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15 October 2022, Volume 43 Issue 19
Flavour and Sensory
Food Sensory Research: Challenges and Possibilities
CHEN Jianshe, LIU Yuan, SHI Jingang
2022, 43(19):  1-7.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220415-183
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As an independent sub-discipline of food science, the development of food sensory science has gone through more than half century. The success of food sensory research can be seen through the many landmark achievements and the establishment of a series of sensory theories. However, the approaches used in traditional sensory research are largely based on those used in food material science, focusing on the structure and composition of foods, but disregarding the impacts of consumers’ physiological and psychological behavior. This paper begins by asking some very basic questions in food sensory science, which leads to the authors’ reflections on some fundamental principles of food sensory science. A long discussion is presented on the current challenges and possible new breakthroughs in food sensory research. The authors hope that this paper will inspire further thinking and even stir a wide range of debate on future directions and opportunities in food sensory science.
Hot Topics in Umami Research: Controversy and Function
LIU Yuan, ZHU Yiwen, LI Mingyang, ZHANG Ninglong, WANG Wenli
2022, 43(19):  8-16.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220517-234
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As one of the five basic tastes, umami signals the intake of nitrogenous nutrients such as protein or/and L-amino acids. It also assumes a dual role in flavoring and physiological function regulation, providing a pleasant taste experience and psychological enjoyment. Although the science of umami has been developed for over a century, controversies about the taste of umami (umami peptides) and the safety of umami still exist among the public. Therefore, this review summarizes the recent progress in research on the sensory descriptions of umami and umami peptides, the safety of monosodium glutamate as a representative of umami substances, and the function of umami. Moreover, this review describes the broad and narrow definitions of umami, the taste multiplicity of umami peptides and its influential factors, and affirms the role of umami taste in daily intake safety and appetite regulation. We expect this review to provide a reference for research on the umami taste of food.
Recent Advances in Influential Factors and Analytical Methods of Retronasal Aroma Perception
PU Dandan, SHAN Yimeng, SHI Yige, ZHANG Lili, ZHOU Xuewei, ZHANG Yuyu
2022, 43(19):  17-27.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220524-295
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Retronasal aroma perception, an important sensory experience during food oral processing, has a significant impact on the consumers’ sensory enjoyment, acceptability and behavioral characteristics. This work reviews the effects of genetic variations and dietary cultural differences on aroma recognition and perception, the effects of fundamental food properties and physiological parameters of oral processing on retronasal aroma perception during food oral processing, and the important roles of nasal airflow and nasal physiology in aroma diffusion from the oral to retronasal cavity, and it also summarizes the analytical methods for retronasal aroma detection and dynamic sensory evaluation of aroma perception. There are cross-modal interactions between retronasal aroma perception and multiple senses including taste and oral texture perceptions. Therefore, clarifying the mechanisms of retronasal aroma perception has great significance for food formulation design and targeted modulation of flavor perception during food oral processing.
Effect of Heat Treatment on the Binding of Pea Protein Isolate to Typical Beef Aroma Substances and Their Interaction Mechanism
XU Sijia, BI Shuang, ZHANG Wentao, PAN Xin, LAO Fei, SHEN Qun, WU Jihong
2022, 43(19):  28-35.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220613-128
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To clarify the effect of heat treatment on the binding of pea protein isolate (PPI) to typical beef aroma substances, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), fluorescence spectrometry and other methods were used to explore the correlation between the binding rate and aroma properties and protein properties, as well as the interaction mechanism. The results showed that the binding rates of 2-methyl-3-mercaptofuran and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, with larger hydrophobic coefficients (log P), to PPI were greater than 98% before and after heating. At room temperature, the binding rates of 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole and 2-methylpyrazine to PPI were (80.34 ± 7.68)% and (17.58 ± 0.58)%, respectively and lower than those of 2-methyl-3-mercaptofuran and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal. With increasing heating temperature, the binding rate of 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole decreased while that of 2-methylpyrazine increased. After heating at 100 ℃ for 10 min, the binding rates were (54.41 ± 4.14)% and (25.35 ± 1.26)%, respectively. After heating at 120 ℃ for 10 min and with increasing heating time at 100 ℃, the binding rate of 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole and 2-methylpyrazine increased. Heat treatment increased the exposure of 2-methylpyrazine binding sites on the protein surface, and the protein and 2-methylpyrazine interacted via van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. These results provide a theoretical basis for flavor quality control of plant-based meat prepared from pea protein isolate during hot processing.
