenal adipose tissues thereby having the potential to improve lamb fat flavor.
Food Engineering
Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Thawing on Protein Oxidation and Quality of Frozen Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas)
ZHU Wenhui, HUAN Haizhen, LI Yue, BU Ying, LI Xuepeng, LI Jianrong
2021, 42(5):  68-76.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200221-226
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The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship of protein oxidation, muscle structural changes and jumbo squid mantle quality during ultrasound-assisted thawing. Frozen jumbo squid mantles were thawed by ultrasonic treatment using different power gradients (100, 300, and 500 W) at different temperatures (5 and 10 ℃). The U5-5 treatment (5 ℃, 500 W) caused the smallest thawing and cooking loss. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) suggested that U5-5 could reduce juice loss. The seven different thawing methods showed significant differences in carbonyl content, total sulfhydryl content, dityrosine content and surface hydrophobicity (P < 0.05). U5-3 (5 ℃, 300 W) and U5-5 had little effect on the carbonyl content of myofibrillar protein. U5-3 caused the highest total sulfhydryl content and the smallest dityrosine content, while refrigerator thawing and U5-1 (5 ℃, 100 W) caused the least exposure of hydrophobic groups on the protein surface. Raman spectroscopy showed that ultrasonic-assisted thawing could retard the conversion of α-helices to β-sheets, β-turns and random coils. These results demonstrate that ultrasonic-assisted thawing at 5 ℃ (U5-3 and U5-5) can improve product quality and defer protein oxidation.
Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure and Heat Treatment on Functional Properties of Buckwheat Protein
ZHOU Yiming, DU Lina, LI Yunlong, ZHOU Xiaoli, CHEN Zhidong
2021, 42(5):  77-83.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200210-084
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As a new non-thermal food processing technology, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has many advantages, such as less damage to the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. To study the effect of different food processing methods on the functional properties of buckwheat protein (BWP), the solubility, foaming and emulsifying properties of BWP were determined along with its carbonyl content, sulfhydryl content, surface hydrophobicity and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis after being treated by HHP or heat treatment (HT). The results showed that with the increase in HHP treatment pressure, the carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity of BWP increased significantly (P < 0.05), while the sulfhydryl content decreased significantly (P < 0.05); the emulsifying and foaming capacities reached the maximum values (67.3 m2/g and 91.5%) at 500 MPa, which were 33.0% and 16.1%, 61.5% and 52.8% higher than those of the control group (without HHP treatment) and the HT group, respectively. The results of FTIR showed that the contents of α-helix and β-fold decreased, while the contents of β-turn and random coil increased after HHP treatment. Moreover, obvious correlations were found between the solubility, emulsifying capacity, foaming capacity, carbonyl content and sulphydryl content of BWP. Notably, the emulsifying capacity was significantly positively correlated with foaming capacity and surface hydrophobicity (P < 0.01), but significantly negatively correlated with sulfhydryl content (P < 0.01). It can be seen that HHP treatment can change the functional properties of BWP. This study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for further studies on the application of BWP in functional foods.
Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment on the Texture, Rheology and Microstructure of Processed Cream Cheese
JIANG Shu, TENG Junwei, LIU Zhenmin, ZHANG Juan
2021, 42(5):  84-91.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200408-115
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In this paper, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment at different pressures (150, 300 and 450 MPa) for 10 min at 25 ℃ on the texture, rheology and microstructure of processed cream cheese low in saturated fatty acids was investigated. The textural characteristics of spreadability, firmness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness were measured by a texture analyzer. The microstructure was observed under a scanning electron microscope, and the rheological characteristics were analyzed by a rheometer. The correlation of changes in pressure with the water content, water activity and pH and textural characteristics was analyzed by the SPSS software. The results showed that with the increase in pressure, moisture content did not obviously change overall, while the water activity of the cream cheese treated at 150 MPa was significantly higher than that of the other cream cheese groups (P < 0.05). The greater the pressure, the higher the pH of the cheese. The pressure was positively correlated with moisture content, with a correlation coefficient of 0.646, but negatively correlated with water activity, with a correlation coefficient of ?0.346. The pressure had a significantly positive correlation with pH, spreadability, firmness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, with correlation coefficients of 0.963, 0.959, 0.951, 0.956 and 0.956, respectively. HHP treatment could reduce the dependence of cheese viscosity on temperature and increase the stability of cheese network microstructure. Moreover, the storage modulus and loss modulus of the cheeses treated at 150 and 450 MPa were higher than those of the control group, and the viscoelasticity was better than that of the control group. HHP treatment changed the microstructure of the cheese. The greater pressure resulted in a denser microstructure with fewer holes, making the protein matrix smoother and more homogeneous. In summary, HHP treatment has a close relationship with the texture, rheology and microstructure of cheese. This study can provide useful reference for the application of HHP in cheese processing.
Effects of Different Drying Technologies on the Quality Characteristics and Microstructure of Walnut Meal Protein Powder
LI Mingjuan, ZHANG Yayuan, YOU Xiangrong, WANG Ying, ZHOU Kui, WEI Ping, WEI Linyan
2021, 42(5):  92-98.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200316-246
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Walnut meal protein powder was processed from walnut meal by four drying technologies: hot air drying (HA), heat pump drying (HP), vacuum freeze drying (VF) and spray drying (SD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different drying technologies on the quality characteristics and microstructure of walnut meal protein powder. The results showed that the walnut meal protein powders processed by HA and HP had lower hygroscopicity and consequently better storability compared to those processed by the other drying methods, but their color and quality were poorer, and their microstructure exhibited irregular blocky shapes of varying?size with rough surfaces. The product dried by VF, with the highest yield of 29.18%, had the highest protein, essential amino acid and total amino acid contents of 87.70%, 24.61 g/100 g and 86.11 g/100 g, respectively, as well as the lowest moisture of 3.05%, but it had poor color, lamellar microstructure with smooth surfaces, and large particle size. The product dried by SD, with the lowest yield, had the highest sensory score, L* value, moisture content, specific surface?area and hygroscopicity of 75 points, 90.63, 3.91%, 271.47 m2/kg and 2.16%, respectively. In addition, it had good nutritional quality, the lowest wettability (settlement time of 139.33 s), and the smallest and uniform particle size, and its microstructure was maintained well. Taking into consideration the quality characteristics and microstructure of walnut meal protein powder, and the drying efficiency and cost, SD was the method of choice for preparing walnut meal protein powder.
