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15 December 2023, Volume 44 Issue 23
Nonthermal Food Processing
Research Progress in Non-thermal Stabilization Techniques for Rice Bran
ZHOU Chenguang, ZHOU Yaojie, LI Bin, HU Yuqian, LIU Tianrui, YANG Wenli, SHI Jiyong, ZOU Xiaobo
2023, 44(23):  1-12.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20230612-088
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Rice bran, a common byproduct during of the rice milling process, is rich in unsaturated fats, proteins, crude fiber, vitamins, and various bioactive components. However, the stability of fresh rice bran is poor, and it is highly susceptible to rancidity and deterioration, largely limiting the comprehensive and efficient utilization of rice bran. In recent years, researchers have conducted extensive studies on non-thermal stabilization techniques for rice bran and have achieved significant results. Based on this, this paper provides an overview of the nutritional composition and rancidity mechanism of rice bran and various non-thermal techniques for its stabilizationologies, aiming to provide references for the vigorous development of rice bran resources and the improvement of rice bran utilization efficiency.
Effect of High-Intensity Ultrasonic Treatment Time on Physicochemical Properties of Myofibrillar Protein from Procambarus clarkii
WANG Ziling, XIONG Kexin, JIANG Jingchun, WANG Haibin, LU Hongyan, PENG Lijuan, LIAO E, ZOU Shengbi
2023, 44(23):  13-20.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20230625-183
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In recent years, ultrasound has been widely used in the food industry as a promising non-thermal, green technology, but the exact effect of ultrasound on the physicochemical properties of myofibrillar proteins from Procambarus clarkii is not clear yet. This study investigated the effect of high-intensity ultrasound treatment at 300 W power and 20 kHz frequency for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 min during homogenization on the structure and physicochemical properties of myofibrillar proteins from Procambarus clarkii. The results showed that ultrasound treatment decreased the turbidity and mean particle size of myofibrillar proteins significantly (P < 0.05), but initially increased and then decreased the solubility and absolute value of ζ-potential, demonstrating altered degree of protein aggregation. The surface hydrophobicity and endogenous fluorescence intensity initially increased and then decreased with increasing treatment time; the total sulfhydryl group content significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while the carbonyl group content significantly increased (P < 0.05), demonstrating changes in the tertiary structure and a certain degree of protein denaturation. In addition, the relative contents of α-helix and random coil increased first and then decreased, whereas the opposite trend was observed for the proportion of β-sheet, indicating changes in the secondary structure. These results showed that high-intensity ultrasound treatment could affect the physicochemical properties, structure and aggregation degree of myofibrillar proteins from crayfish meat, which could provide a reference for the application of ultrasound as an auxiliary approach in the processing and storage of crayfish.
Effect of Ultrasound Pretreatment on Glycation Characteristics of Parvalbumin with Galactose
JIANG Qing, CHEN Wenmei, SHAO Yanhong, TU Zongcai, LIU Jun
2023, 44(23):  21-26.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20230526-255
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Glycation is the initial stage of the Maillard reaction and plays an important role in food processing and storage. This study aimed to explore the effect of ultrasound pretreatment on the glycation characteristics of parvalbumin with galactose. The multilevel structure, glycation degree, glycated peptides and sites of glycated parvalbumin were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with size exclusion chromatography (SEC), intrinsic fluorescence, ultraviolet absorption, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). The results showed that glycation significantly increased the molecular mass, reduced the free amino content, intrinsic fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption intensity, and changed the tertiary structure of parvalbumin. This effect was further promoted by ultrasound pretreatment. The glycated parvalbumin without ultrasound pretreatment contained four glycation sites (K46, K55, K65 and K88), while the number of glycation sites increased to six (K46, K55, K65, K88, K97 and K108) after ultrasonic pretreatment combined with glycation. Therefore, ultrasound pretreatment can result in protein unfolding, increase the degree of glycation, and thereby improve the characteristics of protein glycation.
Inactivation Mechanism of Low-Energy X-Ray on Salmonella
GAO Wenxuan, LI Jialin, YAN He
2023, 44(23):  27-36.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20230605-030
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The problem of food safety and public health caused by bacterial infection has always been a hot issue of social concern, so it is of great significance and application value to explore a safe and efficient food sterilization technology. X-ray irradiation, a new non-thermal sterilization technology with high penetrability that is safety controllable, has a high linear energy transfer (LET) value and relative biological effect (BRE). However, the mechanism for its inactivation effect on foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Gram-negative bacteria is rarely reported, which greatly limits its application and development in the field of food microbial safety. In this study, the inactivation effect and mechanism of low-energy X-ray on Salmonella, a common foodborne Gram-negative pathogen, were investigated by transcriptomics in an effort to provide a theoretical basis for the application of low-energy X-ray in food safety control. The influence of X-ray irradiation at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 kGy on the survival and sublethal effect of Salmonella was analyzed using plate counting method, the effect of X-ray irradiation on bacterial ultrastructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was examined, and the mechanism of Salmonella inactivation by low-energy X-ray was elucidated by transcriptomic analysis. Results showed that the sub-lethal rate of Salmonella was the highest (99.44%) when exposed to 0.5 kGy of X-rays. Low energy X-ray destroyed the bacterial cell wall and membrane. The transcriptome sequencing results showed that among the 292 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified, 214 were up-regulated and 78 were down-regulated. DEGs analysis showed that low energy X-ray irradiation could cause DNA damage and regulate oxidative stress response, amino acid synthesis, energy metabolism, virulence, and transmembrane transport in bacterial cells. These findings suggested that low-energy X-ray irradiation has the potential to inhibit bacterial growth and metabolism of cells and thereby reduce the risk of bacterial infection.
Antimicrobial Effect of High Pressure Processing Combined with Lauroyl Arginine Ethyl Ester Hydrochloride on Listeria innocua
CHEN Junyu, LI Ting, LI Xiang, RAO Lei, WU Xiaomeng
2023, 44(23):  37-44.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20230630-242
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Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne human pathogen responsible for severe listeriosis and poses a great threat to human health. Hence, controlling the growth of L. monocytogenes plays an important role in the prevention of food contamination. Listeria innocua is often studied experimentally as a substitute strain for L. monocytogenes. In order to better maintain the sensory properties and nutrients of foods and extend their shelf life, this study explored the antimicrobial effect and possible mechanism of high pressure processing (HPP) combined with lauroyl arginate ethyl ester hydrochloride (LAE) on L. innocua. The feasibility of applying the combined treatment as a preservative was also investigated in ham. The results showed that 12 mg/L LAE treatment for 60 minutes had a potent antimicrobial effect on L. innocua, achieving a bacterial reduction of 3.12 (lg (CFU/mL)). Under the combined action of HPP and LAE, the surface morphology of bacterial cells became more wrinkled and sunken, and intracellular contents leaked out, suggesting a severe change in cell membrane permeability. The combined treatment of HPP at 350 MPa for 5 min with 12 mg/L LAE reduced L. innocua count by 4.87 (lg (CFU/mL)), which was 3.25 and 3.54 (lg (CFU/mL)) higher than that achieved using HPP and LAE treatments alone, respectively, suggesting a synergistic antimicrobial effect. Such synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed on ham inoculated with L. innocua. This study could provide a theoretical reference for controlling the contamination of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products.
