Table of Content

15 June 2013, Volume 34 Issue 11
Correlation Analysis of Color Parameters and Chemical Components of Chinese Red Wines from Different Growing Regions
LAN Yuan-yuan,TAO Yong-sheng*,ZHANG Shi-jie,DING Ji-xing
2013, 34(11):  1-4.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311001
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A total of 21 samples of Chinese red wines of differen ages and from different growing regions were analyzed for
chemical components such as totoal phenolic compounds and tannins as well as color parameters. Correlation analysis and
principal component analysis (PCA) were adopted to explore the correlation between chemical components and color parameters
and identify chemcial components mainly responsible for considerable differences in the quality of red wine. We found that color
depth of red wine was significantly correlated with the contents of totoal phenolic compounds, tartaric acid esters, flavanol and
total athocyanins and had a negative correlation with CIELab a* value. Total athocyanin content was significantly correlated with
L* and b* values and its correlation with color tone was significantly negative. Furthermore, these color parameters of red wine
samples presented evidently different PCA distributions depending upon their age and growing area.

Changes of Carotenoids Contents in Chili Pepper during Drying
JING Feng,LIU Feng,FU Mao-run,LI Hong-mei,LIU Wei,WANG Xiao
2013, 34(11):  5-9.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311002
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This study was done to test the influence of temperature and light/dark conditions on the synthesis of carotenoids
in chili pepper (Capscum annuum. L) during drying. Commercially mature fruis of chili pepper cultivar “Hangjiao” were
dried under light or dark conditions and different temperatures (25, 30 ℃ and 35 ℃) to trace the synthesis of carotenoids,
capsorubin and β-carotene during the pocess. Meanwhile, change curves of total carotenoids and water were fitted. The
results showed that total carotenoids in chili peppers dried under the conditions of light exposure and 30 ℃ was 5.49 mg/g,
which respectively revealed 1.07-, 2.34- and 2.12-fold increases compared with those dried at 25 ℃ and 35 ℃ in light
or in darkness. Carotenoids were synthesized fastest at a water content between 50% and 80%. As determined by HPLC,
the contents of capsorubin and β-carotene showed very similar changing trend to total carotenoids. The changes in total
carotenoids and water contents were well fitted and could provide useful theoratical models. Therefore, the best drying
conditions for the biosynthesis of carotenoids in chili pepper were 30 ℃ and light exposure.

Effects of Sodium and Calcium Ions on Viscosity Behavior of Soy Pectic Polysaccharides
LIU He,GAO Hong-ni,LIU Jun-shan,ZHU Dan-shi
2013, 34(11):  10-12.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311003
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This study investigated the effects of sodium and calcium cations on the viscosity of soy pectic polysaccharide
(SPP). The inherent viscosity of SPP was decreased in the presence of Na+ or Ca2+. Both cations increased the molecular
flexibility of SPP chains in the dilution zone. Moreover, SPP had a rigid rod-like conformation under the conditions adopted
in the present study.

Freshness Evaluation of Chilled Pork by Impedance Characteristics
SHI Li-min,HUANG Lan,LIANG Zhi-hong
2013, 34(11):  13-18.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311004
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Freshness is one of the most important indicators to evaluate the quality of chilled pork, which can be determined
by measuring electrical characteristics. Using CAUBM-type Ⅱ meat impedance measurement system, the electrical
characteristics of chilled pork along myofibers (electrodes located longitudinally to the myofiber axis) and across myofibers
(electrodes transversally to the myofiber axis) were analyzed in this study. At the same time, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N),
moisture, fat content and colony formation unit in pork was determined by semi micro-quantitative nitrogen method, direct
drying method, Soxhlet extraction method and the national standard method, respectively. The results showed that the imaginary
part of complex impedance showed regular changes with progressive deterioration of fresh pork. Its characteristic frequency
points moved to the right and increased gradually, condensance, Cm, also showed a decreasing trend during the deterioration
process. These results indicate that both characteristic frequency points Cm and can be used as indicators for evaluating the
quality of chilled pork. Currently, TVB-N is used as an important index for pork freshness in the national standard. Our results
show that impedance characteristics are highly correlated with TVB-N in meat, and thereby have potential applications for
quick evaluation of pork freshness.

Characterization and Property Analysis of Potato Dietary Fiber
ZHANG Yan-rong,WEI Chun-guang,CUI Hai-yue,CHEN Xue
2013, 34(11):  19-23.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311005
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Molecular weight and polymerization degree of potato dietary fiber were measured by viscosimetry and was
characterized by infrared spectroscopy. Some properties of potato dietary fiber such as oil-holding capacity, water-hold
capacity and expansion capability were determined. The results showed that the polymerization degree of potato dietary fiber
was 1051, and molecular weight 170333. The dietary fiber had the characteristic absorption peaks for carbohydrates, such
as C=O, C-H, COOR and free hydroxyl groups. Monosaccharide composition analysis showed the presence of pyran ring
structure. Uronic acid and carboxylic acid dimer were found in soluble potato dietary fiber. Potato dietary fiber had an oilholding
capacity of 1.90 g/g, a water-holding capacity of 7.00 g/g and swelling power of 7.37 mL/g, which indicated better
properties than dietary fiber from corn and soybean bran with any functionalization treatments.

Dietary Exposure and Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin B1 in Corn-based Foods in China Using Probabilistic Approach
GUO Yao-dong,CHEN Lu,YUAN Ya-hong,YUE Tian-li
2013, 34(11):  24-27.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311006
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Purpose: To assess Chinese residents’ dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from corn-based foods and corresponding
health risk. Methods: Dietary intake of aflatoxin B1 from corn-based foods in different population groups was simulated by Monte
Carlo simulation and Bootstrap sampling, and health risk associated with AFB1 intake was evaluated by applying a quantitative
cancer potency formula developed by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Results: Simulated AFB1 intake
(90% confidence interval) from corn-based foods in different population groups of high corn consumption, 2-6-year-old
children, standard adults, urban standard adults and rural standard adults was 29.98 (19.03-68.59), 10.18 (6.46-23.30),
5.46 (3.47-12.49) ng/(kg•d) and 13.37 (8.49-30.60) ng/(kg•d) at the 99th percentile, respectively; and the evaluated cancer
risk was 0.924 (0.587-2.114), 0.314 (0.199-0.718), 0.168 (0.107-0.385) cancers/(105 persons•a) and 0.412 (0.262-0.943)
cancers/(105 persons•a) . Conclusion: The health risk associated with AFB1 in corn-based foods in China is relatively low.

Effect of Infrared Radiation on Water Absorption of Konjac Glucomannan Films and Structure Characterization
XU Mei,ZHU Yu-peng,WANG Chao,GONG Yuan-yuan,LI Dong-sheng,CAO Yue-ze
2013, 34(11):  28-31.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311007
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In this work, we used one-factor-at-a-time design to explore the effects of infrared radiation temperature, time
and strength and the molecular weigth of konjac glucomannan (KGM) on water absorption of KGM films. Meanwhile,
scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the structure of KGM
films. The results showed that infrared radiation had a substantial influence on water absorption of KGM films. Moreover,
radiation temperature was negatively correlated with water adsorption of KGM films, and infrared radiation induced
oxidative degradation of KGM molecules.

Activity, Polymorphism and Stability of Trypsin Inhibitor from Mung Beans (Vigna radiata)
JIANG Jun-ping,LI Chun-hong,ZHANG Tao,YUN Dong-mei,YANG Xue-feng
2013, 34(11):  32-35.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311008
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In this study, trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity, polymorphism and stability of 26 cultivars of mung beans (Vigna radiata (L.)
R. Wilczek) in China were tested. The cultivars had 29.0-53.3 TIU/g of seed, with an average value of 38.9 TIU/g. Mung beans
Jilv 7, Zhonglv 5 and Huailv 5 had the highest TI activity, which were 53.5, 51.3 TIU/g and 49.6 TIU/g, respectively. Inhibitory
activity staining Gelatin-PAGE showed that mung bean had 4 TI bands (M1-M4), and M2 was the main component.
Approximately 66.4%-83.1% of the TI activity remained after treatment in boiling water for 30 min, and 86.3%-110.0%
of the activity was detected after 8 h at pH 1.5. The M4 of mung bean Jilv 7 in a bound form disappeared after treated in
boiling water or at pH 1.5 and 5 TI bands formed.

Chemical Composition Analysis of Cultured Cordyceps militaris
CHEN Ce,BAU Tolgor*,BAO Hai-ying
2013, 34(11):  36-40.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311009
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Eight compounds were isolated from cultured Cordyceps militaris by silica gel column chromatography and
recrystallization. Their structures were identified as zeaxanthin, β-cholestanyl oleate, 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-palmitoylglycerol,
4,6,8(14),22(23)-tetraen-3-one-ergostane, β-sitosterol, ergosterol peroxide, cerevisterol and mannitol by thin layer
chromatography (TLC), HPLC-MS/MS, NMR and EI-MS. This study is the first report that zeaxanthin, β-cholestanyl oleate,
and 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol were isolated from Cordyceps militaris. linoleic acid The major fatty acids of
petroleum ether extract of cultured Cordyceps militaris were linoleic acid and elaidic acid, acounting for 41.949% and 27.696%,
respectively, as analyzed by GC-MS.

Degradation Kinetics of 5 Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Pleurotus ostreatus and Growing Medium
FAN Zhong-chen,TANG Jun,CAO Hai-qun,WU Xiang-wei,HUA Ri-mao,TANG Feng,YUE Yong-de
2013, 34(11):  41-44.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311010
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The degradation kinetics of 5 pyrethroid pesticides in Pleurotus ostreatus and growing medium was studied by
using the validated analytical methods. The results indicated that the half-lives of five pyrethroids in Pleurotus ostreatus
and growing medium were 3.01-5.06 d and 25.48-54.59 d, respectively. Sterilization remarkably reduced pyrethroid
pesticide residues in the growing medium with degradation rate ranging from 18.80% to 61.16%. Pyrethroid pesticide
residues in the growing medium remained high after the mushroom was cultivated for 42, 62, 83 d and 103 d, which
were 1.29-7.40, 1.55-6.8, 0.32-1.78 mg/kg and 0.14-1.76 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, no pyrethroid pesticide
residues were detected in Pleurotus ostreatus harvested at the same time points. Consequently, our findings suggest that
potential pyrethroid pesticide residues cannot be transferred to Pleurotus ostreatus fruitbodies, and thus have little impact
on the quality and safety of the edible fungus.