Effect of Homogenization Process on the Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Fish Oil Microcapsules
ZHOU Linyi, REN Shuanghe, GUO Yanan, FAN Naijing, JIANG Lianzhou, JIA Fuguo, WANG Zhongjiang, LIU Jun
2021, 42(5):  99-105.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200302-033
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Fish oil nanoemulsions and microcapsules stabilized by soy protein isolate (SPI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were prepared by three homogenization methods including high-pressure homogenization, cavitation jet homogenization and ultrasonic treatment. To evaluate the effect of homogenization processes on the physicochemical properties of fish oil nanoemulsions and microcapsules, the particle size, zeta-potential, stability, viscosity and emulsification yield of nanoemulsions were determined, together with microcapsule morphology, physicochemical properties and stability. The results indicated that the nanoemulsion prepared by cavitation jet had a small average particle size and exhibited high emulsification yield and high stability. Highly soluble microcapsules were obtained by 10 min cavitation jet with an encapsulation efficiency of 87.44%. The surface morphology of the microcapsules was full and dense without any cracks or voids and they had good oxidative and thermal stability. The nanoemulsions prepared by high-pressure homogenization and ultrasonic treatment had larger average particle size, lower emulsification yield and lower emulsion stability. The encapsulation efficiencies of the microcapsules obtained by high-pressure homogenization at 100 MPa and ultrasonic treatment at 400 W were 80.36% and 78.64%, respectively. The solubility of these microcapsules was lower than that of the microcapsules prepared by cavitation jet. In addition, micropores and larger pores appeared on the surface of the microcapsule particles, respectively, both of which had poor oxidative and thermal stability. The results obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that all three homogenization processes provided high encapsulation efficiency. The fish oil nanoemulsion and microcapsule prepared by cavitation jet homogenization were superior to the counterparts prepared by the other two methods in product performance. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the selection of homogenization processes for the preparation of fish oil nanoemulsion and microcapsule products and the construction of an evaluation system for their application.
Drying Kinetics and Polyphenol Degradation Kinetic Characteristics in the Swollen Succulent Stem of Tumorous Stem Mustard during Air-Impingement Jet Drying
LI Wenfeng, ZHANG Xiangyang, WANG Cui, LIN Lanting, CHEN Xiaoping, QU Yang, ZHANG Xuemei, LIN Yao, TAN Si, ZHENG Qiaoran, GAO Xiaoxu
2021, 42(5):  106-114.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200308-126
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To elucidate the characteristics of drying kinetics and polyphenol degradation kinetics in the swollen succulent stem of tumorous stem mustard during air-impingement jet drying, the drying was carried out at 40, 50 and 60 ℃. The drying kinetic data were fitted to eight thin-layer drying models. The kinetic characteristics of the degradation of monomeric polyphenols were studied using four reaction kinetics models. The results showed that air-impingement jet drying could result in higher drying efficiency and lighter browning as compared with hot air drying. The drying rate was increased with drying temperature. The Modified Page model could be used to describe and predict the dehydration behavior. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that coumaric acid, ferulic acid, narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, lyciferin and hesperidin degraded during the drying process. The degradation of hesperidin, narirutin, lyciferin, pomelin, hesperidin and coumaric acid conformed to second-order reaction kinetics, and seriously affected the antioxidant activity. The degradation of polyphenols taking place during the drying process was a typical nonspontaneous and endothermic reaction. This study provides a theoretical reference for further improving the air-impingement jet drying of tumorous stem mustard.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Anti-aging Effects of SIRT3-Inducing Polyphenols on UVB-Irradiated HaCaT Cells
CHEN Hui, YOSHINORI Katakura, HU Hongbo, YIN Shutao, ZHAO Chong
2021, 42(5):  115-121.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191230-357
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Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 3 (SIRT3) is a deacetylase located in the mitochondrial matrix, which plays an important role in mitochondrial energy metabolism, oxidative stress regulation and delaying aging. In this experiment, the SIRT3-EGFP gene report system was constructed and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to screen SIRT3 activators from eight polyphenols including resveratrol, kaempferol, punicalin, punicalagin, fisetin, cafestol, cyanidin 3-glucoside chloride, and delphinidin 3-glucoside chloraid. Moreover, the anti-aging effects of the SIRT3-inducing polyphenols were evaluated in ultraviolet radiation B (UVB)-irradiated HaCaT cells. Our results showed that resveratrol, kaempferol, punicalagin, fisetin and cafestol significantly enhanced the expression of SIRT3 (P < 0.05). Resveratrol, punicalagin, fisetin and cafestol effectively reduced UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species levels. Furthermore, these five polyphenols all significantly increased the reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio (P < 0.05), while resveratrol and cafestol, but not the remaining compounds significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase 2 activity (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In addition, punicalagin not only activated SIRT3 expression and repaired the cell antioxidant system, but also significantly decreased the activity of SA-β-gal (P < 0.05), a marker of cell senescence. In conclusion, resveratrol, kaempferol, punicalagin, fisetin and cafestol could augment SIRT3 expression. More interestingly, punicalagin significantly repaired UVB-induced cell senescence in HaCaT cells, and the underlying mechanism may be related to the antioxidant pathway of SIRT3-NADPH-GSH/GSSG.