Basic Research
Structural Identification, in Vitro Immunomodulatory and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharides AHL-P from Arachis hypogaea Leaves
LU Ruijia, XIA Youlin, YOU Yu, WANG Yixue, DING Xiang, HOU Yiling
2023, 44(23):  45-54.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20230421-212
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In this study, a polysaccharide (AHL-P) was obtained from Arachis hypogaea leaves by hot water extraction. High performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to identify the structure of AHL-P. The effects of AHL-P on the proliferation of MFC cells, S180 cells, B cells (Raji), T cells (Jurkat) and RAW 264.7 cells in vitro were also tested by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). The results indicated that the molecular mass of AHL-P was 12.84 kDa and its monosaccharide composition consisted of glucose, xylose, galactose and arabinose at a ratio of 7:2:1:1. AHL-P was a novel polysaccharide having a backbone chain composed of (1→4, 6)-Glc, (1→4)-Xyl and (1→4)-Glc, with (1→4)-Ara and (1→4)-Gal as branches and →1)-Glc as a terminal monosaccharide of the repeating unit. The antitumor activity assay in vitro indicated that the highest inhibitory rate of AHL-P on S180 and MFC cells of 39.07% and 52.22% was observed at a concentration of 5 and 2.5 μg/mL, respectively. The immunomodulatory activity assay in vitro indicated that at 10 μg/mL AHL-P, the proliferation rate of B cells (Raji) and RAW 264.7 cells was 104.39% and 32.25%, respectively. However, AHL-P had no significantly proliferative effect on T cells (Jurkat). This study could provide a scientific basis for the development and utilization of Arachis hypogaea leaves.
Structure, Physicochemical Properties, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Pectin Prepared by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Premna ligustroides Hemsl. Leaves
LIU Sha, DENG Liling, ZHONG Geng, YANG Hongsheng
2023, 44(23):  55-63.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221205-045
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In this study, pectinase-extracted pectin (PPHP), mixed enzyme-extracted pectin (MPHP), and water-extracted pectin (WPHP) from Premna ligustrides Hemsl. leaves were prepared by pectinase-assisted extraction, pectinase and cellulase-assisted extraction and hot water extraction, respectively, and their molecular masses, monosaccharide compositions, infrared spectra, galacturonic acid contents, degrees of esterification were determined. In addition, their scavenging capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation and Fe3+ reducing power were assayed, and their antibacterial effects on Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were explored. The results showed that the yields of WPHP, PPHP and MPHP were 5.11%, 6.45% and 8.91%, respectively. WPHP belonged to high-ester pectin, while MPHP and PPHP belonged to low-ester pectin. The weight-average molecular mass of pectin in the leaves of Premna ligustrides Hemsl was reduced by enzymatic treatment. The contents of total phenols and total flavonoids in MPHP were 17.09 and 26.46 mg/g, respectively, higher than those in WPHP and PPHP. All three pectins had strong scavenging capacities against DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation, among which MPHP had the strongest antioxidant activity. The results of in vitro antibacterial activity showed that MPHP had the best antibacterial effect on Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. These results provide a basis for further searching for the material basis of the antibacterial activity of pectin from Premna ligustroides Hemsl. leaves, and are of significance for the in-depth development and utilization of pectin from Premna ligustroides Hemsl. leaves.
Slaughtering Performance and Meat Quality Characteristics of Hu Sheep and Its Hybrid Offspring with Southdown Sheep
KONG Lingying, YUE Yaojing, ZHENG Chen, LU Zengkui
2023, 44(23):  64-70.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221124-285
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Objective: To study the slaughtering performance and meat quality characteristics of Hu sheep and its hybrid offspring with Southdown sheep. Methods: Six-month-old Hu sheep and F1 hybrid of Southdown × Hu sheep at the same age under the same feeding and management conditions (n = 6 each) were selected for slaughter. The slaughtering performance of sheep, and the nutritional, eating and processing quality of lamb meat were determined. Results: Compared with Hu sheep, the live mass (62.68 vs 53.32 kg), carcass mass (34.34 kg vs 29.65 kg), protein content (21.88 vs 20.87 g/100 g) and polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) ratio (1.49 vs 1.03) of the hybrid significantly increased (P < 0.01); the net meat mass (29.09 vs 25.14 kg), eye muscle area (27.69 vs 19.40 cm2), cooking loss (67.30% vs 63.82%), essential amino acid content (8.09 vs 7.87 g/100 g), total amino acid content (20.15 vs 19.62 g/100 g) and polyunsaturated fatty acid content (3.28 vs 2.72 mg/10 g) also significantly increased (P < 0.05), whereas the back fat thickness (2.80 vs 4.41 mm), GR value (4.54 vs 7.26 mm), shear force (41.05 vs 52.52 N), cholesterol content (50.80 vs 59.70 mg/100 g) and saturated fatty acid content (2.21 vs 2.66 mg/10 g) significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Crossbreeding with Southdown sheep can significantly improve the slaughtering performance of Hu sheep, and increase the water retention capacity and tenderness of Hu sheep meat as well as its nutritional value and health-beneficial function.
Food Engineering
Effect of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Low Temperature Plasma Treatment on Mutton Tenderness during Postmortem Storage
DU Manting, GAO Mengli, HUANG Li, LI Ke, HU Jianhang, BAI Yanhong
2023, 44(23):  71-76.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221130-351
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The Longissimus dorsi muscle of sheep was treated at different times postmortem with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) low temperature plasma and evaluated for pH, total number of bacteria, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) and myofibril ultrastructure during postmortem storage. Our aim was to determine the effects of DBD low temperature plasma treatment at different times after slaughter on mutton tenderness. The results showed that after 12 h of postmortem storage, the pH of mutton treated with DBD low-temperature plasma at 6 and 12 h postmortem was significantly lower than that of the other treated groups (P < 0.05); the total number of bacteria in mutton treated at 12–72 h after slaughter decreased significantly compared with the untreated group. As the storage time increased, MFI gradually increased, showed a significant upward trend during 6–72 h (P < 0.05), and then tended to be stable after 72 h for all treated groups. DBD low temperature plasma treatment at 6–24 h postmortem significantly increased the growth rate of MFI than the other treatments (P < 0.05). After 24 h storage, the sarcomere length of mutton treated at the early postmortem stage (6–24 h) was significantly reduced and shorter than that of the other treated groups (P < 0.05), and the sarcomere length of mutton in the 24 h postmortem treatment group was the shortest. In conclusion, DBD low-temperature plasma treatment at 12 to 24 h postmortem had the least effect on the tenderness of mutton while reducing the number of bacteria.
Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment at Different Temperatures on the Ability of Maize Starch to Form Complex with Lipid and Its Mechanism
YU Yingtao, CAO Shaopan, XIAO Liuyang, HUANG Jipeng, GAO Ying, LU Xue, HAN Lihong
2023, 44(23):  77-85.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221108-083
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This study was carried out in order to explore the effect of ultrasonic treatment at different temperatures (0, 20, 40 and 60 ℃) on the ability of maize starch to form a complex with lipid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), laser confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy and were used to characterize the changes in the multilevel structure of maize starch granules before and after treatment, and the mechanism for the change in its lauric acid complexing capacity was analyzed. The results showed that the lipid complexing capacity of maize starch was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by ultrasonic treatment, and the complexing index decreased from 27.9% to 15.0% with increasing temperature from 0 to 60 ℃; the enthalpy change (ΔH), relative crystallinity, degree of short-range order and relative content of resistant starch declined. Through the multi-level structure analysis, it was found that the molecular chain of the starch was depolymerized by ultrasonic treatment, and ultrasonic treatment at 60 ℃ caused the leaching of amylose from starch granules, thereby damaging their integrity and making the surface rough. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment at different temperatures can reduce the lipid complexing capacity of starch by changing its multilevel structure.
