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15 February 2023, Volume 44 Issue 3
Microbial Protein
Microbial Production of Single Cell Proteins from Single Carbon Substrates: A Review
FU Xiaoying, QIAO Weibo, SHI Shuobo
2023, 44(3):  1-11.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220827-327
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With the continuous growth of the world population, the demand for high-protein foods such as meat and dairy products is increasing greatly, which brings great challenges to the supply of food proteins in China. Some microbes can utilize carbon dioxide, methane, methanol and other single carbon compounds to produce high-quality single cell proteins (SCP), which can be applied in the food industry. Establishing a green microbial system for the production of SCP is important to ensure the security of the food protein supply in China. In addition, microbial transformation of single carbon compounds to SCP can reduce carbon emissions, alleviate the greenhouse effect, and achieve sustainable development. In this article, we review the application of microbial SCP in the food industry and recent advances in the microbial production of SCP from single carbon compounds, and we describe the metabolic network mechanisms of microorganisms utilizing natural single carbon compounds and speculate on the prospects for the modification of these microorganisms. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for the use of synthetic biology to modify microorganisms to produce SCP from single carbon substrates. With this review, we hope to provide ideas for the commercial production of microbial SCP.
Progress in the Application of Mass Spectrometry for Quantitative Proteomics of Yeasts Used for Food Processing
HU Na, LI Jiawei, YAN Zhenzhen, CHEN Xiong, LI Xin
2023, 44(3):  12-21.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220815-172
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Protein is an essential participant in the life activities of all living things, and the accurate qualitative and quantitative studies of proteins will help to deepen the understanding of the laws of life. As a class of eukaryotic microorganisms widely used in basic research, food brewing, and industrial fermentation, the proteomics of yeasts used for food processing has continuously attracted the interest of many researchers, and the resulting findings will lead to their wider application in food processing. Based on the difference in the physicochemical properties and concentrations of different proteins in yeasts, mass spectrometry (MS) has been developed into one of the most effective proteome identification techniques. This paper summarizes the progress that has been made in the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomics analysis of yeast in the past five years, and discusses the “bottom-up” method for quantitative proteome analysis of yeast with a special focus on the latest achievements in yeast proteome extraction, identification, and analysis techniques. Furthermore, this review also summarizes future prospects for the application of yeast proteome quantitation techniques in the research of yeasts used for food processing.
Basic Research
Inhibitory Effects of Grapefruit Seed Extract and Its Nanoemulsion on Biofilm Formation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus
WANG Siqi, LIANG Xiaoyun, ZHANG Chen, ZHANG Wendong, CHENG Yu, MI Xiaoyu, ZHAO Wangchen, WANG Longfeng, JIANG Yun
2023, 44(3):  22-30.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220111-098
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Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effects of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) and its nanoemulsion (GNE) on biofilm formation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: The inhibitory effects of GSE and GNE on the formation of single and mixed-species biofilms were explored by analyzing the changes in the number of adherent cells and the content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) as well as microstructure observation, and the effectiveness of GSE and GNE in eliminating biofilms formed by E. coli and S. aureus was compared. Results: The number of adherent cells and EPS production during single-species biofilm formation were inhibited by GSE and GNE at 1/2 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and S. aureus was more strongly inhibited. The changes of biofilm microstructure observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) confirmed the inhibitory effect of GSE and GNE on biofilm formation by the two bacteria. GSE and GNE could also eliminate E. coli and S. aureus biofilms, and were more effective for S. aureus biofilm, but the resistance of the mixed-species biofilms was stronger than that of the single-species biofilms. GNE was more effective than GSE in inhibiting biofilm formation and eliminating biofilms. The amount of single-species biofilms formed by the two bacteria decreased by 0.6 (lg (CFU/cm2)) when treated with GNE at 1/2 MIC for 120 h compared with GSE, and the elimination rate of biofilms by 1.8% GNE increased by 7.7%–27.2% compared with GSE. Conclusion: GSE and GNE have inhibitory effect on on biofilm formation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This study can provide a scientific basis for the application of GSE and GNE in biofilm control.
Effects of Wheat Bran Varieties and Extraction Methods on the Structure and Antioxidant Activity of Arabinoxylan
ZHANG Xiumin, ZHOU Zengchao, QIAO Jinli, WANG Changlu, WANG Yuling, OU Xingqi, GUO Qingbin
2023, 44(3):  31-40.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220106-050
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Purpose: To compare the structure and antioxidant activity of arabinoxylan (AX) extracted from wheat bran of different varieties by different methods. Methods: AX was extracted from wheat bran from the cultivars ‘Bainong 207’, ‘Baihan 207’, ‘Guanmai 1’, ‘Huayu 198’ and ‘Huayu 166’ by alkali extraction, ultrasonic-assisted xylanase extraction or ultrasonic-assisted cellulase extraction, and its chemical composition, relative molecular mass, molecular structure, thermal stability and antioxidant activity were determined. Results: Among the three extraction methods, alkali extraction gave higher levels of AX yield and total sugar content, while enzymatic extraction retained polyphenols to a greater extent, which may contribute to the better antioxidant capacity of the AX-rich extract, but reduced the relative molecular mass of AX to a certain extent. The monosaccharide composition of enzymatically extracted AX was significantly different from that of alkali extracted AX, and the glycosidic linkage types in enzymatically extracted AX were more complex. Compared with ultrasonic-assisted cellulase extraction, higher AX yield and total sugar content were obtained using ultrasound-assisted xylanase, while the polyphenol content of AX obtained by ultrasound-assisted cellulase extraction was higher, and monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkage types were also different between AXs extracted by the two enzymatic methods. In addition, the relative molecular mass, the monosaccharide composition, and the types and proportions of glycosidic linkage of AX extracted from wheat bran of different varieties were different. Conclusion: The structure and activity of AX extracted from wheat bran by alkali extraction, ultrasonic-assisted xylanase extraction and ultrasonic-assisted cellulase extraction were obviously different. Compared with alkali extraction, AX obtained by enzymatic extraction had lower yield and molecular mass, but higher polyphenol content and better antioxidant performance. Compared with ultrasound-assisted cellulase extraction, AX obtained by ultrasound-assisted xylanase extraction had higher yield and total sugar content, but lower polyphenol content. The structure of wheat bran AX varied with different extraction methods and varieties.
Hygroscopic Mechanism of Blueberry Powder Based on Glass Transition Theory
CHU Wenjing, Sun yue, xiao liuliu, CHEN Andi, TAO Yani
2023, 44(3):  41-47.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220325-307
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Blueberry powder was made from two varieties of blueberries, ‘Jewelry’ and ‘Coast’, and the quality changes of blueberry powder before and after moisture sorption were studied. The hygroscopic isotherms of blueberry powder at different temperatures (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 ℃) were measured by static weighing method, and the state diagram was constructed. The thermodynamic characteristics of net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy, and enthalpy-entropy compensation in water sorption were discussed. The results showed that the quality of the two blueberry powders decreased after water sorption, and the powder particles became cohesive and the fluidity decreased. The water sorption isotherms of blueberry powder showed typical J-shaped curves, and the GAB model was the best model to describe the water sorption characteristics of blueberry powder. The state diagram showed that ‘Jewelry’ and ‘Coast’ blueberry powders had good stability when the moisture content based on dry basis was less than or equal to 0.104 5 and 0.107 7 g/g, respectively, and the storage temperature was less than or equal to –30.30 and –32.66 ℃, respectively. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory showed that the water sorption process of blueberry powder was entropy-driven and non-spontaneous. These results provide a theoretical basis for the selection of processing and storage conditions for blueberry powder.