Protective Effect of Squid Gonadal Phospholipids on MPTP-Induced Zebrafish Model of Parkinson’s Disease
DONG Junfan, SONG Yang, JI Xiuna, LI Xiaobin, LIU Kechun, JIN Meng
2021, 42(5):  122-128.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200228-321
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Purpose: To explore whether squid gonadal phospholipids have an inhibitory effect on Parkinson’s disease (PD) induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Methods: Zebrafish embryos at 1 day post fertilization (dpf) were dechorionated and then divided into different groups including control, 50 μmol/L MPTP, and 50 μmol/L MPTP combined with different concentrations (3, 10 and 20 μg/mL) of squid gonadal phospholipids. Transgenci zebrafish Vmat:GFP and Fli1:GFP at 4 dpf were used to observe and record the development of dopaminergic neurons and brain blood vessels, respectively. At 5 dpf, we utilized the Zebrabox video-tracking system to assay the behavioral changes of wild-type AB zebrafish. Meanwhile, we analyzed the expression of PD-related genes including those encoding alpha-synuclein (α-syn), E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (parkin), PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (pink1), and tyrosine hydroxylase (th) by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Compared with the control group, zebrafish treated with MPTP exhibited loss of dopaminergic neurons, injured blood vessels in the brain, PD-like behavior, and abnormal expression of PD-related genes. In comparison to the MPTP treatment group, MPTP combined with squid gonadal phospholipids showed a decrease in the percentage dopamine neuron loss, and relieved blood vessel damage in the brain, PD-like behavior, and the abnormal expression of PD-related genes.
Protective Effect of Lyophyllum ulmarium Fibrinolytic Enzyme on Endothelial Cells from Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide
GENG Chao, WEI Ying, SHEN Minghua
2021, 42(5):  129-136.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200105-043
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Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Lyophyllum ulmarium fibrinolytic enzyme (LUFE) on inflammatory injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vascular endothelial cells. Methods: An in vitro inflammation model was created by stimulating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with LPS. The HUVEC were divided into five groups including control, model and low-, medium- and high-dose LUFE groups. The survival rate of HUVEC was determined by MTT assay. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), E-selectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in the cell culture supernatant were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Hoechst method was adopted to observe the adhesion between HUVEC and human acute monocytic leukemia cell line-1 (THP-1). The expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) in HUVEC was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression and activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the major proteins involved in the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway including myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), transforming growth factor β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and phosphorylated TAK1 (p-TAK1). Results: LUFE inhibited the LPS-induced increase in the levels of LDH, TNF-α, IL-6, E-selectin and MCP-1 in the culture supernatant of HUVEC, decreased the expression level of ICAM-1, and reduced the adhesion of HUVEC to THP-1. Compared with the model group, the levels of TLR4 and MyD88, p-TAK1/TAK1 ratio, the ratio of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) to JNK, the ratio of phosphorylated protein-38 (p-p38) to p38, and the ratio of phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) to NF-κB in all three LUFE treatment groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Conclusion: LUFE has a protective effect on inflammatory injury in HUVEC, and its underlying mechanism may be though inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/TAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway and the MAPK signaling pathway and thereby reducing the level of inflammatory factors.
Anti-aging Effect of Bama Longevity Characteristic Dietary Patterns in Naturally Aging Mice
HUANG Yanting, MEI Lihua, PAN Haibo, QIN Luqi, RAO Chuanyan, NIE Menglin, ZHU Wenjun, LI Quanyang
2021, 42(5):  137-144.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200229-328
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In order to validate the anti-aging effect of Bama longevity characteristic dietary patterns, 3-month-old young mice and 15-month-old naturally aging mice were used in this study. According to our previous study results, the characteristic nutrients in the Bama longevity diet (dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, soybean isoflavone, lycopene, iron, manganese, cobalt and selenium) were selected as regulatory factors to develop two optimized characteristic dietary patterns (I and II) of Bama longevity by adding probiotics. Mice were fed on either diet for 8 weeks. Morris water maze test was used to evaluate the learning and memory capacity of mice, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain tissue were determined. Finally, the morphological characteristics of brain hippocampal tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The results showed that the escape latency of aging mice with the two dietary patterns decreased significantly when compared with the aging control mice (P < 0.05), and that the residence time in the target quadrant of aging male mice with optimized dietary pattern II significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the young control group, the number of times crossing the platform of young female mice with optimized dietary pattern I was increased significantly (P < 0.05), and the travel distance in the target quadrant of young male mice with either dietary pattern significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in brain tissue were significantly increased in young mice with optimized dietary pattern I and aging mice with the two optimized dietary patterns (P < 0.05), and the content of MDA in the latter two groups decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the aging control group, the degeneration, necrosis and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in aging mice were effectively alleviated by the two dietary patterns. The results showed that the two optimized longevity dietary patterns could effectively improve the learning and memory capacity and exert an anti-aging effect in young and naturally aging mice, especially in the latter group, with pattern I being more effective. Therefore, the two dietary patterns can guide health management for longevity and provide a reference for further studies.
Effects of Plasmenylethonoamine and Plasmanylcholine from Cucumaria frondosa on Promoting Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neuronal Differentiation of PC12 cells
LI Yiyang, DING Yi, WANG Xiaoxu, WANG Xincen, WANG Rui, CONG Peixu, XU Jie, XUE Changhu
2021, 42(5):  145-151.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200307-102
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The objective of this study was to investigate the neurotrophic effects of plasmenylethonoamine (pPE) and plasmanylcholine (aPC) from Cucumaria frondosa on the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. We extracted and purified pPE and aPC by column chromatography and their purity were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The effects of pPE and aPC on the survival and differentiation of PC12 cells were analyzed by morphological examination, and changes in the length and number of neurites were statistically analyzed. Furthermore, the expression of synaptophysin and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) in differentiating PC12 cells were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunofluorescence to evaluate the effects of pPE and aPC on the growth and differentiation of synapses in PC12 cells. Results showed that the purities of pPE and aPC were 91.0% and 89.1%, respectively, and both phospholipids, with different structures, could significantly improve the differentiation of PC12 cells (P < 0.05) and promote the growth of neurites by promoting the expression of synaptophysin and GAP-43. The effect of pPE was better than that of aPC. In conclusion, pPE and aPC could significantly promote the differentiation and synaptic growth of PC12 cells in a concentration-dependent and structure-specific manner, but the exact underlying mechanism still needs further study.