Effect of Curing Method on Myofibrillar Protein Characteristics of Mountain Black Pork during Curing Process and Eating Quality of Barbecued Pork
ZHOU Yajun, ZHANG Manman, LI Zongping, MA Qingshu, MA Zhiyuan, JIANG Wei, YAO Guangming
2023, 44(23):  86-94.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20230728-297
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In order to develop new barbecued pork products from Mountain Black pigs, this study investigated the effects of low-temperature vacuum tumbling (LVT), ultrasonic (U) curing and their combination (U/LVT) on the properties of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) and the eating quality of barbecued pork from Mountain Black pigs, and it also explored the intrinsic mechanism of the effect of curing method on the eating quality of barbecued pork. The results showed that MPs in the U/LVT group had higher solubility and free sulfhydryl group content, lower surface hydrophobicity and hydrogen bond content, and higher fluorescence intensity than the LVT and U groups. The results of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that MPs in the U/LVT group were decomposed into more small-molecule peptides. The highest marinade uptake and the lowest cooking loss and shear force were observed in the U group, while the U/LVT group had the highest total sensory score with better taste and flavor (P < 0.05). In conclusion, U/LVT marination can significantly affect MPs characteristics and improve the eating quality of barbecued pork from Mountain Black pigs.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Regulatory Effect of High-Protein Diet on Circadian Rhythm of Lipid Metabolism in Obese Mice
JIANG Zhiqing, DENG Guoliang, ZENG Fanhang, SHAO Ru, ZHU Rongxiang, TANG Xue
2023, 44(23):  95-103.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221122-261
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This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effect of high-protein diet on circadian rhythm disturbances of lipid metabolism in obese mice induced by high-fat diet. Totally 120 specific pathogen-free (SPF)-grade C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal, high-fat and high-fat/high-protein groups. The metabolic status of mice was monitored at the 4th and 12th week of intervention, and mice were sacrificed at 2, 8, 14, and 20 o’clock after completion of feeding. Lipid levels in blood and liver, the expression of genes related to fat anabolism and catabolism and the expression of circadian rhythm-related genes were measured, and circadian rhythm changes were analyzed. The results showed that high-fat feeding caused an increase in body mass and obesity index and a decrease in voluntary activity and caloric expenditure during the active period. The changes were accompanied by dyslipidemia and an abnormal increase in liver lipid levels, manifested by continuous gene expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, key enzymes involved in fat anabolism in liver, at high levels during the active and resting periods, a slow increase in the gene expression of sensitive lipase and acetyl-CoA oxidase, key enzymes involved in fat catabolism in liver, and changes in the diurnal variation pattern. Compared with high-fat intervention, high-protein intervention significantly increased the amount of voluntary activity and energy expenditure during the active period, restored the expression rhythm of fat synthase that was higher during the active period and lower during the rest period, and resulted in high-level expression of ACOX, a key enzyme gene involved in fat catabolism, after ingestion, showing obvious circadian rhythms. Further analysis showed that the improvement effects of high-protein intervention on circadian rhythm disorders of lipid metabolism caused by high-fat diet were closely related to the regulation of the expression of two clock genes in liver, circadian locomotor output cycle kaput (CLOCK) and brain and muscle-Arnt-like protein 1 (BMAL1). In conclusion, high-protein diets can alleviate biological clock disorders in liver induced by high-fat diets and ameliorate hepatic lipid metabolism disorders in mice by stabilizing circadian rhythms.
Effects of Differently Processed Carrots on Ulcerative Colitis in Mice
ZHAO Mingjiao, ZHONG Yadong, ZHANG Hao, HU Jielun, XIONG Tao, NIE Shaoping, XIE Mingyong
2023, 44(23):  104-113.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221203-029
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The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) has been increasing in recent years. Due to the limitations of traditional drug therapies for UC, natural foods that can prevent this disease and alleviate its symptoms are becoming a research hot topic, but the effects of processing methods on their activity remain unknown. Therefore, the effects of three different processing methods (pulping, high-temperature cooking, and fermentation) on carotenoid and dietary fiber contents as well as carotenoid bioaccessibility in carrots were explored in this study. C57BL/6J mice were used to create a mouse model of UC induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and the mice received dietary intervention with freeze dried powder of carrots (5.05%, on a dry mass basis) for 14 days. Body mass change, disease activity index (DAI) and colon parameters (length, pathology, inflammatory factors, oxidative stress level, goblet cell number, tight junction protein expression, and short-chain fatty acid content) were analyzed to evaluate the effects of three differently processed carrots on UC. The results showed compared with pulping, high-temperature cooking and fermentation significantly decreased the soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber contents of carrots (P < 0.05), increased the bioaccessibility of carotenoids (P < 0.05), while fermentation significantly increased the proportion of soluble dietary fiber in total dietary fiber (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, all processed carrots could significantly inhibit the change of body mass loss and DAI (P < 0.05), decrease the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 (P < 0.05), increase the level of IL-10 (P < 0.05), and up-regulate the expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin) (P < 0.05). High-temperature cooked or fermented carrots could significantly alleviate colon shortening (P < 0.05), and relieve the pathological damage of colon tissue (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, fermented carrots could significantly inhibit the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05), improve the decrease in the number of goblet cells (P < 0.05), increase the level of butyric acid (P < 0.05) and possess the best inhibitory effect on IL-6 production. In summary, differently processed carrots could ameliorate ulcerative colitis to different extends, the most pronounced effect being observed with fermented carrots.
Effect of Microwave Treatment and Drying Time on the Antioxidant Activity of in Vitro Digested Dried Abalone
LIAO Yuqin, HAN Yaohui, REN Zhongyang, SHI Linfan, WENG Wuyin, HUANG Wenmei
2023, 44(23):  114-122.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221129-341
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During oven drying of abalone muscle, microwave treatment was conducted at regular time intervals (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days). Abalone muscle digestion products (AMDP) were prepared by subjecting dried abalone to in vitro simulated digestion. Our aim was to investigate the effect of microwave treatment during the drying of abalone muscle on the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of AMDP. The results showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of AMDP from fresh abalone muscle for scavenging capacity against hydroxyl (·OH) radicals, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-phenylhydrazine (DPPH) radical were 3.04, 15.18 and 21.12 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values for the scavenging of these three radical species decreased gradually with increasing the drying time of abalone muscle. After being fed AMDP from abalone muscle dried for 120 days, the body length of Caenorhabditis elegans increased from 768.90 to 1 034.62 μm, the head swing frequency increased from 206 to 281 times/min, and the life span was extended by 36.16% under normal conditions and by 59.41% and 38.48% under heat stress and oxidative stress conditions, respectively compared with the control group. Meanwhile, with prolonging the drying time of abalone muscle, the antioxidant enzyme activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and total antioxidant capacity of C. elegans fed AMDP increased, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content decreased. In summary, prolonging the drying time and using microwave treatment during the drying process could improve the antioxidant capacity of AMDP.
Effect of Fish Oil on Enteritis Damage and Intestinal Gene Expression Profiles in Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infected Mice
WANG Rundong, ZHOU Kui, DENG Yijia, ZHANG Yuhao, LI Xuepeng, LI Jianrong
2023, 44(23):  123-133.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221204-040
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Fish oil (FO) can modulate the gut ecosystem and improve intestinal health, but the specific role and mechanism of FO in preventing foodborne pathogen infection are still unclear. In this study, the effect of FO on enteritis damage and intestinal gene expression profiles in Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) infected mice was investigated. The disease activity index (DAI) score, the colonic histopathological score (HIS), the expression of intestinal fibrosis biomarkers (type I and type III collagen), the contents of the cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (AT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant enzymes (TAE) and the colonic gene expression profiles in the mouse model of Vp infection were measured before and after FO intervention. The results showed that gavage with 4.0 mg/d FO significantly reduced DAI scores and HIS, and alleviated colonic pathological damage. FO could also significantly down-regulate the expression of intestinal fibrosis-related proteins (P < 0.05), maintain intestinal barrier functions, and inhibit cytokine-mediated excessive inflammation and oxidative stress. Thus, FO reduced body damage induced by Vp infection by altering the gene expression pattern in the colon, up-regulating the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR), enriching the PPAR signaling pathway, and inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Hence, dietary supplementation of FO can protect the body against foodborne pathogens.