Quality and Safety Traceability of Grains and Oils Based on Trusted Blockchain and Trusted Identity
XU Jiping, HAN Jiaqi, ZHANG Xin, WANG Xiaoyi, ZHAO Zhiyao, KONG Jianlei
2023, 44(3):  48-59.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220220-153
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The quality and safety of grains and oils concerns national stability and development, but there are currently many problems with the quality and safety of grains and oils, especially the fact that reliable and efficient data interconnection between heterogeneous systems cannot be guaranteed. Firstly, based on analysis of the characteristics of information flow in the grain and oil quality and safety chain, its architecture was constructed, and the key information in the typical links was classified. Then, based on the trusted blockchain and trusted identification, a trusted traceability model for the quality and safety of grains and oils was constructed, the block data structure, identification system coding rules, and storage mode were defined and reconstructed, and the concept and specific architectural scheme of chain network connector were innovatively proposed. Finally, a trusted traceability system for wheat quality and safety was developed based on the Hyperledger Fabric framework, verified and applied to case analysis. The results showed that the proposed model and system allowed information interconnection in the grain and oil quality and safety chain, and ensure the safety of cross-chain information interaction and the traceability of the whole process.
Evaluation of Palatability of Foxtail Millet Congee Based on Granular Structure of Foxtail Millet Starch
ZHANG Jiajia, SHEN Qun, YANG Yu, WANG Xianrui, ZHANG Fan, WANG Chao
2023, 44(3):  60-68.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220129-303
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This study aimed to explore the relationship between the granular structure of foxtail millet starch and the palatability of foxtail millet congee. The palatability and starch granular characteristics of congee from 10 cultivars of foxtail millet were analyzed and the effect of the latter on the former was evaluated by correlation analysis. A predictive model for the palatability of foxtail millet congee was proposed by stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that small granules accounted for a high percentage of foxtail millet starch together with a low percentage of tiny granules, and the Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volume of foxtail millet starch granules was small, resulting in low gelatinization conclusion temperature (Tc) and fast gelatinization rate and finally good palatability of congee. The amylose content, gel hardness and gelatinization temperature range of foxtail millet starch were significantly negatively correlated with the sensory score of foxtail millet congee (P < 0.01), while the gel viscosity, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, resilience and initial gelatinization temperature were all significantly positively correlated with the sensory score for palatability of foxtail millet congee (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The granular structure of foxtail millet starch indirectly affected the palatability of foxtail millet congee by affecting the key physicochemical properties. There was a significantly negative correlation between the proportion of small starch granules and Tc (P < 0.01) and gelatinization temperature range (P < 0.05). The proportion of medium starch granules had a significantly positive correlation with Tc (P < 0.01), and the proportion of large starch granules had a significantly positive correlation with the water-binding capacity of starch granules (P < 0.01). Finally, the predictive model for the palatability of foxtail millet porridge was developed using the gel cohesiveness, amylose content, proportion of tiny granules, gelatinization temperature range and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (SBET) of foxtail millet starch as independent variables, and the correlation coefficient between the predictive score and the sensory score was 0.998 (P < 0.01). The above results can provide a theoretical basis for the selection of foxtail millet suitable for cooking and processing in China.
Quality Analysis of Table Cauarium album L. Based on Fuzzy Mathematics Sensory Evaluation, Physicochemical Properties and Electronic Tongue
XIE Qian, LI Yiyi, ZHANG Shiyan, SHU yanping, WANG Wei, CHEN Qingxi
2023, 44(3):  69-78.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220315-168
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In order to comprehensively and objectively evaluate and analyze the quality of table Chinese olive (Cauarium album L.) fruits from different varieties (lines), a rapid method for the detection of the quality characteristics of table Chinese olive was established. In this study, the fruit quality of 10 different varieties (lines) of Chinese olive was evaluated by fuzzy mathematics sensory evaluation and multi-frequency pulsed electronic tongue and its correlation with physicochemical indicators was analyzed. On this basis, a quality prediction model of table Chinese olive was developed and evaluated in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and average relative error (δ). Sensory evaluation on a nine-point hedonic scale using the Delphi method showed that the total weight of sweetness and astringency were 76.9%, both of which were the major quality characteristics of table Chinese olive fruit. The correlation analysis indicated that phenol-to-sugar ratio was significantly correlated with aftertaste sweetness and astringency (P < 0.01). According to principal component analysis (PCA), the best electrode combination for multi-frequency pulse electronic tongue to distinguish the fruit quality of different varieties of Chinese olive was palladium (10 Hz) and titanium (10 Hz). Multiple stepwise regression was used to develop a model describing the relationship between sensory evaluation score or physicochemical indicators and electronic tongue signal eigenvalues. It was found that the physicochemical indicators could be effectively predicted from the electronic tongue signal eigenvalues and the prediction performance for phenol-to-sugar ratio (R2 = 0.832, δ = 10.89%) and soluble sugar content (R2 = 0.831, δ = 5.75%) was best, followed by total phenol content (R2 = 0.783, δ = 12.08%). The sensory evaluation score could be effectively predicted by the regression model based on phenol-to-sugar ratio or electronic tongue signal eigenvalues, and the predictive effect of the model based on phenol-to-sugar ratio was better than that of the one based on tongue signal eigenvalues. However, the R2 values of the two models were low, only 0.589 and 0.542, respectively. These results provide a reference for the rapid detection of Chinese olive quality characteristics and the selection of excellent varieties.
Evaluation of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Extract from Green Walnut Husks
LU Zhenkang, WU Qingzhi, ZHANG Jian, MAO Xiaoying
2023, 44(3):  79-87.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220320-236
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In this study, the total phenol and flavonoid contents of the ethanol extract of green walnut husks were determined as (21.71 ± 0.98) and (22.16 ± 0.45) mg/g, respectively. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nine major compounds in the extract were identified including quercitrin, avicularin, astragalin, hyperoside, isoquercetin, quercetin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and juglone. The extract had a protective effect against 2,2’-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide dihhydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative damage to biological macromolecules. The extract at 1 mg/mL had a significant protective effect against oxidative damage to bovine serum albumin (BSA), and at 0.5 mg/mL, it could protect plasmid DNA from oxidative damage. The extracts had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, which could increase the permeability of the bacterial cell membrane and destroy its integrity, thereby resulting in the leakage of intracellular nucleic acid and proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that the damage to cellular proteins could be another antibacterial mechanism of the extract. In addition, the extract inhibited the respiration of E. coli, and the percent increase in respiration rate with the extract alone compared to that with its combination with trisodium phosphate was the lowest. The extract significantly reduced the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Therefore, it can be inferred that the extract exerts an antibacterial effect mainly by participating in regulating the respiratory metabolism of the pentose phosphate pathway.
