Table of Content

15 December 2021, Volume 42 Issue 23
Invited Papers
Progress in Research on Physiological Function and Mechanism of Oral Hyaluronic Acid
WANG Zhao, XU Kang, WANG Fang, GUO Yannan
2021, 42(23):  1-10.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210729-347
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Hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely found in various tissues of the human body and has various physiological functions such as moisturizing and lubricating effects, and it is involved in various biological processes such as wound healing, inflammatory response, and tissue repair. As an important medical and cosmetic material, HA has been widely used in medicine and cosmetic products. On January 7, 2021, the National Health Commission of China issued a document approving sodium hyaluronate as a “new food ingredient” that can be added in common foods. Oral administration is the most desirable, economical and convenient way of drug delivery, and there is high compliance with it. In this paper, we review representative published research findings on oral HA, with focuses on its absorption, distribution and metabolic pathways in the body, as well as its protective functions on different tissues and organs, which when combined with pharmacological and toxicological studies may provide a scientific basis for the development and application of oral HA formulations and provide improved knowledge of oral HA.
Basic Research
Structure-Activity Relationship of 2-(4-Methoxyphenoxy) Propionic Acid Derivatives with Sweetness Inhibitory Activity
DENG Wenting, LI Jiaxing, ZHENG Jianxian
2021, 42(23):  11-17.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201220-226
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2-(4-Methoxyphenoxy) propionic acid (HPMP) is a widely used sweetness inhibitor, but its structure-activity relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the hydrophobic group at the para-position of HPMP on its sweetness inhibitory activity aiming at providing a theoretical basis for the exploration of novel sweetness inhibitors to improve the eating quality of high-energy, sports and traditional high-sugar foods. In this study, HPMP and four derivatives were synthesized. An electronic tongue method was established to evaluate the inhibitory effect of HPMP and its derivatives on the sweetness of sucrose, fructose, xylitol and sorbitol. The results showed that the electronic tongue could reflect the sweetness inhibition of HPMP and there was a good correlation between the results of electronic tongue and sensory evaluation. Therefore, the electronic tongue could be applied to evaluate sweetness inhibition. It was found that HPMP and its derivatives all inhibited the sweetness of the four sweeteners. When the para-carbon of the aromatic ring borne different alkoxy groups, sweetness inhibition rates decreased with increasing volume of substituents. The derivatives modified with smaller hydrophobic groups such as methyl and chlorine atoms had a similar sweetness inhibitory potency to HPMP. It can be assumed that the spatial volume of hydrophobic substituents at the para-position is a significant factor affecting the sweetness inhibitory effect.
Changes of Fruit Quality in Five Different Genotypes of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during Development
LIU Zhoubin, MAO Lianzhen, HUANG Yu, DAI Yunhua, LI Ziyu, OU Lijun
2021, 42(23):  18-26.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201117-180
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Fruit development of hot pepper is a complex genetic process, and the change of fruit quality is a key problem. In this study, the pattern of fruit quality change in five genotypes of pepper including the hot pepper cultivars ‘SJ11-3’ (screw-shaped), ‘06g19-1-1-1’ (short caprine horn-shaped), ‘CJ14-11-2-5-1’ (Chaotian) and ‘L2016-61’ (linear) and the lantern-shaped sweet pepper cultivar ‘THNX143’ was investigated at four different stage of development. The results showed that the contents of soluble sugar, fructose, sucrose, glucose, soluble protein, free amino acids, vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE), capsanthin, capsaicin and lignin but not cellulose and hemicellulose generally increased to different extents with fruit development. At the transition from the green-ripe to color-turning stage, the pepper cultivars showed the greatest changes in quality traits among all developmental stages, and the contents of fructose, sucrose, glucose, total soluble sugar, soluble protein, free amino acids and VC substantially increased. Correlation analysis illustrated that the contents of cellulose and hemicellulose were negatively correlated with other quality traits, which were positively correlated with each other. The quality of the five genotypes at the green-ripe and red-ripe stages was comprehensively evaluated by membership function values analysis, revealing that the scores were ranked as follows: ‘CJ14-11-2-5-1’ > ‘SJ11-3’ > ‘THNX143’ > ‘06g19-1-1-1’ > ‘L2016-61’ for the green-ripe stage, and ‘SJ11-3’ > ‘CJ14-11-2-5-1’ > ‘THNX143’ > ‘06g19-1-1-1’ > ‘L2016-61’ for the red-ripe stage. This study may provide a basis for future studies on the formation mechanism of pepper fruit quality and for breeding for improved quality.
Analysis of Biogenic Amines and Bacterial Community Composition during the Ripening of Hard Cheese Made from Yak’s Milk
SONG Xuemei, SONG Guoshun LIANG Qi, ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Zhongming
2021, 42(23):  27-33.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201123-230
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Ripened cheese is apt to produce biogenic amines that have a detrimental impact on human health. In this study, the contents of biogenic amines in hard cheeses made from yak’s milk were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-throughput sequencing technology in order to evaluate the quality and safety of cheese. The results indicated that putrescine, 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine, cadaverine and histamine were detected as the major biogenic amines in the cheeses. The content of each biogenic amine increased significantly with increasing ripening period from one to six months. The levels of histamine, tyramine and total biogenic amines were the highest after ripening for five or six months, below the recommended safe limits (50, 100 and 1 000 mg/kg respectively) throughout the ripening process. The content of total free amino acids had positive correlations with the contents of each biogenic amine except histamine and total biogenic amines and with the ripening time (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Similarly, there was a positive correlation between all biogenic amines. The major bacterial genera were Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, Raoultella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and unclassified_Enterobacteriaceae in all cheese samples. In addition, Streptococcus was the dominant genus with an average relative abundance of 84.63%, followed by Leuconostoc with an average relative abundance of 6.91%. The relative abundance of each genus varied depending on the ripening period. These results will provide a theoretical basis for evaluating the quality and safety of hard cheese made from yak’s milk and shedding light on the formation mechanism of biogenic amines.
Multi-target Antibacterial Mechanism of Milk-derived Antimicrobial Peptide BCp12 against Staphylococcus aureus
LI Yufang, YANG Kun, GU Weiwei, ZHAO Qiong, HUANG Aixiang, SHI Yanan
2021, 42(23):  34-41.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201015-130
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In this research, to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of a novel casein-derived antibacterial peptide, BCp12, against Staphylococcus aureus, the mechanism of cell membrane and wall damage caused by BCp12 was analyzed using a microplate reader (MR), a flow cytometer (FC), and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The effects of BCp12 on DNA binding and protein synthesis were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The influence of BCp12 on protein post-translational modification (PTM) was analyzed by Western blot using pan anti-acetyl, anti-succinyl, anti-2-hydroxyisobutyryl and anti-malonyl lysine antibodies. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BCp12 was 2 mg/mL. Treatment with BCp12 at concentrations above the MIC decreased the cell surface hydrophobicity of S. aureus significantly (P ≤ 0.001), increased the cell membrane permeability, and caused the cells to deform severely and cellular contents leak out to form a cavity. BCp12 competed with ethidium bromide to combine with bacterial DNA, resulting in inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis and significantly decreased protein contents (P ≤ 0.001), especially for proteins with a molecular mass of 15–35 kDa, indicating that BCp12 can inhibit the synthesis of bacterial proteins. S. aureus proteins showed a large number of lysine acetylation, succinylation and malonylation. The level of malonylation was significantly down-regulated after treatment with BCp12, which, however, had no noticeable effect on the level of 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation or succinylation. The results of this study are meaningful for applying new milk-derived antimicrobial peptides and ensuring food safety.