Biotransformation and Biological Regulation Mechanism of Aroma Compounds in Fruit Wine: A Review
TIAN Huaixiang, XIONG Juanjuan, YU Haiyan, CHEN Chen, LOU Xinman
2022, 43(19):  36-47.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220412-131
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A series of biochemical reactions triggered by microorganisms and their metabolic enzymes during fruit wine fermentation play an important role in flavor formation. However, there are still some problems restricting the development and quality improvement of fruit wine such as imperfect biological regulation methods and unclear understanding of the flavor formation mechanism. In this paper, the types and synthetic pathways of aroma compounds in various fruit wines are described, and the contribution of flavor precursors and microbial fermentation to the aroma compounds of fruit wines are clarified. This review is focused on the changes of aroma compounds during fermentation and the mechanism of the effect of microorganisms and enzymes on fruit wine flavor from the perspective of biological regulation. In addition, the effects of starter cultures, fermentation methods, microbial enzyme production and activities on the formation of the aroma of fruit wine are analyzed and the relationship of wine flavor with microorganisms and enzymes are dissected. In addition, future research hotspots are discussed. We hope that this review will provide a theoretical basis and technical support for flavor regulation of fruit wine.
Basic Research
Partial Least Squares Regression for Studying the Texture Characteristics of Tibetan Chicken Breast Meat
ZHANG Xiaoqian, SUN Yue, CHI Fumin, LIU Lei, WANG Peng, XU Xinglian
2022, 43(19):  48-57.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210726-297
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In order to reveal the unique texture characteristics of Tibetan chicken breast meat and their correlation with chemical composition and microstructure, this study tested the shear force, texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters and stress relaxation characteristics of breast meat from Tibetan chicken, and Xueshan chicken, spent hen and white feathered broilers with the same age or body mass as Tibetan chicken, and it also analyzed the correlation between the texture properties and chemical properties (moisture content, fat content, protein content, collagen content, and pH) as well as histological characteristics (muscle fiber diameter and density). Meanwhile, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to explore the significant factors that affect the texture characteristics of chicken meat. Our results indicated that PLSR could quantify various chemical indices related to chicken meat texture as comprehensive quality indices. Shear force was more suitable to establish a model to predict chicken meat texture properties. The R2X and R2Y of the proposed model were 0.621 and 0.739, respectively, suggesting good fitness. The Q2cum of the model was above 0.6, showing acceptable prediction accuracy. The loading plot showed that shear force was positively correlated with pH, total collagen content and muscle fiber diameter significantly (P < 0.05), but was negatively correlated with fat content, muscle fiber density, soluble collagen content and collagen solubility significantly (P < 0.05). Collagen solubility, muscle fiber density, soluble collagen content and muscle fiber diameter all contributed significantly to the model. These findings provide data support for revealing the unique “chewiness” of Tibetan chicken meat from the perspective of its texture, and a theoretical basis to enrich research on meat mechanical properties.
Multi-model Matching Method for Time-temperature Indicators Based on Chemical Reaction and Microbial Growth
LI Yuheng, MA Changyang
2022, 43(19):  58-64.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220328-335
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Time-temperature indicators (TTI) are smart labels designed to indicate the shelf life of foods. The match between TTI and objects to be detected is critical for its application. The optimal fitting model between TTI and objects to be detected varies with different reaction mechanisms between them. In the traditional matching process, unified models and parameters are often used, reducing the goodness of fit of the models. In this study, a contour-based TTI matching method having good model compatibility is proposed based on the equivalent transformation of quality changes at a certain time interval at different temperatures. The TTI matching method’s general applicability for various chemical kinetic models and microbial growth models is confirmed by formula derivation. These models are successfully combined, forming a multi-model matching method. Besides, the stability of equivalent transition ratio (ETR) and the feasibility of the multi-model matching method are validated based on chemical reactions in the changing process of the firmness of Muscat grapes and microbial growth in tilapia. These results will help with multi-model matching of TTI with different working mechanisms based on various chemical kinetic models and microbial growth models in a simple and intuitive manner, which will promote the application and popularization of TTI.
Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Back Propagation Neural Network Optimized by Sparrow Search Algorithm for Predicting Gelatinization Properties of Millet Flour
WANG Guoliang, WANG Wenjun, CHENG Kai, LIU Xin, ZHAO Jiangui, LI Hong, GUO Erhu, LI Zhiwei
2022, 43(19):  65-70.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210806-074
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For large-scale rapid detection of the gelatinization parameters of millet flour, a method to predict the gelatinization characteristics of millet flour was explored using hyperspectral imaging combined with deep learning. The average spectral data of millet flour were obtained through successive hyperspectral data feature extraction and pre-processing, and based on the data matrix obtained, a regression model to predict the gelatinization parameters of millet flour samples was developed using a back propagation (BP) neural network optimized by sparrow search algorithm (SSA). The results showed that the spectral data pre-processing program used in this study could standardize and simplify the process of spectral data extraction and pre-processing, and this program was generally applicable to spectral data extraction and pre-processing for powder and fine particle samples. BP algorithm and SSA-optimized BP algorithm were used to predict the gelatinization parameters of millet flour. The mean square error (MSE) between the prediction value and the tested value of each parameter decreased after optimization of BP algorithm, from 0.026 6 to 0.017 5 for peak viscosity. Therefore, the SSA optimized BP algorithm could predict the gelatinization properties of millet flour more accurately. This study can provide theoretical support for the application of hyperspectral imaging coupled with deep learning in the prediction of the gelatinization properties of millet flour.
Food Engineering
Effect of Hydrothermal Parameter Combination on the High-Moisture Extrusion Process and the Product Quality of Soy Protein-Surimi Blends
ZHANG Yujie, ZHANG Jinchuang, CHEN Qiongling, LIU Haodong, HE Ning, WANG Qiang
2022, 43(19):  71-79.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210720-226
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High-moisture extrusion is a hot frontier technology for developing novel plant-based meat analogues with meat-like texture. In this study, a soy protein isolate (SPI)-Nemipterus virgatus surimi blend at a ratio of 80:20 (m/m) was used to investigate the effect of hydrothermal parameter combinations (moisture content 65%, 70% and 75%; extrusion temperature 125, 135 and 145 ℃) on the specific mechanical energy (SME) and die pressure during the high-moisture extrusion process and the quality of extrudates. Results showed that under the conditions used in this study, the surimi gel was filled as particles in the SPI-surimi mixed gel structure, which could affect the formation of the oriented gel structure. Simultaneously increasing extrusion temperature and moisture content decreased SME from 783.40 to 410.96 kJ/kg and die pressure from 7.79 to 1.60 MPa (P < 0.05). The quality of SPI-surimi mixed extrudates was affected markedly by hydrothermal parameter combinations and the effect of moisture content was more significant than that of extrusion temperature. At a moisture content of 70% and an extrusion temperature of 145 ℃, the fiber-like structure of SPI-surimi mixed extrudates reached its maximum (2.36). Under the hydrothermal parameter combination, the SME and die pressure were nonlinearly correlated with the hardness, chewiness, gel strength, water-holding capacity and shear force of SPI-surimi mixed extrudates. This study provides a reference for the development of novel alternative protein products combining animal and plant proteins which can complement each other with their advantages.
Effect of High Intensity Ultrasound on Structural and Functional Properties of Proteins in Litopenaeus vannamei
DAI Zechuan, MAO Xiangzhao, HAO Yanan, LI Jiao
2022, 43(19):  80-87.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210818-236
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This study was carried out in order to explore the effect of high intensity ultrasound on the structural and functional characteristics of Litopenaeus vannamei proteins. After being ultrasonicated for 0, 5, 15, 25 or 35 min at 300 W power, 20 kHz frequency and 382 W/cm2 power intensity, the change in the content of tropomyosin was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It was found that ultrasonic treatment could effectively reduce the allergenicity of shrimp proteins. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that the secondary structure of the proteins was transformed from random coil to β-turn and β-fold after ultrasonic treatments, and the content of sulfhydryl groups increased, contributing to the formation of a stable three-dimensional network structure. Moreover, the average particle size significantly decreased, and the total antioxidant capacity, free amino acid content and in vitro digestibility of the proteins significantly increased. In conclusion, high-intensity ultrasonic treatment can not only reduce the allergenicity of shrimp proteins, but also change their structure and functional characteristics, and improve their potential nutritional value. This study provides a reference for non-thermal processing and deep processing of Litopenaeus vannamei.