Risk Assessment Model for Pollutants in Edible Oils Based on Optimized Grey Relational Analysis Combined with Extreme Learning Machine
YU Jiabin, FAN Yiyun, WANG Xiaoyi, ZHAO Zhiyao, JIN Xuebo, BAI Yuting, WANG Li, CHEN Huimin
2023, 44(3):  88-97.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211218-207
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In recent years, edible oil safety problems have occurred frequently. In order to reduce the threat of such incidents, it is of great significance to research edible oil safety risk assessment models. Considering that high-dimensional, non-linear and discrete data containing noise are currently obtained from the detection of edible oils, and the existing risk assessment models have several problems such as poor noise suppression, inaccurate evaluation, and strong subjectivity in model parameter adjustment, a risk assessment model for pollutants in edible oils was proposed in this paper. First, risk indicators were selected and data were preprocessed and input into a filtering module based on the wavelet threshold method for filtering. Second, grey relational analysis (GRA) was used to calculate the weight of each risk index and develop a multi-index comprehensive risk label. Extreme learning machine (ELM) was adopted to predict the comprehensive risk value. Third, the practical Bayesian optimization (PBO) algorithm was used to optimize the parameters of filtering module and ELM network. Finally, the fuzzy comprehensive analysis was applied to classify the risk grade of the predicted comprehensive risk value. The application of the proposed model to 150 groups of edible oil data was described in detail. The coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of this model were 0.056 3 and 0.946 1, respectively, indicating its superiority and effectiveness. This study provides reasonable evidence for relevant departments to formulate risk control and sample inspection strategies and optimize the supply chain of edible oils.
Food Engineering
Effect of Ultrasound Pretreatment on the Structural Characteristics of Sea Cucumber Gonad Protein Hydrolysates
LI Haijing, WANG Song, LIU Hongyu, XIA Xiufang
2023, 44(3):  98-104.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220111-107
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The effects of different periods (0, 5, 15, 25 and 35 min) of ultrasound pretreatment at a power of 200 W on the structural characteristics of sea cucumber gonad protein hydrolysates prepared with neutral protease were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as determination of surface hydrophobicity and particle size distribution and microstructure observation. The results showed that the UV absorbance, β-sheet relative content, fluorescence intensity (FI), surface hydrophobicity and particle size of sea cucumber gonad protein hydrolysates initially increased and then decreased with ultrasound pretreatment time, while the opposite trend was observed for α-helix relative content. Ultrasound pretreatment for 15 min increased the UV absorbance, β-sheet relative content, FI and surface hydrophobicity of hydrolysates by 7.30%, 50.72%, 4.50% and 13.42%, respectively, and decreased the α-helix relative content by 9.98% (P < 0.05). Moreover, this treatment resulted in the smallest particle size and distribution range of hydrolysates as observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore, appropriate ultrasound pretreatment could promote the unfolding of sea cucumber gonad protein structure and reduce protein aggregation, and the effect of ultrasound pretreatment for 15 min was most pronounced.
Effect of Different Fixation Methods on the Quality of Citrus Flower Tea
YANG Hui, LI Yuren, WU Shenqun, CHEN Chunfeng, YANG Xiaoping
2023, 44(3):  105-111.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220108-059
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The effect of three fixation methods (steaming, microwave and blanching) on the sensory evaluation, chemical indicators, antioxidant activity and volatile components of citrus flower tea made from satsuma mandarin flowers was studied. The results showed that citrus flower tea prepared by microwave fixation for 60 s had better quality, which was uniform in shape and had a persistent strong floral aroma, and the tea infusion had a bright color and an intense citrus-like flavor, contained the highest contents of polyphenols, flavonoids and soluble sugar, and possessed the strongest ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The major aroma substances of citrus flower tea were alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes and esters, among which β-elemene, γ-terpinene and linalool were the major volatile components. The three fixation methods had obvious effects on the aroma components of citrus flower tea. Indole, bergamot alcohol and nonanal were the characteristic aroma substances of citrus flower tea made by microwave fixation compared to the other fixation methods. The results of this study can provide useful information for the comprehensive development of citrus flowers and tea.
Effect of Solid-State Osmotic Pretreatment on Emission Reduction, Resource Consumption and Product Quality in the Processing of Freeze-Dried Mango
ZHANG Fengjuan, TENG Jianwen, WEI Baoyao, HUANG Li, XIA Ning
2023, 44(3):  112-119.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220318-211
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Consumption and emission reduction has become an inevitable trend in the development the food processing industry. While liquid-state osmotic pretreatment can save energy effectively in freeze-dried fruit processing, there is still a need to explore the effect of solid-state osmotic pretreatment. The effects of solid- and liquid-state osmotic pretreatment on waste liquid, resource consumption and product quality in the processing of freeze-dried mango were compared in this study. Results showed that compared with liquid-state infiltration (sucrose concentration of 60%, and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:1; designated as L60), solid-state infiltration with sucrose concentration of 30% and 40% (designated as S30 and S40, respectively) significantly reduced the waste liquid discharge by 61.00% and 51.71%, the consumption of sucrose by 50.01% and 33.24%, and the total chemical oxygen demand of waste liquid by 60.13% and 41.83%, respectively. Compared with non-osmosed samples, the carbon emission of S30, S40 and L60 during processing was reduced by 10.59%, 12.21% and 8.80%, respectively. Compared with the liquid-state osmosis group, the solid-state osmosis group had lower nutrient retention (total phenolics and VC) during osmosis, but higher nutrient retention during lyophilization. After freeze-drying, the structure of the solid-state osmosis group was shrunk without collapse. In the trend of sustainable development, solid-state osmosis is superior to liquid-state osmosis in energy conservation and emission reduction, which is worthy of further research and exploration.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Molecular Mechanism by Which Sodium Chloride Stimulates Basophils to Produce Pro-inflammatory Factors
ZHONG Jinghua, WANG Zhongliang, WU Yong, GAO Jinyan, CHEN Hongbing
2023, 44(3):  120-126.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220212-072
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high salt conditions on basophil (KU812) degranulation and the expression of related cytokines and to preliminarily explore its molecular mechanism. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to measure the changes of bioactive mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines released by KU812 cells after degranulation under high salt conditions. The effects of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) inhibitor and p38 inhibitor on the production of interleukin (IL)-4 by KU812 cells were detected by qPCR. The results showed that high-salt conditions could not promote the degranulation of KU812 cells to rel ease bioactive mediators such as histamine and β-hexaminosidase (β-HEX), but instead enhance the production of pro-inflammatory factors such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. High-salt conditions could also promote the production of IL-4 by KU812 cells and led to high expression of the SGK1 gene. It was also found that both SGK1 inhibitor and p38 inhibitor could significantly inhibit the expression of SGK1 and IL-4 in KU812 cells under high salt conditions. These results indicated that high-salt conditions could promote the production of IL-4 by KU812 cells through the p38-SGK1 signaling pathway.
Effects of Polysaccharides from Rosa roxburghii Tratt Fruit on Ileal Mucosal Barrier Function in Mice with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver
ZHANG Pan, WANG Lei, CHEN Jie, XU Fei
2023, 44(3):  127-136.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220301-003
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of Rosa roxburghii Tratt fruit polysaccharides (RTFP) on ileal mucosal barrier dysfunction and intestinal inflammation in mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and the effect of RTFP on the intestinal flora. In this study, a mouse model of NAFLD was established by feeding mice with high fat diet (HFD), and was then intragastrically administered with RTFP for seven weeks. Results showed that RTFP significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in the ileum of NAFLD mice, and improved lipid metabolism disorders. Microscopic histopathological observations showed that RTFP could restore the structure of the ileum of NAFLD mice to normal, reduce the crypt lesion and protect the intestinal barrier. The changes in the fecal microbiota of mice in all tested groups were evaluated by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. It was found that RTFP could regulate the diversity and composition of the intestinal flora of NAFLD mice, significantly reduce the ratio between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, improve the abundance of beneficial flora and reduce the abundance of pathogenic flora. These results suggest that RTFP can be used as a prebiotic to regulate the intestinal flora, improve intestinal microecology, reduce intestinal barrier dysfunction and maintain normal intestinal function in NAFLD mice.