Inhibitory Effects of Maleic Anhydride Modified Tea Polyphenols on Non-enzymatic Glycosylation
DAI Yangyan, HAN Yuqin, LIAO Bingwu, LIAO Jing, HUANG Huihua
2021, 42(23):  42-50.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201120-212
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High temperatures involved in food processing often cause non-enzymatic glycosylation leading to the production of hazardous substances. Therefore, this phenomenon should be avoided as much as possible during food processing. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of tea polyphenol (TP) modified with maleic anhydride (MA-TP) and its inhibitory effects on non-enzymatic glycosylation were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that MA-TP could effectively inhibit non-enzymatic glycosylation although having reduced ability to scavenge 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation (P < 0.05). In particular, the inhibitory effect of MA-TP on precursor formation and browning degree during non-enzymatic lysine-fructose glycosylation reaction was significantly enhanced compared with that of TP. In addition, the maximum inhibition rates of MA-TP on glyoxal, methylglyoxal and total fluorescent glycosylation end products were 82.95%, 40.33% and 70.25%, respectively, significantly higher than those of TP and the positive control aminoguanidine (AG) (P < 0.05). The maximum inhibition rate on 3-deoxyglucosone was 45.01%, and during the middle and late stages of the reaction, the inhibitory effect of MA-TP on 3-deoxyglucosone was significantly better than that of TP (P < 0.05). MA-TP also showed inhibitory effect on the production of pentosidine with maximum inhibition rate of 88.43%, similar to that of TP but significantly better than that of the positive control AG (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings from this study can provide a theoretical reference for the application of modified tea polyphenols as non-enzymatic glycosylation inhibitors in the field of foods.
Analysis of Sites of Action of Phenyllactic Acid in Inhibiting Alternaria sp.
GUO Mingmei, KONG Yanhui, LI Xiaohe, DU Zhilei, FAN Xinguang, GONG Hansheng
2021, 42(23):  51-56.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210817-213
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The major sites of action of phenyllactic acid (PLA) against Alternaria sp. LD3.0086, isolated from naturally decayed cherries, were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by spectrophotometry. The damage of PLA to the growing hyphal tip was observed by calcofluor white (CFW) staining. The ultrastructural changes of Alternaria sp. were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The damage to the mycelial cell wall was evaluated by measuring the change of N-acetylglucosamine concentration in the culture supernatant of Alternaria sp. before and after exposure to PLA, and the damaging effect of PLA on the mycelial cell membrane was observed by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA)/propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence double staining method. The results showed that 12.5 mmol/L PLA effectively inhibited the growth of Alternaria sp. Compared with the control group treated with sterile water, PLA treatment did not cause the growing hyphal tip to deform. The concentration of N-acetylglucosamine in the culture supernatant of Alternaria sp. treated with 12.5 mmol/L PLA was basically unchanged; there was no obvious damage to the cell wall surface of Alternaria sp. treated with 12.5 mmol/L PLA for 24 h, but the intracellular structure changed obviously. After PLA treatment for a short time (4 h), the mycelial cell membrane was still relatively intact, while it was ruptured after PLA treatment for a long time (8 h). Collectively, we concluded that the major site of action of PLA against Alternaria sp. cannot be the cell wall and cell membrane of the mycelium, but inside the cells, and that PLA can enter into the cells to destroy the internal organelle structure of the hyphae or trigger a biochemical reaction, thereby inhibiting the growth and reproduction of Alternaria sp. and exerting antimicrobial activity.
Effect of Combined High Pressure and Thermal Treatment on Structure of β-Lactoglobulin Evaluated by Molecular Dynamics Simulation
JIAN Qingmei, SUO Huayi, ZAHNG Xicai, GOU Xingneng, HUANG Yechuan
2021, 42(23):  57-63.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210427-378
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To investigate the effect of combined high pressure and thermal treatments on protein molecular structure, the changes in the structural root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), radius of gyration, the number of hydrogen bonds, solvent accessible surface area, volume, and secondary structure of β-lactoglobulin after treatment with combinations of different pressures (0.1, 300, and 600 MPa) and temperatures (300 and 330 K) or thermal treatment alone at 100 ℃ (0.1 MPa and 373.15 K) were evaluated using molecular dynamics simulation, and the effects of pressure and temperature on the above structural indicators were analyzed by partial least squares regression (PLSR). The results showed that thermal treatment at 100 ℃ damaged the protein’s structure more severely than the combined treatment of 600 MPa and 330 K. For the combined treatments, temperature affected the RMSD and the number of α-helix significantly, which respectively increased and decreased at 330 K. Pressure treatment could reduce the solvent accessible surface area and volume of the protein, thus making its structure more compact. The number of hydrogen bonds between proteins, β-sheet, random coil, and RMSF were significantly affected by the interaction between pressure and temperature. The pressure treatment at 300 MPa could stabilize structural damage caused by heat treatment to the protein. Therefore, molecular dynamics simulation confirmed that high pressure combined with heat treatment at a certain temperature was milder, causing less structural damage to proteins compared with thermal sterilization at 100 ℃.
Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Polyphenol Extracts from Adzuki Bean Seed Coat against Two Pathogens
JIA Rui, CAI Dan, GE Sitong, REN Shida, LIU Jingsheng
2021, 42(23):  64-71.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201202-035
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This study was performed in order to explore the antibacterial activity and mechanism of polyphenol extracts from adzuki bean seed coat against two pathogenic bacteria. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the composition of polyphenols in adzuki bean seed coat. The antibacterial effect of the polyphenol extract on Listeria ATCC19119 and Salmonella ATCC14028 was evaluated through determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and bacterial growth curves, and the underlying mechanism was elucidated in terms of protein and nucleic acid contents of bacterial cells, cell membrane potential, intracellular ATP concentration, extracellular alkaline phosphatase content and bacterial cell morphology. The results showed that a total of 13 phenolic compounds were found in adzuki bean seed coat. The MICs of the polyphenol extract against Listeria ATCC19119 and Salmonella ATCC14028 were 625 and 2 500 μg/mL, respectively. The polyphenol extract had a significant impact on the protein and nucleic acid contents of bacterial cells, intracellular ATP concentration, extracellular alkaline phosphatase content and bacterial cell morphology. Therefore, the results of this study provide theoretical reference of developing natural antibacterial products from food sources and comprehensively utilizing food processing by-products.
Effects of Different Illumination Treatments on Flavonoids and Gene Expression of Related Metabolic Enzymes in Buckwheat Sprouts
CHENG Jiali, LIU Jun, MAO Jiaqi, LI Cui, LIU Haijie
2021, 42(23):  72-79.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210112-122
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In this study, the morphology, total phenols and total flavonoids contents of buckwheat sprouts from seven tartary buckwheat cultivars and three common buckwheat cultivars were evaluated. As a result, the tartary buckwheat cultivar ‘Mongolia 2’ and the common buckwheat cultivar ‘Xinong 9976’ were selected as the most suitable for the production of buckwheat sprouts. The selected cultivars were germinated under different conditions of light-emitting diode (LED) illumination. The contents of total phenols and flavonoids in buckwheat sprouts were determined and the expression levels of the genes encoding phenylalanine synthase (PAL), flavonol synthase (FLS), chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) were analyzed. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism was elucidated. It turned out that white light was identified as the optimal LED illumination for ‘Mongolia 2’, increasing the contents of orientin and isoorientin by 63% and 69% after 6-days’ of germination, respectively, and increasing total flavonoid content by 40%–53% on days 2 to 6. However, the optimal LED illumination for ‘Xinong 9976’ was red light, increasing the contents of rutin and total flavonoids by 70% and up to 111% after 6-days’ germination and on days 2 to 6, respectively. Red light was the optimal LED illumination treatment for improving the content of total phenols in buckwheat sprouts from both cultivars (by up to 83% on days 2 to 6 for ‘Xinong 9976’). Moreover, the expression levels of PAL, FLS, CHS, and CHI were significantly up-regulated in buckwheat sprouts after LED illumination treatment.