Synthesis and in vitro Anti-tumor Activity of Fatty Acid Derivatives of Ginsenoside Rg3
YE Hui1,2,ZHANG Bing1,2,JIANG Hai-wei1,2,CHENG Wen-juan1,2,DENG Ze-yuan1,2,HU Jiang-ning1,2,*
2013, 34(11):  45-48.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311011
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The aim of this study was to synthesize fatty acid derivatives from ginsenoside Rg3. Esterified compounds were
prepared from the reaction of ginsenoside Rg3 and palmitoyl chloride with methylene dichloride as solvent and potassium
carbonate as acid-binding agent by stiring the mixture at 40 ℃ for 6 h. In addition, one major product was obtained by silica
gel column chromatography and its structure was characterized by UV, IR, HPLC/QTOF-MS and NMR. MTT method was
used to evaluate the mortality rate of MCF-7 cells after incubation with the product at different concentrations. The results
indicated that the proliferation of MCF-7 cells was inhibited by the derivative of gensinoside Rg3 in a dose- and timedependent
manner in the concentration range of 10-100 μg/mL. After incubation for 24, 48 h and 72 h, the IC50 was 146.68,
122.39 μg/mL and 101.95 μg/mL, respectively. These results suggest that this derivatized gensinoside Rg3 is a potential raw
material for pharmaceuticals.

Comparison of Eating Quality and Processing Quality between Qinghai Yak Meat and Qinchuan Cattle Beef
HOU Li,CHAI Sha-tuo,LIU Shu-jie*,CUI Zhan-hong,ZHANG Xiao-wei,ZHAO Yue-ping
2013, 34(11):  49-52.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311012
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This study was conducted to evaluate the eating quality and processing quality of yak meat from different regions
of Qinghai province. Qinchuan cattle beef was compared with Datong calf yak meat, Datong adult yak meat, south Qinghai
adult yak meat and adult yak meat from the region around Qinghai lake on eating quality and processing quality. The results
showed that: 1) there were no significant differences in L* values, juiciness, shear force, gel strength or cooking loss rate
between Datong calf yak meat and Qinchuan cattle beef (P > 0.05); 2) likewise, there were no significant differences in a*
value, b* value, juiciness, drip loss, shear force, drip loss, emulsion stability, gel strength, gel elasticity or cooking loss rate
between Datong adult yak meat and Qinchuan beef (P > 0.05); 3) however, there were significant differences in L* value,
a* value, b* value, juiciness, shear force, emulsifying capacity or emulsion stability between south Qinghai region adult
yak meat and Qinchuan cattle beef (P < 0.01); 4) significant differences in L* values, juiciness, shear force and emulsion
stability were also obseved between adult yak meat from the region around Qinghai lake and Qinchuan cattle beef (P < 0.01).
Datong calf yak meat had the best eating quality, followed by Datong adult yak meat and Qinchuan cattle beef, which were
better than south Qinghai adult yak meat and adult yak meat from the region around Qinghai lake. In spite of this, we found
that Datong calf yak meat had slightly inferior processing quality. Accordingly, it can be concluded that Datong calf yak
meat is suitable to be marketed as fresh chilled meat, while adult yak meat is suitable for deep processing.

Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Nutritive Quality and Dough Rheological Properties of Wheat Flour
CHEN Yun-tang,LI Xiang,FAN Jia-lin*,GUO Dong-quan,SHANG Fei-fei,Lü Xiao-hua,ZHANG Jian-wei,YANG Bao-an
2013, 34(11):  53-57.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311013
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Wheat grains were irradiated by electron beam at doses of 0, 0.83, 1.56, 2.30 kGy and 4.93 kGy and the nutritive
quality and dough rheological properties were inestigated afterwards. The protein content and amino acid composition
of wheat kernels before and after irradiation were quite similar. Wet gluten content and flour yield were not significantly
changed by electron beam irradiation (P > 0.05) while sedimentation value and falling number significantly decreased as
the electron beam irradiation dose increased (P < 0.05). Irradiation treatment showed no significant effect on the water
absorption and extensibility of dough after 135 min of proofing whereas increased irradiation dose led to an increase
in degree of softening (P < 0.05). Compared to non-irradiated wheat, the development time and stability of dough were
significantly decreased at 2.30 kGy and 4.93 kGy (P < 0.05), while maximum resistance to extension after 135 min of proofing
and resistance to constant deformation after 50-mm stretching were significantly enhanced at 0.83 kGy and 1.56 kGy (P < 0.05).
Dough extension area after 135 min of proofing significantly increased at 0.83 kGy (P < 0.05). These results showed that electron
beam irradiation at 0.83 kGy and 1.56 kGy could enhance dough strength and improve the processing quality of wheat flour.

Study on Changes of Quality Index of Chicken Breast during Freezing-thawing Cycles using LF-NMR
LI Mei,LI Miao-yun*,ZHAO Gai-ming,ZHANG Qiu-hui,LIU Yan-xia,GAO Xiao-ping,ZHOU Xiao-mei
2013, 34(11):  58-61.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311014
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Changes in water distribution and mobility in the process of freezing-thawing cycles were characterized by 1H
low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and meanwhile, eating quality indexes such as color, pH and water-holding
capacity (WHC) were determined. NMR T2 relaxation data indicated that three distinct water populations T2b, T21 and T22
were observed in chicken muscle, which represent three states of water such as bound water, immobilized water and bulk
water, respectively. T21 changed significantly with freezing-thawing frequency (P < 0.05), which showed the same tendency
as WHC. The deterioration of eating quality during freezing-thawing cycles was observed so that it should be avoided as
much as possible. Therefore, LF-NMR can be used to evaluate the quality of frozen meat in the circulation.

Reduction of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat during Milling Process
CHEN Fei,LIU Yang*,XING Fu-guo
2013, 34(11):  62-66.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311015
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In the present study, bran, fine bran and different flour mill streams including straight-grade flour from 9
cultuvars of wheat with natural contamination of deoxynivalenol (DON) at different levels were determined for DON content
in order to explore the reduction of DON during the milling process. The results indicated that DON was widely distributed
in different parts of wheat after milling. Only approximately 31.03%-50.39% of DON was distributed in flour, and most
was distributed in the epidermis of wheat. DON content in wheat endosperm revealed a gradual increase from the inside to
the outside. DON content was decreased by 23.67%-58.97% in straight-grade flour, and exhibited maximum decrease of
70.51% in germ flour. A regression model equation indicating the relationship of DON content between wheat grains and
flour was fitted as follows: y = 0.498x1.206(R2 = 0.991). DON was reduced more significantly in wheat with a lower level of
DON contamination. In summary, milling can be seen as an effective strategy to reduce DON in wheat.

Antioxidant Activity of Padus virginiana Anthocyanins
2013, 34(11):  67-71.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311016
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Objective: To explore the in vitro antioxidant activity of Padus virginiana fruit anthocyanins and determine
the activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes and the content of oxidative products. Methods: The scavenging activity
against DPPH, superoxide anion, hydroxyl free radicals and hydrogen peroxide and total reducing power were determined
by spectrophotometry, salicylic acid colorimetric method, pyrogallol self-oxidation, sodium thiosulfate titration and
potassium ferricyanide reduction method, respectively. The activities of GSH-Px, CAT and T-SOD and MDA content in
tumor cells were determined. Results: The anthocyanins extracted from Padus virginiana fruits had weaker scavenging
effects on the free radicals and hydrogen peroxide and lower total reducing power than VC. The activities of the antioxidant
enzymes GSH-Px, CAT, T-SOD declined when exposed to increasing of these anthocyanins, indicating the existence of a
concentration-dependen relationship. Moreover, intracellular MDA content linearly increased as the concentration of Padus
virginiana anthocyanins increased. Conclusion: Padus virginiana anthocyanins have strong antioxidant capacity and obvious
impact on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the contents of oxidative products in tumor cells.

Monosaccharide Composition Analysis of Polysaccharides from Ilex kudincha C. J. Tseng Leaves
FAN Jia-long,MA Li-ping,YE Hong,ZENG Xiao-xiong,SUN Yi
2013, 34(11):  72-76.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311017
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In the present study, crude polysaccharides from Ilex kudincha C.J. Tseng (IKPS) leaves were prepared
and purified by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow anion-exchange column chromatography. As a result, four purified
fractions were obtained and named as IKPS-1, IKPS-2, IKPS-3 and IKPS-4. The monosaccharide composition of the
fractions was analyzed by two different methods: HPLC with pre-column derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-
5-pyrazolonde (PMP) and GC after derivatization to aldononitrile acetates. All these purified polysaccharides
were mainly composed of mannose, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose, glucuronic acid and fructose. Except IKPS-4,
all other fractions contained glucose. Furthermore, IKPS and IKPS-1 also contained fructose, and IKPS, IKPS-1
and IKPS-4 contained galacturonic acid. The results of HPLC analysis were generally consistent with those of
GC analysis. However, compared to GC analysis, HPLC analysis could provide more comprehensive and reliable
information about the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides from Ilex kudincha C.J. Tseng leaves.

Effect of Intensified High-temperature Drying-ripening on Lipolysis and Lipid Oxidation of Chinese Bacon
WANG Yan,LIU Chang-hua,ZHANG Jian-hao*,JIN Guo-feng
2013, 34(11):  77-82.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311018
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The present study was aimed to reveal the effect of intensified high-temperature ripening on lipolysis and lipid
oxidation in Chinese bacon and explore its feasibility in processing cured meat products. Chinese bacon was subjected
to intensified heat treatment at 65 ℃ for 0.5 h. We examined changes in various indexes related to lipolysis and lipid
oxidation in comparison with control samples. The results showed that after treatment at 65 ℃, the activities of neutral
esterase, acid esterase and phospholipase were increase by 30.65%, 63.64% and 87.10%, respectively, as compared to
the control group. Lipoxygenase activity was increase by 73.42% (P < 0.05), and was always higher than that of the
control group during the subsequent air drying stage. The contents of four major free fatty acid were increased in different
degrees; linoleic acid content was increase by 41.73% (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance
(TBARS) value and peroxide value of final products were decreased by 26.10% and 45.00% (P < 0.05), respectively.
Thus, intensified high-temperature ripening can enhance lipase activity, accelerate lipolysis and lipid oxidation, is
beneficial to the accumulation of flavor substances and quality improvement, effectively reduce the POV and TBARS
values of final products, and increase the safety.