Protective Effect and Mechanism of Fucoidan on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice
YANG Jia, DANG Kai, XUE Meilan, LIANG Hui, ZHANG Nan, WANG Qing, PEI Zhongqian, QIN Yimin
2023, 44(3):  137-145.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220322-276
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Objective: To investigate the protective effect and potential molecular mechanism of fucoidan on alcoholic liver injury. Methods: A mouse model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) was established using 50% (V/V) alcohol, and then administered with 300 mg/kg mb of fucoidan. Liver histomorphological changes were compared in the control, ALD and fucoidan intervention groups, and the levels of serum aminotransferase, serum lipids, and inflammatory factors, the proportion of T helper (Th) cells including Th1, Th2 and Th17, and the expression levels of autophagy-related proteins and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (LC3B) were detected to explore the mechanism by which fucoidan can improve alcoholic liver injury. Results: Fucoidan could improve the pathological changes of liver tissue, reduce the levels of serum alanine (aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) and blood lipids (triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total bile acid (TBA)) (P < 0.05), and decrease the levels of serum inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and the proportion of Th1, Th2 and Th17 (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, it could down-regulate the expression of autophagy-related protein p62, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and ribosomal protein 70S6 kinase (p70S6K) (P < 0.05), promote the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) (P < 0.05), and up-regulate the expression of LC3B II protein and LC3B fluorescent protein (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Fucoidan can alleviate lipotoxicity and inflammatory injury in the liver of ALD mice, and its mechanism may be related to the activation of autophagy.
Comparison of Bioactivities of water extracts from five edible Mushrooms
Han Mingyue, Li Li, HAO Limin, WANG Xiaolong, JIANG Qingwu, LI Xue, Liu Keke, Liu Yongqi, YI Juanjuan, LU Jike
2023, 44(3):  146-154.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220414-162
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Objective: In order to provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of edible mushrooms, the antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-radiation activities of water extracts from five edible mushrooms, including Volvariella volvacea, Grifola frondosa, Russula vinosa Lindblad, Coprinus comatus and Ganoderma applanatum were studied and compared with each other. Methods: the contents of total sugar, crude polysaccharide, total protein, total phenols and total flavonoids in water extracts from the five edible mushrooms were determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method, the Coomassie brilliant blue method, the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the aluminium chloride method, respectively. their in vitro antioxidant activities were evaluated by 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation radical, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging and total reducing power assays. their proliferative activities on macrophage RAW264.7 cells were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. Their protective effects against 60Co γ irradiation-induced damage in mouse hepatocytes AML-12 were investigated in vitro. Results: Total sugar was the most abundant constituent in water extracts from Volvariella volvacea, Grifola frondosa, Russula vinosa Lindblad, Coprinus comatus and Ganoderma applanatum, accounting for (80.90 ± 1.20)%, (67.00 ± 2.48)%, (55.31 ± 0.55)%, (84.87 ± 7.31)% and (58.19 ± 1.50)% of the extracts, respectively. The crude polysaccharide content of water extract from Grifola frondosa was the highest, (61.28 ± 2.95)%. All the water extracts had good antioxidant activities, of which the water extract of Ganoderma applanatum had the best antioxidant activity. In addition, the water extracts at different concentrations (10–200 μg/mL) promoted the proliferation of RAW264.7 macrophages, and the effect of the water extract of Ganoderma applanatum at low concentrations was more significant. The decreased survival rate of AML-12 cells induced by 60Coγ radiation could be significantly improved by the water extract of Volvariella volvacea in the concentration range of 10–200 μg/mL. the water extract of Ganoderma applanatum had a significant protective effect against radiation-induced cell damage at low concentrations. Conclusion: The water extracts from the five edible mushrooms have different biological activities. Overall, the water extract from Ganoderma applanatum shows better antioxidant activity, immunomodulatory effect and anti-radiation activity, so it is worthy of further study.
Ameliorative Effect of Peptide AFYRW Derived from Tartary Buckwheat Protein on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Injury in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
XIAO Yi, ZUO Jie, DENG Yan, ZHANG Lilin, WANG Zhuting, MO Xiaochuan, XU Qingzhong, LI Hongmei
2023, 44(3):  155-161.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220302-025
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Objective: To investigate the ameliorative effect of peptide AFYRW derived from tartary buckwheat protein against LPS-induced vascular endothelial injury. Methods: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce vascular endothelial injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay was used to detect the effect of AFYRW on cell proliferation. Western blot was used to evaluate the protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65. An enzymatic assay was used to detect the changes in the content of nitric oxide (NO). Monocyte adhesion assay was used to detect the adhesiveness of HUVECs. Results: Peptide AFYRW significantly increased the survival activity of cells, decreased the relative protein expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS, reduced the content of NO, inhibited LPS-induced adhesion of human monocyte THP-1 cells to HUVECs and suppressed the activity of NF-κB. Conclusion: Peptide AFYRW can ameliorate LPS-induced inflammation in HUVECs, which may be related to the inhibition of NF-κB activity.
Correlation Analysis between Intestinal Microbiome and Metabolome of Mice Subchronically Exposed to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
ZHAO Huabing, YANG Chen, CHANG Huimin, SHI Tingting, ZHANG Bingjie, TAN Youlan, LI Fengzhu, WANG Hongbin, LU Fuping
2023, 44(3):  162-169.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220211-061
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The effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the intestinal microbiome and fecal metabolome in C57BL/6 mice were investigated and the correlation between the intestinal microbiome and fecal metabolome was analyzed. A control group and an experimental group were set up, which were orally administered with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and 100 (mg/kg mb·d) of TiO2 nanoparticles for 13 continuous weeks, respectively. Blood glucose and lipids were measured. Furthermore, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and gas chromatography-mass chromatography (GC-MS) were used to identified the significantly differential microorganisms and metabolites between the two groups. Our results showed that compared with the control group, fasting blood glucose was significantly increased in the experimental group (P = 0.032). The relative abundance of Firmicutes, Allobaculum, Lactobacillus, and Oscillospira was increased. The differential metabolites were associated with the glycerolipid, galactose and tryptophan metabolic pathways. Firmicutes bacteria were negatively correlated with the differential metabolites, while bacteria from other phyla were positively correlated with the differential metabolites. Therefore, we infer that the subchronic toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to mice may be associated with abnormal glycolipid metabolism in feces.