Anti-aging Effect of Inactivated Bacillus sp. DU-106 in Caenorhabditis elegans
ZHANG Yuwei, ZHAO Wenjun, LI Weijie, DU Bing, LI Pan
2023, 44(23):  134-141.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221207-078
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The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-aging effects and underlying mechanisms of inactivated Bacillus sp. DU-106 in Caenorhabditis elegans. The antioxidant activity of inactivated Bacillus sp. DU-106 was evaluated by in vitro free radical scavenging assay. The effects of inactivated Bacillus sp. DU-106 at various concentrations on the lifespan, stress response and antioxidant capacity of C. elegans were observed. The results illustrated that inactivated Bacillus sp. DU-106 possessed strong free radical scavenging capacity in vitro, meanwhile, inactivated Bacillus sp. DU-106 effectively extended the lifespan of C. elegans and improved its movement and stress resistance. Different concentrations of inactivated Bacillus sp. DU-106 increased the levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorescence microscopy showed that treatment with inactivated Bacillus sp. DU-106 significantly reduced lipofuscin levels in C. elegans. In conclusion, inactivated Bacillus sp. DU-106 can exert an anti-aging effect perhaps by reducing lipofuscin accumulation and increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes in C. elegans. This study provides a powerful basis for the development of Bacillus for application in nutraceuticals.
Protective Effect of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Yak Milk Casein on Oxidative Stress Injury in HEK293 Cells
WU Dengyu, WEI Ti, MA Zhongren, SONG Li, YANG Jutian, CAI Yong, GAO Dandan
2023, 44(23):  142-150.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221110-115
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In this experiment, HEK293 cells were induced by H2O2 to establish a cell model of oxidative damage, and the optimal H2O2 concentration and treatment time were determined. The effects of five antioxidant peptides (AFK, IEQI, FPFF, LPVPQ and RELEEL) derived from yak milk casein on the survival rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidant enzyme activities, reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione contents of the damaged cells were studied, and the mechanism of action of the antioxidant peptides was explored to provide a theoretical basis for their development and application in high value-added biological products and functional foods. The results showed that these antioxidant peptides had different scavenging effects on different radical species, but they all showed a dose-effect relationship. After being treated with a final concentration of 400 μmol/L H2O2 for 12 h, the inhibitory rate of HEK293 cells was (46.21 ± 0.40)%. Cytotoxicity test showed that the five antioxidant peptides had no toxic or side effects on HEK-293 cells, and did not promote cell proliferation either. These antioxidant peptides could significantly reduce the contents of malondialdehyde (except LPVPQ) and oxidized glutathione in HEK293 cells damaged by oxidation, and enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes. RELEEL at a concentration of 200 μg/mL significantly reduced MDA content to (0.062 ± 0.000) nmol/104 cells and increased glutathione content to (61.17 ± 2.48) μg/106 cells while maintaining high GSH/GSSG ratio of 64.93 ± 0.95. The antioxidant peptide LPVPQ at 200 μg/mL significantly reduced the content of oxidized glutathione to (0.74 ± 0.26) μg/106 cells and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) to (1.17 ± 0.02) U/104 cells; the antioxidant peptide AFK at 200 μg/mL significantly enhanced catalase (CAT) activity to (0.60 ± 0.09) U/104 cells. These results indicate that the antioxidant peptides derived from yak milk casein have positive effects on cells damaged by oxidation, which can provide a reference for further development of relevant products.
Antiobesity and Lipid-Lowering Effects of Wheat Bran Polyphenols in Obese Rats
YAN Huan, YANG Zhong, HAN Jia
2023, 44(23):  151-164.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221106-056
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This study aimed to observe the antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of wheat bran polyphenols (WBP) in diet-induced obese rats, and to explore its possible mechanism. Eighty 6-week-old SD rats, half from each gender, were adaptively fed for one week. Ten rats were randomly selected from them and fed on a basal diet to serve as a blank control group. The remaining 70 rats were fed on a high-fat diet until the body mass gain exceeded 20%. Totally 50 obese rats were selected from the 70 rats and randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each: model (distilled water 5.0 mL/kg mb), positive control (trimethylglycine (TMG), 0.10 g/kg mb), low-dose WBP (WBP-L, 1.50 g/kg mb), medium-dose WBP (WBP-M, 3.00 g/kg mb), and high-dose WBP (WBP-H, 6.00 g/kg mb). Each drug was administered daily at a dose of 5.0 mL/kg mb by gavage. The rats in the blank control group were gavaged with distilled water (5.0 mL/kg mb) for nine weeks. During the intervention period, body mass and food intake of the rats were measured once a week and food effect was calculated. After completion of the intervention period, the rats were fasted for 12 hours with access to water and then anesthetized with ether to collect blood samples from the abdominal aorta and liver and surrounding adipose tissue to calculate liver coefficients and obesity indexes. Sera were separated from the blood samples for measurement of biochemical indicators. Liver tissues were homogenized for analyses of antiinflammatory and antioxidant parameters. Moreover, the degree of hepatic steatosis was pathohistologically observed. The results showed that WBP at all doses could reduce the food effect, inhibit the body mass gain in obese rats, reduce the liver mass and liver coefficient, and significantly lower the levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and creatinine (CREA) in the sera of obese rats. In addition, all doses of WBP decreased the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β. tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), adiponectin (ADPN) and leptin (LEP) in the liver homogenate of obese rats to varying degrees, but significantly increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and hepaticlipase (HL) levels (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); the effect of WBP was more pronounced than that of TMG. In conclusion, WBP can exert antiobesity, lipid-lowering and hepatoprotective functions by inhibiting the degree of obesity in simple obesity rats, reducing serum lipid levels, alleviating chronic inflammation caused by obesity, and inhibiting liver injury. Therefore, WBP has the potential to be developed as a functional food and health product with antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects. This study provides a theoretical reference for scientific and reasonable development of wheat bran.
Packaging & Storage
Effect of Preharvest Spraying of Diethyl Aminoethyl Hexanoate on Membrane Lipid Metabolism of Grapes during Storage
YU Peng, ZHENG Fangying, YU Yihe, JIANG Dongming, YANG Yingjun
2023, 44(23):  159-176.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221121-243
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In order to investigate the effect of preharvest spraying of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) on membrane lipid metabolism in ‘Kyoho’ grapes during postharvest storage, distilled water (control) and 50 mg/L DA-6 were used to spray grapes at the veraison stage. The grapes were harvested when they were ripe, stored at (0 ± 1) ℃ and relative humidity of 65%–70%, and evaluated for cell membrane related indicators of grape skin after 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 days. The results showed that compared with the control group, DA-6 treatment effectively inhibited the increase in the relative permeability of cell membrane during postharvest storage, maintained the activities of lipoxygense (LOX), lipase and phospolipase D (PLD), inhibited the decrease of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol content and the increase of phosphatidyl acid content, and maintained a high relative content of unsaturated acids such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid as well as saturated fatty acids such as stearic acid, behenic acid, arachidic acid and palmitoleic acid, consequently maintaining the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids at a high level. Additionally, DA-6 treatment suppressed the expression of the LOX, Lipase, and PLD genes. In summary, preharvest spraying of 50 mg/L DA-6 can delay the senescence and prolong the storage period of ‘Kyoho’ grapes by effectively relieving the membrane lipid metabolism during storage.