Intervention Effect of Two Lactobacillus Strains on Obesity in Mice
WANG Miao, ZHANG Baojie, WEN Jiajia, HU Jielun, NIE Shaoping, XIE Mingyong
2021, 42(5):  152-159.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200105-046
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Purpose: To study the intervention effect of two Lactobacillus strains on obesity induced by a high-fat diet in mice. Methods: Totally 72 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal diet, high-fat diet, high-fat diet plus low-dose Lactobacillus casei NCU011054, high-fat diet plus high-dose Lactobacillus casei NCU011054, high-fat diet plus low-dose Lactobacillus acidophilus NCU433, and high-fat diet plus high-dose Lactobacillus acidophilus NCU433 groups. The mice were weighed weekly, and sacrificed at the end of the nine-week experimental period. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), Lee’s index and visceral organ indexes were measured, and serum biochemical indicators, serum leptin and adiponectin (ADPN) levels were determined. Oxidative stress indicators, cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents in liver and short chain fatty acid content in mice feces were measured, and the morphology and differentiation of adipose tissue were examined. Results: Both Lactobacillus strains not only significantly reduced the body mass gain, Lee’s index and FBG level of obese mice as well as the levels of TC, TG, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the serum (P < 0.05), but also significantly elevated serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and ADPN levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, Lactobacillus treatment suppressed the differentiation of adipocytes and ameliorated lipid metabolism disorders in the liver of obese mice. Conclusion: Both Lactobacillus strains effectively regulate lipid metabolism in obese mice.
Antioxidant Activity of Eucalyptus Leaf Polyphenol Extract in Vitro and in Vivo
LI Wei, YE Jiayi, CHEN Yunjiao, CAO Yong
2021, 42(5):  160-168.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200130-289
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Eucalyptus leaves are valued as an enormous resource with various biological activities, but rare information is available concerning systematical evaluation of the antioxidant activity of eucalyptus leaf polyphenol extract. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of purified eucalyptus leaf polyphenol extract (PEPE) in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated?through the determination of free radial scavenging capacity and total reducing power by chemical assays. The in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed using RAW264.7 cells and Caenorhabditis elegans. Results showed that PEPE had potent free radical scavenging capacity and reducing power, which was equivalent to the effect of ascorbic acid at a certain concentration. PEPE treatment significantly dose-dependently increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione content in RAW264.7 cells with oxidative injury and reduced malondialdehyde content (P < 0.05). In addition, PEPE suppressed reactive oxygen species accumulation in the nematodes under normal and oxidative damage conditions (P < 0.05), enhanced their antioxidant capacity and prolonged their lifespan. In conclusion, PEPE has a strong antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro, and thus possesses the potential to be developed as food antioxidants or an ingredient in functional foods.
Characterization of Carbon Quantum Dots from Boiled Scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) and Its Combined Toxicity with Cadmium
WANG Qinghong, TAN Mingqian, QI Zihe, WANG Haitao
2021, 42(5):  169-176.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200226-290
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Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) formed during food processing may cause potential health risks. In this study, CQDs from boiled scallop were characterized systematically. The CQDs were roughly spherical in appearance and well dispersed as observed in transmission electron microscopic images. The average diameter of the CQDs was around 3.7 nm. The presence of hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl groups on the CQDs surface was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The interaction of the CQDs with cadmium was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and the results revealed electrostatic interaction to be the predominant driving force for the binding between cadmium and the CQDs. In addition, the combined toxicity of the CQDs and cadmium was investigated. The results suggested combination with the CQDs increased the toxicity of cadmium by enhancing reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane damage, disturbing the cell cycle. This study provides useful information for understanding the properties of foodborne nanoparticles.
Ameliorative Effect of Perilla Seed Peptide on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Sexual Function Impairment of Rats
LI Mingliang, JIANG Sheng, GUO Ying, CHEN Liang, WANG Yuchen, CAI Muyi, GU Ruizeng, WEI Ying
2021, 42(5):  177-186.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200311-180
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Purpose: To study the ameliorative effect of Perilla seed peptide on cyclophosphamide-induced sexual function impairment in rats. Methods: Eighty specific pathogen-free (SPF) 6-week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into eight groups of ten rats each. All animals except those in the control group were injected with 20 mg/(kg mb · d) of cyclophosphamide, and then treated with perilla seed protein or peptide at various concentrations by gavage. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining were used to evaluate the levels of cytokines, proteins and hormones in the serum of rats, gene expression in the testis, and pathological changes of testis and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in testis and kidney were determined, and testis, kidney and immune organ indexes were also measured. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of serum testosterone, free testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in rats in the model group were significantly decreased, the expression of relevant genes and SOD activity were significantly reduced, and MDA content was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Both Perilla seed peptide and protein could improve the above parameters at various degrees. Perilla seed peptide had more significant effects on testicular and renal oxidative stress and serum hormone levels (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Perilla seed peptide can effectively ameliorate cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive damage and consequently improve sexual function in rats and increase the serum levels of IL-2, IFN-γ and IgG as well as immune organ indices.
Intervention Effect of L-Theanine on Behavioral Changes Induced by High Protein Diet in Rats
SONG Yuxin, GONG Zhihua, ZHANG Jiao, HE Lin, LI Lanlan, CHEN Meiyan, ZHANG Yangling, QU Qingyun, XIAO Wenjun
2021, 42(5):  187-192.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200101-005
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A high-protein diet readily leads to anxiety and depression, and autonomous behaviors are an important avenue to judge anxiety and depression. In this study, we investigated the intervention effect of different doses of L-theanine (100, 200 and 400 mg/(kg mb·d)) (intragastric administration for 40 days) on behavioral changes in SD rats (SPF grade, male, 6 weeks old) fed five experimental diets with different protein-to-energy (P:E) ratios of 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% through open field and light/dark box tests and physiological and biochemical characterization, in order to provide a scientific basis for multi-nutritional intervention in high-protein diet fed animals and in-depth utilization of L-theanine. The results showed that the feed intake and body mass of rats in the 50% P:E ratio group were significantly reduced when compared with the ordinary diet group with 20% P:E ratio (P < 0.05). The residence time in the light box was significantly shortened (P < 0.05), and the number of times of entering the light box was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The contents of dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and norepinephrine were decreased but not statistically significantly, suggesting that high dietary protein levels can induce depressive behaviors in rats. Low-dose L-theanine treatment significantly increased the body mass of rats in the high-protein diet group, and prolonged the residence time in the light box (P < 0.05). Low- and medium-dose L-theanine intervention significantly increased the number of crossing and rearing in the open field test, the number of times of entering the light box, and serum norepinephrine and dopamine levels (P < 0.05), and low-dose L-theanine intervention significantly increased the concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the serum of rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, L-theanine can improve the autonomic behavior of SD rats with anxiety or depression caused by high-protein diet through a mechanism related to the metabolism of monoamine transmitters.
