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Table of Content

15 June 2022, Volume 43 Issue 11
Invited Papers
Development and Challenges of Digital Foods in the New Area
LI Zhaofeng, LIU Yanjun, XU Yongjiang, WANG Jing, CHEN Jian, LIU Yuanfa
2022, 43(11):  1-8.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220324-292
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In the context of digital society, the food industry is also undergoing tremendous changes. The development of digitalization has brought new opportunities for the transfer, update and revolution of the food industry, which is not only a necessary requirement for the healthy development of the food industry, but also a requirement to conform to the development of the times. As a product of digital transformation, digital foods have typical features of precise or customized manufacturing and supply, which are produced by using digital technologies such as the internet of things, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and blockchain for digitization and integrative analysis of information such as physical properties, nutritional characteristics of food raw materials, and population nutritional characteristics for deep integration with high and new technologies such as food biosynthesis, food recombination, additive manufacturing, intelligent processing, and intelligent packaging. At present, a digital food industry model is being formed through the deep integration of digital technologies and physical food companies. Here, the progress and key technologies in digital foods are summarized, and future applications and challenges in this field are discussed.
Basic Research
Backward Propagation (BP) Neural Network-Based Prediction of Moisture Ratio of Fresh In-shell Peanut during Infrared-Assisted Spouted Bed Drying
ZHU Kaiyang, REN Guangyue, DUAN Xu, QIU Caixia, LI Linlin, CHU Qianqian, YU Zuyan
2022, 43(11):  9-18.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210412-164
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In order to predict the moisture ratio of in-shell peanut during infrared-assisted spouted bed drying, the effects of drying temperature (55, 60, 65 and 70 ℃), inlet airflow rate (16, 17, 18 and 19 m/s) and the amount of glidant (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg) on the drying time and drying rate were investigated. A BP neural network model whose topological structure was “4-11-1” was established using drying temperature, inlet airflow rate, the amount of glidant and drying time as the input layers, and the moisture ratio of peanut as the output layer. The number of nodes in the hidden layer of the established network was 11. The results showed that drying temperature and inlet airflow rate were the main factors affecting the moisture ratio of fresh in-shelled peanut. Increasing the inlet airflow rate or drying temperature could effectively shorten the drying time and improve drying efficiency. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and tansig-purelin as the training function and the network transfer function, respectively, the BP neural network model was obtained after finite training. The determination coefficient (R2) between the predicted value and the experimental value was 0.99, and the mean square error was 0.02. Compared with the traditional classical model, the BP neural network model allowed rapid and accurate prediction of the moisture ratio. This model can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for on-line prediction of moisture ratio of fresh in-shell peanut during infrared-assisted spouted bed drying.
Interaction Mechanism between Carbon Dots and Digestive Proteases in Roast Beef
LIU Kangjing, SONG Yukun, WANG Haitao, QIAO Fengzhi, HOU Shuai, TAN Mingqian
2022, 43(11):  19-28.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210415-219
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In recent years, the potential impact of food-derived carbon dots (CDs) produced during the thermal processing of foods on human health has attracted the attention of many people. In this study, CDs were extracted and purified from beef roasted at 280 ℃ for 30 min and evaluated for its interaction with digestive proteases (pepsin and trypsin) by in vitro simulated digestion, fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermodynamic analysis. The results of simulated digestion in vitro showed that the CDs could interact with digestive proteases. Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis showed that the CDs statistically quenched the inherent fluorescence of digestive proteases. The synchronous fluorescence results demonstrated that tyrosine was involved in the interaction. The thermodynamic results showed that the binding mode of the CDs and digestive proteases was electrostatic or hydrophobic interaction, and the combination affected the secondary structure of pepsin and trypsin. After interaction with the CDs at 1.0 × 10-5 mol/L, the activities of pepsin and trypsin decreased to (61.11 ± 7.36)% and (51.28 ± 3.62)% of their original value, respectively.
Analysis of Color and Thermodynamic Properties and Sugar Substance Basis of Moisture Absorption by Winter Jujube Powder
XIA Xiaoxia, XUE Ailian, KOU Fubing, ZHAO Jichun, WEN Jing, XIAO Gengsheng, ZENG Kaifang, MING Jian
2022, 43(11):  29-38.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210810-130
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To fully understand the moisture adsorption characteristics of jujube powder, in this study, the moisture absorption of jujube powder at 20, 30 and 40 ℃ and water activities (aw) from 0.112 to 0.946 was measured by the static-gravimetric method. The color changes of ordinary and superfine jujube powder after moisture adsorption were investigated, and moisture adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties were determined. Finally, the contribution of sugars in superfine jujube powder to its hygroscopicity was evaluated. The results showed that a serious browning phenomenon appeared after moisture adsorption of jujube powder, and its absorption isotherm belonged to type III. Peleg model was found to be the most suitable for describing the moisture adsorption isotherm of jujube powder (mean relative percentage deviation modulus (E) < 5%). The net isosteric heat of adsorption and differential entropy decreased exponentially with increasing equilibrium moisture content (on a dry basis) of jujube powder, and the equilibrium moisture content of the superfine powder was lower than that of the ordinary powder. The absolute safe moisture contents of the ordinary powder and superfine powder were 0.237 5 and 0.223 5 g/g, respectively. The moisture adsorption process of both powders conformed to the entropy-enthalpy compensation theory, being enthalpy-driven and non-spontaneous with Gibbs free energy of 1 152.80 and 1 184.22 J/mol, respectively. According to the results of the sugar hygroscopicity experiment, fructose mainly contributed to the hygroscopicity of jujube powder. The results of this study will provide a theoretical reference for the optimization of the processing technology and the selection of storage conditions for jujube powder.
Effects of Different Boiling Conditions on the Quality of Tilapia Fillets
XIONG Yawen, HUANG Hui, LI Laihao, YANG Xianqing, CHEN Shengjun, HAO Shuxian, WU Yanyan, WEI Ya
2022, 43(11):  39-48.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210610-133
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In this study, we investigated the changes in the percentage of cooking loss, color, texture characteristics, sensory evaluation and microstructure of tilapia fillets under different boiling conditions. Meanwhile, the changes in myofibrillar protein content, total sulfhydryl content, Ca2+-ATPase activity and secondary structure were examined. The results showed that for each tested boiling temperature, the percentage of cooking loss increased to varying degrees with increasing heating time, and lower percentage of cooking loss was observed at 90 ℃ compared with the other boiling temperatures, the color parameters L* and b* increased and a* decreased compared with the fresh samples. The color of fillets remained better after undergoing high-temperature short-term boiling. The hardness, gumminess and chewiness gradually increased with increasing heating time at 50 ℃, but decreased at 60 ℃ and above. The texture properties of fish meat treated at 80 and 90 ℃ were relatively better. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the structure of fish muscle tissue became looser after boiling, and gaps between muscle fiber bundles became observable. For each heating time, gaps between muscle fiber bundles gradually increased with increasing heating temperature, and the degree of damage became more serious. However, high-temperature short-term heating caused less damage to the structure of fish muscle tissue. The sensory evaluation results were basically consistent with the trends in all quality indicators. The myofibrillar protein content, total sulfhydryl content and Ca2+-ATPase activity decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the degree of protein denaturation was smaller under the condition of low-temperature long-term heating. The proportion of α-helix and β-turn decreased, and the proportion of β-sheet and random coil increased. The proportion of α-helix and β-turn under the condition of low-temperature long-term heating were higher than under high-temperature short-term heating. In summary, considering the eating quality and actual production efficiency, high-temperature short-term heating is more suitable for tilapia fillets, and the quality of fillets boiled at 80–90 ℃ for 6–9 min is better.