Antioxidant and Anti-browning Activities of Ethanol Extract from Lotus Seed Skin
GAO Hang,GAO Yan-fen,XU Hong
2013, 34(11):  83-87.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311019
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The goal of the present work was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-browning activities of ethanol extract
from lotus seed skin. The ABTS+ radical scavenging activity, anti-tyrosinase activity and anti-browning effect as well as the
contents of total phenols and total flavonoids of the extract were determined. The results revealed that the ethanol extract
contained (233.63 ± 10.16) mg/g total phenols and (166.02 ± 7.31) mg/g total flavonoids. It also showed a strong antioxidant
activity against ABTS free radicals with IC50 of (1.385 ± 0.210) mg/mL. In tyrosinase inhibitory assay, the measured IC50
values were (1.665 ± 0.137) mg/mL for monophenolase and (3.777 ± 0.294) mg/mL for diphenolase, respectively. This
extract had a significant anti-browning effect on fresh-cut apple slices as demonstrated by measuring changes in L*, a*and
b* values, and the best efficacy was observed when combined with 0.5 g/100 mL ascorbic acid.

Antioxidant Properties of Purple Sweet Potato Vinegar and Intermediate Products at Different Fermentation Stages
ZHANG Cun-xue1,ZHU Wei-bing2,LI Zhi-xi1,*,YIN Lu-ping1,LIU Jian-shu3
2013, 34(11):  88-93.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311020
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Purple sweet potato vinegar was produced by liquid-state submerged fermentation. The antioxidant properties
including reducing power, and DPPH free radical and ABTS+• scavenging activity in vitro of the vinegar and its intermediate
products at different fermentation stages were investigated. The results indicated that purple-fleshed sweet potato “Heishu
No. 1” exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, followed by white-fleshed sweet potato “Qinshu No. 5”, while yellowfleshed
sweet potato “Yangdong Jinli” and orange-colored-fleshed “Hongxin No. 648” showed the lowest antioxidant
capacity. Our results also showed a highly significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content
(P < 0.01). Additionally, reducing power, DPPH free radical and ABTS+• scavenging ability of purple-fleshed sweet potato
vinegar were higher than those of saccharified slurry and mash. Some differences among products from other sweet potato
cultivars were also observed for antioxidant properties. Therefore, purple sweet potato saccharified slurry, swort and vinegar
can be used as good dietary sources of antioxidants due to potent antioxidant activity.

Variations and Influencing Factors of Raw Milk Quality
SUN Tao,YIN Jing-yuan,HAN Yi-yi,MENG Jin,WU Ren-qi,GAO Hai-yan
2013, 34(11):  94-99.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311021
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The quality changes and influencing factors of raw milk in and around Shanghai were studied by applying
correlation analysis, path analysis and multiple regression analysis. For this study, raw milk samples were collected from
local pastures almost over the whole year of 2009. The results showed that the changes of somatic cell count and aerobic
plate count in raw milk were significant. There was a significant positive corrleation between fat content and protein
content or freezing point, between protein content and freezing point or somatic cell count, and between aerobic plate
count and somatic cell count or average air temperature, whereas somatic cell count was very significantly negatively
correlated with average air temperature. At the same time, a regression model was established indicating aerobic plate
count (Y) versus temperature (X1), fat content (X2), protein content (X3) and average air humidity: Y = 7.592 + 0.465X1 -
4.029X2 - 3.494X3 - 0.182X4.

Effect of Proteins Isolated from Antarctic Krill on the Reduction of Oil Content in Pre-fried Coated Cod
HAN Xiao-yin,ZHANG Li-li,ZHANG Jin-ang,XUE Yong*,XUE Chang-hu
2013, 34(11):  100-103.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311022
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The effects of two different proteins isolated from Antarctic krill (muscles and the whole body), addition modes,
pre-heating treatments, and different durations of frying at different temperatures on the oil content of pre-fried coated cod
were studied. This study indicated that both proteins resulted in a significant reduction in the oil content of pre-fried coated
cod (P < 0.05), and muscle protein isolate had a better efficacy than whole-body protein isolate. The lowest oil content of prefried
coated cod was obtained by treatment of the outermost layer of coated cod with an aqueous solution of one of the protein
isolates before pre-treatment with 600 W microwave heating and frying at 180 ℃ for 90 to 105 s.

Drying Characteristics and Mathematical Modeling for Heat Pump Drying of Litchi
2013, 34(11):  104-108.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311023
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The heat pump drying characteristics of whole litchis were investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at
different levels of temperature (55, 60 ℃ and 65 ℃) and air velocity (0.4 m/s and 1.0 m/s). Different mathematical models
were developed to test the drying behavior of litchis. The results showed that temperature affected the drying rate of whole
litchis: the higher the drying temperature, the shorter the drying time. Minimum influence of air velocity was observed on the
processing time of litchis. The falling-rate period was a key stage in the heat pump drying process of litchis. The proposed
Midilli model fitted very well the heat pump drying process of whole litchis. There was good agreement between the
predicted and experimental values, indicating the reliability of this model.

Physicochemical Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Collagen Polypeptide from Navodon septentionalis Bone
YANG Lu,DING Li-jun,LAN De-an
2013, 34(11):  109-112.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311024
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In this study, lyophilized samples of collagen peptides were prepared from enzymatic hydrolysis of Navodon
septentionalis bone. Our analysis results showed that the peptides had maximum absorption at 220 nm and consisted of 3%
hydroxyproline. At 60 mg/mL, the peptides had antioxidant activity equivalent to that of GSH, and at 25 mg/mL, scavenged
95.98% of hydroxyl free radical and 97.36% of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical.

in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Feruloylated Oligosaccharides from Maize Bran
HUANG Ru-qing,HE Rong-rong,OU Shi-yi
2013, 34(11):  113-116.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311025
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Feruloylated oligosaccharides were prepared by autoclaving maize bran in oxalic acid solution and their in vitro
antioxidant activity was studied. The results showed that the feruloylated oligosaccharides possessed strong free radical
scavenging capacity against hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. These
oligosaccharides also showed higher reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity than ferulic acid.

Effect of Drying Methods on Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Skin
GUO Ze-mei1,REN Zhang-cheng1,CHEN Teng1,MA Na-na1,FANG Yu-lin1,2,*
2013, 34(11):  117-121.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311026
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The effect of different drying methods on the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanin
in grape skin was investigated as well as their antioxidant properties such as DPPH radical scavenging capacity and
potassium ferricyanide reducing power. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds in grape skin
processed by sun drying, freeze-drying, oven-drying and air-drying were significantly different. The highest contents of total
polyphenols, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were found in oven-dried samples, which were also found to have the strongest
antioxidant activity. The positive correlation between the contents of various polyphenols and the total antioxidant activity
was found to be significant (P < 0.05) for polyphenols and flavan-3-ols. A comprehensive evaluation showed that oven
drying led to the lowest loss of phenolic compounds and the strongest antioxidant activity of dried grape sikn followed by
sun drying, which was superior to freeze-drying and air-drying. Nevertheless, from the viewpoint of pratical production and
cost, sun drying is a recommended drying method for grape skin.

A Kinetic Model for Adsorption Characteristics of Tannic Acid from Chinese Gall “Beihua” on Macroporous Resin
OUYANG Yu-zhu,ZHANG Ci-hai,WEI Yan
2013, 34(11):  122-125.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311027
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The adsorption behavior of tannic acid from Chinese gall “Beihua” on D-101 macroporous polymeric resin was
studied using static adsorption experiments. Some adsorption characteristics was investigated based on the pseudo-?rst-order,
pseudo-second-order and particle diffusion kinetics model, and thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of tannic acid
were determined using the Van’t Hoff equation. The results showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order
kinetic equation. The mutual effects of boundary layer diffusion and intraparticle diffusion on the adsorption of tannic acid on
D-101 resin were determined. Langmuir isothermal adsorption equation was successfully employed to describe the adsorption
of tannic acid on the macroporous resin. This process was physical adsorption with adsorption enthalpy of 5.5 kJ/mol.

Effect of Salting Conditions on Quality of Salted Sciaenops ocellatu
YANG Hua,ZHANG Li-ling,MEI Qing-qing
2013, 34(11):  126-129.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311028
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The effect of salting conditions on the quality of salted Sciaenops ocellatu was investigated. Under different salting
conditions, the changing patterns of water activity, the contents of water, protein and amino nitrogen and color with salting
time were analyzed. The results showed that the optimal conditions for wet salting were establsihed as follows: 8% of salt
concentration and 2.5 h of salting, while 3% salt and 8 d were found to be optimal for dry salting. The results of texture analysis
demonstrated that the dry-salted sample had significantly better flexibility and hardness than the wet-salted sample despite
having poorer chewiness, adhesiveness and adhesive.

Kinetic Charateristics of Lipid Oxidation in Sausages as Affected by Temperature
WANG Qiang
2013, 34(11):  130-133.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311029
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Kinetical modeling of POV, TVB-N and TBARs of sausage fat with repect to storage temperature and time was
performed and kinetic characteristics for fat oxidation in sausages were studied. Fat oxidation and spoilage were aggravated
during storage of sausages and accelerated with increasing temperature. The activation energy for POV, TVB-N and TBARs
were 37.68, 41.34 kJ/mol and 51.38 kJ/mol, respectively. The proposed first-order kinetic model and Arrhenius equation
fitted our experimental data very well. This study can provide a useful guidline to effectively control and predict quality
deterioration of sausages due to fat oxidation during storage.

Effect of Konjac Glucomannan on Water-holding Capacity of Frozen Shrimps
XIE Wan-cui,ZENG En-hui,YANG Xi-hong*,JI Hong-wu,ZHOU Nong,LIAN Xin,WU Hong-wei
2013, 34(11):  134-137.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311030
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The objective of this study is to explore the effect of konjac glucomannan (KGM) on water-holding quality
of frozen shrimps. Five different enzymes were used to hydrolyze konjac for different durations. As a result, KGMs
with different molecular weights were obtained to provide water-holding agents for frozen shrimps. The optimal
enzyme type and hydrolysis time were found to be hemicellulase and 2 h, respectively, based on water-holding capacity
and texture profile analysis (TPA) of frozen shrimps. Under these conditions, the weight gain rate of shrimps during
soaking was 9.28%, thawing loss 1.88%, cooking loss 17.04%, and yield of shrimps 82%. Meanwhile, the hydrolysis
rate of konjac was 49%.