Antioxidant Effect of Passion Fruit Peel and Its Effect on Inhibiting Glucose Absorption in Vitro and Regulating Intestinal Microflora Structure in Hyperglycemic Rats
CHONG Fengting, HUANG Zizhen, TENG Jianwen, WEI Baoyao, HUANG Li, XIA Ning
2021, 42(5):  193-200.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200226-288
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Passion fruit peel powder (PFP), ethanol extract (PFPE) and residue (PFPR) from passion fruit peel, and soluble (PFSF) and insoluble dietary fiber (PFIF) from passion fruit peel were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory effect on glucose absorption, antioxidant activity and regulatory effect on intestinal microflora structure in hyperglycemic rats. The results showed that PFPE had an obvious scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation radicals, and showed a strong inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.89, 32.25, 6.23 and 28.65 mg/mL, respectively. The composition analysis revealed that total phenols and flavonoids were the main components responsible for the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of PFPE. Passion fruit peel dietary fiber, especially PFSF, made a major contribution to delayed glucose absorption. All tested samples could be utilized by the intestinal microflora of hyperglycemic rats to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and they could enrich Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to different degrees, and inhibit Enterococcus and Bacteroidetes, with PFSF being the most effective in regulating intestinal microflora structure in hyperglycemic rats.
In Vivo Antioxidant Activity and Hypolipidemic Effect of Capsanthin and Capsaicin
FAN Sanhong, WANG Jiaojiao, LI Jiani, BAI Baoqing
2021, 42(5):  201-207.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200108-101
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Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of capsanthin and capsaicin extracted from hot peppers in hyperlipidemic mice. Methods: Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 28 days to induce hyperlipemia. During this period, the mice were administered orally with either capsanthin or capsaicin at different doses. To evaluate the antioxidant effect, the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver homogenate were determined. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect. Results: Compared with the hyperlipidemia model group, the body mass of mice in the capsanthin and capsaicin treatment groups decreased significantly (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05); the activities of GSH-Px, SOD and CAT significantly increased and the MDA content decreased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Moreover, serum TG, TC and LDL-C levels in the capsanthin and capsaicin treatment groups were lower than those in the hyperlipidemia model group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), while the reverse was observed for serum HDL-C levels (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Conclusion: Capsanthin and capsaicin have antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects in vivo.
Antagonistic Effect of Quercetin against Oxidative Pancreatic Injury in Diabetic Rats via Nrf2 Pathway
LI Yang, SU Yanyu, LI Guohao, LI Qi, WANG Yuxiang, DING Yusong
2021, 42(5):  208-214.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200223-260
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Objective: To investigate whether quercetin antagonizes oxidative pancreatic damage in diabetic rats through the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Methods: Forty-eight specific pathogen-free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected for this study. Ten animals were randomly assigned to the control group and the remaining 38 rats were used to establish a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by feeding a high-fat diet and simultaneously injecting streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 30 mg/kg mb. Random blood glucose no lower than 16.7 mmol/L was used as a criterion to confirm successful model establishment in 30 rats. According to glucose levels, the rats with T2DM were randomly divided into three equal groups (n = 10): model, and low- and high-dose quercetin intervention. After continuous gavage for 12 weeks, the degree of oxidative damage and antioxidant indicators in pancreatic homogenate were evaluated. The protein and mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and NADP(H):quinone oxido-reductase 1 (NQO1) were measured by Western Blot and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Quercetin at both low and high doses could significantly reduce blood glucose levels and pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content in T2DM rats (P < 0.05), alleviate insulin resistance, increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD (P < 0.05), and up-regulate the protein and mRNA expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Quercetin may play a role in preventing and treating diabetes by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway in pancreatic tissue and up-regulating the expression of downstream antioxidant enzymes to reduce oxidative damage, improve insulin resistance and regulate blood glucose levels.
Packaging & Storage
Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Ozone on the Black Spot Disease of Apricot Fruit
LI Ling, LI Zhi, SHI Ling, LI Yaling, HE Huan, ZHANG Yalin, LU Yujia, ZHU Xuan
2021, 42(5):  215-220.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200304-057
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In order to study the effect of ozone on controlling the postharvest black spot disease of apricot fruit, freshly harvested ‘Saimaiti’ apricot fruit grown in Xinjiang, China were artificially wounded, inoculated with Alternaria alternate, fumigated with 200 mg/m3 of ozone for 30 minutes, and stored at 1–2 ℃ and 90%–95% relative humidity for 49 days. During this period, fumigation was repeated once every seven days for 42 days. The lesion diameter and disease incidence of apricot fruit inoculated with A. alternata, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamic acid-4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumaric acid CoA ligase (4CL), β-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHT), and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured regularly. The results showed that ozone treatment increased the activities of PAL, C4H, 4CL, GLU and CHT and the contents of total flavonoids and total phenolics in apricot fruit. Besides, ozone treatment significantly inhibited lesion expansion and the increase in the incidence of black spot disease (P < 0.05), and improved the disease resistance of apricot fruit by a mechanism closely related to the regulation of phenylpropane metabolism.