Influence of Dietary Incorporation of Allium mongolicum Regel or Its Extracts on Flavor and Odor Fatty Acid Deposition and Lamb Meat Quality during Storage
LIU Wangjing, LI Shuyi, TANG Defu, AO Changjin
2022, 43(11):  49-56.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210418-248
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Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Allium mongolicum Regel or its extracts on the flavor and odor fatty acid deposition and shelf life of lamb Longissimus?dorsi?muscle in order to provide useful information to reduce lamb odor, extend the shelf life of refrigerated lamb meat, and delay oxidation in lamb meat. Methods: Sixty three-month-old male small-tailed Han sheep were selected and randomly allocated into four groups of five animals each in triplicate in a randomized block design: 1) a basal diet served as control; 2) the basal diet supplemented with 10 g/d Allium mongolicum Regel powder as AMR; 3) the basal diet supplemented with 3.4 g/d of a water extract of Allicum mongolicum Regel as AWE; and 4) the basal diet supplemented with 2.8 g/d of an ethanol extract of Allicum mongolicum Regel as AFE. The experiment lasted for 75 days, including a 15-day adaptive period and a 60-day experimental feeding period. At the end of the experiment, two lambs from each replicate of each group were randomly selected and slaughtered, and Longissimus?dorsi?muscle was excised to detect odor fatty acids. Moreover, the degree of lipid and protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, pH, color, juice loss and microbial load of Longissimus dorsi muscle packaged in air-permeable polystyrene bags were measured during nine days of storage at (4.0 ± 0.5) ℃. Results: 1) The deposition of three odor fatty acids was significantly inhibited by dietary supplementation of AMR, AFE or AWE compared with the control group (P < 0.001). 2) Dietary supplementation with Allium mongolicum Regel or its extracts decreased the acid value (AV), peroxide value (POV) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content of Longissimus dorsi muscle (P < 0.001). 3) Dietary supplementation with Allium mongolicum Regel or its extracts increased the total antioxidant activity (T-AOC) (P < 0.001), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity (P < 0.001), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (P < 0.05), and lowered the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value. 4) Dietary supplementation with Allium mongolicum Regel or its extracts lowered hue angle (P < 0.01). Besides, the water extract significantly decreased the color parameter b* (yellowness/blueness) and juice loss percentage, whereas AMR powder significantly decreased only the juice loss percentage (P < 0.05). The pH, color and juice loss percentage varied in different manner depending on storage time. 5) Dietary supplementation with Allium mongolicum Regel or its extracts decreased the total bacterial count (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Overall, dietary supplementation with Allium mongolicum Regel or its extracts can contribute to improve the characteristic flavor and odor of lamb by decreasing odor fatty acid deposition, delaying fat and protein oxidation, improving the antioxidant capacity, maintaining the pH and color, reducing the juice loss percentage, and inhibiting the growth of bacteria.
Preparation and Emulsifying Properties of Zein Peptides with Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities
TANG Wenting, SUN Yue, SUN Qingjie, WANG Hongcai, PU Chuanfen
2022, 43(11):  57-66.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210504-024
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Zein was hydrolyzed by trypsin and papain separately, and the antioxidant, antibacterial and emulsifying activities of the hydrolysates were analyzed. The papain hydrolyste fractions with good antioxidant, antibacterial and emulsifying activities were further purified using an ?KTA protein purification system and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the amino acid sequence of the purified peptide was determined to be LLAH. The natural and synthetic LLAHs showed comparable scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) cation radical, iron ion reducing power and emulsifying ability. Both LLAHs could inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes. The average particle size of LLAH stabilized emulsion was (263.4 ± 3.5) nm, which was lower than that of Tween-80 stabilized emulsion ((286.8 ± 3.5) nm). The storage and oxidation stability of the former were higher than those of the latter. LLAH stabilized emulsion exerted antibacterial effects against the tested strains. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of LLAH could make a positive contribution to the stability of the emulsion. The results of this study will provide valuable information for the development of novel zein peptide-based functional foods.
Food Engineering
Effect of Hydrodynamic Cavitation on Transglutaminase-catalyzed Gelation Behavior of Soy Protein Isolate
LI Xiaohui, REN Xian’e, YANG Feng, HUANG Yongchun, HUANG Chengdu, ZHANG Kunming, LIU Chunyou
2022, 43(11):  67-74.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210610-138
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In this study, soy protein isolate (SPI) was treated with hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) based on swirling. The texture properties, water-holding capacity, rheological properties, intermolecular force, microstructure, and secondary structure of transglutaminase-catalyzed SPI gel were determined to evaluate the effect of HC on the transglutaminase-catalyzed gelation behavior of SPI. The results showed that the gel strength (P < 0.05), water-holding capacity (P < 0.05), and storage modulus of the transglutaminase-catalyzed gel formed from SPI treated with HC for 30 minutes were increased significantly compared with the gel formed from untreated SPI. The intermolecular force for gel formation was changed. The contents of ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while the contents of disulfide bonds and non-disulfide covalent bonds were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the transglutaminase-catalyzed gel formed from SPI treated by HC had smaller pores and more compact and uniform microstructure. The results of infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that the secondary structure of the gel was also changed by HC treatment. The contents of β-sheet and β-turn were increased significantly (P < 0.05), while the contents of α-helix and random coil were decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Therefore, HC treatment can improve the performance of transglutaminase-catalyzed SPI gel under certain conditions, and it may be used as an effective method in the food industry.
Physicochemical and Microstructure Properties of Auricularia auricular Powder Prepared by Different Drying Methods
REN Aiqing, DENG Shan, LIN Fang, TANG Xiaoxian, MENG Xiangyong, ZHANG Xiaobin, DUAN Zhenhua
2022, 43(11):  75-81.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210602-017
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In order to determine the effect of different drying methods on the physicochemical properties of Auricularia auricular powder, four drying methods, viz. hot air drying (HAD), heat pump drying (HPD), microwave vacuum drying (MVD) and vacuum freeze drying (VFD), were employed to prepare Auricularia auricular powders. It was found that drying methods significantly affected the physicochemical properties of Auricularia auricular powder. The VFD powder showed the smallest particle size, highest bulk density, lightest color, best water-holding capacity and fluidity, highest water solubility index and dissolution of polysaccharides, and best quality, but VFD required higher energy consumption. The quality of the MVD powder was better than that of the powders prepared by HPD and HAD. Therefore, MVD can be used as an alternative drying technique for Auricularia auricular before grinding.