Effect of Low-Frequency Static Magnetic Field on Enrichment of Phenolics and Hypoglycemic Activity of Germinated Maize (Zea mays L.)
FANG Xiaomin, REN Shida, JIA Rui, LIU Qiannan, CAI Dan, LIU Jingsheng
2022, 43(19):  88-94.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210729-354
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Maize kernels (cv. ‘Jidan 66’) were exposed to different intensities (2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 mT) of low-frequency static magnetic fields for different time periods (12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h) and germinated at 25 ℃ for 96 h. The changes in the growth indices, the phenolic contents, the hypoglycemic activity of phenolic compounds and the key enzyme activities related to polyphenol metabolism in germinated maize kernels were investigated. The results showed that the sprout length and germination rate of maize seeds treated at magnetic field intensity of 3.5 mT for 60 h were significantly increased, and the contents of bound and free phenols were increased by 72.72% and 47.16%, and the contents of syringic acid and p-coumaric acid were also significantly increased compared to the untreated control (P < 0.05). In addition, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), 4-coumaric acid-CoA ligase (4CL), and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) were improved under low frequency static magnetic field, and the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity of bound and free phenolics were enhanced. These pieces of evidence indicated that low frequency static magnetic field can promote the growth of maize seeds and the accumulation of phenolic compounds, and improve the hypoglycemic activity of phenolic compounds in germinated maize seeds .
Effect of Dynamic High-Pressure Microfluidization Assisted Extraction on the Structure and Activity of Polysaccharides from Polygonatum kingianum Coll. et Hemsl.
HE Xuemei, YUE Jian, QIU Furong, TANG Yayuan, SU Juan, ZHAO Yanjuan, GUAN Shichao, SUN Jian
2022, 43(19):  95-101.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210817-219
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In order to evaluate the applicability of dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) for the extraction of polysaccharides from Polygonatum kingianum Coll. et Hemsl. (PKP), the effects of DHPM assisted extraction on the yield, structural characteristics (molecular mass, viscosity, monosaccharide composition, and infrared spectrum) and functional properties (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, α-glycosidase inhibitory activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity) of PKP were evaluated in comparison with traditional hot water extraction. The results showed that compared to traditional hot water extraction, DHPM assisted extraction led to a 1.63-fold increase in the yield of PKP, decreased its molecular mass and viscosity by 27.90% and 29.04%, respectively, changed its monosaccharide composition, and increased its DPPH radical scavenging capacity and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity, but had little effect on its main structure or tyrosinase inhibitory activity. To sum up, DHPM has obvious advantages in improving the extraction yield and antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of PKP and therefore is a promising method for PKP extraction. This study will provide a scientific basis for the high-efficiency extraction of PKP.
Effect of Combined Treatment of Ultra-Micro Grinding and High Pressure Homogenization on the Physicochemical Properties and Microstructure of Chitin
LIU Yang, XIAO Yu, MA Aijin, SANG Yaxin, SUN Jilu
2022, 43(19):  102-109.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210802-024
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Natural chitin has a highly ordered crystal structure and strong intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and is insoluble in water, so it is difficult to enzymatically degrade. In order to improve the enzymatic degradation efficiency of chitin, combined treatment of ultra-micro grinding and high-pressure homogenization was used to modify chitin in this study. The physicochemical properties of modified chitin were determined, and its microstructure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric (TG-DSC) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides, non-specific enzymatic hydrolysis experiments were carried out to validate the effect of the combined treatment on the hydrolysis efficiency of chitin. The results showed that after the modification treatment, the average particle size of chitin decreased by 99.71%, the specific surface area increased by 85.11%, the pore volume increased by 29.03%, the viscosity-average molecular mass decreased by 85.80%, and the expansion ratio increased by 2.02 times as compared from tap density. Moreover, the intensity of the absorption peaks near 3 448 and 3 263 cm?1 increased, whereas the absorption intensity of the absorption peak at 896 cm?1 decreased. However, there was no obvious change in the degree of deacetylation. The crystallinity index on the (110) and (020) plane decreased by 17.49% and 1.31%, respectively. The thermal stability was destroyed. The structure became loose and porous. The modified chitin was more easily degraded by cellulase and papain. In addition, the combined treatment was more effective than either treatment alone. In summary, the combined treatment of ultra-micro grinding and high-pressure homogenization can effectively modify the physicochemical properties and microstructure of natural chitin, thus improving the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of chitin.