Characteristics of Chitosan/Vanillin/Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Electrospun Nanofiber Film and Its Application in the Preservation of Turbot
MEI Jialin, LIU Quanwei, LI Tingting, LI Jianrong, MOU Weili, GUO Xiaohua
2021, 42(5):  221-227.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200308-129
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In this study, chitosan, vanillin and polyvinyl alcohol were used as raw materials to prepare chitosan/vanillin/polyvinyl alcohol (CS/V/PVA) composite electrospun nanofiber film by uniaxial electrospinning. The morphology and structure of CS/V/PVA were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TG). The antibacterial activity was determined against Shewanella putrefaciens, the dominant spoilage bacterium in turbot. In addition, the application of CS/V/PVA composite electrospun nanofiber film was evaluated to the preservation of turbot. The results showed that CS/V/PVA composite electrospun nanofiber film had a good microstructure, and the fiber diameter was evenly distributed between 200 and 350 nm. A strong interaction between the components of the nanofiber film was observed. The aldehyde group in the vanillin molecule could react with the amino group in chitosan to form Schiff base bonds, and hydrogen bonds were formed between the chitosan, vanillin and polyvinyl alcohol molecules, reducing the initial melting temperature of the film. In addition, the co-spinning membrane had a strong antibacterial ability against Shewanella putrefaciens, and at 4 ℃ it could prolong the shelf life of turbot at 4 ℃.
Effect of Eugenol Anesthesia on Waterless Live Transportation of Micropterus salmoides
WANG Caixia, BAI Chan, XIONG Guangquan, WANG Juguang, LI Ning, ZU Xiaoyan, LI Hailan, LIAO Tao
2021, 42(5):  228-236.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191018-178
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The eugenol anesthesia-assisted waterless live transportation of Micropterus salmoides was simulated and optimized with respect to eugenol concentration, anesthesia temperature and temperature during transportation, and the changes in blood biochemical indexes and muscle quality of fish with transportation time were studied under the optimized conditions. The results showed that the concentration of cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and urea nitrogen in the serum of fish subjected to waterless live transportation increased significantly compared with the control group living in the culture pond (P < 0.05), and increased with transportation time. On the other hand, the activity of gill Na+/K+-ATPase and the content of albumin and lysozyme activity in serum decreased significantly with transportation time (P < 0.05). All these blood indexes could basically recover to the normal levels after temporary culture resuscitation for a certain period of time, indicating that organ damage in Micropterus salmoides occurring during waterless transportation could be self-repaired. The results of muscle quality evaluation showed that transformation of bound to immobile water occurred with increasing transportation time, leading to loose texture and quality deterioration, which could return to normal after temporary culture resuscitation for a certain period of time. Eugenol could be enriched in Micropterus salmoides bathed in it, and eugenol in the muscle could be metabolized to below the maximum residue limit (0.05 mg/kg) set by Japan after temporary culture for 2 days. Therefore, eugenol anesthesia is useful for short-term waterless live transportation. After waterless transportation, the muscle quality of fish declines, but it can recover to normal after temporary culture for a short time. It is recommended that after waterless transportation fish need to be temporarily cultured for two days before being marketed.
Effects of Different Packaging Methods on Microbial Community and Quality Properties of Starch-Meat Sausages with High Moisture Content
LI Qixuan, CHEN Qian, WANG Hao, KONG Baohua
2021, 42(5):  237-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200309-142
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In order to study the effects of different packaging methods on the microbial community and quality properties of starch-meat sausages with high moisture content,?the quality change of tray-packaged (TP) and vacuum-packaged (VP) sausages was measured during storage at (20 ± 1) ℃ and 60% relative humidity. The results revealed that moisture content and moisture activity were determined to be 70.30 g/100 g and 0.984 before storage (day 0), respectively, and somewhat decreased during storage. The microbial growth rate in VP samples was significantly slower than that in TP samples during storage. Total bacterial counts were 4.55 and 4.67 (lg (CFU/g)) in TP and VP samples after 4 and 6 days of storage, respectively, which were close to the maximum limit of the national standard, 5.00 (lg(CFU/g)), and the samples became seriously spoiled after 8 and 12 days, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that the main spoilage bacteria in TP samples were Bacillus velezensis, while those in VP samples were Weissella viridescens and Lactobacillus sakei. The pH of TP samples significantly decreased first and then increased significantly (P < 0.05), while the pH of VP samples continuously decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with the extension of storage time. The results of electronic nose analysis showed that spoiled TP samples had obvious odors like nitrogen oxides and sulfides whereas spoiled VP samples had obvious sour odor. In sensory evaluation, VP samples scored significantly higher than did TP samples at the same storage period. In conclusion, compared with tray packaging, vacuum packaging is more conducive to the quality maintenance of starch-meat sausages during storage and consequently shelf life extension.
Preparation of Auricularia auricular Polysaccharide/Chitosan Edible Composite Film and Its Preservative Effect on Fresh Beef
QIN Dandan, WU Qiong, BAI Yang, CAO Huixin, LIU Menglin
2021, 42(5):  246-251.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200312-195
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Auricularia auricular polysaccharide (AAP) and chitosan (CS) were used as raw materials for preparing an edible composite film with good preservative effect. The impact of different AAP contents on the physicochemical properties, structure, antioxidation of AAP/CS composite films was studied as well as the influence on the preservative effect of AAP/CS composite films on fresh beef during 10 days of storage at 4 ℃. The results showed that the addition of AAP could increase the thickness, density, solubility, swelling degree, tensile strength and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, and reduce the water vapor transmission rate and transparency of the AAP/CS composite film. From the Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the AAP/CS composite film, it was tentatively deduced that there was an interaction between AAP and CS in the mixed solution. Compared to polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene (PET/PE) vacuum packaging and CS film packaging, the sensory score and pH of AAP/CS packaged beef meat samples were increased, and the total number of colonies and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value were decreased. Therefore, the AAP/CS edible composite film holds promise for food preservation.