Antioxidant Activity in vitro of Total Flavonoids and Total Polysaccharides from Rose Petals
Parhat·ROZI,Aygul·AHMAT*,ZHU Kun,LIU Lu,HU Yue,HE Wen- ting
2013, 34(11):  138-141.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311031
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Using VC as a positive control, the antixoidant activities of total flavonoids and total polysaccharides from rose
petals collected from Hotan, Xinjiang were evaluated by scavenging rates against DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl
radicals and inhibitory rate against lipid oxidation of liver homogenate. Both total flavonoids and total polysaccharides
from rose petals had scavenging effects on DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Over the studied concentration
range, the radical scavenging activity of both extracts showed linear concentration dependence. In DPPH, superoxide anion
and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays, the IC50 of the total flavonoid extract were 2.21, 2.39 μg/mL and 2.54 μg/mL,
respectively, compared to 2.78, 2.86 μg/mL and 3.44 μg/mL for the total polysaccharide extract. Moreover, both extracts
possessed potent inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum inhibory rates of
49.87% and 69.52%, respectively. The total flavonoid extract exhibted stronger fradical scavenging activity than the total
flavonoid extract despite having anti-lipid peroxidation activity.

Semen Plantaginis Extract: Antioxidant Activity and Protective Effect on Nerve Cell Death
XU Li,LI Yang,LIU Xue-bo
2013, 34(11):  142-146.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311032
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Objective: To study the antioxidant activity of Semen Plantaginis (Semen Plantaginis Asiaticae) flavonoid extract
and polysaccharide extract as well as their protective effect on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in SHSY5Y
nerve cells. Methods: Flavonoid was extracted under sonification while polysaccharide was extracted with hot water.
Comparison of their antioxidant activity was carried out by DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power
and 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+·) assays. The cell death inhibitory effect
and toxicity of the extracts were assessed by MTT assay. Results: The extraction yields of flavonoid and polysaccharide
were 1.54% and 2.76%, respectively. Their antioxidant ability increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and the
flavonoid extract showed greater antioxidant potential than the polysaccharide extract. Both extracts effectively protected
cells against 6-OHDA induced death. Meanwhile, they were proved to be nontoxic. Conclusion: The main active compounds
in Semen Plantaginis, flavonoid and polysaccharide have strong antioxidant activity and significantly protective effect
against 6-OHDA-induced nerve cell death. Therefore, Semen Plantaginis has a promising potential as a source of natural
antioxidants and functional components that protect nerve cells from death.

Biological Properties of Staphylococcus aureus Phage and Its Antibacterial Effect in Milk
CAI Tian-shu,WANG Jing-xue*,LIN Hong,KONG Ling-hong,LI Meng
2013, 34(11):  147-151.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311033
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By the combined use of drop method and double-layer plate method, a phage with specific lytic activity against
Staphylococcus aureus was isoalted from urban sewage and named as qdsa001. The host strain used was Staphylococcus
aureus ATCC 6538. Some physiochemical and biological characteristics of the pahge qdsa 001 were identified. Besides, its
antibacterial effect in milk was also investigated. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation showed that qdsa 001
belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The phage had a strong endurance to temperature below 60 ℃, and its optimal pH and
MOI (multiplicity of infection) were approximately 7-8 and 0.1, respectively. The one-step growth curve plot showed that the
latent period and lytic period of this phage were 10 min and 90 min, respectively. In addition, the average burst size was 32.2.
Therefore, phage qdsa 001 is a virulent bacteriophage and can effectively inactivate Staphylococcus aureus in ready-to-eat milk.

Preparation and Release Kinetics of Microencapsulated Bovine Colostrums Immunoglobulin G
WANG Lu-yi,LI Yun-fei,LIU Lin-jie,XIAO Fei
2013, 34(11):  152-156.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311034
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Arabic gum (GA) and maltodextrin (MD) were used as wall materials to prepare IgG microcapsules by
emulsified/spray drying, when soybean oil was used as the continuous medium. Using orthogonal array design, the optimal
technical parameters were etablished as follows: oil/water ratio 3:4, GA/MD ratio 1:2, 5% wall material, air inlet temperature
140 ℃. The micrencapsulation efficiency of microcapsules was 81.24% under the optimized conditions. Fine integrity and
compactness of microcapsules were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Infrared test results showed that
microencapsulated IgG retained the original structure and nutritional value. Model-fitting was used to study the release
kinetics of the microcapsules. The results indicated that the microcapsule release in simulated gastric and intestinal liquids
obeyed first-order equation.

Metabolic Regulation of Succinic Acid and Lactic Acid Production by Corynebacterium crenatum
CHEN Xiao-ju,JIANG Shao-tong*,LI Xing-jiang,PAN Li-jun
2013, 34(11):  157-162.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311035
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In order to improve the production of lactic acid and succinic acid by C. crenatum, the effect of sodium
bicarbonate on the yield of succinic acid and lactic acid was investigated. Sodium bicarbonate had a significant effect on
glucose consumption rate and organic acid production rate of C. crenatum under oxygen deprivation. With the addition
of 100 mmol/L of sodium bicarbonate, the glucose consumption rate increased by 130%, reaching 69.14 mmol/(L•h),
and the lactic acid accumulation showed an increase from 184.10 mmol/L to 400.92 mmol/L. When the concentration
of added sodium bicarbonate reached 200 mmol/L, the concentration of accumulated succinic acid was 128.05 mmol/L,
which indicated a 9.2-fold increase compared to no addition of sodium bicarbonate, and the total yield of lactic acid and
succinic acid was 1.9 mol/mol. Further analysis showed that sodium bicarbonate activated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
(PEPC) in C. crenatum. PEPC activity increased from 0.956 U/mg to 1.242 U/mg in the presence of 100 mmol/L of sodium
bicarbonate. The flux from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to oxaloacetate increased 3 times and the flux from PEP to pyruvate
decreased 18.9%. Metabolic flux analysis indicated that 96% of succinic acid was produced through the C4 pathway. The
results of this study indicate lactic acid and succinic acid can be produced by C. crenatum under oxygen deprivation even
though their proliferation is arrested.

Isolation and Identification of Two Phytase-producing Strains from Soybean Rhizosphere Soil and Cloning of Neutral Phytase Gene
YAO Ming-ze,LU Wen-liang,ZHANG Yao-hua,LIANG Ai-hua
2013, 34(11):  163-167.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311036
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Two strains capable of enhanced phytase production were isolated from soybean rhizosphere soil. According
to morphological observation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, both were identified as Bacillus subtilis. From both
stains, phytase-encoding genes, phy(ycD) and phy(ycE), were cloned by polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis was
conducted with BLASTn and BLASTp programs, available on the National Center for Biotechnology Information database
(NCBI). The results revealed that Phy(ycD) and phy(ycE) genes shared 98% identity at nucleic acid level. Each of them
contained an open reading frame of 1149 bp encoding 382 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide phy(ycD) and phy(ycE)
belong to beta-propeller phytases (BPPs). A signal peptide consisting of 26 residues was found at the N- terminus. The two
sequences were distinguished from each other by five amino acid substitutions. Homology modeling of these phytases was
carired out using SWISS-MODEL. The software Spdbv was used to evaluate the constructed model. The results showed that
four amino acid substitutions were located in different secondary structures. The cloning of phy(ycD) and phy(ycE) can lay a
good foundation for basic research and industrial application of natural phytase.

Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Chicken Fat on the Formation of Characteristic Flavor Precursors
SONG Shi-qing,YUAN Lin,ZHANG Xiao-ming,LIU Fang
2013, 34(11):  168-172.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311037
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The effects of enzymatic hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis coupled with mild controlled oxidization on
lipid oxidation in chicken were studied. Chemical index analysis, descriptive sensory analysis and SPME/GC-MS analysis
were used to comparatively evaluate lipid oxidation in chicken through enzymatic hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis
coupled with controlled oxidization. Peroxide value (POV) of chicken fat was significantly increased through oxidization
after enzymatic hydrolysis. Quantitative sensory analysis showed that species-specific characteristics of chicken were more
prominent in chicken subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis coupled with controlled oxidized fat. Furthermore, SPME/GCMS
analysis proved that the oxidized chicken fat had POV of 52.36 meq/kg and AV of 34.06 mg KOH/g by enzymatic
hydrolysis coupled with mild control oxidation at the medium level of characteristic flavour precursor.

Effect of Sodium Houttuyfonate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm
WANG Yan,CHENG Hui-juan*,ZHU Ling-ling,SUN Zhen-xin,LI Lu-tian
2013, 34(11):  173-176.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311038
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Purpose: To investigate the effect of sodium houttuyfonate on the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm
at different stages. Methods: MTT assay was used to detect the antibacterial and metabolic effect of sodium houttuyfonate
at different concentrations on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. An electron microscope was used to observe the inhibitory effect
of sodium houttuyfonate on the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm at different stages. Viable cell count on filter
membrane was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of sodium houttuyfonate on the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
biofilm. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration was 300 μg/mL, and the antibacterial activity of sodium houttuyfonate was
positively dependent on its concentration. The concentration necessary for 50% and 80% inhibition of biofilm formation were
9.37-37.5 μg/mL and 37.5-150 μg/mL, respectively, and as a result, biofilm bacterial populations were reduced significantly
compared with normal control group (P < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation revealed that bacteria in
sodium houttuyfonate group were in a planktonic state with smooth surface and no mucus-like substances, and the number of
viable cells on carrier in the membrane filter was apparently smallers than that of normal control group. Sodium houttuyfonate
at high dose had significant differences from control (P < 0.05) in adhesion, initial formation of biofilm and the formation
of mature biofilm. Conclusion: As an active ingredient in Houttuynia cordata, sodium houttuyfonate has antibacterial activity
against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and can effectively inhibit the formation of biofilm.

