Table of Content

15 August 2013, Volume 34 Issue 15
Effect of κ-Carrageenan on Phase Separation System of Milk Protein and Kofljac Gum
LIU Qing-qing,HU Fei,PENG Ya-li*
2013, 34(15):  1-4.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315001
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The phase diagram of milk protein/kofljac gum systems was investigated to understand the behavior of both
components, and the effect of κ-carrageenan (0, 0.025% and 0.05%) on phase separation system between 11% skim milk
power and 0.35% kofljac gum with 12% sucrose was studied. All systems investigated showed shear thinning. Samples without
κ-carrageenan exhibited rheological behavior, whereas others contained κ-carrageenan performed weak gel behavior, in which
the macroscopic phase separation was effectively inhibited. Furthermore, κ-carrageenan increased the pseudoplastic behavior
and the area of reverse circles and also greatly enhanced the stability of mixtures against the variation with frequency.

Effect of Heating and Alkaline Treatment on Antioxidant Activity of Pea Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Enzymes
ZHANG Xin1,XIONG You-ling L.1,2,*,CHEN Jie1
2013, 34(15):  5-10.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315002
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Pea protein isolate (PPI) with or without structural unfolding (by heating or pH12 treatment) was hydrolyzed by
using seven proteases (3 crude proteases: alcalase, flavourzyme and protamex; 4 pure proteases: trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain
and pepsin) to produce pea protein hydrolysates (PPHs). The degree of hydrolysis, protein solubility and antioxidant activity
were evaluated. Results showed that both heating and pH12 treatments could promote protein hydrolysis, but produce obvious
changes in solubility, depending on enzymes. All PPHs exhibited stronger (P < 0.05) scavenging activity against ABTS+• and
•OH free radicals than PPI, and both heating and pH12 treatments of PPI enhanced the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates.
PPHs prepared by crude enzymes were stronger Fe2+-chelating capacity than PPHs prepared by pure enzymes. Among all PPHs,
the PPH prepared by flavourzyme (Fla-PPH) and protamex (Pro-PPH) revealed the most obvious inhibition on lipid oxidation
in the liposomal system. Fla-PPH prepared from heating or pH12-treated PPIs showed better inhibition on lipid oxidation in
the Tween-20-stabilized oil-in-water emulsion than Fla-PPH prepared from non-treated PPIs. Overall, PPHs from heating and
pH12-treated PPIs generally has stronger antioxidant activity than those from native PPIs.

Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin/Anthocyanin Interaction and Antioxidant Activity in Different Solutions
ZHOU Rui,DONG Xue-yan,JING Hao*
2013, 34(15):  11-16.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315003
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The effects of deionized water (dH2O), NaCl solution and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) on bovine serum
albumin (BSA)/anthocyanin (ACN) interactions and antioxidant activity were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy,
fluorescence spectroscopy and free radial scavenging assay. ACN had a strong ability to quench the fluorescence of BSA in
a static manner and hydrogen bond and Van der Waals force were the dominant interactions between them. The BSA/ACN
interaction varied only slightly in different solutions. The highest binding constant was obtained in NaCl solution, followed
by PBS and dH2O, while the binding distance was increased in the order of NaCl < PBS < dH2O. Consequently, it was
speculated that the binding force between BSA and ACN was increased in the order of dH2O < PBS < NaCl. Moreover, the
ABTS radical scavenging rates of ACN alone and BSA/ACN complex were 60% and 50%, respectively, whereas the DPPH
radical scavenging rates were both 25%. Hence the three solutions had no obvious effects on free radical scavenging activity
of ACN alone and BSA/ACN complex.

Physical and Chemical Factors Affecting the Stability of Monascus Pigments and Photocatalytic Degradability of Citrinin
ZHANG Xiao-wei1,2,WANG Chang-lu1,*,CHEN Mian-hua1,WANG Yu-rong1
2013, 34(15):  17-21.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315004
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The effects of different ethanol concentrations, temperature, light exposure and pH on the stability of
Monascus red pigments were studied by means of UV-visible spectroscopy. Under the conditions of 80% aqueous
ethanol solution, below 70 ℃, pH 5-7 and darkness, the stability of Monascus red pigments was the best. In ethanol
solutions, the pigments were seriously affected by strong acids (pH 2), strong alkalis (pH 9-11) and high temperatures
(80-100 ℃). Different light sources exerted diverse effects on these pigments. Sunlight caused the most serious
damage to them, whereas their stability showed no apparent differences when exposed to UV light or blue light or in
darkness. Meanwhile, the effects of sunlight, incandescent light, blue light and UV light on the stability of citrinin
standard and extract from Monascus red pigments were analyzed by HPLC. After 5 min of UV illumination, 56% and
71% of the initial amount of citrinin remained in the two samples, respectively, indicating that citrinin can be degraded
under short-time UV illumination.

Predictive Modeling of Listeria monocytogenes Growth in Ready-to-Eat Dishes
ZHENG Li-min1,DONG Qing-li1,*,DING Tian2,HU Meng-han1,LU Xi1
2013, 34(15):  22-26.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315005
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This study was designed to establish a model of the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat dishes at
different temperatures. An isolated strain of L. monocytogenes was inoculated to ready-to-eat dishes to obtain growth data at
35 ℃. Other data at 5, 10, 15, 20 ℃ and 25 ℃ were obtained from the ComBase database. Logistic model was selected as the
primary model, which was fitted to achieve maximum growth rate (MGR) and lag phase (LP), and the MGR and LP were used
to establish a linear model, a square root model and a Ratkowsky model, respectively. The mathematical models were validated.
The results showed that the Ratkowsky model was the best one to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat
dishes. This study may provide a theoretical reference for quantitative microbial risk assessment of L. monocytogenes in readyto-
eat dishes.

Effect of Extract from Trichoderma viride Fermentation Broth on Cell Membrane Injury of Staphylococcus aureus
YANG Peng-bin,YU Xin*,YANG Jing,LIU Wen-duo,LIU Li
2013, 34(15):  27-31.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315006
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This study investigated the antibacterial activity of different extracts from T. viride fermentation broth and its
damage to the cell membrane of Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by Oxford plate method, the
proportion of Staphylococcu aureus cell lysis was determined and the damage to the cell membrane was evaluated by determining
membrane permeability and SDS-PAGE. Petroleum extract, ethyl acetate extract and n-butanol extract from T. viride fermentation
broth exhibited antibacterial activity, especially n-butanol extract (d = (25.27 ± 0.65) mm, MIC = 0.625 mg/mL). After treated
by n-butanol extract, the proportion of cell lysis, electric conductivity, protein and reducing sugar content of Staphylococcus
aureus culture suspension increased significantly. SDS-PAGE assay demonstrated that n-butanol extract could interfere with
cell membrane protein expression in Staphylococcus aureus. In addition it could damage the structure of cell membrane,
resulting in an increase in the cell membrane permeability and disorders of cell membrane function. Thus, the growth of
Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited.

Extraction and Free Radical-scavenging Activity of Phenols from Fresh-cut Lotus Roots during Browning
JIANG Juan1,JIANG Li2,FU Lin-ran2,YU Zhi-fang2,*
2013, 34(15):  32-37.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315007
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Phenols were extracted from fresh-cut lotus roots during storage. Phenolic content and free radical-scavenging
capacity were studied. The phenols in fresh-cut lotus roots identified by HPLC were included gallic acid, hydroxyltyramine,
catechin and caffeic acid. The phenolic content in fresh-cut lotus roots presented a decreasing trend during storage, while
the free radical-scavenging capacity per unit mass revealed an ascending-descending-ascending trend. Meanwhile, a close
relationship between phenolic content and composition and free radical-scavenging capacity was observed. The phenolic
composition in fresh-cut lotus roots remained unchanged during storage at room temperature. Pyrogallic acid, catechol and
caffeic acid were closely correlated with browning, especially the amount of pyrogallic acid.

Migration of Lead, Cobalt, Nickel and Zinc from Ceramic Food Packaging Materials into Acidic Food Simulants
DONG Zhan-hua1,LU Li-xin1,2,*,LIU Zhi-gang1
2013, 34(15):  38-42.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315008
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Ceramic food packaging containers with improperly formulated glazes can release some toxic heavy metals such
as lead, cobalt, nickel and zinc into foods, which may contaminate the foods and even endanger consumers’ health. In order
to explore the leaching behavior of lead, cobalt, nickel and zinc, long-term contact experiments were carried out using glazed
tile samples with 4% and 10% acetic acid solutions under different conditions. Results indicated that nickel was the most
leachable element, and lead was the least leachable element. Both the amount of heavy metals released into the leachate and
the release rate were positively related to temperature. The released amount of heavy metals became higher with decreasing
pH of food simulants. Parabolic Fit analysis of all leaching data on long-term yield revealed good correlation (R2 ≥ 0.93),
which indicates the migration of lead, cobalt, nickel and zinc from glaze tile into food simulants to be a diffusion-controlled
process and have a linear -dependent manner.

Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Defatted Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates
XU Ya-yuan,ZHOU Yi-bin*,WAN Miao,JIN Xin
2013, 34(15):  43-47.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315009
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Defatted rice bran protein was prepared by chemical method, and its hydrolysates (RBPHs) were obtained by
enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted rice bran protein isolate using alcalase. The antioxidant activity, amino acid composition
and molecular weight distribution profile of RBPHs were investigated. The results showed that the degree of hydrolysis (DH)
of RBPHs was approximately 22.16% under the conditions employed in this study. RBPHs showed obvious scavenging
activity against free radicals such as DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, and the antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid emulsion
model system was good. Moreover, it exhibited an EC50 of 0.52 mg/mL in DPPH radical scavenging assay. The peptides
with molecular weight lower than 1000 u represented the highest percentage (77.85%) in RBPHs.

Effect of Salt Concentration on Quality of Bamboo Shoots during Pickling
CHEN Guang-jing,WANG Li-sha,ZHENG Jiong,HU Peng,SONG Ying-ying,ZHANG Yi,KAN Jian-quan*
2013, 34(15):  48-52.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315010
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The effect of salt concentration on pH, titratable acid, water content, sodium chloride content, alcoholinsoluble
solid content, mineral content, firmness and tissue microstructure of bamboo shoots (Dendrocalamus
latiflorus) was investigated during pickling. It was found that bamboo shoots pickled in high salt solution had higher
pH, mineral content and firmness, lower titratable acid and water content, and thicker middle lamella. These results
indicated that bamboo shoots pickled at high salt solution can maintain the hardness and slow down the softening of
texture during pickling.