Processing Characteristics of Different Beef Cuts from Xia-Nan Cattle and Suitability for Beef Jerky Processing
ZHAO Gaiming, LI Shanshan, CUI Wenming, ZHU Chaozhi, LI Jiaqi, JIAO Yangyang, YIN Feng, BAI Xueyuan, QI Xinglei
2021, 42(23):  80-89.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201122-228
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Xia-Nan cattle is the first new breed of beef cattle independently cultivated by China. In order to promote the industrialization and scientific development of Xia-Nan cattle meat and its deeply processed products, the differences in the physicochemical parameters and processing quality of beef from different carcass locations were investigated, and the suitability for producing beef jerky was also evaluated. Twenty physicochemical indicators of raw beef and nine processing quality indicators of beef jerky were determined. Moreover, correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to screen for the key indicators and a model for quality evaluation was established. The results showed that 1) the physicochemical characteristics of raw beef varied notably among carcass locations; the tenderside had the highest moisture (75.47%) and protein (21.51%) contents and the lowest intramuscular fat content (2.39%) (P < 0.05), as well as better gel and emulsifying properties. The shoulder had the highest intramuscular fat content (8.69%), better textural properties, and smaller shear force. The shank had the lowest cooking loss rate (24.08%), thawing loss rate (1.81%) and shear force (4.99 kg). The cooking loss rete (34.22%) and thawing loss rate (6.36%) in the knuckle were the highest. 2) The comprehensive evaluation model for beef jerky processing suitability was established as Y = 0.197 9A + 0.026 0B + 0.312 8C + 0.218 8D + 0.245 5E, where A, B, C, D and E represent a*, hardness, hydroxyproline content, cooking loss rate, and emulsifying stability, respectively. 3) The shoulder and bottom round but not knuckle and shank were suitable for beef jerky processing. 4) The regression equation between sensory evaluation (y) and comprehensive quality evaluation (x) was established as y = 3.646 5x + 4.556 2 (R2 = 0.824 2), and the comprehensive evaluation model could well predict beef jerky processing suitability. This work has provided additional parameters necessary to evaluate the processing characteristics of Xia-Nan cattle meat and has found more suitable carcass locations for processing beef jerky.
Modification, Physicochemical Properties and Lipid-Lowering and Antioxidant Activity of Dietary Fiber from Flammulina velutipes
LIU Xuecheng, WANG Wenliang, GONG Zhiqing, WANG Yansheng, CUI Wenjia, SONG Shasha, ZHANG Jian, JIA Fengjuan
2021, 42(23):  90-98.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201020-199
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Dietary fiber (DF) containing 8.2% soluble dietary fiber (SDF) extracted from Flammulina velutipes was modified by cellulase or high-temperature cooking. As determined using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array designs, the optimal processing parameters for the cellulase method were as follows: liquid-to-material ratio 35:1, enzyme dosage 1.5%, and hydrolysis time 2 h, giving an SDF yield of 16.2%. The optimal processing parameters for the high-temperature cooking method were liquid-to-material ratio 30:1, temperature 125 ℃, and time 50 min, providing an SDF yield of 20.4%. The cation exchange capacity, cholesterol adsorption capacity, and glucose absorption capacity of the modified DFs were compared with those of the unmodified one, and further comparative analyses were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the autoclaved DF was better than the cellulase-treated DF in general. Furthermore, mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet were intervened with the autoclaved DF. Body mass, as well as triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum were measured. It was found that the autoclaved DF could improve the physiological indexes of obese mice, indicating its good bioactivity.
Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Developing Pear Fruit from Three Cultivars
JIANG Xi, TANG Zhanghu, WU Cuiyun, WANG Xin, PU Yunfeng, GUO Li
2021, 42(23):  99-105.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201026-258
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In order to better understand the changes in the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pear fruit from three major cultivars grown in Xinjiang during its development, the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids and?individual phenolics in developing pear fruit from the cultivars ‘Korla fragrant’, ‘Zaosu’ and ‘Xinli 7’ (‘Korla fragrant’ × ‘Zaosu’ hybrid) were determined, and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)- and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation radical-scavenging capacity were evaluated. The results showed that for all cultivars, the contents of total phenols and total flavonoids and DPPH radical-scavenging capacity exhibited an overall decreasing trend during the whole development process, while the ABTS cation radical-scavenging capacity initially decreased, then increased and finally decreased again. On day 50 after flowering, the highest contents of total phenols and total flavonoids and DPPH free radical-scavenging capacity (23.10, 32.25 mg/g and 29.12 μmol/g, respectively) were recorded in ‘Zaosu’ pears, as well as the highest ABTS cation radical-scavenging capacity of 80.74 μmol/g on day 80 after flowering. Significant differences among pear fruits from the same cultivar at different development stages were found in the contents of phenolics (P < 0.05), and the contents of arbutin, catechin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, antioxidant glycosidase and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside were gradually reduced. The content of arbutin was the highest, with an average of 5 797.82 μg/g, followed by chlorogenic acid, with an average of 1 781.02 μg/g. The contents of total flavonoids, total phenols, arbutin, catechin, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin in pear fruit were significantly positively correlated with DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (P < 0.01). In short, the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of the three pear cultivars at the young fruit stage (50 days after flowering) were higher, and the contents of total phenols and total flavonoids as well as DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging capacity were higher in ‘Zaosu’ pears than in the other cultivars.
Preparation, Structure and Immuneomodulatory Activity of Exopolysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris
YU Yue, CHEN Zhuo, WANG Yafei, ZHANG Mingze, WANG Yahui, AI Nan, SHEN Minghao, JIANG Bin
2021, 42(23):  106-113.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201017-156
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An exopolysaccharide from the fermentation supernatant of Cordyceps militaris strain 14014 from China Center of Industrial Culture Collection (CICC) was extracted and purified by sequential column chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and Sephadex G-200. The molecular mass of the polysaccharide was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and it was structurally identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the immunostimulatory activity?of the polysaccharide in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice was evaluated by measuring the changes in body mass and immune organ indexes, observing spleen tissue sections, calculating the proliferation rate of spleen lymphocytes, and determining the contents of serum cytokines and immunoglobulins (Ig). The results showed that the polysaccharide content in the fermentation broth of Cordyceps militaris was 3.15 mg/mL, the molecular mass of the purified polysaccharide was 3.67 kDa, and its purity was 86.13%. The exopolysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris significantly improved immune organ indexes, promoted the proliferation of T (at low dose) and B cells, and stimulated the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, IgG, IgA and IgM in mice, indicating a good immunoregulatory effect. The above results indicated that the exoposaccharide could repair cyclophosphamide-induced damage to immune functions in BALB/c mice. This finding may provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of Cordyceps militaris fermentation broth.