Analysis of Bacterial Phylogenetic Diversity of Pit Muds with Different Cellar Ages
WANG Ming-yue,ZHANG Wen-xue,WANG Hai-ying,LIU Chao-lan
2013, 34(11):  177-181.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311039
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Total DNAs were extracted from pit muds with different cellar ages, 20, 50 a and 150 a, respectively and
were used for constructing 16S rDNA clone libraries. The bacterial composition and diversity from the pit muds were
investigated by amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results
showed that 398 clones from the 16S rDNA library fell into 37 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 6 phyla including
Firmicute (65.1%), Bacteroidetes (21.4%), Chloroflexi (4.8%), Actinobacteria (3.8%), unclassified bacteria (3.9%) and
Proteobacteria (1.0%). Most of the clones (73.9%) showed more affiliation with the uncultured bacteria. The predominant
bacteria from the pit mud with cellar age of 20 years were Syntrophomonas, Petrimonas and Proteiniphilum, while the
predominant bacteria from the pit muds with cellar age of 50 a and 150 a were Natronoanaerobium and unclassified
Clostrida. The bacterial diversity index of pit mud increased with increasing cellar age, especially when the cellular age
increased from 20 to 50 a. The community structure of the pit muds with cellar age of 50 a and 150 a had the highest
similarity. This research revealed the relationship between bacterial phylogenetic diversity of pit muds with different
cellar ages and the aging of pit mud.

Cloning and Heterologous Expression in E. coli of Phospholipase C Gene from Bacillus cereus
LIU Fei-fei,ZHANG Liang,GU Zheng-hua,DING Chong-yang,SHI Gui-yang
2013, 34(11):  182-187.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311040
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As phospholipase C (PLC) could hydrolyze egg yolk and produce a zone of opalescence surrounding colonies on
an egg yolk agar plate, one phospholipase C producing strain of Bacillus cereus 12 was isolated from 600 strains preserved
in our laoratory. Phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C (PC-PLC) gene pcplc1 was amplified from the isolated
strain. Recombinant plasmid pET28a(+)-pcplc1 was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). After subsequent
indution by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), an approximately 33 kD protein was detected in the cell lysate
supernatant by SDS-PAGE. Meanwhile, the recombinant protein showed significant PLC activity on egg yolk agar plate.
Induction time, induction temperature and IPTG concentration were investigated and optimized induction conditions for
pcplc1 expression were obtained as follows: 4% of inoculum amount, 1.5 h of initial culture, 4 h of induced culture in the
presence of 0.2 mmol/L of IPTG, and 25 ℃ of culture temperature. Unde the optimized conditions, maximum PLC activity
in the supernatant was observed to be (30.24 ± 0.18) U/mL (crude enzyme activity) .

Optimization of Mixed Starter Cultures Fermentation Conditions during Alcohol Fermentation Stage of Purple Sweet Potato Vinegar
YIN Yong-qi,ZHANG Shu-yu,HAN Yong-bin,GU Zhen-xin
2013, 34(11):  188-192.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311041
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The production of purple sweet potato vinegar was explored based on alcohol fermentation by inocluation of
mixed pure cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus. One-factor-at-a-time experiments and
orthogonal array design were employed to optimize inoculum sizes of both starter cultures, inoculation time, volume ratio
between saccharified solutions of purple sweet potato and rice, fermentation temperature and fermentation time on the
contents of alcohol and total acid in fermentation broth. The optimal alcohol fermentation conditions for producing purple
sweet potato vinegar were establsihed as follows: 0.3% Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 10% Lactobacillus acidophilus
cultures were simultaneously inoculated to mixed saccharified solutions of purple sweet potato and rice at a ratio of 5:5 and
then fermented at 30 ℃ for 84 h. The contents of alcohol and total acid of fermentation broth obtained under the optimized
conditions were 7.15% and 0.63 g/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, total acid content in fermentation broth can be
increased by inoculation of Lactobacillus acidophilus, resulting in improved quality of purple sweet potato vinegar.

Influence of Tannic Acids on the Activities of Cellulase and Xylanase
TIAN Ye,OU Shi-yi
2013, 34(11):  193-198.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311042
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The effect of tannic acid on the activities of cellulase and xylanase was investigated and the mechanisms were
explored using enzymatic kinetics, ultroviolet spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Tannic acid was found to inhibit
both enzymes with an inhibitory rate of 0.5 mg/mL (37.16%) for xylanase and 1.0 mg/mL(35.33%) for cellulase. Kinetic
invesitgations illustrated that taannic acid had competitve inhibition on cellulase, while its inhibition on xylanase was
manifested by improving its affinity but decreasing the reaction rate. UV and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses suggested
that covalent interactions of tannic acid with the aromatic amino acid residues in enzyme molecules formed stable complexes
so as to influence the enzyme reactions.

Effect of Rhizoma Gastrodiae on Key Enenzyme Activities Involved in the Biosynthesis of Exopolysaccharides from Grifola frondosa in Submerged Culture
HE Zong-yi,WU Tian-xiang,XU Xiao-bao
2013, 34(11):  199-202.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311043
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The effect of Rhizoma Gastrodiae on the biosynthesis of expolysaccharide (EPS) from Grifola frondosa in
submerged culture was studied. Total polysaccharide content was determined by phenol-sulphuric acid method. The results
showed that Rhizoma Gastrodiae at 7 g/L significantly promoted the biosynthesis of EPS in Grifola frondosa when compared
with blank control, increasing EPS yield from 3.72 g/L to 3.91 g/L. The measured activities of two key enzymes involved in
the synthesis of EPS indicated that after fermentation in the presence of Rhizoma Gastrodiae, PGI activity was decreased,
although α-PGM activity showed no obvious change.

Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Traditional Fermented Broad Bean Sauce
DU Mu-ying,YU Lang, ZHAO Xiao-juan,WU Jun,KAN Jian-quan
2013, 34(11):  203-207.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311044
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The production of traditional fermented broad bean sauce with mixed inoculums of Aspergillus oryzae and
Monascus anka was optimized in order to shorten the fermentation period. Using one-factor-at-a-time expeirments and
orthogonal array design, the optimal conditions to obtain excellent koji were established as follows: 4:3 of Aspergillus
oryzae:Monascus anka ratio (V/V), 28-30 ℃ and 40 h, and the optimal conditions to obtain excellent fermented broad bean
sauce were found to be primary fermentation at 45 ℃ for 10 d followed by addition of chilli sauce at a mass ratio of 1:1 and
secondary fermentation at 45 ℃ for 15 d.

Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Sisomicin Production by Marine Streptomyces sp. GB-2
LI Jin-liang,ZHANG Li,LI Chun-yan,PENG Yi-kai,WANG Ying,Lü Feng-xia,LU Zhao-xin*
2013, 34(11):  208-212.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311045
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The marine Streptomyces sp. GB-2 has been observed for the first time as a new sisomicin-produced strain except
Micromonospora. In this study, Plackett-Burman screening design was undertaken to evaluate the effects of 9 factors. By the
statistical regression analysis, soybean flour, glucose, temperature, and speed were indentified as significant factors affecting
sisomicin fermentation by marine Streptomyces sp. GB-2. In the second phase of the optimization process, the response
surface methodology (RSM) was used to establishe the optimal concentration levels of and the relationships between these
factors. By resolving the quadratic regression model equation using appropriate statistic method, the R2 was estimated as
0.9669 which showed a high correlation. The optimal concentration of the variables were determined as: soybean flour
11.95 g/L, glucose 2.96 g/L, temperature at 28 ℃, and speed 183 r/min. The yield of sisomicin obtained under the optimized
conditions was 726.11 U/mL, an 87.61% increase compared to 387.03 U/mL before the optimization. Accordingly, the
optmized fermentation conditions presented in this study can be considered reliable.

Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage-insensitive Mutant ATCC25923R and Adsorption Site of Phage JS01
JIA Jing-jing,SHI Feng,WANG Li-ping,WANG Xiao-yuan
2013, 34(11):  213-217.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311046
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The lysis of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 by phage JS01 gave rise to a bacteriophage-insensitive mutant
(BIM, ATCC25923R). In order to understand the different sensitivity of ATCC25923 and ATCC25923R towards phage
JS01 as well as to determine the phage JS01 adsorption site on the cell surface of ATCC25923, the structures of teichoic
acids in these strains were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the effect of some reagents on
phage lysis was analyzed. ATCC25923R showed smooth colony with dark color when compared with ATCC25923. After
challenged with JS01, the OD600nm value of ATCC25923 culture decreased from 1.0 to 0.2 in 1 h, while the OD600nm value
of ATCC25923R culture increased continuously. A pentose component appeared in the teichoic acid of ATCC25923R,
but not in that of ATCC25923. Among glucose, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), and teichoic acid from ATCC25923 and
ATCC25923R, only GlcNAc could reduce the ability of JS01 to lyse ATCC25923, indicating that GlcNAc is the JS01
adsorption site on ATCC25923.

Resuscitation of Viable but Non-culturable E. coli O157:H7
TIAN Cong,YU Yi-gang,XIAO Xing-long*,LI Jian-long,WU Hui
2013, 34(11):  218-221.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311047
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In order to explore the resuscitative capability of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli O157:H7,
the bacteria were induced into LB broth and physiological saline at low temperatures (-18 ℃) respectively. Plate count,
scanning electron microscope and qPCR technique were used to detect the VBNC cell populations on the 15th and 18th days,
respectively. Resuscitation of VBNC samples within 2 d was achieved by direct heating to 37 ℃, addition of 25% yeast
extract at 25 ℃, or addition of 8% Tween-80 at 37 ℃. The pattern of the resuscitated VBNC cells was similar to that of the
normal cells. However, the bacteria could not resuscitate after the VBNC state was kept for 15 d.

Protective Action of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan against Cadmium-induced Oxidative Damage in the Freshwater Crab Sinopotamon henanense
FAN Bing-xin,REN Guo-rui,LI Rui-jin,WANG Lan
2013, 34(11):  228-231.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311049
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To investigate the protective effect of low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) against cadmium-induced
toxicological activity, the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense was challenged with LMWC (20, 40 mg/L and 80 mg/L) and
or cadmium (29, 58 mg/L and 87 mg/L). Cadmium accumulation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde
(MDA) content, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) content were measured in hepatopancreas
of S. henanense. The results showed that Cd2+ (58 mg/L) significantly decreased SOD activity and increased MDA
content in hepatopancreas of the crabs compared to the control group (P < 0.05), whereas LMWC did not change SOD
activity and MDA content in hepatopancreas. Also, there was an apparent accumulation of Cd2+ in hepatopancreas, which
was lessened in the presence of LMWC in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, Cd2+ significantly decreased
the hepatopancreas GST activity and GSH content in the crabs relative to the control (P < 0.05). Co-treatment with
LMWC enhanced the GST activity and GSH content in hepatopancreas tissues compare with the crabs exposed to Cd2+
alone. According to these results, it can be concluded that LMWC has protective function against the adverse influence of
cadmium on Sinopotamon henanense.