Gallic Acid Combined with Ultrasound Treatment Improves the Gel Properties of Lateolabrax japonicas Myofibrillar Protein
LI Yingchang, SHI Danhua, ZHANG Xinyuan, LI Xiaohan, ZOU Qian, YI Shumin
2022, 43(11):  82-91.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210409-121
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In order to study the effect of ultrasonic-assisted gallic acid treatment on the gel properties of surimi, the effects of different concentrations of gallic acid (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 mg/g) combined with ultrasonication on the gel properties of Lateolabrax japonicas myofibrillar protein were investigated by measuring the gel strength, texture characteristics, water distribution status, color, water-holding capacity and cooking loss rate, chemical forces and microstructure. The results showed that with increasing gallic acid content, the gel strength, hardness, chewiness and water-holding capacity of myofibrillar protein showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, and the best gel performance was obtained by the addition of 2 mg/g of gallic acid. In addition, it resulted in the highest percentage of peak area for immobilized water, lowest percentage of peak area for free water, highest water-holding capacity and lowest cooking loss, as well as denser microstructure. After ultrasonic treatment, the cooking loss of the gel decreased significantly, and the disulfide content increased significantly. Atom force microscopy (AFM) showed that the myofibrillar protein was orderly aggregated, forming clustered aggregates, and the microstructure of the gel was more homogeneous. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted gallic acid treatment can effectively improve the gel properties of myofibrillar protein from Lateolabrax japonicas.
Effects of Different Preparation Methods on Quality and Shelf Life of Qinghai Flaxseed Oil
WANG Shuzhen, LI Yingxia, WANG Xingrui, HAN Yuze, DONG Guoxin, GAN Shengrui, WANG Jinying
2022, 43(11):  92-98.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210409-127
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In an attempt to investigate the effect of different preparation methods on the quality and shelf life of Qinghai flaxseed oil, Qinghai flaxseed was pretreated by baking in an electric oven or far infrared oven, high-pressure high-temperature wet heating, degumming or vacuum freeze drying before being used for oil preparation by screw pressing or hydraulic pressing. The oil yield, peroxide value, acid value, moisture content and volatile component contents, fatty acid composition, volatile components and total phenol content of flaxseed oil were determined. A kinetic model for the oxidation of flaxseed oil was established by using the Schaal oven method to predict the shelf life. The results showed that the oil yield and total phenol content of flaxseed oil prepared by electric oven baking combined with screw pressing was significantly higher than those of the samples prepared by the other methods. Meanwhile, the peroxide value, acid value, moisture content and volatile component contents were lower than those of the other samples, and the shelf life was the longest, 353 days. The sample prepared by electric oven baking combined with screw pressing had the largest number of volatile components (72), compared to 40–60 for the other samples. Different preparation methods had significant effects on the volatile components of flaxseed oil. In addition, the content of linolenic acid was the highest among the five major fatty acids of flaxseed oil, ranging from 54.71 to 61.03 g/100 g. However, different preparation methods had no significant effect on the fatty acid content of flaxseed oil. Compared with those prepared by the other methods, the quality of flaxseed oil obtained by electric oven baking combined with screw pressing was better.
Effect of Microwave on the Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Maize Starch
ZHENG Yuyu, YANG Ye, YIN Dengke, HOU Xiaohui, ZHUANG Xuzhen
2022, 43(11):  99-104.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211022-242
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In this study, a starch-water system was treated with microwave at a cumulative energy of 1 680 J/g of maize starch (MS) and was evaluated for changes in granular morphology, transparency, sediment volume, water absorption capacity, water holding capacity, relative crystallinity and rheological properties. The results showed that the structural integrity and birefringence of the starch granules was weakened with increasing water content in the starch-water system. The transparency, sediment volume, water absorption capacity and water-holding capacity of the starch suspension were significantly increased after microwave treatment. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the crystal type (A-type) of the starch granules was not changed while the relative crystallinity was decreased after the microwave treatment, indicating that the microwave treatment destroyed the crystalline structure of the starch. The elastic modulus of the starch suspension was greater than the viscous modulus, indicating the dominance of elasticity, which was not changed by the microwave treatment. These results show that microwave treatment of starch-water systems can significantly affect the granular structure and physicochemical characteristics of starch, which may provide an experimental and theoretical basis for the development of modified starches with unique physicochemical property and for the improvement of starch modification process.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Understanding the Mechanism of Action of Echinenone on Alzheimer’s Disease from the Perspective of Acetylcholinesterase and Oxidative Stress
ZHANG Tao, CHEN Yanhong, CHANG Gaoping, YANG Yuanfan, DU Xiping, JIANG Zedong, NI Hui, LI Qingbiao
2022, 43(11):  105-112.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210608-097
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Echinenone, a keto carotenoid, has been extracted mainly from marine organisms such as sea urchin and algae. In this work, the inhibitory effect of echinenone on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was studied, and the underlying mechanism was elucidated by enzyme kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular docking. In addition, a cell model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) was established by inducing rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells with amyloid beta peptide 25-35 (Aβ25-35) to study the effects of echinenone on oxidative stress injury in the AD model. The results showed that echinenone had strong inhibitory effect on AChE, with a half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) value of (16.29 ± 0.97) μg/mL and an inhibition constant Ki of 3.82 μg/mL, and the inhibition was competitive. Echinenone could induce changes in the secondary structure of AChE, and it was more likely to bind to Ser200, His440, Trp84 and Tyr121 in the active center of AChE, hindering the substrate acetylthiocholine iodide (ATCI) from binding to the enzyme and, consequently, resulting in a decrease of the enzyme’s activity. Echinenone inhibited the activity of AChE in PC12 cells induced by Aβ25-35, reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thus reducing oxidative stress damage of PC12 cells induced by Aβ25-35. The results of this study will provide data support and a theoretical basis for the application of echinenone in functional foods, biomedicine and other fields.
Protective Effects of Three Types of Dairy Products on Immune Vulnerability in Vinorelbine-Treated Zebrafish
SHI Shen, LI Haoqiu, WANG Long, LI Nan, TAN Shengjie, LIU Hua, PENG Guiying, LI Yalan, ZHANG Chong, FENG HAOTIAN
2022, 43(11):  113-120.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210505-027
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Objective: To examine the protective effects of three types of dairy products on immune vulnerability in vinorelbine-treated zebrafish. Methods: A zebrafish model of immunity vulnerability was established by intravenous injection of 0.2 mg/mL vinorelbine. The fish were randomly divided into five groups with 30 fish in each group: normal control, model control, low temperature yogurt (8 333 μg/mL), normal temperature pure milk (70.4 μL/mL), and frozen yogurt ice cream (33 333 μg/mL). The effects of the dairy products on the number of macrophages and T lymphocytes and macrophage phagocytosis in immunosuppressed zebrafish were evaluated using fluorescent microscopy. Results: Compared with the normal control group, the number of macrophages, the phagocytic function of macrophages and the number of T cells were significantly reduced in the model control group (P < 0.001). Compared with the model control group, the number of macrophages and T lymphocytes were significantly increased by treatment with each of the dairy products (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). Normal temperature pure milk and frozen yoghurt ice cream but not low temperature yoghurt could significantly enhance the phagocytosis capacity of macrophages (P < 0.05). Compared with low temperature yoghurt, normal temperature milk significantly increased the number of macrophages (P < 0.05), but resulted in no significant difference in the number of T cells or the phagocytic function of macrophages (P > 0.05); frozen yogurt ice cream also resulted in no significant difference in all of the parameters (P > 0.05). Conclusion: All these diary products can enhance the immune function of vinorelbine-treated zebrafish with immune vulnerability via increasing the number of macrophages and T lymphocytes and improving macrophage phagocytosis.