Food Engineering
Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Structure and Emulsifying Properties of PSE (Pale, Soft and Exudative)-Like Chicken Meat Protein Isolate
LI Ke, LI Sanying, DU Manting, WANG Yanqiu, ZHANG Junxia, BAI Yanhong
2021, 42(23):  114-122.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201218-217
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Functional properties of pale soft exudative (PSE)-like chicken protein isolate prepared by sequential alkali dissolution and acid precipitation are poor. In this context, the effects of different ultrasonic power levels (0, 150, 300 and 450 W) on the structure and emulsifying properties of PSE-like protein isolate as well as the correlation between them were analyzed. The results showed that the particle size and the absolute value of zeta potential of the protein isolate were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with the increase in ultrasonic power, and the particle size distribution gradually changed from bimodal to unimodal distribution. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the protein composition was not obviously changed, while the band intensity of myosin heavy chain and actin were generally increased. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy showed that the relative contents of α-helix and random coils were increased significantly, and the relative contents of β-sheet and β-turn were reduced. The content of free sulfhydryl groups, surface hydrophobicity and fluorescence intensity were increased obviously. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) further confirmed that ultrasonic treatment changed the structure of the protein isolate and reduced its particle size. After ultrasonic treatment, the solubility, emulsifying activity, and emulsifying stability of the protein isolate were significantly improved (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there was a high correlation between the improvement in the emulsifying properties of the protein isolate and its structural changes after ultrasonic treatment. In summary, ultrasound treatment can change the structure of PSE-like protein isolate and improve its emulsifying properties, which provides a certain reference for the deep processing of PSE-like chicken.
Analysis of Warpage Variations in Potato Slices during Hot Air Drying
LI Yaqi, ZHANG Pengqi, CAI Jianrong, BAI Junwen, SUN Li
2021, 42(23):  123-128.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201217-201
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In order to investigate the variation in the warpage of potato slices during hot air drying, in this study we examined the morphological changes of dried potato slices with different diameters (22, 33 and 44 mm) and thicknesses (1, 3 and 5 mm) though 3D point cloud combined with digital image analysis technology. The 3D point cloud data were transformed to a grayscale image with a bit depth of 16. Based on the image characteristics obtained, threshold segmentation, morphological image processing and median filtering were conducted for the removal of outliers and the repairing of holes. Through the pseudocolor contour maps as well as analysis of the mechanism of shrinkage during the drying process, the warpage of potato slices was discussed, revealing that the shrinkage of height went through three steps: regular warping, collapse and crimping deformation. The inflection point for mean height was positively correlated with the thickness but was independent of the diameter. Before the inflection point, the height was highly consistent among individuals, but was obviously different after the inflection point. Then, the rates of change in mean height at the inflection and end points and inter-individual variances were extracted as features for analysis. It was found that both the thickness and diameter had little impact on the rates of change in mean height or inter-individual variances. When the thickness of potato slices was 5 mm, the average rate of change in mean height was ?39.55%. At the end point, the rate of change in mean height and inter-individual variance were positively correlated with the diameter and negatively correlated with the thickness. When the thickness of potato slices was 1 mm and the diameter was 44 mm, the rate of change in mean height and inter-individual variance were 317.38% and 199.34%, respectively. The findings from this study may provide a theoretical basis for future research on intelligent control of the drying process of potato slices.
Preparation of Lotus Seed Starch-Chlorogenic Acid Complexes by Microwave Irradiation and Its Rheological Properties
WANG Jianyi, TANG Junjie, JIANG Xiangfu, GUO Zebin, ZHENG Baodong, ZHANG Yi
2021, 42(23):  129-136.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201210-114
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The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the influence of microwave treatment on the rheological properties of a lotus seed starch-chlorogenic acid binary system. The changes in the gelatinization properties, rheological properties and molecular mass of the starch (LS) and the mixed system (CA) were measured after being treated with different microwave powers (200, 250 and 300 W) for 8 min. The results showed that the pasting parameters (except gelatinization temperature), apparent viscosity, hysteresis loop area, elastic modulus and viscous modulus decreased firstly and then increased with the increase in microwave power. Compared with the starch alone, the decreasing trend in the mixed system was more significant, indicating that the cross-linking structure of starch paste was weakened after the addition of chlorogenic acid. According to the results of amylose leaching and molecular mass analysis, chlorogenic acid could effectively interfere with amylose-amylose interaction, weaken the formation of permanent connection zone in the gel network, and make the starch paste system more restorative. As explained above, the formation of starch-chlorogenic acid complex can enhance the thermal stability and shear stability of the starch paste system.
Kinetic Modelling of Moisture Variation and Evaluation of Quality Variations in Potato-Rice Instant Porridge during Hot Air Puffing
JIANG Huabin, BAI Jie, ZHANG Xiaofei, LI Jingwei, LI Yumei, GUO Hong, PENG Yijiao
2021, 42(23):  137-144.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201117-176
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The effects of hot air puffing treatments at different temperatures and air velocities on the moisture and quality properties of potato-rice instant porridge developed by twin-screw extrusion technology were explored by measuring the dry basis moisture content, effective water diffusion coefficient and activation energy as well as the color, swelling degree, porosity and rehydration time. Furthermore, a kinetic model for the variation of the moisture content in the instant porridge was established during the puffing process. The results showed that both puffing temperature and air velocity affected the variation of the moisture content. The Page model was well fitted to the experimental values of moisture ratio, and it could accurately forecast the variation of the moisture content as a function of puffing temperature and air velocity. The effective water diffusion coefficient increased with increasing either puffing temperature or air velocity, and the activation energy was calculated as 18.96 kJ/mol. Puffing time, puffing temperature and air velocity all had a significant effect on the brightness value L*, yellowness-blueness value b*, expansion ratio, porosity and rehydration time of the instant porridge. According to the correlation analysis, the quality properties of the puffed instant porridge had significant correlations with each other (P < 0.01). The findings from this study may provide a theoretical basis for real-time monitoring of the variation of the moisture content in potato-rice instant porridge during hot air puffing for improved product quality.
Improved Quality of Chicken Blood Tofu by Addition of Guar Bean Gum and Konjac Gum Combined with Ultrasonic Treatment
WANG Xin, HUANG Jin, WU Yujie, LU Fangyun, LI Qian, ZHOU Ting, ZOU Ye, WANG Daoying, XU Weimin
2021, 42(23):  145-151.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201015-131
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The quality of chicken blood tofu added with food gum blends treated by ultrasonic was evaluated. Blends of guar gum with Arabic gum or konjac gum at different ratios was added into chicken blood. The optimal blood coagulation time, heating temperature, heating time, the blood-to-water ratio, and ultrasound conditions were determined that provided the maximum yield of chicken blood tofu. Furthermore, the effect of addition of food gums combined with ultrasonic treatment on the water-holding capacity (WHC), color and texture properties of chicken blood tofu was examined. The results showed that the optimal conditions were found to be as follows: adding a blend of 4 g/L guar gum and konjac gum at a mixing ratio of 5:5, blood coagulation for 12 min time, 1:2.5 of blood-to-water ratio, ultrasonication for 3 min at 90 W, heating at 90 ℃ for 40 min, and storage at 4 ℃ for 48 h. The yield of chicken blood tofu prepared under the optimized conditions was increased by 15.91% compared to the group without food gum blends by non-ultrasonic treatment (CK1), and the color and texture were significantly improved compared with the control group (P < 0.05), indicating that ultrasonic treatment combined with guar and konjac gum blend can significantly improve the quality of chicken blood tofu.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Regulates Lipid Droplet Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through Activating Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and Consequently Inhibiting Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ)
GUAN Qiaoli, WU Xiaoyun, LI Fang, SHENG Jun
2021, 42(23):  152-161.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201221-234
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In this study, we explored the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on lipid droplet accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. For this purpose, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate?into mature adipocytes. After EGCG treatment, the size of lipid droplets formed in the adipocytes decreased in a time and concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, EGCG didn’t lead to cell apoptosis. Compared with the control group, EGCG treatment significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of the genes associated with lipid metabolism, transport and absorption. EGCG treatment also significantly decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and activated adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). EGCG up-regulated the expression of phospho-AMPK and inhibited the expression of PPARγ in mature adipocytes further treated with the AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin. Therefore, EGCG can reduce lipid droplet accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by activating AMPK, consequently inhibiting PPARγ expression, and reducing the mRNA expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism, transport and absorption.