Effect of Zeranol on Proliferation of Human Breast Cancer Cells and Evaluation of Estrogenic Activity
ZHONG Sai-yi,LIU Shou-chun,QIN Xiao-ming,WANG Wei-min,LIN Hua-juan,CHEN Su-hua
2013, 34(11):  232-236.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311050
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Objective: To explore the effect of zeranol on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells and its estrogenic
activity. Methods: in vitro cell culture model was employed and estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative
human breast cancer cells were exposed to different doses of Zeranol. The cell proliferation was tested by MTS/PMS assay
and the cell growth curve of MCF-7 was measured by trypan blue staining and hemocytometer counting. Moreover, the
estrogenic effect of zeranol and its correlation with estrogen receptors were evaluated using estrogen receptor antagonist
ICI 182,780 as a too1. Results: Zeranol (2-50 nmol/L) effectively induced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, but showed no
effect on ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, its effect on MCF-7 cell proliferation was completely blocked by ICI
182,780. Conclusion: Low dose of Zeranol can stimulate the growth of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell and has
relatively potent estrogenic activity presumably via estrogen receptor α-mediated pathway.

Effect of Germination on Phytic Acid and Soluble Iron Content in Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)
WANG Li-jun,LUO Yu-wei,XIE Wei-hua,YU Zhi-yun
2013, 34(11):  237-241.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311051
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Phytic acid and iron contents in faba bean fractions during germination were determined by spectrometrically.
Germination was an effective approach to reduce phytic acid in the cotyledon and phytic acid was removed by 50% in the
cotyledon of faba bean on the 8th day during germination. The cotyledon had the highest Fe content, which was followed
by radicle, embryonic axe and plumula. During faba bean germination, the content of soluble iron and ferric iron revealed
an obvious increase. Therefore, germination is a good way to improve iron bioavailability in faba bean by increasing the
amounts of soluble iron and ferrous iron.

Protective Effect and Mechanism of Blueberry Anthocyanins against Retinal Photodamage in Rats
MENG Xian-jun,BI Wan-qin,ZHANG Qi,LI Bin
2013, 34(11):  242-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311052
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The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of blueberry anthocyanins (BA) against retinal
photodamage in rats and elucidate the potenital mechanism. A total of 50 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided
into 5 groups: normal control group, model control group, low-dose group, medium-dose group, and high-dose group. The
thickness of the retinal outer nuclear layer was measured as well as total retinal protein content and malondialhyde (MDA),
superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the established
photo-oxidative damage model. Compared with the model control group, rats administered with BA at medium dose and
high dose had more clearly demarcated retinal structure and more ordered cells. Each dose of BA effectively prevented
the thinning of the retinal outer nuclear layer and the reduction of total protein content. High-dose BA group also could
significantly improve SOD, GSH-Px and MDA levels. Compared with the model control group, there was no signinificant
difference in LDH level at any of the doses tested. Blueberry anthocyanins have a significant protective effect against rat
retinal light damage, possibly because of their anti-lipid peroxidation activity.

Analysis of Nutrient Components in Muscle of Semilabeo prochilus and Its Nutritive Quality
ZHU Cheng-ke,HUANG Hui,XIANG Xiao,YANG Shao-qing,ZHANG Jian-zhong
2013, 34(11):  246-249.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311053
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Nutrient components in muscle of Semilabeo prochilus were analyzed and the nutritive quality of the meat were
evaluated in this study. The results showed that the ratio of flesh to body mass was (70.90 ± 3.20)%. Semilabeo prochilus
muscle contained (75.62 ± 1.17)% moisture, (20.04 ± 0.78)% crude protein, (3.67 ± 0.08)% crude fat and (1.34 ± 0.13)%
ash. A total of 18 amino acids were detected in muscle proteins, including the 8 essential amino acids. In dry sample, the
total content of amino acids was (79.83 ± 0.59)%. The content of essential amino acids was (33.95 ± 0.15)%. Five delicious
amino acids accounted for (35.69 ± 0.24)% of the total amino acids. Glu was the most abundant and Tyr was the least
abundant amino acid in Semilabeo prochilus muscle. The percentage of essential amino acids in total amino acids (EAA/
TAA) was 42.53%. The constitutional ratio of essential amino acids met the FAO/WHO standard. Amino acid score (AAS)
and chemical score (CS) analyses showed that the primary and secondary limited amino acid in Semilabeo prochilus muscle
were Try and Val, respectively. The essential amino acid index (EAAI) was 62.08. The contents of monounsaturated fatty
acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were
(45.33 ± 0.08)%, (26.04 ± 0.19)%, (4.75 ± 0.04)% and (7.35 ± 0.03)%, respectively. These results indicated that Semilabeo
prochilus was a fresh water fish with high nutritive value.

Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Pork Industry Chains in Partial Areas of Sichuan Province
HOU Xiao-gang,LIU Shu-liang,HAN Xin-feng,WU Cong-ming
2013, 34(11):  250-253.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311054
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To investigate the contamination and propagation status of Salmonella in pork industry chains from Sichuan
province, and to provide a basis for food safety. CHROMagar was used for isolating Salmonella from 829 samples collected
from large-scale pig farms, downstream slaughterhouses and sale markets in Sichuan during May 2010 to May 2011.These
strains were identified by duplex PCR amplification of the invA and hut genes. Finally, serotyping of these Salmonella
isolates was performed. The results showed that 112 strains of Salmonella were identified from the above samples. Of the
samples from pig farms, slaughterhouses and sale markets, 16.40%, 10.71% and 10.00% were found to be positive for
Salmonella, respectively. A total of 11 Salmonella serotypes were found, and the dominant serotypes were S. derby,
S. typhimurium, S. potsdam and S. give. These dominant serotypes tended to spread from slaugherhouses to sale markets. As
a consequence, the hygine supervision needs to be strengthened.

Protective Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata Saponin on DNA Damage in Liver Cells Induced by Diethylnitrosamine
ZHENG Chun-ji, YU Xing,HAN Chun-ji
2013, 34(11):  254-257.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311055
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Objective: To explore the preventive effect of total saponin (CLS) from Codonopsis lanceolata on DNA damage
in liver cells induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and provide a reference for chemical prevention of liver cancer. Methods:
Fifty mice were randomly divided into five groups including negative control group (intragastric administration of distilled
water), DEN group (DEN 20 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection every other day), and high, middle and low dose groups
(CLS 200, 100 mg/(kg·d) and 50 mg/(kg·d) by intragastric administration every day, DEN 20 mg/kg by intraperitoneal
injection every other day). The treatments were lasted for 6 weeks. DNA damage of liver cells were analyzed by a single cell
gel electrophoresis technique, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and
superoxidedismutase (SOD) in liver tissues were determined by colorimentry. Results: CLS had no significant improvement
for mice on the inhibition of body weight. Comet tail length, comet length, tail moment, Olive tail moment and tail DNA (%)
of three CLS dose groups were significantly lower than those of DEN group (P < 0.05), DNA damage of each CLS dose
group was significantly lower than that of DEN group (P < 0.05). SOD activity of CLS high dose group was significantly
higher than that of DEN group (P < 0.01), GSH-Px activities of CLS high and middle groups were significantly higher than
that of DEN group (P < 0.01), the contents of MDA in three CLS dose groups were significantly lower than that of DEN
group in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Codonopsis lanceolata saponin has obvious protective effects
against DNA damage in mouse liver cells induced by DEN.

Food Safety and Toxicological Assessment of Eleutheroside
YANG Ping,LI Run-guo,MENG Xian-jun
2013, 34(11):  258-262.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311056
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Objective: To evaluate the safety of eleutheroside, and to provide scientific support for the reasonable utilization
and development of eleutheroside. Methods: According to the national standard procedures and methods in food safety and
toxicological evaluation, a series of toxicological studies on the ingestion of eleutheroside were conducted, which included
acute toxicity, genetic toxicity and subacute toxicity tests. Results: For acute toxicity, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD)
was higher than 20 g/kg. The results of Ames test, mouse bone marrow micronucleus test and mouse sperm abnormality
test were negative. After 30 d of feeding, rats showed no significant difference in body growth, organ development or
histological observation. Conclusion: Eleutheroside is actually non-toxic with no genetic toxicity. No adverse effect of
eleutheroside at 20 g/kg has been observed during trails for 30 d.

Changes of Lipids in Sour Meat during Fermentation and Its Influence on Animal Blood Lipids
SUN Wen-jing,WEI Fei,YUAN Jun,FAN Dai-chao,ZHOU Cai-qiong*
2013, 34(11):  263-267.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311057
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Objective: To study the changes of lipids during the fermentation of sour meat and the influence of sour meat on
animal blood lipids. Methods: Fifty Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups with 10 mice in each, which were
designated as control group (normal feed), fresh pork group, and 20, 40 d and 60 d fermentation groups which were fed pork
fermented for 20, 40 d and 60 d, respectively. After 28 d of feeding, the body weight, liver weight, and serum total cholesterol (TC),
triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) of all the mice were determined. Lipids in sour meat were
also analyzed at different stages of fermentation. Results: During fermentation, the content of fat, cholesterol and phospholipid
in pork gradually decreased while free fatty acids gradually increased with increeasing fermentation time. Fermented sour meat
restrained the increase of body weight, liver weight and hepatosomatic index of mice. Serum TC, TG and LDL-C of mice fed
sour meat fermented for 60 d were significantly lower than that of mice fed fresh pork (P < 0.05), but close to that of control
mice. The serum lipid and AI of female mice were higher than that of male mice. Conclusion: Fermented sour meat may prevent
arteriosclerosis through reducing blood lipid. The risk of elevated blood fat in female mice is higher than in male mice.