Effect of Lyophilization Protectants and Storage Conditions on Stability of Lyophilized Bioluminescent Bacteria
HUANG Ying-ying,DING Wu*,WANG Yan-wen
2013, 34(15):  53-56.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315011
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This study was designed to examine the effect of different lyophilization protectants based on skim milk
and storage conditions (-20, 4 ℃ or room temperature, 16-25 ℃, and different periods of time) on the relative
luminous efficiency of lyophilized cells of V. qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 and P. phosphoreum sp.-T3. The results showed that
P. phosphoreum sp.-T3 had better tolerance than V. qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 during the freeze-drying process. After 30 min of
recovery, the lyophilized cells of both strains with a mixture of kim milk, sucrose and chitosan as the protectant showed the
highest luminous efficiency. The best temperature was -20 ℃ for long-term storage of V. qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 lyophilized
with a protectant composed of skim milk, sucrose, chitosan and sodium glutamate. P. phosphoreum sp.-T3 lyophilized with
any one of the three protectants investigated had good stability during long-term storage irrespective of -20, 4 ℃ or room
temperature. Both lyophilized strains could react within 30 min, indicating their potential application in rapid toxicity tests.

Antihypertensive Properties of Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Rapeseed Protein and Its Ultrafiltered Fractions
HE Rong1,JU Xing-rong1,2,*
2013, 34(15):  57-61.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315012
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In this study, rapeseed protein isolate was hydrolyzed by alcalase and then separated into four different peptide
fractions (< 1 kD, 1 to 3 kD, 3 to 5 kD, and 5 to 10 kD) by membrane ultrafiltration. Renin and angiotensin converting
enzyme-Ⅰ (ACE) inhibitory activity, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the rapeseed protein hydrolysate
(RPH) and its ultra-filtered fractions were evaluated. The results showed a negative correlation between the molecular
weights of the fractions and their ORAC values. The fraction less than 1 kD revealed the highest ACE inhibitory activity
(83.42 ± 0.35)% and ORAC value, while the hydrolysate had the highest renin inhibitory activity when compared with
other fractions. Therefore, RPH and the fraction less than 1 kD can be used to develop functional and healthcare foods
which can lower blood pressure.

Effects of Food Preservatives on Growth Kinetic Parameters of Staphylococcus aureus
WANG Ling-ling1,HAO Shu-xian2,Lü Yan-jun1
2013, 34(15):  62-65.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315013
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The effects of food preservatives including nisin, sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium
pyrosulphate and calcium propionate on growth kinetic parameters of Staphylococcus aureus CMCC(B)26003 were
studied. The critical growth concentrations of six preservatives were determined and the growth of Staphylococcus aureus
CMCC(B)26003 treated with each of them was depicted. The growth difference in exponential phase and stationary phase
cells treated with some of these preservatives was clarified by maximum specific growth rate (μmax) or lag time (Lag).
The results showed that nisin had a potent bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus. The cell density dropped from
6.09 lgCFU/mL to 3.68 (lgCFU/mL) during the first 6 h of treatment by nisin, and then recovered to the initial level after
treatment for 15 h. However, the other five preservatives had only an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, and growth
parameters were obtained from the established Baranyi Model. The μmax of the cells in the treatment group was much lower
than that in the control group. The μmax of the cells treated with sodium pyrosulphate was the lowest, only 0.45 h-1. The
Lag value indicated irregular changes. Potassium sorbate revealed the longest Lag value up to 2.87 h. In addition, the μmax
during the exponential phase was lower than that during the stationary phase when the cells were treated with either sodium
pyrosulphate or potassium sorbate, especially upon treatment with sodium pyrosulphate, resulting in an almost two-fold
difference (statistically significant at P < 0.001) in the μmax of the cells during the exponential phase and stationary phase,
which were 0.45 h-1 and 0.88 h-1, respectively. However, no obvious differences in the Lag value of the cells were found
during the exponential phase and stationary phase under the action of both preservatives.

Synthesis and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity of 2-Indanone-baed Curcumin Analogs
WEI Xing-chuan,MIAO Chou-yu,DUAN Yan-fei,CHEN Yong-zhou,HUANG Xiao-luo,ZHANG Xiao-lin
2013, 34(15):  66-68.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315014
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Tyrosinase inhibitors are widely used as food additives for fruit and vegetable preservation. Five symmetric
curcumin analogs were synthesized by condensation reaction between aromatic aldehydes and 2-indanone under appropriate
conditions. The inhibitory activity of the curcumin analogues on tyrosinase was evaluated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry.
The results showed that these curcumin analogues had powerful inhibitory effects on tyrosinase. The IC50 of A2, A3 and A4 were
25.42, 13.51 μmol/L and 10.71 μmol/L, respectively, which were evidently lower than that of kojic acid (IC50 = 28.59 μmol/L).

Comparison of the Bactericidal Activity of Acidic Electrolyzed Water against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Pure Culture and Foods
LIN Ting,WANG Jing-jing,PAN Ying-jie,ZHAO Yong*
2013, 34(15):  69-74.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315015
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This study examined the efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) with different concentrations of available
chlorine concentration (ACC) for inactivating Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in pure culture and on
surface-inoculated cucumber. AEW had strong bactericidal activity against pure-cultured and surface-inoculated strains
of Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus which became stronger with increasing AEW concentration and
treatment time. Complete inactivation of pure Vibrio parahaemolyticus was achieved when the pathogen was treated with
AEW at an ACC concentration of 30 mg/L for 0.5 min, while the conditions for complete inactivation of pure Listeria
monocytogenes were 40 mg/L ACC in AEW and 0.5 min. The ACC concentration and time for complete inactivation of
surface-inoculated Vibrio parahaemolyticus were 40 mg/L and 1.5 min, respectively. After 2.5 min of treatment at an ACC
concentration of 50 mg/L, the population of surface-inoculated Listeria monocytogenes was reduced by approximately 5
(lg(CFU/g)). The used AEW may not cause secondary environmental pollution, since no residual pathogens were detected.

Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Total Saponins from Allium chinense
YU Zhi-hui,DING Xue-zhi*,XIA Li-qiu,XIAO Xiu-qing,CAO Zhen-ping,XU Sha,LIU Shuang,LIU Xue-mei
2013, 34(15):  75-80.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315016
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Total saponins, 30% and 60% ethanol crude extracts from Allium chinense were tested on different microorganisms.
The antimicrobial activity of total saponins was determined using filter slice method. In order to explore their antimicrobial
mechanisms from physiological metabolic aspects, glucose content was determined through DNS test, catalase activity was
tested by direct ultraviolet spectrophotometric method, and total protein of bacteria was measured by Bradford method.
The results showed that total saponins had excellent antimicrobial activity against Saccharomycete, Tritirachium album and
Staphylococcus aureus, but very weak or without inhibitory effect against others test microorganisms. At the same time,
glucose utilization rate, catalase activity, and protein content in these microorganisms were reduced and some protein spectra
were weakened obviously even disappeared in the presence of Allium chinense saponins. Based on our current knowledge, the
possible antimicrobial mechanism of total saponins was due to the reduced glucose utilization efficiency in microorganisms,
then affecting their growth and proliferation, reducing the activity of key enzymes in physiological metabolism and suppressing
the synthesis of relevant proteins, and finally executing the antibacterial effect. This study will provide theoretical and practical
application value to reduce the utilization of currently available antibiotics and develop natural antimicrobial drugs.

Molecular Weight Distribution and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharide from Citrus reticulate Chachi Peel Extract
GAN Wei-fa1,ZHOU Lin2,HUANG Qing-hua1,*,ZHANG Xiao-ying1,YUAN Han-qi1,ZHOU Zi-xiong1
2013, 34(15):  81-86.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315017
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Objective: To explore the molecular weight of polysaccharides from Citrus reticulate Chachi peel extract and the
protective effect of crude and purified polysaccharides against oxidative injury in pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). Methods:
Polysaccharide was extracted from Citrus reticulate Chachi peel by different ethanol concentration gradients. The molecular
weight of purified polysaccharide fractions was measured. The protective effect on PC12 cells was explored with H2O2-
induced cellular oxidative damage model by the survival rate of the cells. Results: Polysaccharides with smaller molecular
weights were obtained by increasing the ethanol concentration and the average molecular weights (Mw) of polysaccharides
obtained at ethanol concentrations of 50%, 70% and 90% were 70259, 47433 u and 18743 u, respectively. Both crude
polysaccharides and purified polysaccharides after dialysis had antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of
Citrus reticulate Chachi peel extract shows obvious relationships with the molecular weight distribution of polysaccharides
or the presence of other molecules such as pigment and protein.

Antimicrobial Activity of O/W Cinnamon Essential Oil Microemulsion against Botrytis cinerea
HE Yan1,YING Meng-chao1,WANG Yun2,SUN Ye1,WANG Yi-fei1,*
2013, 34(15):  87-90.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315018
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In this work, a food-grade microemulsion system with cinnamon essential oil (CEO) was established, and the
effects of ethanol and propionic acid on the phase behavior of the microemulsion were explored. The antimicrobial activity
of the microemulsion alone or in combination with chitosan against Botrytis cinerea was also studied. The solubility of the
oil was improved in the presence of ethanol and propionic acid. The formulation of CEO, ethanol and Tween-80 in a mass
ratio of 1:3:6 was selected for antimicrobial assay. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the microemulsion
against B. cinerea was 250 μL/L in vitro. The microemulsion at 500 μL/L, in combination with 1 g/L chitosan, showed a
complete inhibitory effect on gray mold in apples caused by B. cinerea after 4 days of storage.

Chemical Composition as Identified by GC-MS and Antioxidant Activity of Grapefruit Mint Essential Oil
WANG Jing,LI Rong*,JIANG Zi-tao
2013, 34(15):  91-94.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315019
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The chemical composition of grapefruit mint (Mentha suaveolens × piperita) essential oil (GEO) was analyzed
by GC-MS. Identifications were based on a comparison of retention indexes with authentic standards. Linalool (41.50%)
and linalyl anthranilate (33.75%) were the two main components of the essential oil. The antioxidant activity of GEO
was evaluated based on total antioxidant activity and superoxide anion free radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical
scavenging activities in comparison with the synthetic antioxidant propyl gallate (PG). The total antioxidant activity and
scavenging activity against superoxide anion and DPPH free radicals of GEO was far weaker than that of PG, while only
a slight reduction in hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was found compared with PG. These results illustrate that the
essential oil of grapefruit mint has the potential to be applied in the food industry as a naturally occurring antioxidant.

Bioactive Component Content and Antioxidant Activity of Chrysanthemum Flower (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) Extract
WANG Ting-ting1,2,WANG Shao-kang1,HUANG Gui-ling1,YIN Hong1,SONG Zhi-xiu1,YANG Li-gang1,SUN Gui-ju1,*
2013, 34(15):  95-99.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315020
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Objective: To establish a method for determining the contents of major bioactive components in chrysanthemum
flower and evaluate the antioxidant activity of chrysanthemum flower extract. Methods: HPLC was used to determine the
contents of chlorogenic acid, luteoloside, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin in chrysanthemum flower extract. Total flavonoids
and antioxidant activity of chrysanthemum flower extract were determined to explore the correlation between both indexes.
Results: Bioactive components in different chrysanthemum cultivars were different. The highest level of chlorogenic acid
was observed in Gong Ju, which was 9.8 mg/g. The highest levels of luteoloside and quercetin were detected in Hangbai
Ju, which were 0.94 mg/g and 2.76 mg/g, respectively. The highest level of luteolin was determined in Bo Ju, which was
2.48 mg/g. The highest level of apigenin was observed in Chu Ju, which was 0.20 mg/g. The total flavonoids in Gongju and
Hangbai Ju were 5.07% and 2.65%, respectively. Compared with Hangbai Ju flower extract and commercial chrysanthemum
flower extract, Gongju flower extract had higher T-AOC and scavenging activity against hydroxyl and DPPH free radicals,
which were (51.22 ± 1.66) U/mg, (57.38 ± 1.39) U/mg and (89.68 ± 0.23)%, respectively. An excellent correlation between
antioxidant properties and total flavonoids content was observed (R2 = 0.993, P < 0.05 for T-AOC; R2 = 0.968, P < 0.05
for hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity; R2 = 0.977, P < 0.05 for DPPH free radical scavenging activity). Conclusion:
Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat flowers from different cultivars have different bioactive components. Gongju has the
strongest antioxidant activity, which is related to total flavonoids.