Controlled Atmosphere Storage Alleviates Chilling Injury and Ameliorates Aroma Quality by Enhancing Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Ability in Peach Fruit
HE Hui, QIAO Yongjin, LIU Hongru, LIU Chenxia, WANG Chunfang, ZHONG Yaoguang, LI Jiahe, HU Liushen
2023, 44(23):  165-186.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221107-064
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In order to explore the effect of controlled atmosphere (CA) storage on alleviating chilling injury (CI) in peach fruit and the possible underlying mechanism, the effect of CA treatment (5% O2 + 10% CO2) on internal browning index (IB), firmness, ethylene release rate, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, compounds and key enzyme activities related to the ascorbic acid-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle and volatile contents in yellow-fleshed peach fruit (cv. Jinxiu) during low temperature ((0 ± 2) ℃) storage and shelf (20 ℃, 3 d) was investigated. The results showed that CA alleviated CI significantly relative to the control group; on the third day of the shelf life after 30-day cold storage (30dS3), IB was lower than 10%, fruit firmness decreased to below 10 N, and ethylene release rate was 1.7-fold as high as in the control. During the late period of cold storage, the contents of total ROS, MDA, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly lower and scavenging capacities against 1,1-diphenyl-lpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation free radicals were significantly higher in the CA-treated fruit than the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Meanwhile, in the CA-treated peach fruit, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased by 36% on 30dS3, while the activities of AsA-GSH cycle-related key enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) were enhanced, and the conversion of reduced ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid was significantly inhibited. Moreover, CA treatment accumulated higher amounts of C6 alcohols, esters, and lactones compared with the control group at the end of the shelf life; on 30dS3, the contents of γ-hexalactone, γ-decalactone, and δ-decalactone were increased by 3.0, 2.6 and 5.0 folds compared with the control group, respectively. In addition, higher contents of sucrose and sorbitol and lower contents of glucose and fructose were observed in the CA-treated fruit. Therefore, CA treatment (5% O2 + 10% CO2) can alleviate CI and maintain aroma quality by activating the AsA-GSH cycle and SOD, and enhancing ROS scavenging capacity in peach fruit.
Calcium Chloride Affects Postharvest Color Change of ‘Xiaobai’ Apricots by Regulating Energy Metabolism Pathways
LIU Xueyan, ZHANG Jiexian, WEI Jia, ZHANG Zheng, SHAN Qing, JIANG Liwei, WU Bin, ZHANG Ping
2023, 44(23):  177-193.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221121-242
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In order to investigate the regulatory mechanism of exogeneous calcium chloride (CaCl2) on postharvest energy metabolism and ascertain the association between energy metabolism levels and color change in ‘Xiaobai’ apricots, ‘Xiaobai’ apricots from Xinjiang were fumigated with 3 g/100 mL CaCl2 solution or distilled water (control) before being stored at (10 ± 1.0) ℃ and relative humidity of (80 ± 5)%. Changes in chlorophyll, carotenoid, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP) contents and energy charge (EC) levels in the peel and pulp of apricots and changes in enzyme activities and gene expression related to energy metabolism were determined during the storage period. The results showed that compared with the control group, CaCl2 treatment delayed chlorophyll degradation, inhibited carotenoid synthesis, maintained ATP and ADP contents and energy charge levels, enhanced the activities of H+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), and induced the expression of the PaH+-ATPase1, PaCa2+-ATPase10, PaSDH and PaCCO6 genes in both peel and pulp. Chlorophyll content in the peel and pulp was positively correlated with ATP, ADP and EC levels, but negatively correlated with carotenoid contents. There was a significantly positive correlation between chlorophyll and ADP levels in the peel and pulp (P < 0.01). It was suggested that exogenous CaCl2 could delay postharvest color change and maintain high energy charge by regulating energy metabolism, therefore prolonging the shelf life of ‘Xiaobai’ apricots.
Regulatory Mechanism of Sodium/Calcium Ratio on Texture Quality of Kelp Pickle during Shelf-Life Period
CHEN Bingyan, LIN Xiaozi, LI Weixin, DOU Fangjiao, HE Zhigang
2023, 44(23):  187-201.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221109-089
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This work aims to study the regulatory mechanism of calcium fortification on the texture of kelp pickle during the shelf-life period in order to provide theoretical support for improving its texture quality using exogenous calcium. The effects of fermentation acidity and sodium/calcium ratio on the texture of kelp pickle during its shelf life at 4 ℃ were studied, and the evolution of water distribution and the structure of calcium ion bridge was analyzed. The results showed the hardness of kelp pickle decreased with increasing fermentation acidity, but its changes were effectively slowed down by exogenous calcium lactate. The rate of hardness preservation of kelp pickle with a sodium/calcium of 1.5:1 increased by 92.8% compared with the control group. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and low-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed calcium lactate alleviated the morphological damage of kelp tissues caused by acid produced during fermentation, and inhibited the transition of bound water to free water during the shelf-life period. The proportion of free water in kelp pickle with a sodium/calcium ratio of 2:1 increased by only 10.29 percentage points after six months of storage. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the mechanism by which calcium lactate enhanced the texture of kelp pickle during its shelf-life might be related to the formation of a stable calcium ion bridge at a sodium/calcium ratio of 2:1 or 1.5:1.
Reviews
Proteins in Barley and Their Effects on Beer Brewing: A Review of Recent Research
LIU Hanhan, XU Chen, SUN Mingyang, JIANG Zhenghui, LÜ Chenyan
2023, 44(23):  194-214.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221124-289
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As an important cereal crop, barley occupies an important position in feed production and food processing. Proteins in barley grains have significant effects on the beer brewing process and beer quality, especially in terms of its foaming capacity and turbidity. However, little research has been conducted on the important proteins in barley such as hordeins and heat-stable proteins (protein Z and lipid transfer proteins). Information on their structure is lacking, and the development of their functions is still in its early stages. This review paper focuses on the structure, functional properties and application of important proteins in barley, and outlines their roles and changes in beer brewing with the aim of providing theoretical references for their processing and utilization.
Research Progress in Preparation and Application in Intelligent and Active Packaging of Carbon Dots from Food Processing By-products
DING Ke, GE Shuai, KONG Hui, WANG Rongrong, SHAN Yang, DING Shenghua
2023, 44(23):  202-222.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221221-210
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As an emerging nanoparticle, carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used in the fields of chemical sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery, photocatalyst and food detection due to its superior biocompatibility and photoluminescence. Food processing by-products come from a wide range of sources and are easy to obtain. Moreover, the surface of CDs prepared from food processing by-products is usually rich in functional groups and miscellaneous elements, imparting excellent photocatalytic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties to CDs. In recent years, CDs have been used as food packaging additives to enhance the ultraviolet (UV) shielding, mechanical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of food packaging. In this paper, the types of food processing by-products that can be used to prepare CDs and natural polymer-based films added with CDs and the application of CDs in active and intelligent packaging are reviewed in order to provide guidance for the preparation of CDs from food processing by-products and its application in food packaging.
Research Progress on the Formation of and Control Methods for Harmful Products from Maillard Reaction in Brown Sugar Production
LIU Jing, HAN Meiyi, HOU Liran, HU Na, YU Junzhe, XIE Caifeng
2023, 44(23):  215-230.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221129-339
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The Maillard reaction during the production of brown sugar is critical to the color, flavor and functional characteristics of brown sugar, but it also produces substances potentially harmful to human health such as glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and acrylamide. This paper introduces the Maillard reaction at the key stages of the brown sugar production process, its influential factors, its possible harmful products and their effects on human health, and it puts forward some suggestions for controlling the production of harmful products from Maillard reaction during brown sugar production in order to provide a theoretical reference for improving the safety of brown sugar for consumption.