Bioavailability and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Wild Dried Bolete Grown in Yunnan
LI Mengying, WANG Kun, BAO Xinchen, MA Jiaoyang, TIAN Wen, YU Miao, GUO Lei, XIANG Ping
2021, 42(23):  162-169.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201216-197
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In this study, we determined the contents of the heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in dried wild bolete (white-, black-, red- and yellow-colored bolete) from the major production areas of Yunnan (Chuxiong, Qujing, Dali and Pu’er) and analyzed the bioaccessible/bioavailable concentrations of the heavy metals by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion as well as using a Caco-2 cell model. Meanwhile, the health risk associated with the consumption of bolete with high contents of heavy metals was assessed by determining the effect of the centrifugal supernatants of bolete subjected to sequential simulated gastric/intestinal fluids digestion on the expression of the interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene in Caco-2 cells. The results showed that the average content of Cd in dried bolete was about 20 times the national food safety standard limit for food pollutants (GB 2762-2017). The bioaccessibility of Cr, Cd and Pb in the gastric phase was 18.2%, 3.1% and 17.0%, respectively, and decreased to 15.3%, 0.6% and 5.5% in the intestinal phase, respectively, while only Cd was absorbed by Caco-2 cells and detected at 1.10 μg/mg protein. The estimated daily intake (EDI) calculated based on the total heavy metal content showed a great human health risk, while the data calculated based separately on bioaccessible/bioavailable concentrations showed little health risks. Besides, we also found that the digestion products of wild bolete with high heavy metal contents did not up-regulate IL-8 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, the health risk of heavy metals in bolete may be overestimated by the risk assessment model based on the total content of heavy metals, but accurately estimated according to the bioavailability.
Effect of Pingyang Yellow Tea on Intestinal Barrier and Intestinal Flora in Rats Fed High-Fat Diet
OUYANG Jian, LI Xiuping, ZHOU Fang, LU Danmin, HUANG Jian’an, ZENG Chengli, XIE Qiantu, ZHONG Weibiao, LIU Zhonghua
2021, 42(23):  170-181.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201021-205
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This study was intended to explore the regulatory effect of Pingyang yellow tea on high-fat diet (HDF)-induced obesity in rats and its relationship with the intestinal barrier and flora. SD male rats were divided into five groups: normal diet (ND), HFD, and low-, medium- and high-dose tea infusion (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg mb). The regulatory effect of Pingyang yellow tea on obesity was evaluated by analyzing the body mass changes, feed intake, visceral fat indexes, serum biochemical indexes, liver lipids and liver and colon tissue sections of rats. The intestinal barrier function was evaluated in terms of intestinal pathological morphology, the number of goblet cells, and the expression of tight junction proteins, and the effect on the diversity and structure of the intestinal flora was evaluated. The results showed that the high dose of Pingyang yellow tea significantly reduced body mass gain, epididymal fat mass perirenal fat mass of HFD rats (P < 0.01), lowered serum lipids, adipocytokines and oxidative stress levels (P < 0.01) as well as the levels of liver triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (P < 0.01), and effectively regulated liver lipid accumulation and inflammatory damage. At the same time, high-dose Pingyang yellow tea also significantly improved colonic morphology in HFD-fed rats, reduced villus shedding and inflammatory cell infiltration, significantly restored the number of intestinal goblet cells, increased zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin expression (P < 0.01), significantly decreased the levels of serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 (P < 0.01), effectively prevented metabolic endotoxins and systemic chronic inflammations, increased the abundance and diversity of the intestinal flora, promoted the proliferation of beneficial bacteria related to obesity, and inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria. In summary, Pingyang yellow tea can effectively prevent HFD-induced obesity by maintaining the intestinal barrier and regulating the disturbance of the intestinal flora.
Mechanism by which 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid Induces Cell Apoptosis and Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Migration in Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells
ZANG Yanqing, JU Xueying, ZHAI Yuqing, YAO Di, ZHU Lei, WANG Changyuan
2021, 42(23):  182-195.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201022-226
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10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) is a unique bioactive component of royal jelly. In this study, the molecular mechanism of apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by 10-HDA was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) staining, flow cytometry and Western blot. The results showed that 10-HDA had significant cytotoxicity on liver cancer cell lines but not normal cells (L-02, IMR-90 or GES-1). 10-HDA down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, up-regulated the expression of Bax , triggered the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, thus leading to the release of cytochrom c (Cyt c), the activation of caspase-3, and eventually mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, 10-HDA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway, promoted the expression of jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P-P38, and inhibited the expression of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P-STAT3, consequently regulating the expression of cell cycle related-proteins to arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Finally, 10-HDA was demonstrated to inhibit cancer cell migration by activating the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway. In conclusion, 10-HDA can induce cell apoptosis by causing ROS accumulation and activating the MAPK and STAT3 signaling pathways.
Changes of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities of Kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta) Fruit during in Vitro Simulated Digestion
LI Bin, ZHANG Jiyue, GENG Lijuan, LÜ Qinghong, XIN Guang, CHENG Shunchang, GAO Ningxuan, XU Qinghai
2021, 42(23):  196-205.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210109-094
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In this study, the changes of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities were explored during the in vitro digestion of whole kiwiberry fruit, free phenolic extract and pomace from four cultivars. Total phenol contents (TPC) before and during the digestion process were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of individual phenolics by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS). The effect of gastrointestinal digestion was determined on the antioxidant activity of kiwiberry as evaluated by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The results showed that total phenol contents in whole fruit and free phenolic extract exhibited the same trend during in vitro digestion: raw > mouth > stomach > small intestine. Total phenol contents in pomace showed a different trend: small intestine > stomach > raw > mouth. At different digestion stages, gastric (low pH) and intestinal environments (high pH) had different effects on the stability of phenolic compounds, causing degradation or transformation of phenolic compounds, and the structure of phenolic compounds itself could also affect their degradation and transformation. Since phenolic compounds were the main antioxidants in kiwiberry fruit, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity and phenolic contents showed consistent trends with each other during in vitro digestion. The results of this research may provide a scientific basis for the development and application of natural products from kiwiberry fruit.
Anticoagulant and Antithrombotic Effect and Underlying Mechanism of Total Saponins from the Roots of Polygala fallax Hemsl: A Study Based on Network Pharmacology
LIU Yucheng, MAO Siyu, LI Yu, HU Qianmei, ZOU Hui, FENG Xing
2021, 42(23):  206-213.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201016-149
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Objective: To study the anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of total saponins from the roots of Polygala fallax Hemsl (PTS) and to elucidated the underlying mechanism. Methods: The network pharmacology method was used to predict the possible targets and pathways of PTS. The anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of PTS in a rat model of common carotid artery thrombosis induced by FeCl3 was evaluated by examination of stained sections. The effects of PTS on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and the activities of coagulation factor/cofactor FIIa and FXa were determined to uncover the anticoagulant mechanism. Results: In PTS, the content of saponin A was 1.673%. The anticoagulant targets of PTS were predicted to be coagulation factor II (FII) and platelet activating factor receptor (PTAFR). The in vivo experimental results showed that the inhibition rates of thrombosis by Xueshuantong capsule and high-dose PTS were 39.7% and 47.4%, and the thrombus area rates were 50.69% and 43.51%, respectively. The in vitro experimental results showed that in the range of 0–2 mg/mL, the concentrations of PTS required for doubling the APTT and TT of quality control human plasma were 0.36 and 0.14 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, PTS had no effect on the activity of FXa, but could inhibit the activity of FIIa in a dose-dependent manner, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of (85.88 ± 12.50) μg/mL. Conclusion: PTS have antithrombotic and anticoagulant effect, and the anticoagulant mechanism may be partially related to inhibiting the activity of FIIa in the intrinsic coagulation pathway.