In Vitro Simulated Fermentation Evaluation of Effects of Dry Matter and Anthocyanins in Red Wine on Intestinal Microbiota
YUE Wenxiu, WU Lulu, HAN Fuliang
2022, 43(11):  121-129.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210506-044
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The effects of anthocyanins in red wine on the human intestinal microbiota in vitro were investigated in this study. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the changes in the abundance, diversity and functional genes of the intestinal microbiota were investigated after being cultured in vitro for up to 24 h in the presence of freeze-dried red wine or malvidin-3-O-glucoside as the major anthocyanin in red wine. The structure and function of the intestinal microbiota were also analyzed. The results showed that high concentration of anthocyanins and malvidin-3-O-glucoside in wine could reduce the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio by 32.98% and 60.43% between zero and 24 h of culture, respectively. Anthocyanins in wine could also effectively delay the reduction in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Lactobacillus and reduce the relative abundance of the harmful bacteria Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella by 66.36% and 33.33% between zero and 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, both anthocyanins and malvidin-3-O-glucoside in wine enhanced the expression of metabolism-related genes in the intestinal microbiota, especially for lipid metabolism and energy metabolism. Conclusion: Anthocyanins in red wine can regulate the structure and composition of the intestinal microbiota through promoting the growth of probiotics and inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and consequently improve human intestinal metabolism.
Structural Identification of Leccinum crocipodium (Letellier.) Watliag Polysaccharide and Its Effect on Short Chain Fatty Acid Contents in Cecum Contents and Feces of Mice
FAN Yingrun, ZHENG Tingting, LI Zelin, SHEN Xiaojing, WANG Xuefeng, GU Dahai, XIAO Zhichao, FAN Jiangping
2022, 43(11):  130-136.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210402-028
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The crude polysaccharide from Leccinum crocipodium (Letellier.) Watliag, obtained by water extraction and alcohol precipitation, was purified by sequential decolorization and deproteinization. Its molecular mass of was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Its monosaccharide composition was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Its purity was identified by UV-visible spectroscopy. Its structure was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, Its effects on short-chain fatty acid contents in the cecum contents and feces of mice were explored. The results showed that the polysaccharide was composed of mannose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and fucose in a molar ratio of 4.34:0.35:0.08:13.39:3.35:0.75:1.80, and its weight-average molecular mass was 1.540 × 105 Da. The FTIR spectrum proved the polysaccharide to be a pyran-type polysaccharide containing α-(1→6) glycosidic bond and β-glycosidic bond. Animal experiments showed that the polysaccharide had a significant effect on the production of acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, isobutyric acid, n-valeric acid and isovaleric acid in the cecum contents and feces of mice, which varied greatly depending on its dose. The most pronounced effect was observed at high doses.
Immunomodulatory Effects of Spray Dried Powder of Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) and Goji Polysaccharides on Immunosuppressive Mice Induced by Cyclophosphamide and Their Regulation on Gut Microbiota
LUO Qing, LU Lu, YAN Yamei, MI Jia, LI Xiaoying, CAO Youlong, ZENG Xiaoxiong
2022, 43(11):  137-148.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210402-027
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Lycium barbarum L. is traditionally used as a medicinal and food resource in China. Spray dried powder of its fresh fruits is widely used as a food product or a functional food ingredient. In this study, the immunoregulatory effects of Lycium barbarum L. powder (LB), Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharides (LBP) and their mixture (LB + LBP) on cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressive mice were investigated, as well as their influences on gut microbiota homeostasis. The results showed that LB, LBP and their combination restored the body mass and food intake of immunosuppressed mice to different degrees, improved spleen, thymus and colon injury, effectively promoted the secretion of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and immunoglobulin (Ig) A in immunosuppressed mice, regulated the expression of immune-related genes in the colon, promoted the generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), significantly modulated the relative abundance of Muribaculaceae_unclassified, Muribaculum, Mucispirillum, Helicobacter, Bilophila and Clostridiales (P < 0.05), and reversed the abnormal metabolic function of the gut microbiota induced by CTX. Moreover, compared with LBP, LB and LB + LBP decreased the relative abundance of Clostridiales and increased the relative abundance of the beneficial bacterium Duncaniella, and LB + LBP also decreased the relative abundance of Anaerotruncus. The results of this study will provide a theoretical basis for the research and development of specific health products and diversified products in the Lycium barbarum L. processing industry.
Improving Effect of Tea Extract Rich in Polysaccharides and Polyphenols on Intestinal Oxidative Stress in Mice and Underlying Mechanism
WEI Zheng, HE Yan, HUANG Xianzhi, SHEN Yihong, DING Xiaowen
2022, 43(11):  149-155.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210503-015
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Objective: To evaluate whether a tea extract rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols (TEPP) can improve the intestinal response to oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in mice, and to explore its antioxidant mechanism. Methods: Mice were injected intraperitoneally with 10% D-galactose for eight weeks to establish an oxidative stress model. After the model was successfully established, the normal and model groups were gavaged with distilled water, the positive group was gavaged with 200 mg/kg mb of reduced glutathione, the low-, medium- and high-dose TEPP groups were respectively administered with 40, 100 and 250 mg/kg mb of TEPP, and the tea polyphenol group was administered with 50 mg/kg mb of tea polyphenols. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to detect the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, heme oxygenase (HO) activity in the intestinal tissues of the mice in each group, and the mRNA expression levels of toll-like receptors (TLR4), p38, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), GR and HO were detected by fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results: Compared with the model group, the T-AOC of the high-dose TEPP group increased by 2.2 times, and the activities of GR and HO increased by 2.8 times and 1.7 times, respectively. The ROS content decreased by 72.8%, the mRNA expression of TLR4 and p38 declined by 39.1% and 82.4%, and the mRNA expression of Nrf2, GR and HO increased by 83.6%, 8.3 times and 96.3%, respectively. All of these changes were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: TEPP can improve the intestinal response of mice to oxidative stress induced by D-galactose through the TLR4/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Nrf2 pathway.
Packaging & Storage
Analysis of Changes in Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase Activity, Glycolysis and Meat Quality Indices during Post-Mortem Aging of Longissimus dorsi Muscle from Sunit Sheep
YANG Zhihao, LIU Chang, DOU Lu, HOU Yanru, CHEN Xiaoyu, SU Lin, ZHAO Lihua, JIN Ye
2022, 43(11):  156-162.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210426-377
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The Longissimus dorsi muscle of Sunit sheep was selected to analyse changes in the content and activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), glycolysis indicators and meat quality indicators during postmortem aging (4 ℃/0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h), in order to explore the influence of AMPK content and activity on the glycolysis and the aging process after slaughter and determine the best aging time. The results showed that the content and activity of phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) increased firstly and then decreased, reaching the highest value at 24 h. In regard to glycolysis indicators, the pH decreased significantly within 24 h after slaughter; the contents of muscle glycogen and glucose gradually decreased with increasing aging time; the lactic acid content reached its maximum value at 24 h after slaughter. As for meat quality indicators, the shear force reached its maximum value at 24 h, then decreased, and tended to level off after 48 h; the color parameters a* and b* first increased and leveled off after slaughter, while L* value reached its peak at 96 h after slaughter. The number of volatile flavor compounds identified at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was 29, 30, 41, 40 and 46, respectively. The largest number of aldehydes was found at 48 h, and the aldehydes contributed to improve the overall flavor of sheep meat. In summary, changes in AMPK content and activity at different time points after slaughter will cause changes in glycolysis indicators and consequently affect changes in meat quality indicators. At 48 h after slaughter, mutton has better quality and flavor, and is suitable for processing and eating.