Effect of Controlled Atmosphere Storage on Changes in Quality, Taste and Volatile Compounds of Fresh-Cut Cucumber Caused by Spoilage Bacteria
ZHENG Yanyan, WEI Yabo, WANG Yubin, MA Yue, LIANG Hao, ZHANG Jian, TONG Junmao, ZHAO Xiaoyan
2021, 42(5):  252-261.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200220-212
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The effects of controlled atmosphere packaging with 3% O2 and 7% CO2 on changes in the nutritional quality, taste and volatile compounds of fresh-cut cucumber caused by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida were studied by electronic tongue, electronic nose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the growth of Pseudomonas plecoglossicida decreased the nutritional quality of fresh-cut cucumbers, and controlled atmosphere storage inhibited the respiration rate, delayed the increase in malondialdehyde content and relative conductivity, and maintained the soluble solid content, color and firmness of fresh-cut cucumbers. The results of electronic tongue showed that Pseudomonas plecoglossicida had the most significant effect on the umami and umami richness of fresh-cut cucumbers, and controlled atmosphere storage inhibited the changes in tastes caused by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida. There were significant differences in volatile substances among fresh-cut cucumbers with different treatments. Compared with the control group inoculated with Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and packaged in air, controlled atmosphere packaging delayed the decrease in the characteristic aroma components of hexanal, (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal and (Z)-6-nonenal caused by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, and inhibited the generation of spoilage metabolites like 2,3-dimethyloctane, 6-methyl-3-heptanone, 2-propylfuran and dipropyl disulfide. This study provides a theoretical basis for research on the nutritional and flavor changes of fresh-cut cucumbers caused by microbial spoilage.
Reviews
Effects of Phytochemicals from Spices on Quality Attributes and Health Benefits of Meat Products: A Review
LI Yunlong, ZHAO Yueliang, FAN Daming, WANG Mingfu
2021, 42(5):  262-270.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200409-118
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Spices are widely used in the processing of meat products and have been widely recognized for their ability to improve the flavor, inhibit the microbial spoilage and extend the shelf life of foods. Spices contain varieties of phytochemicals, which may react with nutrients and flavor components in meat products during processing and storage, improving the nutritional quality and flavor characteristics. Meanwhile, phytochemicals in most spices have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which can improve the health benefits of meat products. In the present study, the effects of phytochemicals from spices on the nutritional, sensory and microbial quality, protein and fat oxidation and health benefits of meat products during processing and storage are summarized. We believe that this review will provide a reference for researchers to explore the application of phytochemicals from spices in foods and their mechanism of action.
Recent Advances in Research on the Cardioprotective Effect of Resveratrol on Doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity
WU Wenying, LI Wenjuan, LI Lu, YIN Shuhua, ZHAO Wenhui, YAO Yufei
2021, 42(5):  271-277.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200115-186
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Recently, naturally bioactive components have been increasingly favored by consumers due to their health benefits. In modern society, selection of naturally bioactive components especially food-borne bioactive ingredients, which are beneficial for one or more human body functions and closely related to many physiological functions essential to maintain life, for nutritional health care and health management has become a trend. Cardiac injury is a common toxic-side effect of the antitumor agent doxorubicin (DOX), and the underlying mechanism is complicated, limiting the clinical application of DOX. Fortunately, resveratrol, widely present in plants, such as peanut, grape, knotweed and mulberry, has potent cardioprotective effects. Moreover, resveratrol can prevent DOX from exerting its cardiotoxicity when they are applied together. Herein, recent advances in the cardioprotective effect of resveratrol against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity are reviewed, which will provide reference for the prevention and attenuation of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
Research and Analysis of Food Big Data Technology Based on Bibliometrics
LUO Jingyang, LU Baiyi
2021, 42(5):  278-287.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200408-095
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Food big data technology is one of the research hotspots in the field of food science and engineering, which has great potential in many fields like food safety management, food intelligent manufacturing, and dietary nutrition and health. Based on the papers collected from the Web of Science core collection database and the patents collected from the Derwent Innovations Index database, this paper presents a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the current status, hotspots and future directions of research on food big data technology, as well as the comprehensive academic influence of and cooperative relationship among different countries. The results showed that remarkable achievements have been made in the application of food big data technology in the field of food safety management, which has provided a strong boost for full-chain food safety information monitoring, risk early warning, quality traceability, and so on. The application of the technology is faced with great difficulties and obstacles in the field of intelligent food manufacturing, but it shows great potential in 3D printed food research. The application in the field of dietary nutrition and health has slowly progressed and is currently still at a low level and far away from the realization of intelligent nutrition management and health intervention. While Chinese researchers have published a large number of papers concerning food big data technology, China still lags behind developed European and American countries in academic influence and cooperative relationship network. Therefore, it is urgent for the country to strengthen efforts to independently develop key technologies, as well as domestic and international cooperation and exchanges, so as to lay the foundation for the digital great-leap-forward development of China’s food industry.
Recent Progress in the Preservation Mechanism of Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Its Application in the Preservation of Aquatic Products
ZHONG Qiang, DONG Chunhui, HUANG Zhibo, BAO Luying, XIA Xiufang
2021, 42(5):  288-295.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200410-135
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Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is a new green and promising technology for food preservation with the advantages of high safety, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, efficient preservation and low cost. AEW is characterized by low pH, high redox potential and a considerable concentration of available chlorine. AEW represents a new alternative to the traditional preservation method for aquatic products, and has been successfully used in the sterilization and inactivation of enzymes in aquatic products. In addition, AEW can work synergistically with other sterilization technologies yielding improved preservation effect. This article summarizes the mechanism of action of AEW as a preservative, and reviews the latest advances in its application in aquatic products. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of future prospects, with a view to providing a theoretical guidance for the application of AEW in the preservation of aquatic products.