Preparation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from Pumpkin Seed Protein and Their Antihypertensive Activity
HE Haiyan, LIU Mengting, YANG Aiping, JIANG Caiyun, CUI Yi, WANG Hongtao
2021, 42(23):  214-220.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201118-197
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Food-derived antihypertensive peptides play a positive role in regulating blood pressure. In this study, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from the hydrolysate of pumpkin seed protein with alcalase for 4 h was separated by membrane filtration and identified structurally by mass spectrometry (MS). The action mechanism of the ACE inhibitory peptides was studied by kinetic analysis of the inhibitory effect and molecular docking. In addition, ACE inhibition assay and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were used to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of the protein hydrolysate, its fractions separated by membrane filtration and the peptides present in the fraction with molecular mass less than 1 kDa. The results showed that the fraction with molecular mass less than 1 kDa had good ACE inhibitory activity, with an inhibition rate of 46.22% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The systolic blood pressure of SHRs decreased by 21.42 mm Hg at 6 hours after oral administration with this faction at a dose of 100 mg/kg mb. Nine ACE inhibitory peptides were identified, namely LLV, LVF, LTPL, SVLF, LLPQ, MLPL, LLPGF, VLLPE and RFPLL, and RFPLL, LLPGF, MLPL and LVF had good ACE inhibitory activity, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration less than 1 mmol/L. RFPLL and LVF had relatively better antihypertensive activity, decreasing the systolic blood pressure of SHRs by 37.0 and 22.2 mm Hg, and decreasing the diastolic blood pressure by 17.0 and 11.2 mm Hg at 6 hours after gavage administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg mb, respectively. RFPLL, LLPGF, MLPL and LVF could dock at the active center of ACE very well. RFPLL was a mixed inhibitor of ACE. ACE could be inhibited by MLPL competitively, while LLPGF and LVF could be non-competitive inhibitors of ACE. Therefore, pumpkin seed protein hydrolysates with molecular mass less than 1 kDa are promising ingredients of functional foods with antihypertensive activity, and RFPLL and LVF can be used for the development of antihypertensive functional foods or drugs.
Packaging & Storage
Bacterial Community Succession in Dehydrated Lentinus edodes Stored at Different Water Activities and Control of Key Harmful Bacteria
SU Anxiang, PU Haoliang, HU Qiuhui, XU Hui, LIU Jianhui, XIE Minhao, PEI Fei, YANG Wenjian
2021, 42(23):  221-228.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210123-251
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Dehydrated Lentinus edodes is the major form of processed Lentinus edodes products. Humidity in the storage environment and microbial contamination are the primary factors causing quality changes of dehydrated Lentinus edodes. In the present study, the changes in the bacterial community in dried Lentinus edodes were studied after 50 days of storage at different water activities (0.43, 0.67, 0.76 and 0.84). The key hazardous bacteria were identified and the effect of electron beam irradiation on controlling them was evaluated. The results showed that Enterobacteriaceae was identified as the dominant bacterium in dried Lentinus edodes with a relative abundance of 50%. High water activity in the storage environment could promote the growth of Staphylococcaceae and Micrococcaceae. Staphylococcus aureus present in dried Lentinus edodes could be almost completely killed by electron beam irradiation (5 kGy). This study may provide a theoretical basis for the quality control and shelf life prolongation of dehydrated Lentinus edodes.
Effect of Melatonin Treatment on Postharvest Quality and Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism of Lentinus edodes
JIA Le, HAN Yanchao, FANG Xiangjun, CHEN Hangjun, GAO Haiyan
2021, 42(23):  229-236.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210316-201
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In this study, melatonin solutions at different concentrations (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mmol/L) were sprayed on fresh shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). By evaluating the hardness, browning degree, brightness and cap opening of the mushrooms, during the 42-day storage a melatonin concentration of 0.50 mmol/L was selected to further investigate its effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and changes in the ultrastructure of shiitake mushroom cells after 28 days of storage. The results showed that 0.50 mmol/L melatonin treatment significantly decreased the respiration intensity, superoxide anion generation rate and hydroxyl generation capacity compared with the untreated control group, reducing these by 44%, 39.1%, and 24.4% at the end of the 42-day storage period, respectively. The melatonin treatment also decreased the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 in the mushroom cells and maintained lower levels of carbonylation proteins and a more complete cell membrane structure. In addition, the total phenol and ascorbic acid contents, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Ultrastructural observations showed that the morphology of the cell wall and mitochondria were maintained well after the treatment. In conclusion, melatonin treatment effectively maintained the quality of postharvest shiitake mushrooms by reducing the production rate of ROS metabolites and improving the antioxidant capacity to reduce oxidative damage caused by ROS to mushrooms, and the best effect was observed at 0.50 mmol/L.
Effect of 3-Aminobenzoic Acid Ethyl Ester Methanesulfonate (MS-222) on Improving the Survival of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) during Simulated Live Transportation
CAO Jie,XIE Jing
2021, 42(23):  237-244.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201217-207
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In order to study the anesthetic effect of 3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfonate (MS-222) in turbot, simulated transportation experiments were conducted to evaluate the survival rate of turbot under varying conditions of MS-222 concentration (20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/L), water temperature (2, 8, 13 and 20 ℃) and fish to water ratio (2:1, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5; m/m), and the optimal live transportation conditions were determined. Before this, under still water conditions, the influence of different MS-222 concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 mg/L) on the behavior of turbot was explored by determining the anesthesia time, recovery time and survival rate after recovery to determine the effective anesthetic concentration of MS-222 for turbot. Meanwhile, the changes in the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the water and the changes in physiological and biochemical indicators in the serum and muscle of turbot were measured during simulated live transportation. Results showed that a water temperature of 8 ℃, an MS-222 concentration of 40 mg/L and a fish to water ratio of 1:3 were suitable for long-time live transportation (24 h) of turbot. With increasing transportation time, the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the water increased and the dissolved oxygen level decreased. The lactic acid content in the muscle increased, and the glycogen content and pH decreased. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase and the levels of glucose, urea and creatinine in the serum changed significantly with transportation time up to 24 hours (P < 0.05), indicating that the liver and kidney functions of turbot were damaged during transportation, and the changes in all biochemical indexes were smaller in the anesthesia group than in the control group. Taken together, the proper application of MS-222 can increase the survival rate of turbot and prolong the live transportation time.
Effect of Cold Plasma Treatment on Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Quality of Postharvest Daylily
MA Xiaoyan, WANG Juan, ZHANG Haihong, WANG Tong, GAO Kun
2021, 42(23):  245-251.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201023-233
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In order to study the effect of cold plasma treatment on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and quality of postharvest daylily, fresh daylily flower buds were treated with dielectric barrier discharge cold plasma at 110 kV and 110 Hz for 150 s, and then stored for up to 15 days at (4 ± 1) ℃. The antioxidant enzyme activities in the treated samples were detected, and ROS metabolism levels and quality parameters were analyzed during the storage period. The results showed that compared with the control group, cold plasma treatment was able to induce superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity during the early stage of stage, significantly increase catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity (P < 0.05), and inhibit the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (P < 0.05). Moreover, it significantly delayed the increase in cell membrane permeability (P < 0.05) and the hydrolysis of soluble protein, maintained the soluble solid content, and significantly inhibited the decrease in vitamin C (VC) content and the increase in a* value during the late storage period (P < 0.05), thus delaying the browning process. Therefore, cold plasma treatment can effectively slow down the postharvest metabolic activities of daylily, thereby maintaining its quality and extending its shelf life.