Control Effect of Pyridine-2,6-Dipicolinic Acid Treatment on Postharvest Black Spot of Pear Fruit and Possible Antifungal Mechanism
YANG Yangyang, LIU Zhitian, LI Yongcai, BI Yang, LU Yuhui, XIE Pengdong
2022, 43(11):  163-170.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210517-193
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Black spot, caused by Alternaria alternata, is one of the major postharvest diseases of pear fruit, which can cause severe economic losses. The inhibitory effect of pyridine-2,6-dipicolinic acid (DPA) produced by Bacillus subtilis on the growth of A. alternata and black spot development was studied through in vitro and in vivo tests, and its possible mechanism of action was also evaluated. Results showed that DPA significantly inhibited the colony growth, spore germination and germ tube elongation of A. alternata. The colony diameter of A. alternata treated with 2.0 mmol/L DPA was only 51.76% as compared to the control group after incubation for nine days, and A. alternata growth was completely inhibited by 4.0 mmol/L DPA treatment. DPA treatment had a significant control effect on the development of black spot on pear fruit. The lesion diameter on Zaosu pear fruit treated with 20.0 mmol/L DPA was only 55.17% as compared to the control after 11 days of storage. Furthermore, it was shown that DPA treatment significantly increased the cell membrane permeability and mycelial conductivity of A. alternata, leading to protein and nucleic acid leakage. At the same time, DPA treatment reduced the ergosterol content and increased the malondialdehyde content of A. alternata. The above results indicate that DPA has strong antifungal activity through delaying A. altenata growth, destroying membrane integrity, increasing membrane permeability and promoting membrane lipid oxidation.
Effect and Mechanism of Energy Substances, pH and Myofibril Fragmentation Index on Beef Tenderness of Qinchuan Cattle during Postmortem Ageing
LUO Hui, YANG Bo, LI Yalei, LUO Ruiming, ZHANG Xingya, MA Sili, JI Chen
2022, 43(11):  171-179.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210526-318
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In order to explore the mechanism of the tenderness change of the longissimus dorsa muscle of Qinchuan cattle during postmortem ageing, this study measured the changes in energy substances, pH and myofibril fragmentation index (MFI) during storage up to eight days, and it explored the effect of proteomic changes on beef tenderness by four-dimensional label-free quantification (4D-LFQ). It was found that the shear force value increased first and then decreased with storage time, reaching a maximum value of (157.94 ± 2.53) N on the 4th day, indicating the worst tenderness; however, the opposite trend was observed for the pH, reaching a minimum value of 5.37 ± 0.03 on this day. The contents of the energy substances ATP, AMP and NADH showed a decreasing trend with storage time, and the decrease was the most significant from days zero to two, while the reverse trend was observed for MFI. Totally 11 differential proteins related to the tenderness were identified through correlation analysis. Among them, ATP5F1D, ATP5F1C, NDUFB5, NDUFA6, and SUCG1 regulated the changes in ATP content and pH by participating in the glycolysis process, causing muscle fiber cross-linking, muscle stiffness, and ultimately leading to decreased tenderness; PPP3R1, CAMK2D, HNRNPK, PSMD13, and CTSD regulated muscle cell apoptosis and proteolysis by participating in the muscle fiber membrane, the membrane protein complexes, the organelle inner membranes, and the calcium signaling pathway, resulting in an increase in MFI and ultimately contributing to improve beef tenderness.
Effect of Different Thawing Methods on the Quality of Quick Frozen Chimonobambusa quadrangularis Shoot
WANG Nan, ZHANG Fusheng, KAN Jianquan, YANG Jinlai, WU Liangru, ZHENG Jiong
2022, 43(11):  180-185.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210602-030
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In order to investigate the effect of different thawing methods on the quality of quick frozen Chimonobambusa quadrangularis shoot (QFCQS), five thawing methods, namely, microwave thawing, ultrasonic thawing, natural thawing, thawing in a water bath at 20 ℃ and thawing in a water bath at 50 ℃ were used to treat QFCQS. The changes in the drip loss, hardness, color, basic nutrients, peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalnine ammonialyase (PAL) activity and microscopic structure of QFCQS were measured after thawing. The results showed that thawing time was significantly different among the five thawing methods (P < 0.05). Microwave thawing reduced the thawing time by 97% compared with natural thawing. The drip loss after thawing was as follows: natural thawing > thawing in a water bath at 50 ℃ > microwave thawing > thawing in a water bath at 20 ℃ > ultrasonic thawing. Furthermore, QFCQS with higher drip loss after thawing had lower hardness. After ultrasonic thawing, the color difference (?E) of QFCQS was 1.72, and the color change was the smallest. Meanwhile, the nutritional quality was maintained to the largest extent, and the content of vitamin C was 1.35 times higher than that of natural thawing. PPO activity in QFCQS was not significantly changed among the five thawing methods (P > 0.05), while the activities of POD and PAL were the lowest after ultrasonic thawing. As shown in scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, the tissue structure was destroyed to the greatest extent after natural thawing but was maintained well after ultrasonic thawing. The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the selection and application of a suitable thawing method for QFCQS.
Reviews
A Review of Single-Atom Nanozyme and Its Application in Food Detection
SONG Guangchun, CHENG Nan, HUANG Huixian, ZHANG Junjie, HE Xiaoyun, LIU Qingliang, LUO Yunbo, HUANG Kunlun
2022, 43(11):  186-196.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210309-105
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Nanozymes, nanomaterials with similar catalytic activity and enzymatic reaction characteristics to natural enzymes, can overcome natural enzymes’ disadvantages of high cost and poor stability, but they are faced with the problem of low catalytic activity, which to some extent restricts the rapid development of the interdisciplinary field of nanobiology. With the development of spherical aberration correction electron microscopy, different kinds of single-atom nanozymes (SAzymes) have been developed and rapidly become the research frontier in the field of nanozymes. SAzymes have uniformly dispersed active sites and precisely designed coordination structures, which imparts them with higher catalytic activity. This is particularly important for the development of sensitive, efficient and rapid food detection technologies. This article mainly reviews the development history of SAzymes, analyzes the latest research trends in the activity of SAzymes, and introduces in detail the recent progress in the application of SAzymes to rapid food detection. Finally, the challenges and future research directions of SAzymes are discussed.
Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Human Gut-Brain Axis Signal Transduction in Taste Perception
ZHAO Mengbin, ZHANG Qimeng, SONG Mingyue, LIU Guo, CAO Yong, GAO Xiangyang
2022, 43(11):  197-203.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210610-143
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Taste is an important part of human perception of biological intake energy. The gastrointestinal tract also has taste perception. In this paper, the taste receptors and perception pathway in the gastrointestinal tract and the taste signal transduction mechanism in the gut-brain axis are analyzed. Taste perception in the gastrointestinal tract indicates that there are taste receptors such as taste receptor type 1 member (T1R)1, T1R2 and T1R3 and taste receptors type 2 (T2Rs) in the gastrointestinal tract, and taste substances stimulate the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY) by intestinal endocrine cells, which is related to the transmission of taste signals in the neurons. The umami substance monosodium glutamate present in the intestinal tract significantly activates the neural networks in the habenulae, amygdala and hypothalamus subnuclei of the brain, suggesting that taste perception in the gut-brain axis is under the co-regulation between gastrointestinal receptors and brain-gut peptides, neurons and the central nervous system of the brain. In this context, a hypothesis about the mechanism of taste signaling via the gut-brain axis has been proposed. It states that sweet taste receptor T1R2/T1R3 and umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3 had similar signal transduction pathways. After taste substances acts on the intestinal tract, they bind to the corresponding taste receptors in the intestinal tract, activates phospholipase C-β2, releases Ca2+, causes changes in the intestinal environment, and stimulates intestinal endocrine cells to secrete hormones such as PYY and CCK, which are specifically recognized by intestinal neuron synapses,and transmit taste signals to the nerve center of the brain. However, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) and bitter receptor T2Rs signal transduction pathways reduce the concentration of 3’,5’-cyclic adenylic acid in the cytoplasm by activating phosphodiesterase, thereby relieving the inhibition of cyclic nucleotides and releasing Ca2+. Taste preference mediated by the gut-brain axis provides a new direction for the development of new therapeutic drugs and the discovery of new drug targets for patients with changes in taste sensation. Research on the mechanism of taste signal transduction in the gut-brain axis will provide a molecular framework for the neural control of gastrointestinal physiology and accurate control of the physiological response of the human body to taste nutrients, and provide a new theoretical basis for understanding the intake, metabolism and regulation of taste substances in the gut-brain axis and the development of new taste perception pathways.