Preparation and Characterization of Docosahexaenoic Acid Algae-Rich Oil Liposomes by High-Pressure Microfluidizer Homogenization
LI Chang, XUE Lu, LU Jing, PANG Xiaoyang, ZHANG Shuwen, LÜ Jiaping
2022, 43(19):  110-117.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210822-292
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The effects of the mass ratio of soybean lecithin to cholesterol, the dosage of Tween-80 and homogenization pressure on the mean particle size and encapsulation efficiency of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae oil liposomes prepared by high-pressure microfluidization were studied. Using a combination of one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method and statistical response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal preparation parameters were determined as follows: soy lecithin concentration 20 mg/mL, lecithin to DHA algae oil mass ratio 4:1, lecithin to cholesterol mass ratio 11.9:1, Tween-80 dosage 15% (relative to soy lecithin), homogenization pressure 138 MPa, and five cycles of homogenization. The mean particle size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency of the algal oil liposomes prepared under these conditions were (59.35 ± 3.05) nm, 0.189 ± 0.025, and (94.2 ± 2.9)%, respectively. By transmission electron microscope (TEM), it was observed that the liposomes were spherical and uniformly distributed. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that high-pressure microfluidizer homogenization improved the phase transition temperature of the liposomes effectively. Moreover, the liposomes treated with high-pressure microfluidizer homogenization had good physical, storage and oxidation stability.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Effects of Hawthorn, Malt and Dietary Fibers on Intestinal Function in Vitamin-Deficient Weaned Rodents
LIU Fei, HAO Jingyu, ZHAO Zifu, SZETO Ignatius Manyau, DUAN Sufang, HUO Guicheng, HA Hui
2022, 43(19):  118-128.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210830-392
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Considering that vitamin deficiency is prevalent in children, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn and malt as well as their combination with dietary fibers (polydextrose and xylooligosaccharide) on intestinal function in weaned mice deficient in VB1, VB2, VB6 and VA. The results showed that the intestinal motility of vitamin-deficient mice was significantly promoted by high-dose hawthorn + malt alone and in combination with dietary fibers. Vitamin deficiency significantly reduced body mass gain, food intake and feed utilization in rats by 34.29%, 17.78% and 19.24% (P < 0.05), respectively, the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in jejunum and ileum by 37.30% and 36.79% (P < 0.05), and the contents of acetic acid and total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces by 37.63% and 43.87% (P < 0.05), respectively, compared with the normal group. Food intake and body mass gain in vitamin-deficient rats were significantly increased by 7.84% and 14.77% in the high-dose hawthorn + malt group compared with the vitamin deficiency model group (P < 0.05), respectively. Feed utilization rate in the low-dose hawthorn + malt + dietary fiber group was significantly increased by 11.58%. The ratio of jejunal villus height and crypt depth in the high-dose hawthorn + malt and low-dose hawthorn + malt + dietary fiber groups increased significantly by 52.65% and 47.35% (P < 0.05), respectively. The contents of fecal acetic acid and total SCFAs increased by 46.86% and 78.00% in the high-dose hawthorn + malt group (P < 0.05), and by 43.74% and 44.91% in the low-dose hawthorn + malt + dietary fiber group (P < 0.05), respectively. High-dose hawthorn + malt + dietary fiber treatment led to excessive growth of Parabacteroides in the intestinal tract, thus reducing the diversity and balance of the intestinal flora. High-dose hawthorn + malt treatment could regulate the composition of the intestinal flora and increase the abundance of Lactobacillus and Akkermansia in vitamin-deficient rats. In conclusion, high-dose hawthorn + malt treatment can improve the intestinal flora of rats to some extent, and its effect is similar to that of low-dose hawthorn + malt + dietary fibers. Both of them can promote the growth of bacteria producing SCFA, increasing the intestinal content of SCFAs, improve intestinal morphology, and enhance intestinal absorption function in vitamin-deficient rats, thereby promoting the growth and development of vitamin-deficient rats. These results provide a scientific basis for the development of functional foods.