Alleviative Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis XLTG11 on Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea Induced by Clindamycin
MA Yan, WANG Zhongjiang, YANG Jingyu, LI Zhe, PENG Xia, SHAN Xiufeng, LI Bailiang, MA Weiwei
2023, 44(3):  170-178.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211118-232
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Objective: To investigate the relieving effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis XLTG11 on antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in mice using clindamycin-induced AAD model. Methods: Forty-eight 6-week-old C57BL/6N male mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model, low-dose and high-dose XLTG11. All mice except for the control group were administered with clindamycin orally daily for 14 days to induce AAD, The low-dose and high-dose groups were given 0.2 mL of the bacterial suspensions with viable count of 5 × 106 and 1 × 107 CFU, respectively. Body mass gain, cecum mass, fecal water content and fecal consistency score were measured. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and IL-10 in cecum tissue and the serum levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-lactic acid were determined. The gut microbiota composition and the fecal contents of short-chain fatty acids were detected. The expression levels of genes related to the intestinal barrier and the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) pathway were determined. Results: The high dose of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis XLTG11 significantly increased the body mass gain and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels (P < 0.05), and significantly decreased cecum mass, fecal water content, fecal consistency score and proinflammatory cytokine levels in the mouse model mice of AAD. Moreover, it significantly up-regulated the gene expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1 and MUC2, regulated the composition of the gut microbiota, evidently increased the fecal contents of acetate, propanoate, and butanoate, and significantly down-regulated the expression levels of genes related to the Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor (MYD88) and NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusion: Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis XLTG11 can effectively alleviate AAD symptoms in mice by regulating cytokines and the gut microbiota, increasing fecal short-chain fatty acid contents, increasing the expression levels of intestinal barrier related genes and inhibiting the activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB signaling pathway.
Packaging & Storage
Effect and Mechanism of CaCl2 Electrolyzed Water Treatment on Improving the Quality of Mung Bean Sprouts
ZHANG Xindan, LI Cui, XUE Wentong, LIU Haijie
2023, 44(3):  179-185.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220221-161
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Mung bean seed was soaked and germinated in CaCl2 electrolyzed water (CEW) in order to investigate the effect and mechanism of CEW on preserving the quality of mung bean sprouts. The results showed that after 5 days of storage, the mass loss percentage of mung bean sprouts treated with electrolyzed CaCl2 solution at a concentration of 25 mmol/L decreased, and the hardness and brittleness increased by approximately 1.28 times higher than compared with the control group treated with tap water. The bactericidal effect of CEW was obvious, reducing the microbial load on the surface of mung bean sprouts by nearly one lg (CFU/g). Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that the state of water in mung bean sprouts changed, and the bound water content increased. The relative conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and hydrogen peroxide content decreased by 16.5%, 27.5%, and 36.8%, respectively, the integrity of the cell membrane was maintained, and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was reduced, thus reducing the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation. In addition, the browning of mung bean sprouts during storage was inhibited by CEW treatment, and the mechanism could be related to the decrease in the content of total phenols as browning substrates and the decrease in the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POd) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL). Therefore, CEW treatment can delay the quality deterioration of mung bean sprouts during storage to a certain extent.
Effect of Ultrasound Treatment on the Storage Quality of Lyophyllum decastes
HU Yuxin, LIN Hailu, LIN Xiaotong, ZHANG Fangyi, CHEN Tianci, LIANG Jiachen, JIANG Yuji, CHEN Bingzhi
2023, 44(3):  186-193.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220323-286
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In order to explore the effect of ultrasound (US) treatment on the storage quality of Lyophyllum decastes, the sensory quality and energy metabolism-related enzyme activities of the fresh mushroom were measured after US treatment (at 35 kHz frequency and 300 W power) for 10 min. The results showed that US treatment could maintain a higher level of brightness (L* value) and higher contents of total protein (TP), ascorbic acid (AsA), and glutathione (GSH), and increase the activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), as well as significantly reduce the degree of browning compared to the untreated control group. The contents of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and oxidized?NADPH (NADP+) were higher in the US treatment group, and so was the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), H+K+-ATPase, Na+K+-ATPase, and Ca2+Mg2+-ATPase, indicating that US treatment could slow down the quality deterioration of L. decastes. Therefore, US can be used for the preservation of postharvest edible fungi.
Development and Application of Visual Freshness Indicator Film with High Stability Based on Acylated Anthocyanins
ZHANG Junjun, ZOU Xiaobo, SONG Wenjun, DU Liuzi, SHI Jiyong, HUANG Xiaowei, ZHANG Jianing, LI Zhihua, LIU Li
2023, 44(3):  194-200.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220302-042
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Roselle anthocyanins were acylated and acylated anthocyanins with higher thermal and light stability were obtained. Then, a smart indicator film was prepared using polyvinyl alcohol and β-cyclodextrin as film-forming substrates and acylated anthocyanins as an indicator. Its mechanical properties, color response sensitivity and stability were investigated. The tensile strength of polyvinyl alcohol/β-cyclodextrin/acylated roselle anthocyanin (PCRA) film was more than three times as high as that of polyvinyl alcohol/β-cyclodextrin/roselle anthocyanin (PCR) film, and the microstructure of the PCRA film was more compact. In addition, the water vapor transmittance of the PCRA film was 2.06 × 10-6 g/(m·h·Pa) and higher than that of the PCR film. The stability of the PCRA film was higher while the color response sensitivity was lower. Then, the PRCA film was applied as an indicator for monitoring beef freshness at 4 ℃. The total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content of beef increased to 16.81 mg/100 g on the sixth day of storage, indicating that the beef was spoiled. The color of the PCRA film changed from pink to yellow-green, which could effectively reflect the freshness of beef. Finally, we found a high correlation coefficient between the physicochemical information of beef and the color information of the indicator film, further confirming that the visual film can be applied to monitor beef freshness. The results of this study provide a basis for the development of intelligent food packaging in the future.
Effect of Sandwich-Type Konjac Glucan/Sodium Alginate/Konjac Glucan Composite Coatings on Protein Oxidation in Salmon Fillets
SONG Ying, WANG Yani, YANG Junyi, QIAO Yu, LI Qiuying, LI Yingchang, YANG Xu, LI Jianrong, SUN Tong
2023, 44(3):  201-208.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220316-190
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In order to expand the application of polysaccharide coatings in the preservation of aquatic products, sandwich-type composite coatings were prepared using konjac glucan (KGM) and sodium alginate (SA) as coating substrates and thymol (Thy) and ε-poly-L-lysine hydrochloride (ε-PL) as antimicrobial agents and their effects on protein oxidation in fresh salmon fillets were studied during storage at 4 ℃. The results showed that the solubility, sulfhydryl content and Ca2+-ATPase activity of myofibrillar protein in the composite coating treated fillets increased, and the carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity of myofibrillar protein (MP) decreased remarkably compared with those treated with sterile water after the same storage period. In addition, the tertiary and secondary structures of myofibrillar protein in the composite coating treated group was more complete. In the late storage period, the protein oxidation indexes of salmon fillets treated with KGM/SA + ε-PL/KGM + Thy composite coating were better than those of the samples treated with KGM/SA + ε-PL/KGM and KGM/SA + Thy/KGM composite coatings after the same storage period. Therefore, in the sandwich-type KGM/SA/KGM composite coating, ε-PL and Thy could act synergistically to delay protein oxidation and denaturation. The results of this study can provide technical guidance for the application of edible coatings in aquatic product preservation.