Research Advances in the Quality Changes and Control Methods of Surimi Myofibrillar Protein under Typical Processing Conditions
CHEN Meizhen, CHEN Xu, CAI Xixi, YU Luhan, WU Jinhong, ZHANG Fang, HUANG Dan, HUANG Jianlian, WANG Shaoyun
2022, 43(11):  204-213.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210906-058
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Surimi-based products (such as fish ball, kamaboko and crabstick) are well accepted by consumers and have broad market prospects owing to their health and nutritional properties and convenience. The surimi-based product is an elastic gel formed based on the gelation properties of myofibrillar protein. The processing procedure includes chopping, heating and exogenous substance addition. Therefore, changes in the structural and functional characteristics of surimi myofibrillar protein under typical processing conditions can affect the quality of surimi-based products. In this article, the quality changes and control methods of surimi myofibrillar protein under the typical processing conditions of physical field (heating and comminution), chemical field (pH and ionic strength) and biological field (enzyme and microorganism) are reviewed, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for further development of the surimi-based product processing industry.
Progress in Understanding the Effect of Ice Crystal Morphology on the Stability of Repeatedly Frozen-Thawed Meat System
CUI Xiaoying, ZHAO Xinqi, LIU Chunyun, LI Nan, YU Qianqian, PENG Xinyan
2022, 43(11):  214-221.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210410-139
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Freezing is an important way to maintain the quality and safety of meat and meat products, but freezing-thawing process can take place repeatedly during their long-term processing, transportation and sale. The repeated formation of ice crystals will cause a series of problems for meat and meat products such as oxidative denaturation, reduced water-holding capacity, declined functional quality and loss of nutrients, which can seriously affect the stability of meat system. Quality deterioration caused by repeated freeze-thaw cycles has become a hot topic in meat science. In this paper, the formation process of ice crystals and the influence of ice crystal morphology on the microstructure, juice loss, product quality and oxidation stability of meat system are reviewed, aiming to lay a foundation for studies to improve the stability of frozen-thawed meat system and provide a theoretical basis for improving the quality of frozen meat.
Recent Progress in Research on Food-Borne Fluorescent Carbon Dots Induced by Food Processing
QIAO Fengzhi, HOU Shuai, TAN Mingqian
2022, 43(11):  222-233.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210206-107
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Food-borne fluorescent carbon dots (FFCDs) are a new type of endogenous fluorescent nano-particles produced in food processing. The formation of FFCDs involves in the complex physical and chemical conversion process and interaction of nutrients in food processing. FFCDs generally have particle size less than 10 nm and good water solubility with abundant active functional groups on the surface. FFCDs can emit bright fluorescence under the irradiation of excitation light. They were first discovered and extracted from bread in 2012. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of research interest in preparing FFCDs using natural green substances as a carbon source. In this review paper, the physicochemical properties, such as morphological structure and size, element composition, functional groups, and fluorescence characteristics of FFCDs derived from different food ingredients are summarized. Furthermore, it reveals the in vivo digestion process of FFCDs using an in vitro digestion model based on the unique fluorescence properties of FFCDs, highlights the biological effects of FFCDs with respect to interaction with biological molecules and antioxidant function. Finally, it concludes with a summary of the cytotoxicity and animal toxicity of FFCDs with the aim to provide a reference for risk assessment of FFCDs in food processing and research on possible health problems associated with FFCDs in the future.
A Review of Portable Biosensors for the Field Detection of Mycotoxins
WANG Yiwen, LIU Yanlin, FU Ruijie, LIU Haoran, ZHOU Jing, ZHAO Qiyang, WANG Chengqiu, JIAO Bining, HE Yue
2022, 43(11):  234-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210607-083
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Foods are susceptible to fungal infection in the process of storage, transportation, and processing. Mycotoxins, produced by fungal metabolism, are serious food pollutants and can cause serious food safety problems. Most of the traditional analytical methods for the detection of mycotoxins need large-scale precision instruments or equipment, cumbersome operation steps, and professional workers, which limits the application of these methods in on-site detection to a large extent. Portable sensors which allow users to monitor mycotoxin contamination in real time with miniaturized equipment have been developed. They have the advantages of simple operation, user friendliness, rapidity and high sensitivity, making them popular among researchers. This paper reviews the application and prospects of test strips, personal glucose meters, handheld pH meters, pressure meters, smartphones, microfluidic chips and portable biosensors based on visualization, electrochemistry, plasma and other signal output in the detection of mycotoxins. We anticipate that this review will cause more researchers to devote themselves to the development of new portable biosensors for the detection of mycotoxins to ensure food safety and human health.
Progress in Control Techniques for Biogenic Amines in Aquatic Products
LIU Yanan, LI Huan, LIAN Renjie, SU Laijin, FU Linglin, WANG Yanbo
2022, 43(11):  246-253.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211029-327
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Not only do biogenic amines present in aquatic products reduce the quality and shorten the shelf life of aquatic products, but also excessive biogenic amines pose serious threats to consumers’ health. In this context, establishing a safe and efficient biogenic amines control system is of great practical significance to guarantee the quality and safety of aquatic products. This paper begins with a summary of the formation, harms and limit standards of biogenic amines in aquatic products, focusing on the recent progress in the development of control techniques for biogenic amines based on processing techniques, food composition regulation and food antibacterial packaging, in order to provide a reference for establishing a more safe and efficient biogenic amines control system.
Recent Advances in Electro-assisted Modification of Starch
LI Dandan, TAO Yang, YANG Na, HAN Yongbin
2022, 43(11):  254-264.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210506-033
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Electric field treatment is a green, efficient, and continuous technology that can significantly enhance the efficiency and selectivity of starch modification. In this paper, we introduce readers to the principle, advantages and disadvantages of the current electric field techniques, and outline the current status of their application in the chemical and enzymatic modification of starch. Moreover, we discuss the mechanism of the electro-assisted modification of starch and the key factors influencing it, as well as future prospects for the application of the electric field techniques in the deep processing of starch.