Effect of Production Process on Nutritional Quality of Camellia Seed Oil
ZHANG Zhi-min,WU Su-xi*,LIU Rui-xing
2013, 34(11):  268-272.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311058
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In this work, the influence of different oil extraction methods and different refining processes on nutritional
quality of camellia seed oil was investigated. The results showed that the crude oil extracted by cold pressing had the
highest content of unsaturated fatty acids (87.92 ± 0.06)% followed by that (87.83 ± 0.05)% from aqueous enzymatic
extraction, AEE. No significant difference was observed in fatty acid composition of refined oils following different
refining processes (P > 0.05). The total content of VE in cold pressed oil was (213.70 ± 1.30) mg/kg while AEE oil
contained (204.45 ± 1.24) mg/kg VE, which were significantly higher than that of the oils extracted by five other methods
including cold pressing (P < 0.05). The contents of squalene in cold pressed and AEE oils were (113.71 ± 1.20) mg/kg and
(114.37 ± 1.16) mg/kg, respectively, which were slightly higher than that of the oil extracted by hot pressing (P > 0.05) but
significantly higher than that of the oil extracted by three other methods (P < 0.05). However, significant losses of VE and
squalene were found during refining. Alkali refining and deodorization process were main steps which affect the nutritional
quality of camellia seed oil.

Antioxidant Capacity and Fatigue-relieving Function of Black Soybean Peptides
LIU En-qi,LI Hua,WU Yong-hua,ZHANG Jian-ping,CHEN Zhen-jia
2013, 34(11):  273-277.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311059
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Black soybean peptides (BSPs) with potent antioxidant activity, purified with ultrafiltration and macroporous
adsorption resin (MAR) from black soybean protein hydrolysates, were analyzed for relative molecular mass and amino acid
composition. A total of 125 mice were randomly divided into control group which were given normal saline, positive group
which were given reduced glutathione, and low, medium and high dose groups which were given BSPs for 30 days, then the
weight loaded-swimming time and blood lactic acid (BLA), serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and hepatic glycogen (HG) contents
were observed for evaluating the fatigue-relieving function of BSPs. The results showed that the peptide fraction with relative
molecular mass 亙 3000 eluted by 75% ethanol displayed the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Compared with the
control group, the middle and high dose groups showed significantly (P 亙 0.01) prolonged loaded-swimming time, lowered
BLA, and improved HG storage status. This indicates that oral administration of BSPs can relieve physical fatigue in mice.
The effect of the low dose group (250 mg/(kg.d)) on BLA and HG and the effect of the middle dose group (500 mg/(kg.d)) on
loaded-swimming time were similar to that of the positive group (50 mg/(kg.d)). BSPs with relative molecular mass between 450
and 920 were obtained from further separation by Sephadex G-25 gel chromatography, which possessed high contents of Phe, Val,
Pro, Met, Thr, Cys and His, displaye better antioxidant activity, and also could relieve physical fatigue triggered by free radicals.

The research of inhibition effect of Deuterium-Depleted-alcohol on lung cancer A549 and H460
2013, 34(11):  278-284. 
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[Abtract] Objective: To observe the inhibition of the deuterium-depleted-alcohol on the proliferation of lung cancer cell A549 and H460. Methods: In vitro, the inhibition effects of alcohol, deuterium-depleted water (DDW) and deuterium-depleted-alcohol (DDA) on the proliferation of lung cancer cell A549 were measured by MTT assay, and the apoptosis were determined by TUNEL method and flow cytometry. In vivo, human lung cancer H460 cells were inoculated intradermally into nude mice. After 9 days, the growth curve was drawn to show the growing characteristics of xenograft. After 21 days, we sacrificed the mice, weighed and calculated the ratios of tumor-suppression. We also detected the pathological changes of tumor tissues to observe the tumor necrosis degree by HE staining. The pathological changes of the liver and lung tissues were also observed. Results: The proliferation ability of A549 was remarkably inhibited at the concentration of 180 mM of DDA, compared with the control group and the alcohol group(p <0.05); Apoptosis of A549 was remarkably induced by DDA, compared with the control group、the alcohol group and DDW group(p <0.05); Moreover, FCM assay results showed that DDA could promote apoptosis. The in vivo data showed the tumor inhibition rates were higher in DDA and DDW group than that in the control group (p <0.05), 31.014% and 27.639% respectively. HE staining showed that tumor cells necrosed and arranged loosely in DDA and DDW group, and no obvious changes in lung and liver tissue had been observed. Conclusion: DDA has evident inhibition effect on the proliferation of lung cancer cell.

Anti-hypertension Effect of Swine Femur Head Collagen Peptide
CHEN Shuo,LI Cheng*,LI Na,FU Gang
2013, 34(11):  285-287.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311061
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To investigate the effect of collagen hydrolysates from swine femur head on the blood pressure of spontaneous
hypertension rats (SHRs), 64 SHRs were randomly divided into 8 groups with 8 rats in each group. Six of these groups were
administrated with 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 mg/kg and 70 mg/kg body weight of the hydrolysates. Negative control was orally
administrated with the same volume of vehicle (distilled water) and positive control was administrated with 10 mg/kg body
weight of captopril. After administration, the systolic pressure of rats was measured every two hours to determine the antihypertension
effectiveness of collagen hydrolysates. The results obtained showed that oral administration of the hydrolysates
at doses of 30, 50 mg/kg and 70 mg/kg body weight significantly lowered the systolic pressure of SHRs, which were then used
as low, medium and high doses of hydrolysates for further study. In the next study, 8 rats in each group were then administrated
with 30, 50 mg/(kg.d) and 70 mg/(kg.d) of the collagen hydrolysates or equal volume of distilled water (negative control) or
10 mg/(kg.d) of captopril (positive control) for 30 days. The systolic pressure and diastolic pressure of rats were measured every 5
days. The results showed that, compared to negative control, all three doses of hydrolysates significantly decreased both systolic and
diastolic pressure of rats (P < 0.01), showing its anti-hypertension property which might be used for human health care.

Anti-hyperglycemic Activities of Exopolysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris in Diabetic Mice Induced by Multiple Low-dose Streptozotocoin
SUN Na-xin,YANG Gui-wen,AN Li-guo
2013, 34(11):  288-295.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311062
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Cordyceps militaris, a Chinese herbal medicine with fruiting body or cultured mycelia, has been proposed
to have multiple medicinal activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the crude
polysaccharides, extracted from fruiting body (BP), cultured mycelia(MP) and exopolysaccaride(EP), in diabetic mice
induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ). Only EP showed potent hypoglycemic activity in diabetic
mice during the observing period, and this treatment group was examined immunologically. The proliferative response
of the spleen cells stimulated with Concanavalin A(ConA), the IL-4 and IFN-γ levels of the supernatant in stimulated
splenocytes, and the IL-6 and TNF-α levels secreted from the spleen macrophage stimulated with LPS were compared
among the control group, the EP group and the untreated diabetic group. Meanwhile, the proliferative response of the
lymphocytes and the related cytokines levels were also investigated with different concentrations of EP in vitro. Our
results showed that both the blastogenesis response and cytokines levels (IL-4 and IFN-γ) of splenocytes stimulated
by ConA were decreased in EP group, meanwhile the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio was moderately inhibited. IL-6 secretion of the
splenic macrophage of the EP group was also significantly enhanced leading to a lower TNF-α/IL-6 ratio than that of the
diabetic mice. These data suggest that EP treatment could reduce the blood glucose in MLD-STZ induced diabetic mice.
The immunological basis of the hypoglycemic activity was probably associated with inhibiting the lymphocytes response
and inducing the differentiation of Th cells into Th2 cells through enhancement of IL-6 production by the splenic

Aperient Effect of Fructooligosaccharides and Lactobacillus on Constipation Model of Rats
LIU Xiao-mei,PENG Zhi-rong,NI Xue-qin,YANG Jie,ZOU Zhao-yong,QIU Chun-hong,ZENG Dong,YANG Li-ge
2013, 34(11):  296-299.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311063
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To explore the defecating function of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and Lactobacillus, constipation model of
Wistar rats was established. From 36 male wistar rats of the same age and weight, 4 rats were randomly selected as blank
control group, while the remaining rats were used as constipation model and randomly divided into 8 groups, including
model group, positive treatment group (folium senna 10.0 mg/kg), FOS high, medium and low-dose groups (corresponding
to 1.0, 0.5, 0.25 g/(kg·d) and Lactobacillus high, medium and low-dose groups(corresponding to 2.0 × 1010, 2.0 × 109,
2.0 × 108 CFU/(kg·d)). After continuous force-feeding for 7 days, 6 indexes, i.e., feed intake, water intake, body mass
increment, the advance rate of carbon powder, fecal pellets and intestinal flora, were detected. Both FOS and Lactobacillus
had defecating function. Water intake, body mass increment, the advance rate of carbon powder and fecal pellets of the
6 groups with gavage of FOS or Lactobacillus were significantly higher than those of model group (P < 0.05). Besides,
FOS and Lactobacillus had an inhibiting effect on the growth of intestinal Enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae (P <
0.05). The optimal dosage of FOS and Lactobacillus was 1.0 g/(kg·d) and 2.0 × 108 CFU/(kg·d), respectively. Both FOS
and Lactobacillus have defecating function, maintain the balance of intestinal flora and inhibit the growth of intestinal
Enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae.

Application of Rare Earth Luminescent Materials in Detection of Food Safety
SONG Chun-mei,ZHI Ai-min,JIA Guo-chao,XU Chuan-lai,ZHANG Gai-ping
2013, 34(11):  300-304.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311064
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Rare earth luminescent materials are one kind of new functional materials with great application potential. In
order to provide some references for further development and wider application of rare earth luminescent materials, the
types, light-emitting mechanisms, luminescent properties, preparation techniques of rare earth luminescent materials have
been reviewed. Its applications in food safety test have also been summarized. Finally, the future development of rare earth
luminescent materials has also been prospected.

Influence of Postharvest Chitosan Treatment on the Morphosis in Fruit-pathogen Interaction
ZHANG Lu,ZENG Kai-fang
2013, 34(11):  305-310.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311065
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Chitosan, the only natural basic polysaccharide, is widely applied in postharvest preservation of fruit due to many
special properties and physiological functions. Chitosan has been used in the control of postharvest diseases of fruits and
vegetables, for the interaction of chitosan, fruit and pathogens. Chitosan affects the interactions of fruit-pathogen at the level
of morphology, physiology and biochemistry. Morphological changes in the structure can directly reflect the interactions
among chitosan, fruit and pathogens, which will be helpful for the physiological and biochemical study. This paper reviews
the effects of chitosan treatment on morphology changes of fruit tissue invaded by pathogens and on the fruit peel structure
and material composition change so as to reveal the mechanism of chitosan treatment in postharvest disease control and
provide a theoretical basis to further research and application.