Comprehensive Evaluation of Walnuts from Different Growing Regions
WANG Zhong-kui,WANG Chao,GUAN Fa-chun*
2013, 34(15):  100-103.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315021
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China has a rich and diverse walnut resource. There are considerable differences in appearance quality, economic
characters and nutritional components of walnuts from different growing regions. In this study, the comprehensive characters
of walnuts from different climate areas (Huanan county of Heilongjiang, Aksu city of Xinjiang, and Linzhi county of Tibet)
were explored by projection pursuit method. An obvious difference in sensory indices of walnuts from different geographic
origins was observed. The fruit shape index of walnuts from Xinjiang was 1.54, which was significantly higher than that
of walnuts from Heilongjiang and Tibet. Similarly, walnuts from Heilongjiang had significantly higher shell thickness than
walnuts from Xinjiang and Tibet despite having lower nut weight. A significant difference in kernel rate of walnuts from
different geographic origins was observed, the kernel rates of walnuts from Xinjiang and Heilongjiang were 56.15% and
16.84%, respectively. Walnuts from Tibet and Xinjiang showed a significantly increased level of crude fat (61.45% and
59.87%, respectively) when compared with those from Heilongjiang. Walnuts from Heilongjiang exhibited the highest
protein content. Comprehensive evaluation showed that the projection value of walnuts from Xinjiang was the highest (2.0703)
and kernel rate and shell thickness were the most critical indicators for comprehensive evaluation.

Effects of Different Emulsifying Salts on the Structure of Cheese Prepared from Mozzarella
CHEN Ling,LIU Hui-ping*
2013, 34(15):  104-108.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315022
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The effects of different emulsifying salts on the structure of processed Mozzarella cheese was analyzed by
using FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that there were four types of secondary structures
including α-helix, β-sheet, random coil and β-turn in processed cheese, but they were in different proportions due to the
type of emulsifying salt. β-sheet accounted for major proportion of the secondary structure in processed cheese made with
different emulsifying salts. The processed cheeses made with DSP and SHMP were special and neither possessed α-helix;
while random coil accounted for a smaller proportion in the processed cheeses made with each of three other salts. Based
on scanning electron micrographs, the interactions between proteins were different and the structure was uniform in the
processed cheese made with 2% sodium citrate, 0.37% sodium pyrophosphate and 0.2% sodium polyphosphate (calculated
by weight relative to the raw Mozzarella cheese). Moreover, fat globules were nearly coated by hydrated paracaseinate.

Effects of Green Tea Extract, Nitrite and Their Combination on Taste-active Compounds in Italian Fermented Sausage
LIN Yu-hai1,ZHANG Xin-liang1,ZHOU Guang-hong2
2013, 34(15):  109-114.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315023
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The changes in taste-active compounds such as FAA, peptides and nucleotide in Italian fermented sausage during
processing and storage were explored. Results showed that NT and GT+NT significantly reduced the content of total FAA,
however, which was not affected by GT alone. NT and GT+NT significantly inhibited the production of umami amino acids,
such as Glu and Asp, and bitter amino acids such as Leu, Val and Ile, while GT had no significant effect on the generation
of Asp. All treatments significantly inhibited sweet amino acid such as Ala and Gly. GT, NT and GT+NT significantly
inhibited the production of total peptides, and GT had a stronger effect. The content of total flavor-active nucleotides revealed
a significant increase during processing and storage. GT could significantly promote the increase of GMP and IMP, whereas
NT and GT+NT did not affect the nucleotides.

Properties of Konjac Oligosaccharides Prepared by Semi-dry Enzymatic Hydrolysis
DENG Li-ling1,ZHONG Geng1,2,3,*,LIU Bei-yu1,HE Xin-chun4
2013, 34(15):  115-119.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315024
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Konjac flour was used as the raw material to prepare konjac oligosaccharides (KOS) by semi-dry enzymatic
hydrolysis, and then the structural characteristics, compositions and physicochemical properties of KOS were investigated. The
results showed that KOS was white, odorless and tasteless powder with whiteness up to 90%. It was highly soluble in water, but
insoluble in ethanol, ether and other organic solvents. The specific rotation of KOS was 8.240° degrees in a left-handed direction,
and the specific gravity was 0.658 g/mL, pH 6.2. The loss-weight rate was 0.705%. The KOS consisted of pyranose glucomannan
oligosaccharides as a mixture of mannan oligosaccharides (dimer through decamer) as analyzed by LC-TOF-TOF.

Structural Characterization and Physio-chemical Properties of Lingwu Long Jujube Polysaccharide
LIU Xiao-lian,LI Ya-lei*,LUO Rui-ming,LU Jun-yi
2013, 34(15):  120-125.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315025
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Structural characterization and physio-chemical properties of 6 long jujube polysaccharides were explored by
infrared spectroscopy, optical rotation meter and viscometer. Infrared spectroscopy showed that long jujube polysaccharide
had typical functional groups of polysaccharides. Optical rotation tests revealed the specific rotation degrees for 6 long
jujube polysaccharides of +44.0, +27.0, +30.0, +19.0, +36.0 and +22.0, respectively. Their solubility was greatly affected
by temperature. A low solubility at low temperature was observed. The viscosity of six long jujube polysaccharides was
increased with increasing concentration, but was reduced with increasing temperature and the temperature effect was
reversible. Moreover, the viscosity was also negatively related to shearing force.

Effect of Sodium Tripolyphosphate Hydrolysis on Dissociation and Gel Characteristics of Actomyosin
TIAN Rui-hua,LU Gui-song,PENG Zeng-qi*,JIN Hong-guo
2013, 34(15):  126-130.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315026
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Actomyosin was purified from bovine longissimus dorsi, and its tripolyphosphatase(TPPase) activity was
completely inhibited by polyphosphatase inhibitor (EDTA-Na2). The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate(STPP) hydrolysis
on dissociation, gel water-holding capacity(WHC), gel strength of actomyosin was explored in comparison with sodium
pyrophosphate(TSPP). The results showed that TSPP and TSPP from STPP enzymolysis were able to dissociate actomyosin,
and improve WHC and gel strength. Whereas, STPP neither dissociated actomyosin, nor improved WHC or gel strength, after
TPPase activity was inhibited fully. Therefore, STPP has no role in dissociating actomyosin, unless it is hydrolyzed to TSPP.

Antibacterial Effect of Three Organic Ferrites on Food Spoilage Bacteria
YANG Jing,YU Xin*,YANG Peng-bin,HUANG Xiao-min
2013, 34(15):  131-135.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315027
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In order to explore the antibacterial effects of iron lactate, ferrous gluconate and ferrous citrate on food spoilage
bacteria, the antimicrobial activity of the organic ferrites was examined in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia
coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in terms
of inhibition zone diameter, MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bacterial concentration). The
results showed that the inhibition zone diameter of all the organic ferrites at 14.00 mg/mL was larger than 12 mm, and iron
lactate had the best antibacterial activity followed by ferrous citrate and ferrous gluconate. The MIC and MBC of the organic
ferrites were 3.75-10 mg/mL and 3.75-20.00 mg/mL, respectively. Under acidic conditions they had better antibacterial
activity, which gradually reduced with increasing pH.

Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of Exopolysaccharide Biosynthsis from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis RH
LIU Li-sha1,2,FAN Yi1,XU Ri-hua1,LI Ping-lan1,*
2013, 34(15):  136-142.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315028
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Bifidobacterium has been accepted as an important probiotic bacterium with its health benefit on the host, its
exopolysaccharides (EPS) also have antioxidant and immune modulating function for humans. In this work, we identified an
exopolysaccharide producing strain as Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis RH by physiological, biochemical, 16S rRNA
and tuf analysis. The specific primers of wzx, wzy, wzz and so on were designed according to the conservative gene sequences
of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis AD011 from GenBank. And we acquired 12 gene sequences such as repeat unit
transporter(Wzx) and repeat unit polymerase(Wzy). Functional prediction analysis of open reading frames (ORF) indicates
that these 12 genes encode the amino acid sequences of the proteins involved in polysaccharide chain length determination,
polymerization and transport. The results of this research may lay a foundation for further understanding of the EPS
biosynthetic pathway of Bifidobacterium and the underlying mechanism.

Screening and Physiological Function of Lactic Acid Bacterial Strain for Fermented Donkey Milk
PENG Shan-shan,LI Sheng-jie,CHEN Ting-tao,WEI Hua,XU Feng*
2013, 34(15):  143-147.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315029
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Lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains able to ferment donkey milk were screened in this study according to
fermentation characteristics such as coagulation capacity, acidity and exopolysaccharide (EPS) yield and probiotic
properties such as antioxidant activity and pathogen antagonism. The results indicated that all six strains tested in this
study were able to coagulate donkey milk, among which Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus
rhamnosus had excellent coagulation capacity and oxidation resistance. In addition, Lactobacillus plantarum revealed
excellent antagonistic activity against 8 pathogens from contaminated foods, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus could result in
an EPS yield as high as 70 mg/L. The current study demonstrates that a probioic fermented milk can be made from LAB
fermentation of donkey milk.

Isolation and Identification of Two Endophytic Fungus Strains from Salicornia bigelovii
ZHAO Yu-hui,WANG Xiao-min,WANG Hui,PENG Jie,LIU Tian-xing,XIN Zhi-hong*
2013, 34(15):  148-153.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315030
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In this study, two strains of endophytic fungi were isolated and identified from Salicornia bigelovii collected
from the beach of Dafeng harbor, Yancheng city, Jiangsu province in China. The 18S rDNA and rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS4
regions of these strains were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after the extraction of mycelial genomic
DNA and the amplification products were subjected to sequencing and homology analysis. A phylogenetic tree was
established based on the sequences of 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, combined with morphological
observation. Therefore, both strains were identified as Phoma tracheiphila and Fusarium sp., respectively.

Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Yali Pear
LI Jian1,XU Yan-cong1,HUANG Mei2,YANG Yang2,CAO Jian-kang2,JIANG Wei-bo2,*
2013, 34(15):  154-157.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315031
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Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from Yali pear, and the effects of pH, temperature, activator, and
inhibitor on its activity were explored by spectroscopy. The PPO showed high activity at pH 4.0 to 6.0. Heat inactivation
studies showed a rapid decrease in enzyme activity at 80 ℃. Its activity was inhibited by 96.8% and 98.3% in the presence
of 0.5 mmol/L ascorbic acid and L-cysteine, respectively. In addition, the enzyme activity was enhanced by sodium dodecyl
sulfate (by 435%) and CuCl2.

Fermentation Characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus Coupled with Different Lactobacillus Strains in Reconstituted Skim Milk
XU Ai-cai1,MA Cheng-jie1,HUA Bao-zhen1,DU Zhao-ping1,LIU Jun2,*
2013, 34(15):  158-161.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315032
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The fermentation characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus coupled with Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus
helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus lactis or Lactobacillus
plantarum in reconstituted skim milk (RSM) were studied. Changes in pH during 24 h of fermentation, and viscosity,
acidification speed and viable cell number of Lactobacillus in fermented milk stored at 4 ℃ were analyzed. The results
showed that the combination of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus had the quickest fermentation
speed. The pH was lowered to 4.19 from 6.45 after 24 h of fermentation. The combination of Streptococcus thermophilus
with different Lactobacillus had unique fermentation characteristics. Within the shelf life, all six combinations exhibited
post-fermentation acidification, especially the combination with Lactobacillus helveticus. The viable cell number of
Lactobacillus was significantly increased except when combined with Lactobacillus acidophilus. The change in yoghurts
viscosity among different combinations also revealed a significant difference.

Effect of Ultra-high Pressure Treatment on Bromelain Activity in Pineapple Juice
TAO Min,PAN Jian,ZHANG Wen-cheng,XIE Hui-ming,WANG Lu
2013, 34(15):  162-165.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315033
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The impact of ultra-high pressure processing (UHP) on the activity of bromelain in fresh pineapple juice was
evaluated. Four independent variables such as pressure, temperature, dwell time and pH were investigated. Statistical
analysis showed that the relative activity of bromelain from fresh pineapple juice increased to 120% at 300 MPa (20 ℃, 10
min) and then decreased sharply with increasing pressure. The relative activity fluctuated slightly during the first 15 min,
reaching a maximum of 104%, and then tended to be stable as dwell time was prolonged. Temperature (10 to 40 ℃) in
collaboration with ultra-high pressure processing had no significant effect on bromelain activity because high pressure could
weaken the impact of temperature on the enzyme activity. The relative activity of bromelain from pineapple juice under
natural pH condition (300 MPa, 25 ℃, 10 min, pH 3.74) was as high as 113%.

Cloning and Heterologous Expression of Δ5 Desaturase Gene from Mortiella alpina
LIU Jian-min1,2,LI Mao-teng1,*
2013, 34(15):  166-170.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315034
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Arachidonic acid, an essential fatty acid for humans, plays important physiological functions in the intelligence
development and vision development of infants. In this study, a complete Δ5 desaturase gene was cloned from Mortierella
alpina W15 by RT-PCR amplification. The gene with 1341 bp in length encoded 446 amino acids. The deduced amino acid
sequence demonstrated the cytochrome b5 domain in the N terminal and three conserved histidine boxes in the sequence.
Then the gene was inserted into the expression vector pPIC3.5K and transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115. Transformants
containing multi-copy Δ5 desaturase genes were screened by Geneticin (G418). When dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was provided
as the exogenous substrate to the culture induced by methanol, the dehydrogenation of the substrate was catalyzed by Δ5
desaturase to produce arachidonic acid reaching 2.85% in the total fatty acids. This result indicated that the cloned gene
encoded functional Δ5 desaturase in P. pastoris GS115.

Identification, rDNA ITS Analysis and Carbon Metabolic Fingerprinting of a Pathogenic Fungus Isolated from Postharvest Garlic Sprout
WANG You-sheng,HE Xin-meng,ZHANG Yan,ZHANG Meng,LI Jian,LI Li-ping
2013, 34(15):  171-175.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315035
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A pathogenic fungus was isolated from infected garlic sprout during postharvest storage. Morphological
observation and rDNA ITS analysis indicated that the isolated strain was Stemphylium solani. Metabolic fingerprinting
investigation of 95 carbon sources suggested that the carbon metabolic fingerprinting of the strain was composed of 75
optimal carbon sources, including D-fructose, sucrose, maltose, α-D-glucose, D-galactose, and 5 available carbon sources
(D-glucosamine, D-tagatose, hydroxybutyric acid, D-malic acid and uridine) as well as 15 unavailable carbon sources such
as N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-β-D-mannosamine and i-erythritol.

Isolation, Identification and Growth Characteristics of Bacillus cereus from High-moisture Roast Shrimp
CHEN Chen1,2,LI Xue-ying1,YANG Xian-shi1,*,CHI Hai1
2013, 34(15):  176-180.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315036
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One strain of dominant spoilage bacteria, named LY01, was isolated from high-moisture roast shrimp. The
strain was identified as Bacillus cereus based on morphology observation, hemolysis test, physiological and biochemical
tests, microbial fluorescence identification, 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and according to growth characteristics.
Its lag phase was 0 - 2 h, and log phase 2 - 10 h in meat infusion broth at 37 ℃. This strain grew well in meat infusion
broth containing 5 - 45 g/L NaC, but inhibited or even died in same medium containing more than 105 g/L NaCl. In meat
infusion broth (5 g/L NaCl) it grew slowly at pH 3.0 - 5.5 but grew rapidly at pH 5.5 - 9.0, and was inhibited at pH ≥ 9.0.

Isolation and Identification of Antagonistic Strain against Listeria monocytogenes
XU Hong-yan1,DUAN Xiao-hui1,*,LI Xiao-qing2
2013, 34(15):  181-185.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315037
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In this study, sly-3 strain that can inhibit Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from soil in Yantai suburb. The
morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the isolated strain were basically consistent with those of
Bacillus subtilis and the homology of 16S rDNA sequence between sly-3 and B. subtilis CICC10034 was 99%. On the basis of
these results, sly-3 was finally identified as Bacillus subtilis. The antagonistic activity of sly-3 strain also suggested that only G+
bacteria could be inhibited but G- bacteria could not be inhibited. Meanwhile, the 24 h culture filtrate of sly-3 exhibited high
inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes from export aquatic products.

Comparison of Fermentation Properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Cow and Goat Milk
GE Wu-peng1,WANG Xiu-ling1,ZHAO Rui1,CHEN Ying2,YANG Jing3,QIN Li-hu4
2013, 34(15):  186-189.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315038
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Fermentation properties such as acid- or flavor-producing capability and proliferation pattern were determined
for Lactobacillus acidophilus in cow milk in comparison to cells in goat milk aiming to provide a useful guideline to develop
probiotic fermented milk and functional dairy products. The results showed that the maximum viable cell population of
Lactobacillus acidophilus (5.37 × 1010 CFU/mL) was obtained after 14 h of fermentation at 37 ℃ in goat milk and moreover, the
pH was reduced to 4.15, providing a titratable acidity of 120.00 ºT, and 18.25 mg/L of diacetyl and 11.23 mg/L of acetaldehyde
were produced. In contrast, the maximum viable cell population of Lactobacillus acidophilus was 9.33 × 109 CFU/mL
upon using cow milk instead of goat milk for fermentation under identical conditions and the pH was reduced to 4.17,
resulting in a titratable acidity of 110.90 ºT, along with the production of 17.77 mg/L of diacetyl and 9.85 mg/L of
acetaldehyde. No significant difference in diacetyl production or pH was observed for Lactobacillus acidophilus after 14 h
of fermentation in cow and goat milk (P > 0.05), while there were a highly significant difference (P < 0.01) in bacterial
proliferation and acetaldehyde production and a significant difference (P < 0.05) in titratable acidity. Conclusion: Compared
with cow milk, Lactobacillus acidophilus has better fermentation performance in goat milk.

Optimal Expression, Purification and Renaturation of BMP-2 in E.coli BL 21(DE3)
YANG Chun-yu 1,YANG Chun-li2,LIU Xiao-fei1,HE Mei1
2013, 34(15):  190-193.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315039
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The plasmid pET28a-BMP-2 based on the target gene of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from E.coli
harboring plasmid BMP-2cDNA was transformed into E.coli BL 21(DE3). The successful expression of BMP-2 in E.coli BL
21(DE3) was identified by enzymatic digestion. Under optimized expression conditions, BMP-2 was purified and renaturated
to obtain enhanced bioactivity. This study provides a cost-effective way of producing BMP-2, which is expensive and
needed in large quantities in bone repair materials and investigation of its sustained release capacity.

Variation of Adenine Concentration in Inosine Fermentation
LIU Guo-sheng1,2,WANG Yu-juan1,HUANG Qian1,HOU Ying1,CAO Qian1,GUO Yan-chang3
2013, 34(15):  194-197.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315040
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Changes in extracellular, intracellular and total adenine concentration during the inosine fermentation process
were determined by HPLC. Results showed that the total adenine concentration in fermentation broth did not vary
significantly. The main factors that affected inosine yield in the fermentation process were ratio between intracellular and
extracellular adenine of yeast cells in the culture medium and extracellular adenine concentration. After sterilization,
60%—70% of the amount of adenine was released to the outside of the cells and 30%—40% remained inside. Extracellular
adenine was fundamental to bacterial growth during the early fermentation stage, and a higher amount of adenine released to
the outside of the cells favored bacterial growth and inosine accumulation. Intracellular adenine in yeast cells was the key to
reaching and maintaining suboptimal levels of adenine during the middle and later fermentation stages. The suboptimal level
of adenine in this study was 31.92 mg/L.

Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Diversity in the Traditional Vinegar Fermentation Process
NIE Zhi-qiang,HAN Yue,ZHENG Yu,SHEN Yan-bing,WANG Min*
2013, 34(15):  198-203.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315041
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Complex microbial communities and metabolites play important roles in the formation of taste and flavor during
the fermentation process of traditional vinegar. The present study investigated the composition and diversity of bacterial
communities in the acetic acid fermentation process of Tianjin duliu mature vinegar using metagenomic approach. The
results showed that bacteria exhibited greater diversity in the early period than other microorganisms. Principal component
analysis revealed that Lactobacillus, Acetobacter and Nostoc had the main relationship with the acetic acid fermentation
process. The abundance of acetic acid bacteria increased as the fermentation proceeded, while lactic acid bacteria decreased.
The abundance of lactic acid bacteria was far more than that of other microorganisms, indicating that it might have important
functions for the formation of vinegar flavor.