Research Progress in Heterologous Expression, Fermentation and Application of Microbial Transglutaminase
YAN Wenhui, SUN Xinjie, XI Xiangheng, WANG Chenying, REN Xidong
2023, 44(23):  223-239.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221125-293
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Transglutaminase (TG) is a widely used enzyme with excellent protein cross-linking capacity. TG is commonly found in plants, animals and microorganisms, and microbial TG (mTG) is widely used in industrial production and application because of its good enzymatic properties. This paper describes the physicochemical properties and activation mechanism of mTG, and summarizes recent progress in mTG production by wild and different genetically engineered strains. Meanwhile, the application and potential of mTG in various industrial fields are reviewed. This review is expected to provide a reference and new ideas for research on the potential of mTG for industrial production and application.
Advances in Strain Improvement for the Production of ε-Poly-L-lysine
SUN Zilong, FU Jiaolong, WANG Yue, ZHOU Yunfeng, LI Boyan, QIAN Wei, BAI Jing, JU Xin, LI Liangzhi
2023, 44(23):  231-251.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221114-158
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ε-Poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) is a novel biopolymer consisting of 25–35 L-lysine residues, which is formed by the dehydration condensation of ε-NH2 and α-COOH. ε-PL possesses many excellent characteristics, such as antimicrobial activity, edibility, water solubility, biodegradability, thermostability and nontoxicity. As a natural and safe food preservative, ε-PL possesses many excellent advantages such as thermal stability, edibility, water solubility, degradability, and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and has been successfully utilized in Japan, South Korea, the United States, China and other countries. ε-PL is usually produced by fermentation with Streptomyces albulus, and improving ε-PL-producing stains is crucial for enhancing ε-PL production and reducing costs. At present, researchers have obtained microbial strains capable of producing high levels of ε-PL by using physicochemical mutagenesis, ribosome engineering, genome shuffling, genetic engineering and other methods. This review introduces the mechanism of ε-PL biosynthesis and recent progress in strain improvement for the production of ε-PL, and gives an overview of the fermentation process of ε-PL. Finally, this review concludes with an outlook on future research directions. We hope that this review can help promote strain improvement for green biological manufacturing of ε-poly-L-lysine.
Progress in Understanding the Molecular Mechanism of Bacterial Spore Germination
ZHANG Tianyu, LÜ Fengzhi, GUI Meng, WU Xiaomeng, ZHAO Liang, WANG Yongtao, RAO Lei, LIAO Xiaojun
2023, 44(23):  240-260.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221111-124
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In response to nutrient limitation, Bacillus and Clostridium can form metabolically dormant spores, which are extremely resistant to a variety of environmental stresses. The ubiquitousness of spores in the environment makes it inevitable for them to enter the food processing chain. Once suitable conditions are available, spores will rapidly germinate to resume vegetative growth, thereby causing food spoilage. Since germination induces the loss of stress resistance in dormant spores, germination-inactivation strategy has been developed to mildly kill spores while maintaining food quality. Understanding the spore germination process of diverse bacterial species, the related signal transduction mechanism and the factors impacting the germination process are beneficial to develop efficient and precise strategies for inducing spore germination and raising the efficiency of inactivation, which is of great significance to the control of spores in foods. This review describes the mechanisms of the spore germination of Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile in terms of spore germination receptor activation and signal transduction. Moreover, inducers and inhibitors of spore germination of diverse bacterial species are also comprehensively summarized. This review provides a theoretical foundation for effectively controlling bacterial spores in foods and ensuring food quality.
Progress in Research on Bacteriophage Receptor-Binding Proteins and Host Range Extension
LI Fan, YU Zhenxing, ZHANG Ming, LIN Hong, LI Xuepeng, LI Jianrong, ZHANG Defu
2023, 44(23):  252-269.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221203-031
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Phages are one of the most diverse and widely distributed organisms on the earth today, and have great advantages in eliminating bacteria, especially multi-drug resistant bacteria that are widespread at present. At present, a variety of bacteriophage products have been well applied in the fields of breeding for food raw materials, farmed animals, foodborne pathogenic bacteria detection, and instant food sterilization. However, the narrow host range and complex interaction mechanism between bacteriophage and host bacteria greatly limit their development as new bacteriostatic agents. The specific binding between bacteriophages and host bacteria depends on the receptor binding proteins on the surface of bacteriophages. Studying the structure, function and mechanism of action of various bacteriophage receptor binding proteins will help in understanding the interaction process between bacteriophage and bacteria. On this basis, phage receptor binding protein modification by genetic engineering and induced culture methods to obtain high-quality broad-spectrum phages has become an important content of phage research. This paper summarizes the current research on different structures of phage receptor binding proteins and various host spectrum expansion schemes in an effort to provide theoretical support for the development and application of bacteriophages in the food industry.
Research Progress on Survival Mechanism and Control Measures of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis in Egg White
LI Jiaming, DONG Qingli, YANG Changying, WANG Xiang, MA Yue, QIN Xiaojie
2023, 44(23):  261-281.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221207-075
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Salmonella is one of the most common pathogens causing foodborne diseases. Eggs and egg products are important food vehicles for its transmission. Among the many serotypes of Salmonella, S. enterica serovar Enteritidis has a unique advantage in surviving egg white because of its resist to antibacterial molecules in egg white, which can lead to food poisoning. In recent years, the survival strategies of S. enteritidis serovar Enteritidis in egg white have been explored by using molecular biological techniques such as transposon mutations, in vivo expression, high-throughput sequencing and omics, and some key metabolic pathways and stress resistance-related genes/proteins have been discovered. However, the function of stress resistance-related genes has not been fully revealed, and there is a lack of a comprehensive summary of the existing research. Therefore, the current situation and transmission routes of Salmonella contaminated eggs are briefly introduced in this review. Furthermore, the latest progress in research on the survival mechanism of S. enteritidis serovar Enteritidis in egg white is summarized from the perspectives of nutrient availability, membrane stress response, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage repair, alkaline pH adaptation, osmotic stress response and energy metabolism. Finally, the biological control methods for Salmonella are summarized, including vaccines, bacteriophages, and probiotics. Meanwhile, future research directions are discussed. This article will provide an important reference for effective control of Salmonella in eggs and egg products.
High Internal Phase Pickering Emulsion Stabilized by Natural Biomacromolecules and Its Application in Foods
WEI Kongju, DONG Tongjun, ZHU Guohua, SHUANG Yuan, XIAO Shensheng, WANG Xuedong, DING Beibei
2023, 44(23):  270-292.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221115-179
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In recent years, high internal phase Pickering emulsions (HIPPEs) has attracted much attention due to its unique organizational properties and has a wide application prospect in the food field. Natural biomacromolecules, active components in organisms, possess good biocompatibility, degradability, no or low toxic effects, which are excellent stabilizers for HIPPEs. In this paper, the potential of natural biomacromolecules to stabilize HIPPEs and recent progress on the application of biopolymer-stabilized HIPPEs in the inhibition of lipid oxidation, as a substitute for trans fatty acids, and in the encapsulation and delivery of nutrients, the 3D printing of foods and encapsulation of probiotics are briefly reviewed in order to provide a reference for the application of HIPPEs stabilized by natural biomacromolecules in foods.