Application of Quantum Dots as Newly Emerging Nano-probes in Food Analysis and Detection
WANG Bei-bei,RUAN Xiao-juan,MA Mei-hu,CAI Zhao-xia
2013, 34(11):  311-315.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311066
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Development of rapid, sensitive, safe, enconomical methods for food analysis and detection has become a hot
topic of common concern worldwide. As newly emerging fluorescence nano probes, quantum dots have been used in an
expanded range from material sciences, biolology and medicine to food field, stimulating the development of food analysis
and detection techniques. This review focuses on optical properties of quantum dots and recent applications in food analysis
and detection. Quantum dots with special properties and some suggestions for improved applications are outlined. Moreover,
recent applications of newly emerging quantum dot probes in food safety detection and nutrient analysis are summerized
aiming to provide some guidelines for the development of food detection and analysis.

Research Progress in Functions of Bioactive Chitooligosaccharides in Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
ZHANG Jiao,DAI Xue-ling,JIANG Zhao-feng
2013, 34(11):  316-320.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311067
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by the loss of
neuronal cells, intracellular neurofibrillar tangles and extracellular senile plaques. Chitooligosaccharide, also termed β-1,4-
oligomerization-glucosamine, is the alkaline oligosaccharide with multiple biological activities. Chitooligosaccharide
plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of AD by protecting neuronal cells from death, suppressing
hyperphosphorylation of tau, reducing the activity of β-secretase, antioxidation, chelating copper ions, and suppressing
the activity of acetylcholinesterase. In this paper, we have reviewed the recent research progress of chitooligosaccharide
on prevention and treatment of AD, which will provide a theoretical reference for the development and utilization of
chitooligosaccharide in health foods.

Research Advance in Flavonoids Derived from Fruits and Vegetables and Corresponding Molecular Targets of Anticancer
REN Hong1,ZHANG Nai-yuan2,TIAN Wen-jing1,ZHANG Rui1,HU Ren-jie1
2013, 34(11):  321-326.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311068
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Flavonoids are existed widely in various fruits and vegetables with the characteristics of large amount, complex
structure, obvious pharmacological activity and low toxicity. A diet rich in flavonoids can be associated with the reduced risk for
cancers, which has important significance on prevention and treatment of malignant tumors. In this paper, the studies on flavonoids
derived from fruits and vegetables as well as their anticancer activity and corresponding molecular targets in terms of their chemical
structures are summarized, which will provide a scientific basis for further developing their therapeutic value of diets.

Immunoregulation Effect of Astragalus Polysaccharides
JIANG Chen-lu,TANG Cheng,QIANG Yu,SUO Hua-yi,LI Lin
2013, 34(11):  327-332.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311069
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Astragalus is a traditional Chinese herbal that can be used as both medicine and therapy foods, and its most
active ingredient content is Astragalus polysaccharides. The natural extract substance, Astragalus polysaccharides, has
multiple effects including modulating blood glucose, protecting liver and kidney, adjusting immunity, preventing oxidation
and senimu. Among these functions, immunoregulation is the most outstanding one. In this paper, immunoregulation
function of Astragalus polysaccharides is studied from the aspects of immune organs, immune cells and the expression of
relevant cell factors and genes based on the synthesis of the relevant research results in this field.

Research Progress in Detection Methods of Chloramphenicol Residues in Aquatic Products
TANG Yi-wei,LI Jian-rong*,MENG Liang-yu,ZHONG Ke-li,XU Yong-xia
2013, 34(11):  333-337.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311070
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Chloramphenicol (CAP) belongs to amphenicol antibiotics, which has been banned in aquiculture. It is a broadspectrum
fungicide, but the residues of CAP in aquatic products are very harmful to human health. In the present study,
detection methods and sample pretreatment techniques are summarized and analyzed. We hope it will provide technical
supports to promote more effective CAP residual detection and supervision of aquatic products.

Application of Hurdle Technology in Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables
CHEN Chen,HU Wen-zhong*,JIANG Ai-li,LIU Cheng-hui,HE Yu-bo
2013, 34(11):  338-343.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311071
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Nowadays, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are becoming more and more popular in the market due to their nutrition,
convenience and sanitation. However, microorganisms present in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables can cause foodborne illnesses
or spoilage, which is a key factor for the quality and safety of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. The microorganism controlling
of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables can promote health and stable development of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry. Hurdle
technology is a scientific and rational combination of multiple sterilization technologies, which can effectively control the
contamination of microorganism and prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. In this article, the relationship of
hurdle technology and microorganism controlling, the major hurdle factors in the microorganism controlling of fresh-cut fruits
and vegetables and the prospect of future application have been reviewed.

Research Progress in Broiler Pre-slaughter Stunning
HUANG Ji-chao,WANG Peng,XU Xing-lian*,ZHANG Yan,SUN Hao
2013, 34(11):  344-347.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311072
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Stunning is an effective way to reduce broiler pre-slaughter stress, and improve animal welfare and meat quality.
The history and development of broiler stunning, the principle and prospects of electrical and air stunning including factors
affecting their effectiveness and chicken meat quality, and current application situation in China have been reviewed in this
paper. Meanwhile, the perspective of stunning of broiler is proposed, which will provide a good reference for its application
in broiler slaughter industry.

ACE2: a New Target for the Regulation of Renin-angiotensin System
2013, 34(11):  348-351.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311073
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Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a homologue of the human ACE. ACE2 counter-regulates the
effects of the classical ACE-Ang Ⅱ-angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis via the function of the novel axis ACE2-
angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). A chronic and sustained
imbalance between both axes may lead to pathophysiology of the cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary and central nervous
system. ACE2 agonist analogues are abundantly found in many natural plant resources.

Research Progress of Capsiates
XIN Jia-ying,WANG Yan,ZHANG Chao-yue,CHEN Lin-lin
2013, 34(11):  352-357. 
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Capsiate is similar to capsaicin in the structure and bioactivity. But it is a class of no spicy flavor, no pungency
and no toxic substances. It is a more desirable kind of additive used in foods, medicine and cosmetics because of its excellent
physiological functions such as promoting energy metabolism, enhancing body immunity and reducing burning sensation
after ultraviolet radiation. In this paper, research progress of capsiates from following areas including biosynthesis, synthesis
pathway and biological activity is reviewed, and its development trends are proposed.

Application of Real-time Fluorescent Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7
WANG Li-jun,XU Heng-yi*,XIONG Yong-hua,LI Ping
2013, 34(11):  358-362.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311075
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Fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is widely used for the detection of Escherichia coli
O157:H7 with high sensitivity, repeatability and specificity. In this article, qPCR is briefly introduced, and the applications
of qPCR in detection of E. coli O157:H7 during the past 10 years are reviewed.

Advances in Research of Aroma Compounds of Raspberry Processing Products
REN Jing-nan,PAN Si-yi,WANG Ke-xing,FAN Gang
2013, 34(11):  363-368.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311076
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Aroma components are the key factor for the processing raspberry, which will affect its characteristic flavor and
total quality. Researches on the aroma compounds in raspberry processing products is of great significance for maintaining
the characteristic aroma of the product to prevent fugitive processing and storage, and improve the overall aroma quality.
This article provides an overview of the domestic and foreign studies on the aroma compounds of raspberry during
processing, the extraction and identification of active aromatic compounds. Changes of aroma composition of raspberry
during processing and storage were also reviewed as well as the glycosidically bound aroma compounds. The existing
problems in the study of aroma compounds in raspberry and its processed products were also discussed.

Research progress on Improving the Quality of Frozen Non-fermented Flour Products
2013, 34(11):  369-374.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311077
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As the appearance of common quality problems during production, the factors for affecting the quality of frozen non-fermented flour products were mainly analyzed in this paper, which included the components of raw flour, application of new food additives (enzyme, natural materials and modified starch), and process techniques, as well as the approaches to increase the quality of frozen non-fermented flour products were put forward to improve the structure of inner network and freezing resistance, which will expect to conduct practical production.

Preparation of Proliposome and Its Application in Food Nutrients
JIA Jing-fu,XIN Na,WANG Yan,ZHAO Ya-ping
2013, 34(11):  375-380.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311078
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Liposome has been widely investigated in the field of food nutrient and drug delivery due to its biocompatible
and biodegradable properties. However, liposome has a poor stability such as aggregation, and susceptibility to hydrolysis
and oxidation. Production of proliposome can be effectively overcome this problem, while maintaining the integrity of the
particles in the administration process, improving the solubility and bioavailability of nutrients, enhancing the gastrointestinal
absorption of nutrients, increasing the permeability of nutrients to cytomembrane, and modifying the pharmacokinetics. This
review mainly introduces the recent advances on the study of the preparation methods and characteristics of proliposome,
and lists the petential applications of proliposome in food nutrients.

Research Progress in Characteristic Odor Compounds of Fish Meats
WU Wei,TAO Ning-ping*,GU Sai-qi
2013, 34(11):  381-385. 
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Characteristic odor compounds play important roles in the flavor of fish meats. Off-odor is one of major
problems in affecting edible quality of freshwater and farmed fish. Recent domestic and international studies on
characteristic odor compounds in freshwater and marine fish and their similarities and differences in odor in recent years are
summarized in this paper. Off-odor compounds and their formation mechanisms in fish meats are also discussed. Finally, in
order to provide references for future investigation, the prospects of fish meats flavor in our country are analyzed.

Research Progress in Functional Activity of Theaflavins
LIU Wei,ZHOU Jie,GONG Zheng-li*
2013, 34(11):  386-391.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311080
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As an important tea natural product, theaflavins has wide application area and has bright development
future. Functional activity of theaflavins such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticardiovascular
disease and nerve functional regulation was elaborated in this article, which will provide some scientific basis
for the exploitation of theaflavins.

Recent Advances in Research on Edible Rosa laevigata Michx
LIU Xue-gui,LI Jia-luo,GAO Pin-yi*, WU Zhi-yu
2013, 34(11):  392-398.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201311081
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Rosa laevigata Michx, an edible traditional Chinese medicine, is reported to have strong biological activity and
various health benefits. This review focuses on recent advances in research on Rosa laevigata on the chemical composition,
extraction, purification, biological activity, quality control and the developed products. Furthermore, the existing problems
are also discussed. This paper can provide some guidelines for the development of functional foods, medicinal research and
utilization of Rosa laevigata Michx in the future.