Bacterial Diversity of Vacuum-packed Zhenjiang Yao Meat during Different Process Stages and Refrigerated Storage
XIAO Xiang,DONG Ying?,ZHU Ying,WANG Min,WANG Li-li
2013, 34(15):  204-207.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315042
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This study was designed to explore the bacterial diversity and the major bacterial flora of vacuum-packed
Zhenjiang Yao Meat during different process stages and refrigerated storage by PCR-denaturing gradient gel eletrophoresis
(PCR-DGGE). The total DNA of samples (raw meat, marinated meat, cooked meat sample and finished goods stored for
0, 7, 15, 22 d and 30 d was extracted and 16S rDNA was amplified by using a universal primer. The microbial community
structure was analyzed by DGGE. The DGGE pattern revealed that Zhenjiang Yao Meat was susceptible to enterobacterial
contamination during the pressing and packaging process. Lactobacillus and Carnobacterium were the predominant spoilage
bacteria in Zhenjiang Yao Meat at the early stage during refrigerated storage; in contrast, Yersinia and Serratia were the
predominant spoilage bacteria at the end of the storage period.

Optimization of Fermentation Medium for Chromium-enriched Ganoderma lucidum by Response Surface Methodology
ZHANG Shuai,DONG Ji,HUANG Zhi-ming
2013, 34(15):  208-212.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315043
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In the current study, the appropriate concentration range of CrCl3•6H2O in the fermentation medium for chromiumenriched
Ganoderma lucidum was established by one-factor-at-a-time design. CrCl3•6H2O, soybean cake powder and
corn meal were identified by Plackett-Burman (PB) design as main medium components that influence the total chromium
content of G. lucidum mycelia and the steepest ascent method was used to approach the neighborhood of the optimum. A
quadratic regression model with the total chromium content of G. lucidum mycelia as the dependent variable was established
by central composite design (CCD). The optimum fermentation medium composition was determined by response surface
analysis as 250.5 mg/L CrCl3•6H2O, 13.07 g/L soybean cake powder, 27.35 g/L corn meal, 18 g/L sucrose, 0.012 g/L VB1,
1.6 g/L NH4Cl, 0.8 g/L MgSO4•7H2O and 0.8 g/L KH2PO4. The measured value of total chromium content was 1525.92 μg/L
under the optimal conditions, which was well consistent with the predicted value of 1530.21 μg/L. Hence the prediction model
was available and reliable for the optimization of fermentation medium for chromium-enriched G. lucidum.

Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Extract (GSPE) on Skin Collagen Metabolism in Type Ⅱ Diabetic Rats
CAI Xia-xia,LI Xue,BAO Lei,DING Ye,ZHANG Zhao-feng,LI Yu-jie,JING Lu-lu,LI Yong*
2013, 34(15):  213-218.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315044
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Purpose: To observe the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) on skin collagen metabolism and its
possible mechanism in type Ⅱ diabetic rats. Methods: In order to establish type Ⅱ diabetic rat model, male SD rats were injected
with streptozotocin (STZ, 0.01 mol/L, 30 mg/kg) after being fed high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Then the diabetic rats were randomly
divided into diabetes-vehicle group (DM control group) and three GSPE treatment groups. Rats fed normal diet were randomly
divided into normal and GSPE control group. The dose of GSPE control group was 250 mg/(kg•d), and the doses of three GSPE
treatment groups were 125, 250, 500 mg/(kg•d), respectively. After administration for 12 weeks, the body weight, fasting blood
glucose (FBG), skin glucose concentration and hydroxyproline content were measured. Paraffin-embedded skin sections were
stained by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson, and then examined under a microscope. The thickness of skin was measured with
Image-Pro Plus 6.0. Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and collagen III in rat footpad were detected by immunohistochemical
method. Results: Compared with the DM control group, FBG values were decreased but there was no significant difference in
three GSPE treatment groups (P > 0.05). GSPE at the high dose revealed a significant reduction in glucose concentration of skin
tissues when compared with the DM control group (P < 0.001). In contrast, each GSPE dose group could significantly increase
skin hydroxyproline content (P < 0.05). After staining skin tissues by HE and Masson, we observed that GSPE could inhibit the
skin to be thin in diabetic rats. Compared with the DM control group, the footpad in the GSPE high-dose group had higher IGF-1
and collagen III expression. Conclusion: GSPE has improvement effect on skin collagen metabolism of type Ⅱ diabetic rats.

Effect of Sea Cucumber Saponins and Polysaccharides in Hyperuricemic Mice
ZHANG Hao1,XU Hui-jing1,GAO Yi-ni2,WANG Yu-ming1,XUE Chang-hu1,LI Zhao-jie1,XUE Yong1,*
2013, 34(15):  219-222.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315045
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Objective: To explore the effect of sea cucumber and its major bioactive components on uric acid metabolism
and hyperuricemia induced by yeast extract powder in mice. Methods: Thirty Kunming mice were divided into normal group,
model group, saponin group, polysaccharide group and whole sea cucumber group. Hyperuricemic model was established by
oral administration of yeast extract powder for 14 days. The concentrations of serum uric acid (UA), creatinine (Cr), blood
urea nitrogen (BUN) and the activities of liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) were determined.
Results: After 14 days of feeding, the saponin, polysaccharide and whole sea cucumber decreased uric acid level in serum
by 14.9% (P< 0.05), 20.7% (P < 0.01) and 16.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. The dietary saponin, polysaccharide and
whole sea cucumber treatments resulted in a reduction in XOD activity by 13.5% (P < 0.05), 13.7% (P < 0.05) and 21.2%
(P < 0.01) and in ADA activity by 26.7% (P < 0.05), 29.0% (P < 0.01) and 17.4% (P < 0.05), respectively. However,
all the groups investigated showed similar serum Cr and BUN levels. Conclusion: Sea cucumber possesses a potent antihyperuricemic
effect, which is related to the saponin and polysaccharide.

Antitumor Activity of Corn Peptides in vitro and in vivo
LI Jiang-tao,ZHANG Jiu-liang,HE Hui*,LIANG Dong,YAO Yu-xiang,ZHANG Yan,ZHAO Ning-ning
2013, 34(15):  223-227.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315046
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To explore the antitumor activity of corn peptides (CPs) in vitro and in vivo, the morphology of HepG2 cells
and the change of Ca2+ concentration caused by CPs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and laser confocal
microscope, respectively. Meanwhile, H22 tumor-bearing mice were administered with CPs at different dosages by
intraperitoneal injection for 10 d. The anti-tumor activity of CPs was evaluated by tumor weight, thymus index and spleen
index, SOD activity and MDA content in tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that apoptosis characteristics such as
chromatin condensation, accumulation to the nuclear edge and cytoplasmic condensation, and increased intracellular Ca2+
concentration were obvious in HepG2 cells after CP treatments. Moreover, CPs could not only significantly suppress the
growth of H22 tumor in mice (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) and increase spleen index (P < 0.01), but also improve SOD activity in
the serum (P < 0.01), and MDA content (P < 0.01) in the liver of H22-bearing mice. Therefore, corn peptides can be a safe
and effective anticancer, bioactive agent or functional food.

Protective Effect of Triterpenoid from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill Rattan against Alcoholic Liver Disease in Mice
MENG Xian-jun,DENG Jing,ZHU Li-jie,LI Bin*
2013, 34(15):  228-231.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315047
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Objective: To explore the protective effect of triterpene compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz)
Baill rattan (TFSCBR) against acute alcohol liver injury in mice. Methods: Acute alcoholic liver injury model was
induced by 56% Beijing Red Star Erguotou liquor. Totally 60 Kunming mice were randomly divided into 6 groups
of 10 mice each: normal group, alcohol model group, oleanolic acid (positive control, 30 mg/(kg·d)) group, and triterpenoid
low, middle and high dose (10, 30 mg/(kg·d) and 50 mg/(kg·d)) groups. The normal group and alcohol model group were
administered with an equal volume of normal saline. After 4 weeks of administration, the levels of serum alanine transaminase
(ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and liver malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and super oxid edismutase (SOD)
were assayed. Results: TFSCBR treatment at the dose of 30 mg/(kg·d) significantly reduced the elevation of AST, ALT
and MDA (P < 0.01), and significantly inhibited the decrease of SOD activity and GSH level (P < 0.01) in mice
suffering from liver injury. Furthermore, hepatic pathological changes were attenuated or even reversed. Conclusion:
TFSCBR treatment at the dose of 30 mg/(kg·d) has a significant hepatoprotective effect against alcohol-induced liver
injury in mice.

Maythorn Dietary Fiber Ameliorates Functional Constipation and Prevents Lead Poisoning
CHEN Hong-yu,MA Lei,YANG Jian-qiao,ZHAO Wen*,CUI Tong
2013, 34(15):  232-235.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315048
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Objective: To explore the ameliorative effect of maythorn dietary fiber (MDF) on functional constipation
and its preventive effect on lead poisoning. Methods: Mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: blank control,
model control, and MDF low dose, middle dose and high dose groups. Functional constipation model was established
after oral administration for 10 d. The intestinal motion rate, defecation time and feces weight of all the mice were
investigated. A prophylactic lead-poisoning model was developed and employed to observe the effects of different
doses of MDF and positive control on Pb content in the liver, blood and femur of mice. Results: The motional rate of
ink in the intestine was enhanced by MDF administration, initial defecation time was abridged, and total feces weight
increased when compared to the model control group. Moreover, in the MDF groups, Pb content in liver, blood, and
femur declined when compared to the model control group, and the middle-dose and high-dose groups displayed a
statistical significance. Conclusion: The administration of 500 mg/(kg·d) of maythorn dietary fiber has effective
defecation-promoting and lead-removing capacity in mice, which is beneficial for relieving functional constipation and
preventing lead poisoning.

Effect of Soybean Isoflavone Combined with Vinorelbine on Transplanted Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Rabbits
YIN Xue-zhe1,ZHAO Wen-xi2, JIN Ai-hua1,QUAN Ji-shu2,*
2013, 34(15):  236-239.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315049
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The anti-tumor effect of soybean isoflavone (ISF) combined with vinorelbine (NVB) chemotherapy in VX2-
bearing rabbits and the corresponding mechanisms were investigated. Rabbits implanted with VX2 tumor in the lung were
divided into 4 groups including model, ISF, NVB, ISF+NVB (ISF combined with NVB) groups. The survival time of the
rabbits was recorded and the extension rate of life was calculated. The rabbits from another group were transplanted with
VX2 subcutaneously, and then the size and weight of tumor were estimated and the growth inhibition rate was calculated.
The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total
antioxidant activity (T-AOC), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum, as well as the activation of Caspase-3
and Caspase-8 in tumor tissue were detected by colorimetric method, and the DNA fragmentation of implanted tumor cells
was determined by DNA ladder method. The results showed that the administration with ISF and/or NVB prolonged the
survival time and improved the extension rate of life in VX2-bearing rabbits. ISF and/or NVB inhibited the growth of VX2
tumor transplanted subcutaneously into rabbits, and a synergistic effect was detected for the combination of ISF and NVB
in this model. In addition, NVB treatment increased serum MDA content, and reduced serum SOD activity despite of the
increased activity of serum GSH-Px, while ISF and ISF+NVB treatments increased serum GST, GSH-Px and TAOC levels,
and reduced serum MDA in VX2-bearing rabbits. Furthermore, ISF alone or ISF+NVB treatments increased the activation
of Caspase-3 and Caspase-8, and elevated DNA fragmentation of implanted VX2 tumor cells in VX2-bearing rabbits.
Therefore, ISF exhibits an inhibitory effect on the growth of transplanted VX2 tumor, and potentiates the chemotherapeutic
effect of NVB probably via improved anti-oxidative capability and the induction of apoptosis in carcinoma cells.