Progress in the Application of Anti-biofilm Materials in the Field of Food Microbial Safety
TIAN Cuifang, ZHANG Zhaohuan, TAO Qian, WU Qian, PAN Yingjie, ZHAO Yong,
2022, 43(11):  265-272.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210412-169
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The formation of microbial biofilm has a great impact on food safety, which seriously threatens people’s health and is recognized as one of the food safety hazards worldwide. Anti-biofilm materials have been gradually applied in the field of food microbial safety due to their advantages like reducing microbial hazards and cross-contamination in food production and processing. In this context, this paper begins with an overview of the definition and preparation methods of anti-biofilm materials and their classification based on the type of active substances used, followed by a review of the current status of the application of anti-biofilm materials in the food industry. Finally, we conclude this review with an outlook on the future development of anti-biofilm materials. This paper can provide a theoretical basis for further research on anti-biofilm materials to comprehensively promote the application of such materials in the field of food microbial safety, and also provide effective technical strategies for guaranteeing food safety and human health.
Review of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Food Systems and Emission Reduction Strategies
FENG Shi, ZHANG Yi, CHEN Xinping, WANG Xiaozhong
2022, 43(11):  273-283.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210415-213
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The food system is a complex mega system consisting of all elements and activities related to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, which contributes to 34% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has become one of the biggest drivers of global climate change. This paper adopts the literature analysis method to review recent progress in research on GHG emissions from food systems from four aspects: evaluation methods, systematic evaluation, emission reduction strategies and uncertainty analysis. This paper proposes that the accuracy of evaluation results needs to be improved in three aspects: accurate evaluation of the dietary consumption of residents in each country, improvement of the boundary of the carbon footprint accounting system, and use of regionally localized carbon footprint parameters, so as to provide a basis for the low-carbon and sustainable transformation of food systems.
Recent Progress in the Application of High-Voltage Electric Field Technology in Food Sterilization
QI Mengyuan, LIU Qingyan, SHI Susu, XIAN Youhua, YUAN Yuan
2022, 43(11):  284-292.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210313-175
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High-voltage electric field sterilization, one of the most promising low-temperature sterilization technologies, requires very small energy consumption with no pollution and high sterilization efficiency and has little effect on the quality of foods so that it has broad prospects in the field of food sterilization in the future. This article introduces the two common types of high-voltage electric field (high-voltage pulsed electric field and high-voltage electrostatic field) with respect to their installation features, electric field parameter settings for sterilization and the mechanism of high-voltage electric field sterilization, outlines the recent progress in the application of the two types of high-voltage electric field in the sterilization of solid and liquid foods, and summarizes the efforts of researchers from China and abroad to improve the shortcomings of traditional electric field equipment. It also points out the synergistic effect of high-voltage electric field in combination with other sterilization technologies and discusses the future prospects of high-voltage electric field.
Recent Progress in Research on Listeria monocytogenes Cross-Contamination in Meat and Meat Products
ZHANG Yuanyuan, ZHOU Cong, GUO Yiping, YE Keping
2022, 43(11):  293-300.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210505-026
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Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that causes bacterial food poisoning. It is often caused by meat contaminated with this pathogen, and cross-contamination is the main pathway to cause Listeria monocytogenes contamination and foodborne diseases. This paper reviews the epidemiological aspects of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in meat products in China and abroad, the cross-contamination status of domestic kitchens and meat processing plants, cross-contamination modeling, and the prevention and control of cross-contamination, which will hopefully provide a theoretical basis for maintaining domestic food safety and ensuring food processing hygiene and safety in factories.
Progress in Research on the Prebiotic Effects of Plant Polysaccharides and the Factors Influencing Them
YANG Sihui, XIANG Yue, CAO Yanan, REN Yuanhang, PENG Lianxin, SHI Xiaodong
2022, 43(11):  301-310.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210610-132
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Plant polysaccharides are polymers derived from plants with complex structures and various biological activities. Polysaccharides have a beneficial effect on hosts by regulating their intestinal flora, which has become a hot research topic in recent years. Studies have shown that the intestinal flora can metabolize non-starch polysaccharides into short-chain fatty acids, exerting a variety of physiological functions such as regulating host metabolism, immune system and cell proliferation, improving the intestinal environment, and ultimately promoting human health. The chemical structure and physical properties of plant polysaccharides are the basis for their differential utilization by the intestinal flora and determine the strength of their prebiotic effects. The structure of plant polysaccharides varies depending on the extraction, purification and modification methods used, affecting their activity. This paper systematically discusses the prebiotic effects of plant polysaccharides and the factors that affect their structure, which will provide a reference for the precise development and utilization of plant polysaccharides.
Evaluation of Dietary Nutrition and Health Effect: A Review
ZHANG Yi, FENG Shi, WANG Xiaozhong, CHEN Xinping
2022, 43(11):  311-319.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210512-142
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The nutrition and health problems caused by unreasonable food systems are very prominent globally and have aroused wide concern. However, so far systematic evaluation of those problems is lacking. In this context, this paper systematically summarizes the evaluation methods for dietary nutrition and health effects of and the results of evaluation for Chinese and foreign residents, and proposes that changing dietary patterns, improving production technology and taking policy intervention actions are key to improve human nutrition and health. We expect this review to provide new ideas for systematic evaluation of dietary nutrition and health effects.
Current Status of Integration of Coordination and Supervision of Food Safety Standards in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
LI Xiaoman, ZANG Mingwu, LI Dan, ZHANG Kaihua, ZHANG Zheqi, WANG Shouwei
2022, 43(11):  320-329.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211001-001
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As the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) free trade agreement and related policies have promoted the rapid development of trade, the ASEAN has given full play to its regional advantages in the field of edible agricultural products, and has become China’s largest trade partner. The increasing technical barriers to food trade in the ASEAN region show that there are great differences in its member countries’ standards and supervisory measures for their advantageous industries and products. At present, the ASEAN has initially established a food coordination and mutual recognition standard system, including food safety policies, coordination standards and technical specifications, in order to establish a unified regulatory framework of food safety standards and expand the influence of regional trade. Understanding the implementation of trade barrier measures and the current status of food safety standard coordination and supervision in the ASEAN is conducive to maintaining public safety, reducing trade costs, dealing with possible trade barriers, and further strengthening integrated cooperation between China and ASEAN in key areas such as standards and technical regulations.
Progress in Research on Lactococcus lactis Expression Systems and Their Promoter Regulatory Elements
WANG Hui, LAO Xiao, HUANG Linlin, FANG Yicheng, XIONG Zhiqiang, AI Lianzhong, SONG Xin
2022, 43(11):  330-336.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210423-339
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Lactococcus lactis, an important model strain for industrial applications, is an ideal host for heterologous protein expression and secretion because of its non-pathogenic nature, high protein secretion capacity and easy isolation and culture. An efficient and controllable promoter is one of the key factors for efficient expression of exogenous proteins. According to the induction mechanism, promoters can be divided into constitutive promoters and inducible promoters. This paper introduces the structure of Lactococcus lactis expression systems and Lactococcus lactis promoters, summarizes the bioinformatics methods to predict promoters and the new promoter screening cloning methods, and provides an outlook on future directions for research on Lactococcus lactis promoters. We believe that this review will lay the foundation for further research on the structure and function of promoters and industrial production of exogenous proteins.