Recent Progress in Understanding the Formation and Regulation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Biofilm and Its Application in Foods
ZHU Hanjian, LI Leibing, ZHENG Xin, LI Qin, MU Yang, XU Ning, HU Yong, WU Qian, LIU Zhijie, LI Wei, WANG Chao, ZHOU Mengzhou
2021, 42(5):  296-304.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200309-136
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The biofilm represents a state in which lactic acid bacteria gather in order to cope with adverse environment. In many cases, lactic acid bacteria exist in the form of biofilm. Hence, it is necessary to deeply understand and study lactic acid bacteria biofilm. This article reviews the formation of lactic acid bacteria biofilms, the effects of carbon sources, metal ions, pH, antibiotics, harmful bacteria, and abiotic surfaces on lactic acid bacteria biofilms and the various genes regulating lactic acid bacteria biofilms, and it summarizes the application of lactic acid bacteria biofilm in food preservation and fermentation, hoping to provide a reference for studies on the formation and regulation of lactic acid bacteria biofilm and its application in the food industry in the future.
Interactions between Plant Polyphenols and Intestinal Microbiota and Their Effects on Metabolic Diseases
ZHAO Mei, CHANG Ling, SONG Zehe, HE Xi
2021, 42(5):  305-313.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200228-326
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The intestinal microbiota is involved in the development of metabolic syndromes including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, central obesity and hypertension, which can progress into metabolic diseases. Plant polyphenols can promote the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria and indirectly reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota can metabolize high-molecular-mass plant polyphenols into metabolites with stronger bioactivity, improving their bioavailability. The interaction between plant polyphenols and the intestinal microbiota and their effects on metabolic diseases are reviewed in this paper, which will provide a reference for the utilization of plant polyphenols.
Recent Progress in Measurement Uncertainty and Its Application in Food Inspection and Detection
ZHAI Hongwen, FAN Sufang, WANG Juan, CAO Meirong, MA Junmei, REN Xiaowei, LI Qiang, ZHANG Yan
2021, 42(5):  314-320.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200226-287
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In the field of food safety inspection, researchers should fully consider the impact of measurement uncertainty to ensure the accuracy of the results. This article reviews the progress in research on measurement uncertainty in the past five years, and summarizes the definition, classification and evaluation procedures of measurement uncertainty. Moreover, this article systematically describes measurement uncertainty in food inspection and detection with respect to the sources, the major factors influencing it, and the methods for its evaluation, and it outlines the application of measurement uncertainty in practice. We expect that this review will provide a reference for the exploration of measurement uncertainty in food inspection.
Recent Progress in the Classification and Toxic Mechanism of Marine Biotoxins and Technologies for Their Detection
CHEN Qiaoli, YANG Bing, HONG Qingyue, WEI Xunyu, FANG Chuchu, KAN Jianquan
2021, 42(5):  321-331.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200326-380
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In recent years, food poisoning incidents caused by marine biotoxins have increasingly occurred, posing a great threat to human beings and the society. Marine biotoxins, mainly produced by algae, phytoplankton or microorganisms, can exist in marine organisms such as shellfish and fish for a long period of time, which have heat resistance and cannot be inactivated by conventional processing methods such as heating and microwave. After entering the human body through the food chain, marine biotoxins cause toxic side effects on the liver, cells, and the cardiovascular and nervous systems and consequently human poisoning. The classification and toxic mechanism of marine biotoxins and the technologies for their detection are reviewed in this paper, which will provide a reference for preventing marine biotoxins from causing harm to human health.
Recent Progress of Sensors Based on Dopamine and Its Derivatives in Food Safety Rapid Detection
LIU Na, CAO Qiang, XIAO Yushi, HUANG Rong, CHENG Lei, LIU Huan, HAN Gang, LI Jincheng, LI Menglong, WU Lidong
2021, 42(5):  332-339.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200310-164
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The food safety problem concerns the national economy and people’s livelihood. Developing rapid detection technologies is of great significance to realize the food safety strategy. Sensors based on polydopamine or its composite nanomaterials have the advantages of good stability, low limit of detection and high sensitivity in food safety rapid detection. Furthermore, polydopamine and its composite nanomaterials can be synthesized through a simple and environmentally friendly process. Thanks to these merits, the application of polydopamine and its nanocomposites in the fields of food safety evaluation, environmental monitoring, and biological analysis attracts much attention from researchers. This paper reviews the design and application of optical and electrochemical sensors based on dopamine and its derivatives and points out their advantages. Finally, we conclude this review with a discussion on the problems concerning the application of dopamine and its derivatives in food safety rapid detection as well as an outlook on future prospects. This review is expected to provide reference for the promotion and application of new technologies for food safety rapid detection.
Recent Progress in Research on Hyperuricemia and Uric Acid-Lowering Peptides
LUO Xianliang, LIU Tao, QIAN Zhongying, FENG Fengqin
2021, 42(5):  340-348.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200221-232
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The enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins can produce uric acid-lowering peptides. Hyperuricemia can cause a series of metabolic syndromes such as gout, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and diabetes, seriously threatening human health. Numerous uric acid-lowering drugs have toxic and side effects clinically. Therefore, it is of practical significance to develop more safe and effective uric acid-lowering peptides. This article summarizes the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia, the methods commonly used to establish animal models of hyperuricemia, the structure-activity relationship between uric acid-lowering peptides and xanthine oxidase, and the current status of research on the in vivo activity of uric acid-lowering peptides. Finally, we conclude with an outlook on future research directions. This article aims to provide theoretical support for the development and research of uric acid-lowering peptides.
Recent Progress in Understanding the Bioactivity and Mechanism of Action of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide
XIE Wen, CHEN Huaguo, ZHAO Chao, GONG Xiaojian, ZHOU Xin
2021, 42(5):  349-359.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200212-118
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The fruit of Lycium barbarum is both a traditional Chinese medicinal material and dietary supplement, which contains various bioactive components, such as polysaccharides, flavonoids, alkaloids, pigments, and amino acids. A large number of studies showed that polysaccharides are the bioactive component with the highest extraction and utilization value in the fruit of Lycium barbarum due to its multiple biological functions such as anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, reproductive system-protecting, eye-protecting and immune-regulating effects. In this review, recent advances are systematically summarized in understanding the biological activities and mechanism of action of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). Furthermore, future research directions and potential applications are presented. We hope that this review will provide useful information for the development of LBP-based nutraceuticals and auxiliary drugs.