Progress in Understanding the Mechanism by Which Probiotics Alletivate Hyperuricemia
HUANG Jiahao, LI Xianping, ZHAO Junying, QIAO Weicang, LIU Lu, CHEN Lijun
2023, 44(23):  282-303.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221229-273
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Hyperuricemia (HUA) is a disease caused by excessive production and/or inadequate excretion of uric acid (UA) in the body, and persistent HUA can lead to gout. Asymptomatic HUA is closely related to other metabolic diseases, such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Probiotic intervention is a potentially safe, cost-effective treatment to improve HUA. This paper mainly describes the mechanisms of action of probiotics in reducing the level of uric acid, including inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity, absorbing and degrading purines in the intestine, regulating intestinal flora homeostasis and restoring intestinal barrier function. In addition, probiotics can promote uric acid excretion and consequently reduced uric acid levels by promoting the expression of urate transport proteins and inhibiting the expression of urate reabsorbing proteins. Probiotics have great potential in alleviating HUA. This review hopes to provide a theoretical basis for subsequent research.
Research Progress on the Formation and Chromogenic Mechanism of Zinc Protoporphyrin and Its Replacement for Nitrite in Meat Products
YANG Qianhui, LIU Qian, CHEN Qian, LI Min, KONG Baohua
2023, 44(23):  293-313.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221220-196
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Nitrite has been used widely in meat products because of its unique properties, especially its role in promoting the color development of meat products and its bacteriostatic effect. Searching for nitrite alternatives has become an urgent topic for the meat industry due to consumers’ concerns about the potential health risk associated with nitrite and consumers’ demand for natural products with a clean label. As a natural pigment substance, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) has a significant advantage in promoting the color development of meat products. This paper introduces the properties, formation mechanism, quantitative analysis and distribution in meat products of ZnPP, with a focus on the factors influencing ZnPP formation. Finally, future prospects for the application of ZnPP are discussed in order to provide new ways for the development of the low-nitrate meat processing industry.
Advances in Research on the Influence of Maternal Diet on Nutrients in Human Milk
WANG Fangmin, YE Xingwang, ZHOU Xuezhen, JIN Qingzhe, LIU Zhengdong, YAN Zhiyuan, WEI Wei, WANG Xingguo
2023, 44(23):  304-321.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221211-111
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Nutrients in human milk are influenced by maternal diet, but it is still clear which type(s) of nutrients can be attributed to dietary changes. Most studies do not directly assess maternal diet or quantify the relationship between maternal diet and human milk composition. In this study, we retrieved and analyzed 24 observational studies, 5 crossover experimental studies and 11 parallel controlled experimental studies concerning ‘human milk/breast milk’, ‘nutrient’, ‘macronutrient’, ‘micronutrient’, ‘maternal nutrition’ and ‘maternal diet’ from the literature published before May 2022 in the PubMed and the Web of Science databases. It was found that in the diet of lactating mothers, fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids, and certain micronutrients, including fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A and D), water-soluble vitamins (vitamin C) and trace minerals (iron, zinc and selenium), were closely related to their contents in human milk.
Recent Progress on Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials for Detection of Food Allergens
YU Ning, LI Yang, ZHANG Jiukai, KANG Wenhan, DENG Tingting, XING Ranran, HUANG Wensheng, CHEN Ying
2023, 44(23):  314-331.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221110-113
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Food allergy has become one of the prominent issues in the fields of food safety and public health. Since there is no effective treatment for food allergy, avoiding dietary exposure to (or intake of) food allergens based on label information should remain the best option for allergy sufferers. The development of sensitive, accurate and efficient allergen detection technologies is crucial for protecting consumers’ safety and rights. As a multidisciplinary detection technology, biosensors have the advantages of high specificity, quick response and easy operation. The rapid development of nanomaterials has advanced the development of highly sensitive and high-throughput biosensors for the visual detection of food allergens. In order to provide more references for further research and application of biosensors in food allergen detection, this paper summarizes the general situation of food allergen detection by biosensors, and analyzes the latest development of various biological recognition elements and biosensors based on different nanomaterials in the field of food allergen detection,
Progress in Research on the Structure and Activity of Polysaccharides from Chlorella
HE Qiyu, AN Zizhe, CHEN Anjin, WANG Hanmei, LI Fangyuan, LU Haiyan, ZHAO Xue
2023, 44(23):  322-341.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221110-105
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Chlorella contains a variety of polysaccharides with complex composition and structure, which are composed of various monosaccharides such as galactose, rhamnose, glucose, arabinose, mannose, xylose and glucuronic acid. The glycosidic linkages of polysaccharides are diverse, including α-1,6-glucose, β-1,3-galactose, α-1,6-galactose, α-1,3-rhamnose, α-1,2-rhamnose, α-1,5-arabinose, α-1,6-mannose and β-1,4-xylose. Some polysaccharides are modified by methylation, sulfation and acetylation. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that polysaccharides have multiple functions such as immunoregulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor, antibacterial and intestinal flora-regulatory effects. At present, monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy are mainly used for research on the structure of chlorella polysaccharides such as analysis of monosaccharide composition, glycosidic bond types, branch chain substitution positions and branch chain types. This review hopes to provide valuable information for the fine structural analysis and structure-activity relationship study of polysaccharides from Chlorella.
Research Progress on Intervention of Natural Products from Plants in Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide
ZHANG Mengyu, ZHANG Yanqing, FANG Leilei, XIE Junbo, WEI Yinghao
2023, 44(23):  332-352.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221209-098
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Acrylamide (ACR) is a common toxic substance in foods, which can cause serious damage to human organs and systems, especially the nervous system. At present, there are no appropriate measures to prevent and treat ACR neurotoxicity. In recent years, it has been reported that some natural plant products with high safety for consumption, strong antioxidant activity and low cost can intervene in ACR-induced neurotoxicity. This paper mainly introduces the neurotoxicity of ACR, natural plant products that can intervene in ACR neurotoxicity, and the underlying mechanism of action in order to provide a theoretical reference and research ideas for the treatment of ACR neurotoxicity in multiple ways and though multiple targets, as well as the development and application of natural products against ACR neurotoxicity.
Anthocyanins in Red Wine: Origin, Coloration and Reactions
ZHANG Xinke, ZHAO Xu, LIU Peitong, DUAN Changqing, DUAN Xuerong, YANG Jian, LI Demei, FAN Xuemei,
2023, 44(23):  342-364.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221128-327
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Anthocyanins are important compounds contributing to the color of red wine, which play a crucial role in the quality of red wine. Anthocyanins are biosynthesized via the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway during the growth of wine grapes. In red wine, there is an equilibrium among anthocyanin species, and the color of red wine is closely related to the diverse structure and morphology of anthocyanins. However, anthocyanins are not stable and could be degraded through a series of reactions including oxidation. From a winemaking perspective, anthocyanins are extracted from grape skin into the wine by maceration, and anthocyanin concentrations and color of red wine vary with changes in fermentation conditions and the composition of red wine during fermentation. During wine aging, anthocyanins can react with other components to form new anthocyanin derivatives. The evolution of anthocyanins and these derivatives can lead to constant changes in red wine color during wine fermentation, aging and storage. So far, few systematic reviews have been carried out on the origin, coloration mechanism and reactions of anthocyanins in red wine, and their evolution during the production of red wine. Therefore, this paper aims to fill this lacuna in order to provide a theoretical basis for further investigation of anthocyanins in red wine.