Effect of Antibacterial Water-Absorbing Pad Prepared by Electrospinning Combined with Heat-Induced Crosslinking on the Preservation of Chilled Meat
YU Dong, CHANG Jingyao, CHEN Jiaxin, WANG Hao, KONG Baohua, XIA Xiufang, LIU Qian
2021, 42(23):  252-259.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200916-216
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Highly hygroscopic pads with antibacterial activity for reducing the deterioration in the quality of tray-packaged meat during chilled storage were prepared by electrospinning combined with thermally induced crosslinking. The swelling rate and swelling loss rate of the as-prepared pads were determined and compared with those of commercial air-laid paper pads. Then, the shelf life of chilled meat packed with the two pads separately was investigated during refrigerated storage at 4 ℃. The results showed that the new pads exhibited significantly higher swelling rate than air-laid paper pads (P < 0.05). The pad prepared with a citric acid concentration of 9% (calculated based on the mass of polyvinyl alcohol) showed the best compromise between high swelling rate and low swelling loss rate. The total viable count, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content and volatile odor of chilled meat increased with storage time up to 10 days, with a markedly smaller increase in these parameters being observed in the meat packed with the new pads in comparison with that packed with air-laid paper pads and the control sample packed without using any pads. The color of all three samples became darker with increasing storage time. The L* and a* values of the meat packed with the new pads were significantly higher than those of the meat packed with air-laid paper pads and those of the control group (P < 0.05). In summary, the new pads prepared in this study can effectively absorb the accumulated meat exudate inside the package, inhibit the growth of microorganisms, and improve the sensory quality of tray-packaged chilled meat.
A Review of Changes of Flavor Compounds during Baijiu Aging and Recent Progress in Artificial Aging Techniques
QIN Dan, DUAN Jiawen, LI Youming, HE Fei, LI Hehe, SUN Baoguo
2021, 42(23):  260-267.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201015-127
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Baijiu aging is an important step during the brewing process of baijiu. Since the natural aging process is time-consuming and expensive, it is hoped that a new artificial aging technique will be developed to impart the color, aroma, taste and style of aged baijiu to the fresh one in a short time. Baijiu aging is the result of a combination of physical and chemical changes, and both the baijiu body and trace components change during baijiu aging. This paper reviews the changes of flavor compounds in the mainstream aroma types of baijiu during the natural aging process and summarizes the currently available artificial aging techniques. We expect that this review will provide a theoretical basis for the development of an optimal artificial aging technique.
Progress in the Application of Simulated Gastrointestinal Models to Study the Heterogeneity of Foodborne Pathogens
ZHAO Wei, WANG Yangmei, PAN Yingjie,, ZHAO Yong, LIU Haiquan
2021, 42(23):  268-274.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201024-240
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Exploring the heterogeneity and growth of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract and their interaction with the intestinal flora is of great significance for the control and prevention of foodborne pathogens. Artificial gastrointestinal tract models are designed based on the physiological processes taking place in the human gastrointestinal tract to simulate digestion and absorption in the body, which can partially or completely replace in vivo experiments. Therefore, the models are an important tool for studying the heterogeneity and pathogenic mechanism of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The present article systematically reviews the application of simulated gastrointestinal models to study the heterogeneity of tolerance and drug resistance in foodborne pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract, which may provide a theoretical basis for studying the heterogeneity of foodborne pathogens in the human gastrointestinal tract. Besides, simulated gastrointestinal tract models are compared with animal models of infection with foodborne pathogens (in vivo gastrointestinal tract models). Finally, we comprehensively evaluate the application of simulated gastrointestinal tract models in the study of the heterogeneity of foodborne pathogens. We hope that this review will guide researches in building a more comprehensive and scientific food safety risk assessment system.
Factors Affecting Intestinal Colonization of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Research Methods for It
QIN Wenfei, SONG Xin, XIA Yongjun, AI Lianzhong, WANG Guangqiang
2021, 42(23):  275-283.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200811-140
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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of gram-positive bacteria without spores that can ferment carbohydrates to produce acids. As an important member of the probiotic family, LAB have a variety of probiotic functions, such as regulating intestinal florae balance, participating in immune responses and inhibiting the growth and reproduction of intestinal pathogenic bacteria. The prerequisite for the continuous performance of these probiotics is that they can colonize the intestine, but so far the underlying mechanism retains unclear. The factors (adhesion capacity, mobility, lactic acid secretion, interaction with the intestinal flora, the host’s genes and physical factors, tolerance to gastric acid and cholate, and the diet) interfering with LAB colonization in the intestine are reviewed in this article. Meanwhile, it also outlines the methods used to research LAB colonization in the intestine (plate counting, fluorescent labeling, polymerase chain reaction and new nano-materials). With the aim of providing a deeper understanding of LAB colonization of the intestinal tract, this review will provide a reference for further uncovering the underlying mechanism.
Progress in Research on Functional Properties of Natural Small Molecule Emulsifiers in Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Their Interactions with Other Emulsifiers
WU Feiyang, GU Yue, MA Mingyang, JIANG Shujuan, QIAN Fang, MU Guangqing, LENG Youbin, ZHU Xuemei
2021, 42(23):  284-293.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201020-187
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Oil-in-water emulsions are used as an important component of foods, health products, and medical products. Single or mixed emulsifiers have an important influence on the formation, stability and functional properties of oil-in-water emulsions. Nowadays, consumers’ concerns about health and environmental protection have prompted food producers to use natural ingredients instead of synthetic ones. This article reviews the physical and chemical properties of small molecule natural emulsifiers with potential applications in the food industry, discusses their impact on emulsion stability and their applications in the food industry, and reviews the use of mixed emulsifiers in emulsions with special reference to the nature and mechanism of the interaction between phospholipids and other emulsifiers. Finally, the effects of mixed emulsifiers on the functional properties of emulsions are summarized including antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity and gastrointestinal digestibility. We hope that this review can provide a theoretical reference for developing emulsion products and screening various single emulsifiers and their combinations.
Advances in Research on Microbial Succession and Flavor Changes in Pickles
ZHANG Xiru, GUAN Hui, XING Shaohua, LIU Wenli, LI Huamin
2021, 42(23):  294-305.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201213-143
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The fermentation of pickles is a process involving continuous microbial succession, and microorganisms play an important role in the formation of the flavor of pickles. During the fermentation process, the species and quantity of microorganisms in pickles change, and the dominant microorganisms in different fermentation stages play different roles. This paper summarizes the recent progress in the microbial succession and flavor changes in pickles with focuses on the microbial community composition and its dynamic change, the influence of external factors on the microbial succession, and the influence of dynamic changes of different microorganisms during pickle fermentation on its flavor. We hope that this review will provide references for further theoretical studies and industrial applications of pickles.
Formation, Intake and Health-Related Effects of Phytosterol Oxidation Products
YU Hui, XU Baocheng, WANG Dahong, LIU Lili,, LIAN Qi, ZHOU Lu, WANG Xin
2021, 42(23):  306-314.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201025-253
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Phytosterols (PS) are an important group of bioactive substances capable of lowering cholesterol, preventing cardiovascular disease, and resisting cancers and inflammation. However, due to their unstable structure, PS are subject to oxidation to form phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) including ketones, hydroxyls and epoxy oxides. As more and more phytosterol enriched foods come into people’s daily life, the oxidation of PS, and the ingestion and possible health harms of POPs have attracted the widespread attention of consumers. Based on an extensive review of the literature, this article presents a systematic analysis of the formation, types and structures of POPs, the dietary exposure to POPs, and their absorption and health-related effects in the body. This review is expected to provide a scientific reference for future research aimed to control the oxidation of PS and particularly for the dietary intake and health risk assessment of POPs.