Recent Development in Key Storage Technologies for Improvement of Lipid Stability of Rice with Remained Germ
WANG Liqun, GUO Lidong, ZHOU Ye, CHEN Kaixin, ZHENG Xianzhe, LU Shuwen
2022, 43(11):  337-344.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210309-113
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Rice with remained germ has the advantages of high nutritional value and convenient cooking. However, the problems such as increased fatty acid value and obvious aging smell during the shelf life seriously limit the circulation and promotion of rice with remained germ products. It is generally believed that the main cause for the deterioration of the quality of rice with remained germ lies in the rapid hydrolysis and oxidation of the surface lipid after milling, which is difficult to control, and none of the existing processing and storage technologies, such as polishing, enzyme inactivation and packaging technologies can produce rice with remained germ that can meet the requirement for the circulation of normal rice products. In order to solve the industry problem, recent studies on the stability of lipid in rice are reviewed systematically in this paper, and the effects of different processing and stress conditions on the stability of lipid in rice are analyzed. Finally, the interactive effect between lipid oxidation in rice and its antioxidant defense system is comprehensively evaluated. This review will hopefully provide a theoretical reference for further research on the mechanism of quality deterioration of rice with remained germ and some new ideas for exploring a feasible and practical storage technology for rice with remained germ.
Progress in Research on Cell Pyroptosis and the Potential Role of Polysaccharides in Regulating It
FAN Wentao, LÜ Kai, WU Chenhao, JIN Zhouyu, JIANG Yu, SONG Hui
2022, 43(11):  345-354.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210302-022
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Cell pyroptosis is a form of pro-inflammatory programmed cell death, and its intensity depends on the activity of caspases. Caspases can cleave gasdermin family proteins to form inactive C-terminal fragments and active N-terminal fragments, the latter translocating to the membrane, resulting in the formation of perforations and consequently water infiltration and cell swelling as well as the release of inflammatory factors, and finally triggering cell pyroptosis. The signaling pathways of cell pyroptosis play an important role in the development of various diseases. As biomolecules, polysaccharides have regulatory effects on signaling molecules such as NF-kappaB (NF-κB), NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether polysaccharides can inhibit or activate cell pyroptosis by affecting related signaling pathways needs to be further investigated. This article reviews the signaling pathways related to cell pyroptosis, the role of cell pyroptosis in various diseases, and the roles of polysaccharides in the regulation of the pyroptosis signaling pathways, and discusses the potential role of polysaccharides in regulating cell pyroptosis, aiming to provide new ideas for the further development of functional polysaccharides.
Advances in Research on Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Peptides
YUAN Zhen, CHENG Shuzhen, WU Di, LIN Zexin, DU Ming
2022, 43(11):  355-363.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210604-058
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Gout is a recurrent inflammatory disease caused by increased metabolism of purines or abnormal uric acid excretion. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is the key enzyme that regulates the generation of uric acid during the metabolism of purines into uric acid. Its function is to convert hypoxanthine into xanthine and into uric acid. By inhibiting the activity of XO, the production of uric acid can be inhibited, thereby relieving hyperuricemia. In recent years, small molecule uric acid-lowering peptides derived from proteins have attracted the attention of researchers because of their low preparation cost, high safety, easy absorption, and high activity, stability and specificity. This paper presents an overview of XO, and summarizes the general steps for the isolation and identification of XO, summarizes recently discovered mixed and single peptide inhibitors of XO with a special reference to the structural commonness of these inhibitors. This review will hopefully provide novel ideas and directions for researchers to discover new XO inhibitory peptides.
Current Status of the Farming Industry of Chinese Giant Salamander and Development Directions of Health Products from This Amphibian: An Analysis from the Perspective of Intellectual Property Rights
TAO Min, HE Dong, CHEN Haihong, ZENG Wen, WANG Jianwen, WANG Songjun, WANG Yi, XING Xinhui
2022, 43(11):  364-372.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210826-331
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Chinese giant salamander is a rare species endemic to China and is a traditional food and medicinal animal. Its meat is delicious, and more importantly, its meat, bone, skin, viscera, oil and mucus are rich in bioactive ingredients and have high food and medicinal values. With the rapid development of the farming industry of Chinese giant salamander, the improvement of people’s living standards and the enhancement of health awareness, high value-added products from farmed giant salamander with unique nutrients and nutraceutical functions have a wide development prospect, which is supported by the policy and law for the conservation of wild resources and the rational utilization of the second generation of cultivated Chinese giant salamanders. However, China lags in scientific research on the bioactive ingredients and deep processing technologies of cultivated Chinese giant salamanders, and the exploitation and utilization of farmed Chinese giant salamander resources for ‘big health’ are still in its infancy. Here, we comprehensively review and analyze all of the intellectual property rights pertaining to the development and utilization of farmed Chinese giant salamander?resources from multiple perspectives such as the trends of patent application, topic distribution of technical invention contents and patent quality, aiming to provide insights toward the development of value-added functional health products from cultivated Chinese giant salamander.
Recent Advances in Pretreatment Methods for the Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Edible Oil
MENG Xiangru, HU Leqian, JU Ying, ZHANG Yan, YIN Chunling
2022, 43(11):  373-382.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210427-386
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In recent years, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been repeatedly detected in edible oil, and food safety problems caused by PAHs have attracted social attention. PAHs, a group of complex organic pollutants with high lipophilicity, are teratogenic and carcinogenic, and PAHs residues tend to appear during the production, processing, and storage of edible oils, causing harm to people’s health. Therefore, the development of rapid and accurate methods to detect PAHs in edible oil has important theoretical and practical significance for understanding and dealing with the hazards of PAHs residues in edible oil. Sample pretreatment is an important step for the detection of PAHs in edible oil. In this review, we first summarize the status of PAHs residues in edible oils. Next, we focus on reviewing the sample pretreatment methods commonly used for detecting PAHs in edible oils in recent years, and compare the advantages and disadvantages of different pretreatment methods. Finally, we discuss the future directions for the development of PAHs detection methods. This review will hopefully contribute to the development of more efficient sample pretreatment methods for the detection of PAHs in edible oils.
Recent Progress on the Application of Oil-Based Fat Substitutes in Sausage Products
QIN Lerong, WANG Haibin, LIAO E, JIN Weiping, PENG Lijuan
2022, 43(11):  383-391.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210416-235
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Excessive fat is a common problem in sausage processing. Vegetable oils rich in n-3 fatty acid are a promising fat substitute due to their ability to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Partially replacing animal fat with vegetable oils can improve the proportions of saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol in sausage and its nutritional quality, meeting people’s pursuit of health and nutrition. This review summarizes the effects of three types of oil-based fat substitutes (natural oil, pre-emulsified oil, and oleogel) on the processing, nutrition, sensory quality and safety of sausage. Recent progress in their application in reduced-fat sausage is summarized and future research directions are discussed, aiming to provide ideas for the development of new reduced-fat sausage products.
Progress in Understanding the Nutritional Value of Camel Milk and Its Application and Mechanism of Action in Preventing Diseases
FENG Mengya, CUI Li, LIU Jiankang, ZHAO Lin
2022, 43(11):  392-401.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210426-372
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This article summarizes the nutritional value of camel milk, demonstrates its characteristics in comparison to other milks, analyzes the biological basis for the medicinal potential of camel milk with regard to the nutritional basis including the medicinal properties of special proteins present in camel milk and the biological basis for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, and gut microcology regulatory effects, and summarizes the recent progress in understanding the effects and mechanisms of action of camel milk in preventing and alleviating a variety of diseases encompassing diabetes, kidney damage, liver damage, cancer, autism and hypertension. Finally, this review concludes with a brief overview of the application of camel milk derivatives in the development of functional foods. We expect that this article will provide a reference for a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the potential of camel milk for medical application and for the development of functional foods based on camel milk.