Progress on Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials in Food Safety Detection
LI Jingmin, JIA Baozhu, ZHAN Rongrong, TANG Feiyan, HUANG Huijing, DENG Hao, XU Zhenlin, LUO Lin
2023, 44(23):  353-371.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221114-160
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Two-dimensional nanomaterials are used in biosensors due to their unique physical and chemical properties, which have many advantages in the development of biosensors, such as improving the response speed, improving the detection sensitivity, shortening the detection time and simplifying the operation procedure. In recent years, they have shown great application prospects in the field of food safety detection and have gradually become a hot research topic. Based on an analysis of the application of two-dimensional nanomaterials including graphene, graphene alkyne, and graphene-like materials in the field of analytical sensing, this paper reviews the progress that has been made in the past five year in the application of two-dimensional nanomaterials in the detection of organic pollutants in foods, food additives, foodborne pathogens and heavy metals, and also presents an outlook on future prospects. This review is expected to provide ideas and theoretical references for researchers.
Progress in Culturemics Research on Beneficial Intestinal Bacteria
YU Xia, ZHAO Feiyan, SUN Zhihong
2023, 44(23):  365-382.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221210-103
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Gut microbes especially the beneficial ones play an important role in maintaining human health. At present, the research methods for intestinal microbes are mainly based on non-culture technologies such as metagenomics. The relationship between intestinal microbes and the body’s health can be found by using metagenomic sequencing technology. Researchers have found that most of the bacteria in the gut are uncultured, and their molecular mechanisms of action are unclear. Culturomics can be used to successfully isolate and culture some intestinal bacteria difficult to culture by improving the composition of culture medium and optimizing the culture conditions. The application of culturomics provides technical support for research on the functions of intestinal bacteria in the host and further screening of beneficial intestinal bacteria. Therefore, using culturomics technology to cultivate more beneficial intestinal bacteria and studying their phenotypes and gene functions are future research priorities. This article reviews the culturomics of and the cultivation methods for intestinal beneficial bacteria for the purpose of providing a reference for the cultivation of beneficial intestinal microorganisms for human health.
Progress in the Application and Research of Magnetic Field-Assisted Low-Temperature Storage Technology for Foods
WENG Jintong, SHENG Qinghai, LIU Jingke, ZHANG Xiaodi, LIU Junli, ZHANG Aixia, LI Pengliang, ZHAO Wei
2023, 44(23):  372-393.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221210-109
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With the continuous development of science and technology, the conventional low-temperature storage technology can no longer meet people’s pursuit of food quality. In recent years, magnetic fields have been widely used in the field of low-temperature food storage due to its advantages of being simple, efficient, safe, pollution-free and energy-saving. Magnetic fields can maintain the eating quality of stored food by optimizing the cooling and freezing process, regulating enzyme activity and reducing microbial contents. In order to provide a theoretical reference for the industrial application of magnetic fields in low-temperature storage of foods, this paper reviews the mechanism of magnetic field-assisted low-temperature storage technology and its application in various kinds of food, summarizes shortcomings in this field, and gives an outlook on future directions of development.
Research Progress in the Effect of Glycosylation on Functional Properties and Allergenicity of Dairy Products
CHEN Xintong, QIU Yu, YANG Ruoting, GAO Jinyan, LI Xin, CHEN Hongbing
2023, 44(23):  383-393.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221209-102
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In recent years, milk allergy has attracted more and more attention because of its increasing incidence and in-depth research on it. The glycosylation modification of milk proteins not only can improve the functional properties of dairy products, but also reduce the allergenicity of dairy products by destroying or shielding the epitope of allergen proteins. This modification has found applications in various fields such as food flavor, antioxidants and carriers. This paper introduces common glycosylation reactions in the dairy industry, discusses their advantages and disadvantages and the pattern of changes in functional properties and allergenicity of milk proteins after glycosylation, and summarizes the methods to avoid the negative effects of glycosylation reactions. This review provides a reference for the research, development and application of glycosylation modification in milk allergy and dairy processing.
Research Progress on Spatiotemporal Distribution Characteristics of Carbon Stable Isotopes in Wines from New and Old World Countries
MA Yanfei, SU Yingyue, WANG Lishan, QI Pengyu, KANG Tianhao, WANG Li, MA Haiyan, XU Guoqian, ZHANG Ang
2023, 44(23):  394-405.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221111-133
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With the continuous development of economic globalization, the production and consumption of wine in New and Old World countries have shown a steady growth trend. Wines of different grades and styles have been developed, which are related to geographical origin. Carbon stable isotopes are important indicators for geographical origin identification and have been of great concern to researchers due to their stability and objectivity. This paper summarizes the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of carbon stable isotopes in ethanol, glycerol, total carbon and other components in wines from the Old (France, Italy, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Croatia, and Romania) and New Worlds (Australia, South Africa, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and China). In general, there are small differences in the carbon stable isotope ratio of various components between New and Old World wines, so it is impossible to achieve reliable results when only carbon stable isotope data is used for geographical origin identification. The combined use of carbon stable isotope data with other isotope data and mineral elements can improve the accuracy of geographical origin identification. Furthermore, the application of carbon stable isotope technology is also summarized over the past 15 years with the aim to provide a reference for the establishment of database.
Recent Advances in the Application of Molecular Simulation in Research on Cyclodextrin Inclusion
HUANG Juan, LI Taoting, YU Haiyan, CHEN Chen, YUAN Haibin, TIAN Huaixiang
2023, 44(23):  406-418.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221115-181
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Cyclodextrin (CD) can form inclusion complexes with the guest molecule through supramolecular interaction, preserving or even enhancing the properties of the guest molecule. Molecular simulation is an important research tool to explore the interaction of CD with the guest molecule, which has been widely used in research on cyclodextrin inclusion reaction. In this paper, a brief overview of molecular simulations including quantum mechanics, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation was given, and the basic principles of and mainstream software and commonly used force fields for molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation were summarized. Moreover, recent progresses on their application in cyclodextrin inclusion research were reviewed from four aspects: characterization of molecular structure changes, characterization of intermolecular interaction, solvent effects and synergistic stabilization. Research results show that the size of the hydrophobic cavity and the initial orientation of the guest within the cavity have very important effects on the structure of guest/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes; van der Waals interactions are the major driving force for the cyclodextrin inclusion reaction, and the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds is an important factor for the stability of the inclusion complex. The explicit solvent model is a powerful tool to study the solvent effect of the cyclodextrin inclusion reaction. Finally, the authors believe that molecular simulation will be useful for further investigations of the cyclodextrin inclusion process from the perspectives of multi-scale phenomena and machine learning.
Public Law Responsibility System for Malfeasance in Food Supervision and Management and Its Development Trends: From the Perspective of the Revision of the Crime of Malfeasance in Food Supervision and Management
GUO Fuchao
2023, 44(23):  419-425.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20230808-056
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Reasonable allocation of public law responsibility is very important for restraining malfeasance and standardizing food safety supervision. China has established administrative and criminal responsibility systems for malfeasance in food supervision and management. The administrative responsibility is mainly divided into two parts: the responsibilities of the people’s governments at or above the county level and those of the constituent departments of those governments, and a responsibility system should be established to distinguish the severity of dereliction of duty. The criminal responsibility is mainly stipulated by the crime of malfeasance in food supervision and management. The revision of the crime of malfeasance in food supervision and management reflects China’s strategies for food safety governance. The allocation of public law liability for malfeasance in food supervision and management should conform to those strategies including taking regulatory responsibilities as the basis, taking due diligence as the core standard of responsibility, adhering to the basic principle of adapting punishment to responsibility, and establishing a foothold in the reality of food safety co-regulation. The Amendment (XI) to the Criminal Law finally maintains ‘causing serious consequences or any other serious circumstance’ as the typical conditions of incrimination, and appropriately adjusts the scope of criminalization. The amendment has significantly reduced the number of cases concerning malfeasance in food safety supervision and limited the scope of criminal penalties, but the amendment has expanded criminal penalties on a small amount of malfeasance.