Structural Characteristics and Recombination Strategies of Phage Lysins and Their Application in Controlling Foodborne Pathogens
HUANG Zhenhua, ZHANG Zhaohuan, TONG Jinrong, WU Qian, LIU Jing, LIU Haiquan, PAN Yingjie, ZHAO Yong
2021, 42(23):  315-324.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200803-038
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Continuous outbreaks of foodborne diseases worldwide and the widespread prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria have posed a great threat to food safety and human health. Hence, new technologies to kill and control foodborne pathogens urgently need to be developed. Phage lysins are active proteins released by most lytic phages during the lysis period that can effectively lyse the cell wall of the host and have been shown to be able to control the risk of foodborne pathogens in all links along the food supply chain. Natural lysins had many advantages such as high host specificity, strong lytic activity, green nature, good safety and antibiotic susceptibility and are capable of eradicating bacterial biofilms. Importantly, lysins have modular structures that can be recombined by protein engineering to enhance their cleavage activity, stability and targeting performance. This review systematically describes the modular structural characteristics and active sites of phage lysins, discusses the recombination strategies of lysins and summarizes the recent progress in the application of natural lysins to control foodborne pathogens, and it also presents an outlook into the future application of lysins in the food industry. Hopefully, phage lysins can provide a novel strategy to control foodborne pathogens and their antibiotic resistance.
Research Hotspots and Evolution of Food Quality and Safety Management: A Bibliometric Analysis Based on Web of Science Database
WANG Xinping, WEI Qiushi, SU Chang, ZHOU Caixia
2021, 42(23):  325-332.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200730-394
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In past years, food quality and safety issues have frequently occurred worldwide. Hence, analyzing the research hotspots and evolution paths of food safety and quality management is of great significance to improving the level of food quality and safety management in the country. Bibliometric analysis was carried out on research papers and reviews on food safety management published in 2004–2019 retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) core collection database. The results showed that the popularity of the food quality and safety management field has continued to increase in recent years, mainly focusing on food safety, risk assessment, and risk management. Most studies focus on foodborne hazard management, food traceability and environmental factors related to food safety. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates that food quality and safety management in China can be improved from the following three aspects: paying attention to food safety from the source, strengthening smart supervision by integrating new technologies, and ensuring food safety governance by perfecting the food safety management system.
Advances in Modification of Whey Proteins
LIU Peiling, ZHANG Qingqing, GAO Zengli, YANG Lan, WU Yun, CAO Wenhui, MU Zhishen
2021, 42(23):  333-348.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20201023-232
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Whey protein is a high-quality protein in milk, with rich nutritional value and unique physiological functions. Natural whey protein is extremely unstable. In order to make efficient use of whey protein, many modification methods have been developed each with its unique characteristics. This paper reviews the physical, enzymatic and chemical methods as well as new techniques to modify whey protein. The physical methods mainly include heating, high-pressure processing, microwave, ultrasonic, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid and low-temperature plasma. The enzymatic methods mainly include enzymatic hydrolysis and enzymatic cross-linking. The chemical methods include phosphorylation, glycosylation, acylation, deamidation and acidification. This article summarizes the mechanisms of the various modification methods and their impact on the properties of whey protein, and discusses future trends in the application and development of whey protein modification techniques.
Development and Application of Oilomics
DU Runfeng, XU Yongjiang, LIU Yuanfa
2021, 42(23):  349-354.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210323-291
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Oil is an important source of energy for the body, and its quality characteristics, nutritional value and safety have attracted the increasing attention of consumers. With the development of omics technology, genomics, transcriptome, proteomics and metabonomics have been widely applied to the field of oil science. Oilomics is a comprehensive subject that integrates multiple omics technologies to evaluate the physical and chemical properties, nutrition and safety of oil in the whole chain from plantation, processing, storage and consumption. Compared with traditional lipidomics, oilomics offers a more extensive and comprehensive research scope, which has gradually become an important branch of foodomics. This paper introduces the reader to the definition of oilomics and the methods used in this area and its application in research on oil nutrition and safety. We believe that oilomics can provide a more advanced strategy for research in oil science.
Progress in Understanding the Structure-Activity Relationship and Hypoglycemic Mechanism of Polysaccharides
YANG Yujie, LIU Jingyi, TAN Yan, WANG Shuhui, CHEN Hanmin, ZHOU Aimei
2021, 42(23):  355-363.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200818-244
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Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. The incidence of diabetes has been increasing year by year. Diabetes treatments mainly with Western medicines can cause side effects, which will stimulate people to turn their attention to natural bioactive substances. As a group of safe, low-toxic natural substances, polysaccharides have many biological activities such as hypoglycemic activity and thus have great development potential. In this paper, the relationship between the hypoglycemic activity and structure of polysaccharides is reviewed with respect to molecular mass, monosaccharide composition, glycosidic bonds, advanced structures and groups, and the mechanism of the hypoglycemic action of polysaccharides is summarized. Furthermore, problems existing in this field of research and future research directions are discussed.
Advances in Identifying Food Sources and Understanding Bioactivities and Mechanisms of Action of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids
HUANG Mengyao, CHENG Ming, WANG Cunfang, JIANG Hua
2021, 42(23):  364-369.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200817-222
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Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are a family of saturated fatty acids with a special branched structure that exists widely in nature. BCFAs have excellent application characteristics and high market value owing to their unique physicochemical properties and potent bioactivities. In this article, the distribution characteristics of BCFAs in breast milk, animal products, fish products and other foods are described, and the recent progress in understanding the functional activities of BCFA such as inhibiting inflammation and cancer, preventing and treating ischemic reperfusion injury and lowering blood lipids and in their application is summarized. This review is expected to provide a theoretical reference for the application of BCFAs in functional foods and formulated foods for special medical purposes.
Recent Progress in the Biological Activity and Mechanism of Action of Sea Cucumber Polysaccharides
WANG Jingjie, ZHONG Qiang, DONG Chunhui, LI Haijing, WANG Hao, XIA Xiufang
2021, 42(23):  370-380.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200705-055
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Sea cucumbers are rich in polysaccharides, which account for more than 6% of the mass of dried sea cucumbers. Sea cucumber polysaccharides have a variety of biological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-coagulation, anti-oxidation and anti-Parkinson functions, making them promising candidates for the development of dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals. The structure characteristics of sea cucumber polysaccharides, such as molecular mass, sulfation patterns and sulfate group contents, have great impact on their biological activity. Therefore, studying the structure of sea cucumber polysaccharides is important for understanding their biological activity and action mechanism. In this article, the structural characteristics of sea cucumber polysaccharides are summarized. A special focus is put on the biological activities and action mechanisms of sea cucumber polysaccharides and the effects of their structures on biological activity. Finally, we conclude with some perspectives on the future development of sea cucumber polysaccharides. This review is expected to provide theoretical support for their deep processing and applications in the future.
Recent Advances in Glucosinolates Metabolism in Fermented Cruciferous Vegetables
ZHAO Jichun, YU Jie, TAN Zhengwei, YAN Xinyi, ZHOU Haiyan, LEI Xiaojuan, MING Jian
2021, 42(23):  381-389.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210518-223
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Glucosinolates are a family of important secondary metabolites in cruciferous vegetables, which can be metabolized into bioactive compounds like isothiocyanate during vegetable fermentation with multiple health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, and regulating the intestinal microflora. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolize glucosinolates by promoting the release and degradation of glucosinolates from vegetables, depending on not only the species of LAB used but also the salt content, metal ions and pH of the fermentation system and preheating treatment of fresh vegetables. This article summarizes the recent progress in research on glucosinolate metabolism in fermented vegetables and the factors affecting it. We expect that this review can provide a theoretical direction for future research to increase the content of bioactive glucosinolate metabolites in fermented vegetables for improved health benefits.