Effects of Different Light Qualities on Color Development and Anthocyanin Metabolism of Peach Skin during Postharvest Storage
CHI Ming, SUN Lijuan, MA Lijie, ZHAO Jing, ZHOU Hongsheng, LING Jun, LUO Shufen, LI Guofeng, LI Pengxia, ZHANG Yingtong
2023, 44(3):  209-217.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211229-334
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The objective of this work was to study the effects of different light treatments on the color development of peach skin during postharvest storage and to explore the regulatory mechanism of light on anthocyanin metabolism. Peach fruits, cv. Zhongtao 9, were subjected to different lights (red, green, blue and white) for 12 h and darkness for another 12 h at (22 ± 1) ℃, while those kept in darkness for 24 h were considered as a control. The variations in fruit skin color, anthocyanin content and enzymatic activities involved in the anthocyanin metabolic pathway, as well as the expression levels of the structural genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis and related transcription factors after light treatment were measured. The results showed that the color development of peach skin was not affected by red and green light, but was weakly promoted by white light and significantly induced by blue light. The anthocyanin content in blue light-treated peach skin was 27.26 mg/kg, which was 4.48 and 10.34 times as high as that in the white light treatment and control groups on the sixth day after harvest, respectively. Under blue light treatment, the enzymatic activities of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway and the expression levels of structural genes and transcription factors were significantly higher than those in the control and other light treatment groups at most of the time points tested (P < 0.05). The expression levels of the structural genes PAL, CHS, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFGT and the transcription factor MYB10.1 showed significantly positive correlation with the color parameters and anthocyanin content of peach skin. Collectively, this study indicated that blue light treatment promoted the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins in peach skin by up-regulating the anthocyanin synthesis pathway, which will deepen the understanding of the regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin metabolism by light in plants and provide a theoretical basis for the development of postharvest technologies to improve peach skin color.
Effect of Atomized Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water Treatment during Vacuum Precooling on the Quality of Postharvest Chinese Little Greens during Low Temperature Circulation and Shelf Life
ZHAO Anqi, AN Ronghui, WANG Xinyu, HAN Ying, XIE Hong, LI Pengxia, LI Guofeng, HU Huali
2023, 44(3):  218-227.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220325-312
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of atomized slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment during vacuum precooling on the quality of Chinese little greens during low temperature circulation and shelf life. The effects of vacuum precooling, vacuum precooling combined with tap water treatment and vacuum precooling combined with SAEW treatment on the appearance quality, nutritional components, antioxidant substances and free radical scavenging capacity of Chinese little greens were analyzed under low temperature ((4 ± 1) ℃) distribution and shelf conditions ((20 ± 1) ℃). The results showed that vacuum precooling + tap water treatment could slow down the yellowing and wilting, maintain higher nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of Chinese little greens when compared to the control (without vacuum precooling or spraying tap water) and vacuum precooling groups. Furthermore, compared to vacuum precooling + tap water treatment, vacuum precooling + SAEW treatment could delay the yellowing and ageing process, suppress the decline in sensory quality and chlorophyll content, maintain higher titratable acid, soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, and retard the decrease in the contents of bioactive substances such as carotenoids, ascorbic acid, folic acid and total phenols and free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radial and superoxide anion radical) scavenging capacity, thereby inhibiting the accumulation of nitrite and malondialdehyde and prolonging the shelf life of postharvest Chinese little greens. It is thus clear that the combination of vacuum precooling with SAEW treatment can effectively relieve the yellowing and ageing process of postharvest Chinese little greens and maintain good commodity characteristics.
Reviews
Research Progress on the Regulatory Effect of Melatonin on Postharvest Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables
SONG Conghui, GUO Shuihuan, SHI Xiaoqiang, ZHANG Hanbin, WU Jiakai, ZHAN Lijuan
2023, 44(3):  228-236.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220302-037
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Melatonin (MT) is an indoleamine widely existing in organisms, especially in tissues and organs of higher plants, which plays an important role in regulating seed germination, growth and development, stress resistance, and maturation and senescence of higher plants. Current studies demonstrate that MT significantly delays senescence and quality deterioration of postharvest fruits and vegetables. This review briefly introduces the MT synthesis pathway in plants and its level in selected fruits and vegetables along with the factors affecting it. The focus of this review is on the regulatory effect of MT on the postharvest physiology (respiration, ethylene formation, and antioxidant enzyme activity) and quality (color, bioactive substances, and antioxidant activity) of fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, this review elaborates the possible underlying mechanism, and it discusses problems existing in the research on MT in postharvest preservation of fruits and vegetables and future research priorities in order to provide a reference for further research in this field.
Research Progress on the Regulation of Resveratrol on Alzheimer’s Disease
WU Liangwen, ZHANG Hu, WU Tong, CHEN Ning
2023, 44(3):  237-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220520-266
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a common aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, is an important inducement of cognitive, memory and mental disorders in the elderly. The major pathological characteristics of AD include amyloid β-protein (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles, neuroinflammation, impaired autophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased synaptic plasticity and function. The pharmacological treatment strategies for AD are focused on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists. However, most medications for AD can only alleviate symptoms, not substantially delay the development of AD. With the in-depth studies of natural products, it is found that resveratrol (RSV), which is an activator of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1 (Sirt1), can activate autophagy in nerve cells, improve mitochondrial quality and inhibit neuroinflammation by regulating Sirt1-related signaling pathways, thereby having the potential prevent and treat AD. In this article, the studies on the role and mechanism of action of RSV in the prevention and treatment of AD are summarized, which will provide a reference for follow-up studies on RSV in the targeted prevention and treatments of AD, and the development of new anti-AD agents.
Progress in Lab on Paper in the Field of Food Safety Detection
CHEN Yang, YANG Zhansen, WANG Xin, SONG Guangchun, HUANG Huixian, XU Yuancong, LUO Yunbo, HUANG Kunlun, CHENG Nan
2023, 44(3):  246-257.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220223-189
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“Lab on paper” is a paper-based microanalytical system with unique advantages such as high sensitivity, low cost, portability, and mass production, which breaks through the limitations of traditional detection technologies and shows great potential in the field of rapid on-site food detection. In this paper, the typical “labs on paper”, including chromatographic paper, chemical test chip, lateral flow assay (LFA), microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), and synthetic biological paper, are systematically reviewed. Special emphasis is put on the application of “lab on paper” in the field of food detection. Finally, the advantages, challenges, and future prospects of paper-based analytic methods are discussed, which may provide theoretical support for better application of “lab on paper” in the field of food detection.
Research Progress on the Inclusion Mechanism of Cyclodextrin-Based Supramolecular Self-Assemblies
HUANG Juan, YANG Yu, YU Haiyan, CHEN Chen, TIAN Huaixiang
2023, 44(3):  258-268.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211224-287
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Cyclodextrin, which has a unique “outer hydrophilic and inner hydrophobic” structure, can be used as an excellent carrier to protect volatile bioactive compounds that are susceptible to oxidative degradation for improved solubility, stability, and bioavailability. In this paper, we summarize the structures and properties of cyclodextrins and elucidate their inclusion mechanism with respect to the interactions between the host cyclodextrins and guest molecules and the factors influencing them including the inclusion reaction between cyclodextrin monomers and guests, the self-assembly behavior of cyclodextrin monomers, and the inclusion mechanism between the supramolecular system formed by this self-assembly behavior and guest molecules. Then, the mechanism for the interface stability of cyclodextrins in the presence and absence of surfactants and the mechanism by which composite emulsifiers formed from the self-assembly of cyclodextrins with a surfactant stabilize guests. Finally, the release mechanism and the kinetic models of sustained release of guest molecules from inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins as well as the factors affecting them are elucidated, and future research prospects of cyclodextrins in the supramolecular field are discussed in order to provide a reference for follow-up research.