Protective Effect of Common Species of Sea Cucumbers on Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Mice
LI Xue-min1,YU Qing2,ZHENG Rong1,ZUO Tao1,CAO Bin-bin1,TANG Qing-juan1,*,WANG Jing-feng1,WANG Yu-ming1,XUE Chang-hu1
2013, 34(15):  240-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315050
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Objective: To investigate the protective effect and mechanisms of four common species of sea cucumbers
on cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced intestinal mucosa damage. Methods: Seventy mice were randomly divided into
seven groups, including normal group, model group, positive control group, Apostichopus japonicus group, Isostichopus
badionotus group, Thelenota ananas group and Acaudina molpadioidea group. A mouse model of intestinal mucosal damage
was induced by CTX injection. The changes in body weight, spleen index, thymus index, villus (V) length, crypt (C) depth
and V/C ratio were detected. SIgA, IFN-γ and IL-4 contents in intestinal mucosa were detected by ELISA and IFN-γ/IL-4
ratiowas calculated. IgA protein expression was detected by Western blot. Results: Compared with the model group, spleen
index, V/C and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in mice administered with sea cucumbers were significantly improved. The secretion of
SIgA were dramatically enhanced in the mice from Apostichopus japonicus and Thelenota ananas groups when compared
with the mice from the model group, which was correlated with the enhancement of IgA expression. Conclusion: All four
common species of sea cucumbers can significantly protect the intestine mucosa in mice from CTX-induced damage, and
Apostichopus japonicas and Thelenota ananas are more effective.

Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Disturbance through Reducing Obesity-associated Inflammation in Mice
BAO Bin,CHEN Yan-guang,LIU Jian*
2013, 34(15):  246-251.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315051
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Aim: The purpose of this study is to indicate the anti-obesity and anti-diabetes mechanism of bitter melon
(BM) through an anti-inflammatory mechanism. Methods: Obese mouse models were induced by feeding high fat diet
(45% calories from fat; Research Diets no. D12451) for 12 weeks. Then the mice were divided into four groups according
to their diets (low fat diet, 10% calories from fat; Research Diets no. D12450B; low fat diet supplemented with 5% BM;
high fat diet; high fat diet supplemented with 5% BM): LFD, LFD + 5% BM, HFD and HFD + 5% BM, respectively. Six
weeks later, body weight gain, blood glucose, blood fat and other metabolic indices were investigated. Using qPCR, ELISA
and Western blotting, we also explored inflammatory cell infiltration, inflammatory cytokine expression and related signal
pathways. Results: After dietary supplementation of BM, body weight and blood fat of obese mice were dramatically
reduced almost to those in the LFD group. The expression of F4/80 and mMCP-6, characteristic genes of macrophage and
mast cell, and inflammation cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) in adipose tissue were decreased sharply. The metabolism
index of glucose and fat also returned to normal level, and glucose intake related signals (AKT, PPARγ and Glut-4)
were enhanced. This study not only explains how BM ameliorates diet-induced obesity and diabetes, but also supplies a
preliminary guideline for the development of anti-obesity and anti-diabetes functional foods with BM.

Adhesive Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on Simulated Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells
XIONG Tao,HUANG Qiao-fen,LI Ping,HUANG Tao
2013, 34(15):  252-255.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315052
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The adherence of probiotics on human epithelial cells is an important criterion for the selection of
probiotics. Colon cancer cell line HT-29 was selected to test the adhesive capability of Lactobacillus plantarum
NCU116 in vitro. Furthermore, the impacts of different factors on the adherence were studied. Results indicated that
the adhesion (4.78 ± 0.21) CFU/cell of Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 was very excellent. The adhesion of NCU116
became better with increasing concentration, but the growth tended to saturation when the concentration was up to 1.0 × 108
CFU/mL. The adhesion of bacteria in stationary phase was the best. Similarly, the adhesion revealed an enhancement with
increasing incubation time and reached saturation at 2.0 h. The environmental pH had a significant impact on the adhesion
of NCU116, and NCU116 had a better adherence in acidic environment. Neither Ca2+ nor Mg2+ had significant effects on
the adherence of Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on HT-29 cells. In summary, Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 has an
excellent adherence and is promising in the food and healthcare industries.

Quercetin and One of Its Metabolites Inhibit Reactive Oxygen-species and Inflammation
WANG Min1,LIU Bao-lin2,GUO Xu-dan1,3
2013, 34(15):  256-260.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315053
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Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were pretreated with quercetin and its metabolite quercetin-3-Oglucuronide
for 30 min, and then incubated with 100 μmol/L palmitic acid. Palmitic acid stimulation led to reactive
oxygen species (ROS) production with collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). Quercetin and quercetin-
3-O-glucuronide inhibited ROS overproduction and effectively restored Δψm, demonstrating their chemoprotection of
mitochondrial function through antioxidative actions. Also, quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide inhibited ROSassociated
inflammation by inhibition of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α production with suppression of IKKβ/
NF-κB phosphorylation. Therefore, quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide can inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation.
The results of this study indicate that the relationship between food containing quercetin and human health may be due to the
anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammation activities of its metabolite in the endothelial cells.

Impact of Modified Dietary Fiber from Tomato Peel on Intestinal Bacteria in STZ-induced Diabetic Rats
CUI Jun1,ZHENG Gang 1,HU Juan1,ZHAO Guo-hua1,2,*
2013, 34(15):  261-266.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315054
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Objective: To explore the effect of modified dietary fiber from tomato peel on the intestinal flora in STZinduced
diabetic rats. Methods: Microbial total DNA from the intestinal flora and feces of STZ-induced diabetic rats was
extracted. The extracted total DNA was subjected to DGGE electrophoresis to analyze the compositions and variation of the
intestinal flora in diabetic rats. Results: A total of 8 bacterial strains from Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Clostridium and
Lactobacillus were detected in the gut and feces of rats. Three bacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium
breve, and Eubacterium rectale were colonized in the gut mucosa, and the number of these bacteria remained relatively
stable. Lactobacillus murinus was detected in all fecal samples of rats as the dominant bacterium. Conclusion: DGGE is
suitable for batch analysis of gut and fecal flora. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from tomato peel is an important carbon source
for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Ultrafine ground dietary fiber from tomato peel is an important carbon source for lactateutilizing
bacteria such as Anaerostipes caccae and Eubacterium hallii.

Effect of Litchi Pericarp Procyanidins as a Dietary Supplement on Excreta of Rats
LI Shu-yi,WU Qian,WANG Rong,SUN Zhi-da*,XIE Bi-jun*
2013, 34(15):  267-271.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315055
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An increasing amount of attention is being paid to litchi pericarp procyanidins due to its strong antioxidant activity
in vitro and in vivo. Litchi pericarp oligomeric procyanidins (LPOPC) were investigated in this study. SD rats were administered
with LPOPC at the dose of 150 mg/(kg•d) for 1 week. The urine and feces were collected on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th day
during LPOPC administration to compare excreta characteristics from the control group. LPOPC administration resulted in
a significant elevation in the T-AOC of rat urine, which was linked to total phenol content. However, the fecal odor of rats
revealed a decreasing trend after the administration of LPOPC as illustrated by electronic nose analysis, which was due to the
reduction in putrefactive products such as indole and 4-ethyl phenol in feces and an increasing amount of volatile compounds
such as benzaldehyde and 4-methyl phenol as identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS. In addition, LC-MS analysis of procyanidin
metabolites in feces suggested that (-)-epicatechin and m-coumaric acid were the major components.

Effects of Se-SMC, Sodium Selenite and VE and Combination of Se-SMC and VE on Antioxidant Defense System in Rats
YAO Zhao,LI Hong-yan,ZHANG Yun-long,DENG Ze-yuan*
2013, 34(15):  272-276.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315056
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Objective: To compare the effects of organic selenium such as L-Se-methylselenocysteine (Se-SMC) and inorganic
selenium (sodium selenite) on antioxidant functions in rats, and explore the synergistic effect of Se-SMC and vitamin E (VE)
on antioxidant functions in vivo. Methods: Adult female rats were randomly divided into five groups including blank group,
organic selenium group, inorganic selenium group, VE group, and organic selenium/VE combination group. The rats were
administrated with designed drugs by gavage for 30 d. The serum levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) content, total antioxidant
activity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the rats were determined at 10, 20 d and 30 d, respectively. After
30 d, the rats were sacrificed, and MDA, glutathione (GSH) and protein carbonyl (CP) contents, and T-AOC level, as well as
SOD and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in the heart, liver and kidney of the rats. Results: Se-
SMC resulted in higher GSH-Px activity than inorganic selenium in rat tissues. The combination of organic selenium and VE
significantly enhanced T-AOC and SOD activities in the serum of rats after administration for 20 d and 30 d and elevated T-AOC
and SOD activities as well as GSH-Px and GSH contents in the heart, liver and kidney of rats. Conclusion: Organic selenium is
better than inorganic selenium for enhancing GSH-Px activity in heart, liver and kidney tissues. In addition, the combination of
organic selenium and VE can enhance antioxidant functions in rats.

Regulatory Effect of Dietary Fiber from Citrus maxima Peel on Blood Lipids in Rats
WANG Qiang,ZHAO Xin*
2013, 34(15):  277-280.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315057
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The aim of this study was to observe the regulatory effect of dietary fiber from Citrus maxima peel on body
weight and blood lipids in rats. SD rats were randomly divided into five groups including blank control (BCK), high fat
control (CK), high fat diet + 0.2 g/d of superfine dietary fiber powder (C1), high fat diet + 0.04 g/d of superfine dietary fiber
powder (C2), high fat diet + 0.2 g/d of superfine powder of extruded dietary fiber (C3), and high fat diet + 0.04 g/d of superfine
powder of extruded dietary fiber (C4). Several blood indexes such as TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and AI were detected and
changes in blood lipids after 50 days of administration were observed. Compared with the CK group, the C4 groups showed
a significant reduction in serum TC level and AI (P<0.05), though no significant differences in body weight, body fat
content or serum LDL-C level were observed (P > 0.05). In conclusion, dietary fiber from Citrus maxima peel has laxative
effects and can regulate blood lipids in mice.

Effect of Carnosic Acid on Free Radical-mediated Oxidative Damage to Proteins
XIANG Qi-sen,MENG Xu,QIAO Yan,XU Li,LIU Xue-bo*
2013, 34(15):  281-284.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315058
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The effect of carnosic acid (CA) on free radical-induced protein oxidative degradation and carbonylation was
explored in the present study. Cu2+/H2O2 reaction system was used to induce the oxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA)
and proteins in liver homogenate from SD rats. The results showed that CA significantly inhibited oxidative degradation and
carbonylation of BSA and proteins in liver homogenate. This investigation provides preliminary evidence that CA has the
potential to be used in functional foods.

Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharide from Codonopsis pilosula in Aging Model Mice and Its Effect on Senescence Resistance of Fruit Flies
GUO Xiao-nong1,QI Huan-yang 2,WANG Bing1,DONG Jiang-ling1,JIANG Jian1,YANG Yu-jie1
2013, 34(15):  285-288.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315059
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Objective: To explore the effect of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CPPS) on oxidation and senescence
resistance. Methods: Aging mouse models were induced by injection of D-galactose. CPPS at high, middle and low doses were
intragastrically administered to aging model mice. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and
superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in brain and liver homogenates were measured. According to different polysaccharide
doses, the survival of fruit flies was also investigated. Results: CPPS could improve the activities of SOD and GSH-Px (P < 0.05,
P < 0.01) and decrease the content of MDA in brain and liver homogenates (P < 0.05). The average life span and maximum
life span in the high and middle dose groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion:
CPPS has obvious roles in anti-oxidation and senescence resistance.

Synergistic Antitumor Activity in vitro of Polysaccharides from Three Different Matrices
XIE Hao-gui,WEI Ming-qian, CHEN Mei-zhen*,WEN Xiao-bo,LIAO Xu-biao,PANG Si-wei
2013, 34(15):  289-294.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315060
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Objective: To explore the synergistic antitumor activity of polysaccharides from different matrices in
vitro. Methods: Polysaccharides from Graciaria lemaneiformis (PGL), polysaccharide from Porphyra haitanensis
(PPH) and Coprinus comatus (PCC) were evaluated for their individual and synergistic inhibitory effect on the in
vitro growth of human cervical cancer HeLa cells by MTT method. Results: PGL, PPH and PCC blended in a ratio
of 6:6:3 had a significant inhibitory effect on HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner and an inhibitory rate of
76.30% was obtained at 1000 μg/mL, which was higher than that of PGL (59.63%), PPH (35.64%) and PCC (41.40%)
alone at the same dosage. Morphological observation showed that the number of viable HeLa cells revealed a
gradual reduction and correspondingly, the number of apoptotic or dead cells revealed an obvious increase as the
total polysaccharide dosage increased in a certain range. QRT-PCR detection results showed that polysaccharide
blend could induce apoptosis through improving the gene expression level of apoptosis proteases such as caspase-10
and caspase-3 in HeLa cells. Conclusion: PGL, PPH and PCC have synergistic antitumor effect and could induce the
apoptosis and necrosis of HeLa cells.

Hypoglycemic Effect of Total Flavonoids from Gynura divaricata Roots and Rhizomes in Diabetic Rats
YU Hao,MAO Bin-bin,ZHOU Guo-liang,FANG Yan-xi
2013, 34(15):  295-398.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315061
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Objective: To observe the hypoglycemic effect of total flavonoids from Gynura divaricata roots and rhizomes in
diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetic rat model was induced by injecting streptozotocin in vena caudalis. The body weight, food
intake, water intake, urine and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were measured. The levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (GHB),
triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined,
and the pathological change of the pancreas was also observed. Results: Total flavonoids from Gynura divaricata roots and
rhizomes could reduce food intake, water intake, urine and FBG, decrease GHB, TG and CH in serum, improve SOD activity
in serum, and decrease MDA content in serum. Meanwhile, the pathological change of pancreatic tissue was attenuated.
Conclusion: Total flavonoids from Gynura divaricata roots and rhizomes can improve hyperglycemia of diabetic rats, and
its mechanisms may be related to the improved lipid metabolism, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the pathological
change in pancreatic tissue.

Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions and Nutritional Quality of Muscle in Southern Flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma
XU Jian-he1,QIN Jie2,ZOU Kuan1,MA Huan-ying1,3
2013, 34(15):  299-302.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315062
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The proximate composition and amino acid and fatty acid profiles of muscle in cultured southern flounder,
Paralichthys lethostigma, were analyzed to evaluate its nutritional quality. Southern flounder muscle contained 17.74% crude
protein and 3.02% crude lipid. In addition, Nineteen amino acids were detected, including a large amount of glutamic acid
(120.4 nmg/g crude protein), aspartic acid (75.4 mg/g crude protein), glycine (73.6 mg/g crude protein), leucine (72.3 mg/g
crude protein), lysine (67.8 mg/g crude protein) and arginine (63.4 mg/g crude protein). According to the reference amino acid
pattern recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) for pre-school children (2 to 5 years old), the scores for all the essential
amino acids were over 100 indicating the muscle of southern flounder to contain high-quality protein with a good amino acid
balance. Total saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in the muscle of
southern flounder were 32.23%, 30.79% and 27.01%, respectively. In n-3 PUFAs, 7.38% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3)
and 12.07% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were detected, while 4.49% arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) was detected in n-6
PUFAs. The ratio of ΣPUFA n-6/ΣPUFA n-3 was 0.35, which was significantly lower than the maximum safety value of 4.0
recommended by the UK Department of Health.

Hypoglycemic Effect of Water-soluble Polysaccharides from Litchi Flesh
ZHANG Zhong,HUANG Li-hua,ZHANG Ling,GUO Xian-xia
2013, 34(15):  303-306.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315063
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Objective: To extract and purify water-soluble polysaccharide from fresh litchi flesh (WSPLF), and then to
observe blood glucose-lowering effect of WSPLF in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Water-soluble polysaccharide
was extracted by water extraction method from litchi flesh, and subjected to protein removal, deionization, and freeze drying.
In SPE level NIH mice, alloxan was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 200 mg/kg to establish diabetic model. Control
group (fed distilled water), glibenclamide group (15 mg/(kg·d)), low-dose WSPLF group (200 mg/(kg·d)), middle-dose
WSPLF group (400 mg/(kg·d)) and high-dose WSPLF group (800 mg/(kg·d)) were set up. Fasting body weight, blood
glucose, liver glycogen, hemoglobin and other indicators were measured at different time points during the administration
of WSPFL. Results: Three days after the injection of alloxan, the body weight of NIH mice revealed an obvious decrease
when compared with glibenclamide group. Meanwhile, the blood glucose was significantly reduced after the administration
of high-dose WSPLF for 3 weeks (P < 0.05) when compared with glibenclamide group. Moreover, the liver glycogen of
mice was significantly reduced after 3-week administration of WSPLF, and did not reach the normal level (P < 0.01) when
compared with glibenclamide group. Glycosylated hemoglobin in mice fed WSPLF at the middle or high dose also revealed
a significant difference compared with glibenclamide group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: WSPLF has blood glucose-lowering
effect in diabetic mice.

Anti-fibrosis Effects of Long-term Oral Administration of Dietary Nucleotides in the Chronologically Aging Liver of Sprague-dawley Male Rats
XU Mei-hong,LI Yong*
2013, 34(15):  307-312.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315064
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Purpose: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effects of dietary nucleotides on aging liver and explore their
possible mechanisms. Methods: Liver samples from rats at the age of 24-26 months (aged control, 0.01% NTs and
0.64% NTs; n = 6/group) were excised for analysis. Another group of male SD rats (n = 8) which were fed the control diet
were sacrificed at the age of 12 months to be used as middle aged controls. The liver samples were used for investigation on
Hyp level, as well as the expression levels of miRNA and their target genes. Results: This study established the association
of miR-182 and miR-328a* with NTs in aging liver, meanwhile highlighted the correlation of miRNA expression with their
target genes Thbs-2 and Pdgf-b. This study also identified that long term administration of NTs inhibited the age related
increase of Hyp level in the chronologically aged liver. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the anti-fibrosis
effects of long-term NTs on chronological liver aging. It is possible because NTs affect miR-182 and miR-328a* through
their target genes Thbs-2 and Pdgf-b in the aged liver of SD male rats.

Comparison of Two Methods for Evaluating Potential Allergenicity of Food Allergens
BI Yuan,ZHOU Xin,SUN Na,SUN Lu,CHE Hui-lian*
2013, 34(15):  313-317.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315065
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Purpose: To analyze the potential allergenicity of common food allergens such as 11S globulin and ovalbumin
(OVA) and non-allergen such as potato acid phosphatase (PAP) using two methods: animal model in vivo and simulated
gastric digestion in vitro. Methods: Female BALB/c mice were orally administrated with three food proteins. Proteinspecific
IgE antibodies in serum and plasma histamine levels were detected by ELISA. Additionally, the food proteins were
digested in simulated gastric fluid in vitro to explore the digestive stability. Results: The results of animal model showed that
11S globulin had the strongest allergenicity, followed by OVA and PAP. The results of protein digestion by pepsin showed
that the anti-digestion capability of 11S globulin was higher than that of OVA, and PAP was not a digestion-stable protein.
Conclusion: For the most of the food allergens, the results of animal model and simulated gastric digestion in vitro are

Research Progress of Exogenous Enzymes in Meat Processing
WANG Wen-hang,LIU Ting,ZHAO Ke,LI Qian,TENG An-guo,LIU An-jun
2013, 34(15):  318-323.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315066
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In addition to endogenous enzymes inherent in meat, exogenous enzymes also play an important role in meat and
meat processing. Exogenous enzymes used in meat processing are mainly derived from animals, plants and microorganisms,
and can be classified as hydrolytic enzymes, transfer enzymes and oxidoreductases. The major roles of exogenous enzymes
are protein hydrolysis and protein cross-linking. Meat tenderization and bioactive peptide preparation, as well as flavor
compound formation are attributed to exogenous enzyme hydrolysis, thereby improving water-holding capacity and gel
strength of meat products, and enhancing meat-derived protein crosslinking with exogenous enzymes. Exogenous enzymes
also have roles in inhibiting oxidation and killing microorganisms. In this article, exogenous enzymes related to meat
processing are reviewed, which will provide useful guidelines for the development and upgrading of exogenous enzymes in
meat processing application technology.

Aflatoxins in Seafood: a Potential Threat to Food Safety
2013, 34(15):  324-328.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315067
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Aflatoxins and their animal biotransformation products, known as foodborne carcinogens, have been associated
with serious harmful effects on human and animal health. Therefore, aflatoxins are the most investigated, widespread and
worrisome sources for the contamination of foods and feed worldwide. Over the last 10 years, plant-based ingredients have
been increasingly used in fish diets, leading to a high risk for mycotoxin contamination in seafood. Aflatoxins are commonly
detected in aquafeeds and accumulated in aquatic organisms. Aflatoxins and their metabolites could dramatically damage
the health of aquatic species and reduce the quality of seafood. Furthermore, mycotoxin residues including aflatoxins in fish
tissues including edible part have been detected. The presence of aflatoxins in aquatic species and their impact on seafood
are still under estimation and investigation. In the future, due to the susceptibility in aquatic species and the diverse varieties
of mycotoxin, we should make great efforts to detect and remove mycotoxins including aflatoxins in aquatic species and
seafood to protect public health.