Research Progress on Assessment Models for Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues
WANG Xi, LIU Ziqi, KANG Shanshan, CHEN Li, CHENG Youpu, LI Wei, ZHAO Lilin, CHEN Zenglong
2023, 44(3):  269-277.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220210-055
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The risk assessment of dietary exposure to pesticide residues is a great concern in the fields of chemical risk management, food safety and human health. Effective quantitative risk assessment models are basic tools for assessing dietary exposure to pesticide residues. Based on a review of recent progress in the risk assessment of dietary exposure to pesticide residues, this paper summarizes the risk assessment models for dietary exposure to pesticide residues, including the deterministic assessment models, the probabilistic assessment models and the cumulative assessment models. The advantages and disadvantages of these models are compared in terms of their evolution, the situations to which they apply and the assessment demand, and the key factors such as model uncertainty, assessment software and database application are discussed. Based on the current status of the dietary risk assessment of pesticide residues in China, we highlight the urgency and importance of integrating model parameters, which will provide a scientific basis for improving the construction of risk assessment systems for dietary exposure to pesticide residues.
Ameliorative Effect and Mechanism of Food-Derived Bioactive Peptides against Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review
ZHANG Shu, WANG Changyuan, ZHANG Dongjie
2023, 44(3):  278-287.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220225-220
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from type 2 diabetics or become potential patients. Food-derived bioactive peptides not only provide essential nutritional benefits, but also are more easily absorbed by the body. Previous studies have shown that bioactive peptides can inhibit the activity of metabolic enzymes associated with type 2 diabetes, promote insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance, making them functional foods or drugs for effective management of this disease. In order to provide a reference for further research on food-derived bioactive peptides, this paper reviews the properties and sources of food-derived bioactive peptides and the state of the art in research on the regulatory mechanism of food-derived bioactive peptides on blood glucose levels, and it summarizes the studies on food-derived metabolic enzyme modulators. In order to provide a reference for the innovation of food-derived bioactive peptides.
A Review of Quantitative Risk Assessment of Pathogenic Bacteria in Chilled Meat
JIANG Xueqing, ZHANG Yimin, LUO Xin, ZHU Lixian, MAO Yanwei, LIANG Rongrong, YANG Xiaoyin, HAN Guangxing, DONG Pengcheng
2023, 44(3):  288-295.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220122-225
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With the increasing consumer demand for chilled meat, food safety issues related to chilled meat such as the prevalence and change of pathogenic bacteria during the processing, storage and consumption of chilled meat and their effects on public health have aroused great public concern. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is the core of chill meat safety risk analysis, which provides a theoretical basis for hazard analysis, determination of the critical control points and formulation of food safety goals and regulations. Since the promulgation of the Food Safety Law and the establishment of the Food Safety Risk Assessment Center in China, significant progress has been made in quantitative microbial risk assessment. In this paper, recent research on the quantitative risk assessment of common food-borne pathogens in livestock and poultry meat products is summarized, and recent progress in the application of process risk model, modular process risk model and omics technology in QMRA is reviewed. The current status of the application of quantitative microbial risk assessment in food safety management is summarized to provide reference for the development and application of quantitative microbial risk assessment in chilled meat.
Research Progress on the Material Basis and Evaluation Methods for the Unique Aroma of Fu Brick Tea
ZHANG Xingmin, CHEN Hongyu, WANG Chao, LI Juan, HUANG Jian’an, LIU Zhonghua
2023, 44(3):  296-305.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220212-074
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Fu brick tea (FBT) is a unique compressed dark tea in China. The unique fungal fermentation process creates its unique fungal flavor and special health benefits, so FBT is deeply favored by consumers. This paper reviews the research results on the volatile components contributing to the aroma of FBT and the methods for their evaluation. The reported volatile compounds are systematically classified, and the compounds with high detection frequency are elaborated in detail. The methods for the extraction, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile compounds and the methods for the screening and evaluation of the odor-active compounds of FBT are summarized. Meanwhile, the problems with the current studies and the focus of future research are pointed out.
Research Progress in Affinity Enhancement Strategies for Recombinant Antibodies against Food Hazards
WANG Feng, XIE Xi, MA Lukai, WANG Qin, XIAO Gengsheng, SHEN Yudong, XU Zhenlin, WANG Hong
2023, 44(3):  306-313.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220325-306
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As a new generation of genetically engineered antibodies, recombinant antibodies are widely used in immunodetection of food hazards due to their simple structure as well as easy expression and modification. However, due to the non-directionality and imprecision of recombinant antibody preparation technology, the affinity of recombinant antibodies is low, which affects their practical application. Therefore, it is necessary to study how to improve the affinity of recombinant antibodies. This article summarizes the preparation technologies for recombinant antibodies against food hazards, describes the affinity enhancement strategies for recombinant antibodies such as mutation and evolution of recombinant antibodies, screening of mutation library, preparation of conventional multivalent antibodies, and self-assembly of antibody fusion proteins, and finally discusses the technical bottlenecks and future development directions in this field.
Progress in Research on the Health Effects and Mechanisms of 6-Gingerol and in Development of Oral Delivery Systems for It
TIAN Wenni, SONG Mingyue, LÜ Muwen, WANG Qun, CAO Yong, XIAO Jie
2023, 44(3):  314-322.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211222-261
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6-Gingerol is the major pungent component in ginger. It possesses a variety of health benefits including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and hypotensive activities as well as colitis prevention and treatment. However, the health effects of oral 6-gingerol are limited due to the low water solubility, poor gastrointestinal stability, rapid metabolism in the body, release at non-target sites, and pungent and bitter taste. In this article, the health effects of 6-gingerol including anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activity, and preventing and treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases as well as gastrointestinal diseases are reviewed together with the underlying mechanisms. Based on a review of recent progress in the research on the gastrointestinal absorption of 6-gingerol, its distribution, metabolism and excretion in the systematic circulation and its metabolic processes in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, the current status of the design and development of oral delivery systems for 6-gingerol. The mechanism for the enhancing effect of delivery systems on the health benefits of 6-gingerol and the design principle of the strategies to enhance the health benefits of 6-gingerol are elucidated. Hopefully, this review will not only provide a theoretical guidance for the design of oral delivery systems for 6-gingerol and the research on the mechanism for the enhancing effect of oral delivery systems on the health benefits of 6-gingerol, but also provide scientific evidence for the design of 6-gingerol-based functional foods.
Progress in Research and Application of Lachancea thermotolerans in Wine Fermentation
TANG Chong, CHENG Chifang, XU Yinhu, DUAN Changqing, YAN Guoliang
2023, 44(3):  323-331.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211223-266
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With global climate warming, grape berries ripen too fast in warm growing regions especially in grape growing regions in western China, which in turn results in low acidity in grapes and ultimately will cause a great negative impact on the taste and quality of wine. Lachancea thermotolerans (LT) is a non-Saccharomyces yeast that can produce a high yield of lactic acid. The mixed inoculation of LT and Saccharomyces cerevisiae can effectively increase the acidity and reduce the pH of wine, thereby maintaining the microbial and color stability. In this paper, recent progress in the research and application of LT in wine fermentation is reviewed with respect to the basic physiological, biochemical and enological characteristics of LT. Furthermore, the influence of LT on the major metabolites, aroma and color of wine and the molecular mechanism of over-production of lactic acid by LT are reviewed. Finally, the commercial application of LT is outlined. This review is expected to provide a reference for further research on LT to promote its industrial application in wine production.
Research Progress on Sulforaphane in the Prevention and Treatment of Nervous System Diseases
SONG Xiaoye, PANG Xinyi, LU Yingjian
2023, 44(3):  332-340.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220322-255
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Sulforaphane is a natural product with excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which is ubiquitous in plants of the Brassicaceae family. The pathogenesis of nervous system diseases is complex, but many nervous system diseases are related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Sulforaphane has great potential in the prevention and treatment of nervous system diseases. In this article, the sources, biosynthetic pathways, metabolism and mechankism of neuroprotective effect of sulforaphane is reviewed. The recent achievements in the application of sulforaphane in the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, autism spectrum disorder and stroke are summarized. Moreover, the limitations of current studies are discussed and future research directions are proposed.
Application of Metal-Organic Framework Materials in Food Packaging: A Review
WANG Mingying, DOU Xilin, DING Zhaoyang, XIE Jing
2023, 44(3):  341-349.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220316-184
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With the development of the food industry, the problem of food safety has become a common concern for people all over the world. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of functional materials with unique physical and chemical properties, have shown promising applications in food preservation due to their porous structure as well as remarkable antibacterial properties. MOFs have been developed as antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life and delay quality deterioration of food products as well as improve the performance of food packaging materials. In this review, we discuss the application of MOFs as antimicrobial agents, oxygen scavengers, and ethylene scavengers in food packaging, and highlight future prospects and problems in this field. This review aims to provide reference for the application of MOFs in food packaging.
Research Progress on Quorum Sensing and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors of Aeromonas
TU Mingxia, LIU Lei, GAO Liang, ZHANG Ying, GUI Meng, RAO Yu
2023, 44(3):  350-358.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220316-178
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Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) is a process in which bacteria conduct chemical communication through the production, release, accumulation and induction of signaling molecules called autoinducers (AI). Aeromonas is a common spoilage bacterium in aquatic products, and also a conditional pathogenic bacterium in animals and humans. In recent years, studies have reported that the pathogenicity and spoilage behavior of Aeromonas may be related to QS, suggesting that it can be prevented and controlled by inhibiting the QS. Aeromonas has three QS systems including AI-1 system with N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as signaling molecules, AI-2 system with 4,5-dihydroxy 2,3-pentanedione (DPD) derivatives as signaling molecules and AI-3 system regulated by QseBC. This paper introduces these three QS systems and their regulation mechanisms in detail. Furthermore, this paper focuses on recent progress in research on plant-derived, microbe- and animal-derived and chemically synthesized QS inhibitors (QSI) of Aeromonas. The potential application of QSI to the prevention of aquatic product spoilage and aquatic diseases caused by Aeromonas is discussed in order to provide a reference for the application of Aeromonas QSI in aquatic product safety.
Progress on Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry in the Determination of Veterinary Drug Residues: A Review
ZHENG Yaolin, LIN Qiufeng, YANG Le, ZHOU Ruizheng, SHEN Changying, YI Huajuan, WU Jiafeng
2023, 44(3):  359-365.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220120-202
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With the rapid development of social economy and the continuous improvement of people’s living standards, the demand for foods of animal origin is also increasing. The problem of veterinary drug residues in foods of animal origin has attracted more and more attention. Meanwhile, higher requirements have been raised for the supervision and inspection of veterinary drug residues. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is a powerful tool to retrieve compounds, which can enable the non-targeted screening and confirmation of a variety of veterinary drugs without the use of standards. HRMS is an important technical means for risk monitoring and high-throughput screening of veterinary drug residues, making up for the weaknesses of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry such as poor universality and no ability to screen unknown compounds. This review summarizes the application of liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in the field of veterinary drug residue detection from the year 2018 to 2021, and systematically demonstrates the advantages and characteristics of HRMS. With the popularization of HRMS and the development of detection technologies, HRMS will be widely used in the field of veterinary drug residue detection as a routine method.
Research Progress on Gut-Liver Axis Mediated Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Its Nutritional Intervention
XU Ye, HU Yanzhou, XU Jia, HUANG Xianghui, HUANG Kunlun, HE Xiaoyun
2023, 44(3):  366-375.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220218-139
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. NAFLD starts with hepatic lipid accumulation, which may cause inflammation and ultimately lead to fibrosis in the liver. Studies have shown that intestinal microorganisms and a variety of bioactive substances produced by them interact with host hepatocytes through the portal vein, resulting in the occurrence and development of NAFLD. The bidirectional communication between the intestinal tract and the liver is called the gut-liver axis. In this paper, the mechanism of the occurrence and development of NAFLD mediated by the gut-liver axis is elaborated from the perspectives of intestinal microbial composition, intestinal barrier function, intestinal microbial components and intestinal microbial metabolites, as well as the role of nutritional intervention in ameliorating NAFLD by targeting the gut-liver axis. This article reviews the existing knowledge on the mechanisms of the complex interaction between intestinal disorders and NAFLD in order to provide nutritional strategies for the prevention and improvement of NAFLD.
Progress in the Application of Animal-Derived Raw Materials in Health Foods in China
DUAN Hao, ZHOU Yaxi, ZHOU Shiqi, YAN Wenjie
2023, 44(3):  376-384.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220506-073
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Animal-derived raw materials are rich in various nutrients, especially the high level of protein, and have good application prospects in health foods and other fields. However, due to their special sources and processing methods, the requirements for the compliant use of animal-derived raw materials are stringent. Therefore, when animal-derived raw materials are used to produce health foods, great attention needs to be paid to relevant laws and regulations, processing methods and the requirements for their safe application. In recent years, a lot of new progress has been made in the studies on the bioactive ingredients and functions of animal-derived raw materials, but there are few reviews on the evidence for the compliance use of animal-derived raw materials in the production of health foods, the current status of the use of animal-derived raw materials in the production of health foods, and the health functions of animal-derived raw materials in functional foods. In this context, this paper presents the evidence for the compliance use of animal-derived raw materials in the production of health foods in China, and a statistical analysis of the current status of the use of animal-derived raw materials in the production of health foods using the national special food information query platform as a retrieval tool. We hope that this review will provide a useful reference for further mining, development and utilization of animal-derived raw materials.
Separation, Identification and Functional Properties of Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membrane Components: A Review of Recent Progress
WANG Cong, FEI Xu, WANG Xiuying, LIU Xiaojun
2023, 44(3):  385-392.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220710-095
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The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is the membrane surrounding fat globules in milk, and its content in milk is very small. However, due to its good physiological activity and application potential in food processing, the basic research and application of MFGM have attracted more and more attention. In this paper, we review recent progress in the separation, preparation, structural characterization, compositional identification and analysis, physiological activity and application characteristics of MFGM, in order to provide theoretical support for the application of MFGM in the food industries, especially in functional foods.
Research Progress on Changes in Structure and Functional Properties of Myoglobin during Processing and Storage and Their Effect on the Quality of Meat Products
WANG Tiantian, ZHU Yichen, XIE Yong, ZHOU Kai, LIAO Xianyan, HUANG Junyi, XU Baocai
2023, 44(3):  393-399.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220127-280
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Myoglobin is a pigment protein that mainly exists in the sarcoplasm of muscle cells and its functional properties contribute to and improve the color of meat and meat products during processing, preservation and consumption. There are many factors that can influence the structural change of myoglobin during the processing and storage of meat and meat products, which in turn can lead to changes in its functional properties. In this article, the recent studies on the structural changes and the consequent changes in functional properties of myoglobin during the processing and storage of meat products are reviewed so as to provide guidance for the quality control of meat and meat products.