Current Situation Analysis of Quality Market Dynamics and Detection Methods for Honey Adulteration
PEI Gao-pu1,SHI Bo-lin2,*,ZHAO Lei2,GAO Hai-yan1,ZHI Rui-cong2
2013, 34(15):  329-336.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315068
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Honey is favored by consumers for its high nutritional value and health benefits, and its sales have increased year
by year. However, in recent years, honey quality has not been optimistic in China. Pesticides and veterinary drug residues
or adulteration in honey are serious, especially as rampant adulteration and advanced means of adulteration has become the
focus of attention. Therefore, how to detect honey quality scientifically is the key technical problem to be solved for the
development of the honeybee industry in China and around the world. Based on the international market environment of
honey and the serious status of honey quality crisis, this paper provides an in-depth analysis of the market quality dynamics
of honey and the advantages and disadvantages of the currently available techniques to detect honey adulteration are
explored. Moreover, we suggest that honey adulteration should be identified according to the aroma of honey and discuss
future trends in the development of detection techniques for honey quality.

Progress in Research on the Role of Intestinal Microbiota in Human Health
ZHAI Qi-xiao1,TIAN Feng-wei1,WANG Gang1,CHEN Wei1,2,*
2013, 34(15):  337-341.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315069
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The intestinal microbiota, acting as an important “Microbial Organ” in the human body, is related to a diverse
variety of physiological functions including immunity, nutrition and metabolism. This review provides an overview of the
origin and development as well as recent progress on the intestinal microbiota in humans, and insights into the association
between the intestinal microbiota and the pathogenesis of bowel diseases, obesity, diabetes and other common illnesses. We
hope that this paper will contribute to further understanding of the intestinal microbiota in humans and provide new ideas to
develop regulation strategies for human health.

Construction of National Food Safety Risk Monitoring, Assessment and Early Warning System and Related Problems
TANG Xiao-chun
2013, 34(15):  342-348.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315070
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Since the Food Safety Law came into effect, serial institutional construction projects have been made in China.
This paper summarizes details on the construction of the legal system concerning release of information about food safety
risk monitoring, assessment and early warning, and focuses on an analysis of two important phases in the development
of the national food safety risk monitoring network and the fundamental platform for food safety risk assessment. It is
demonstrated that a primary food safety risk monitoring network has been completed in the country. Considering that new
food safety problems and potential risks constantly appeared, a serial of risk assessment programs for routine and emergency
conditions have been performed, gradually normalizing the release of early warning information. However, due to the weak
basis work, the country’s capacity for risk assessment needs to be enhanced as early as possible. In light of this, this paper
puts forward four countermeasures against the current main problems.

Research Advances in Detection and Removal of T-2 Toxin in Foods
XUE Shan,HE Zhi-fei,LI Hong-jun*
2013, 34(15):  349-354.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315071
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T-2 toxin is a kind of type A trichothecene mycotoxins produced by a variety of Fusarium fungi. It is widespread in
nature and its residue can be easily retained in cereal and cereal products in a concealed manner. Moreover, it can contaminate
plant-origin or animal-origin foods directly or indirectly, thus resulting in serious threats to livestock and human health, by
the enrichment in the organism and food chain. This paper summarizes the origin, characteristics, detection, removal, current
problems and future trends of T-2 toxin, which will provide a theoretical basis for follow-up exploration.

Research Progress of Probiotic Cheese
JIA Hong-xin1,2,GONG Guang-yu1,GUO Ben-heng1,2,*
2013, 34(15):  355-360.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315072
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Probiotic cheese not only has all features of traditional cheese (nutrient-rich, unique flavor and special texture),
but also has its own unique probiotic properties. During the past two decades, significant attention has been paid to probiotic
cheese. There has been a growing amount of research concerning various types of cheese such as fresh cheese, soft cheese,
semi-hard cheese, hard cheese and white brine cheese. This paper reviews recent progress in the development of probiotic
cheese, its superiority as a carrier of probiotics, the factors restricting probiotic growth in cheese, the critical control points
in cheese production and insightful ideas for the development of new probiotic cheese products, aiming to provide useful
guidelines for the research and development of probiotic cheese.

Biosynthesis of Polysialic Acid and Sialyl-oligosaccharides and Their Potential Applications in Nutraceuticals
ZHENG Zhi-yong1,2,ZHAN Xiao-bei1,2,*,ZHU De-qiang1,ZHU Li2,WU Jiang-rong1,2
2013, 34(15):  361-368.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315073
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Polysialic acid (PSA) is a linear homopolymer of α-2,8-linked (or α-2,9-linked) sialic acid residues that
covalently modify N-linked glycans on neural cell adhesion molecules. PSA has fine biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity
and biodegradable properties, and contributes to potential applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Sialyloligosaccharides
exist in brain ganglioside on the surface of neurons and glycoprotein molecules and have been proved
to be related to the improvement of human immunity and memory formation. Human milk contains abundant sialyloligosaccharides,
which have potential applications for the formulation of artificial milk for pregnant women and newborn
infants. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of polysialic acid biosynthetic pathway and its production
conditions. Sialyl-oligosaccharides biosynthesis and their potential applications in food and health fields are also discussed.

Physico-chemical Properties of Proanthocyanidins and Their Applications in Enzyme Inhibition and Microbial Regulation
FU Yu,YE Xing-qian*
2013, 34(15):  369-372.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315074
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Proanthocyanidins share common physico-chemical properties, and they can form stable complexes with proteins
and metal ions as excellent reducing agents. Many of their biological functions are derived from these properties. This article
reviews the physico-chemical properties of proanthocyanidins and their applications in inhibiting enzymes and regulating
microorganisms, in order to clarify the chemical basis of their physico-chemical properties and provide references for further
research and development of proanthocyanidins.

Progress and Prospect of Overnutrition on Metabolism and Human Wellness
PANG Guang-chang,CHEN Qing-sen,HU Zhi-he,XIE Jun-bo
2013, 34(15):  373-396.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315075
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G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are developed for organisms to uptake enough foods during evolution. As
a primary nutrition sensor system, GPCRs are expressed in endocrine cells within the gut mucosa, and absorb nutrients and
quantitate them with voltage-gated calcium channels, sodium potassium pump and vegetative nervous system. These signals
are transmitted to brain for appetite control. GPCRs also coordinate with other chemosensory signaling elements. The release
of hormones can regulate energy and glucose homeostasis. The malfunction of GCPRs may be responsible for a variety of
metabolic dysfunctions associated with overfeeding or obesity. In addition, another nutrient sensor system, mammalian target
of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated as a sensor of nutrient sufficiency for dividing cells and is activated by essential
amino acids, glucose and lipids. mTOR is also involved in the mechanisms for efficient transition between anabolic states
and catabolic states. When nutrients are absorbed, the glucose will be transformed into liver glycogen or muscle glycogen
for future utilization, and the lipids will be stored in adipose tissue. The glycogen will be used in pyrophosphorolysis and the
lipids will be consumed by β-oxidation when energy is needed. When the nutrition storage exceeds some limits, mTOR will
activate many processes that generate or use a large amount of energy and glycogen. It is increasingly apparent that mTORactivated
metabolism impacts most major cellular functions, thus playing an oversized role in regulating basic cell behaviors
such as growth and proliferation, and many disease including cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, there is
a ubiquitous natural phenomenon that the lifespan of an organism is closely related to its metabolic activity. The higher
the metabolism speed, the shorter the lifespan, and vice versa. In recent years, multiple studies have shown that calorie
restriction can prolong lifespan, so overnutrition may not only induce multiple diseases but also shorten lifespan. This review
describes recent findings regarding overnutrition-related diseases. The main purpose is to attract extensive attention and
broaden academic interest.

Progress of Research Methods for Microbial Diversity in Fermented Foods
SHU Chang1,2,WU Chun-sheng1,2,ZHONG Ci-ping1,2,SUO Hua-yi1,2,LI Lin1,2,*
2013, 34(15):  397-402.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315076
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Fermented food is very popular with consumers due to its unique flavor and high nutritional value. Its quality
is affected by the composition and changes of fermentation microflora. Understanding of the microflora in fermented
foods can provide a theoretical basis for the analysis of quality formation mechanism improvement of product safety and
stability. In this article, the recent progress on research methods for microbial diversity is reviewed, and the advantages and
disadvantages of various methods are discussed.

Volatile Flavor Substances in Maotai-flavor Liquor and Their Formation Mechanisms
CHEN Ping1,LIAN Bin2,*,YIN Zuo-ying3,DING Yuan-huai4
2013, 34(15):  403-408.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315077
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Maotai-flavor liquor refers to the liquor which possesses a typical Maotai flavor, and is generally preferred
by people because of the strong flavor and the elegant taste. There are divergent views about the nature and source of
flavor substances in Maotai-flavor liquor, and no consistent conclusion about them at present. This paper discusses several
hypotheses of the flavor composition of Maotai liquor and analyzes the factors related to the formation of Maotai-flavor
substances from three aspects: geographical condition, microbial fermentation and Maillard reaction, which will provide new
ideas and references to further study Maotai-flavor liquors.

Advances in Egg White Protein Hydrolysates
LIU Shuang1,XIA Yang-yi1,2,3,SHANG Yong-biao1,2,3,*
2013, 34(15):  409-414.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315078
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Currently, the egg production in China is the largest all over the world, but there are few high added-value
products. It is very important to develop egg products with high value. Egg white protein contains essential amino acids for
humans, and the amino acid composition is close to human demand. However, egg white protein has disadvantages such
as high viscosity, gelling, foaming and allergy so that it is not suitable for use in the food industry. Hydrolysis can not only
improve the functional properties of egg white protein, but also the hydrolysates have multiple biological activities such
as antihypertensive activity, antioxidant property, anti-thrombin property, antimicrobial activity and immunomodulatory
activity. The hydrolysates can be applied in the food industry widely. Therefore, in this paper, processing conditions of
egg white protein as well as functional properties, bioactive activities and application in the food industry of egg white
hydrolysates are described, which will provide new strategies for the utilization and development of egg white protein.

Action Mechanisms of Sports Nutrition Supplements with Chinese Medicinal Herbs
DUN Yao-shan, SHI Yue, PENG Xiao-lu, CHEN Ning*
2013, 34(15):  415-423.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201315079
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An increasing number of studies in the field of sports science show that Chinese medicinal herbs, which may be
applied in functional foods and sports nutrition supplements, has been gained extensive attention and recognition all over
the world. However, the mechanisms by which sports nutrition supplements with Chinese medicinal herbs (SNSCMH)
accelerate the recovery of fatigue and improve the sports performance are still ambiguous or unclear. This review focuses
on the latest literature published after the year of 2000, and summarizes SNSCMH from 5 aspects: 1). the commonly used
medicinal ingredients and SNSCMH recipes; 2). the experimental design of SNSCMH; 3). the anti-fatigue mechanisms of
SNSCMH; 4). the immuno-enhancing mechanisms of SNSCMH; 5) the anti-oxidant signaling pathways of SNSCMH for
enhancing immunity. We hope that this review will provide creative thoughts regarding SNSCMH.