Auxiliary Protective Effect of Yongchun Foshou Tea on Ulcerative Colitis in Mice and Analysis of Major Components Involved
PENG Jiakun, DAI Weidong, YAN Yongquan, WU Ningzi, ZHANG Xinyue, LI Qin, DONG Minghua, CHEN Dan, GAO Jianjian, LIN Zhi
2022, 43(19):  129-136.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210914-162
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In order to explore the protective effect of Yongchun Foshou tea extracts on ulcerative colitis (UC) and the key bioactive compounds involved, we established a mouse model of UC induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) and intragastrically the mice with the water extracts of clean-aroma, strong-aroma and aged-aroma Yongchun Foshou oolong tea (200 mg/(kg·d)). We evaluated the effects of these three tea extracts on body mass, colon mass per unit length and pathological colon tissue as well as the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in mice with ulcerative colitis. Compared with the model group, body mass, colon mass per unit length, and pathological colon tissue were improved in the mice treated with each of the three tea extracts. There was no significant difference in body mass in the mice treated with the water extracts of strong-aroma and aged-aroma oolong tea for 5–7 days after UC induction compared with those before UC induction (P > 0.05). The mice treated with clean-aroma and strong-aroma tea extracts showed a significant reduction in colon mass per unit length (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Each of these tea extracts reduced the degree of inflammation in mouse colon tissue, significantly increasing the concentrations of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). The concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly decreased in the mice treated with strong-aroma tea extract (P < 0.05). The correlation analysis of the major compounds in the tea extracts and inflammatory cytokines revealed that flavone glycosides and N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone-substituted flavan-3-ols (EPSF) were negatively correlated with three pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α). On the other hand, theanine, catechins, and flavone glycosides were significantly positively correlated with IL-10 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the water extracts of the three aroma types of Yongchun Foshou oolong tea have an ameliorative effect on acute ulcerative colitis. Strong-aroma tea extract is the most effective among these extracts, and the polyphenols in the extract may play an important role.
Wheat Peptide Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rats
LIU Hui, ZHOU Anni, HU Shengnan, CHEN Ning, QIN Zhi, JIA Shaohui
2022, 43(19):  137-143.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220610-098
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Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of wheat peptide on improving cognitive capacity in chronic fatigue syndrome rats. Methods: A total of 70 male SD rats were used in this study. From these, ten were randomly selected as a normal control group (N), and the other 60 rats were used to construct an animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) by chronic restraint combined with exhaustive swimming in cold water. Then, they were randomly divided into a model control group (M), a low-dose wheat peptide group (M + L), a medium-dose wheat peptide group (M + M) and a high-dose wheat peptide group (M + H). The rats in the M + L, M + M and M + H groups were orally administrated with wheat peptide at daily doses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g/(kg mb·d) body mass for eight consecutive weeks, respectively. After this, water maze test was carried out to evaluate the cognitive capacity of experimental rats. After completion of the test, the rats were killed to collect serum for detecting the levels of tryptophan, nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), and Th1 and Th2 cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the level of oxidative stress and the content of 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) in hippocampus tissues were measured as well. Results: Compared with the control group, the escape latency, and the serum levels of MDA, tryptophan, 5-HT and Th2 cytokines (interleakin (IL)-4 and IL-10) in the CFS model rats were significantly increased (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the number of times that the rats crossed the platform quadrant, the time spent in the platform quadrant, superoxide dismutase activity, and the levels of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotropic factor and Th1 cytokines (TNF-β and IFN-γ) all significantly decreased (P < 0.05). All these symptoms were significantly improved after eight weeks of oral administration of wheat peptide intervention. Conclusion: Oral administration of wheat peptide can effectively improve cognitive function in CFS rats by activating the antioxidant system, regulating the secretion of neurocytokines and promoting cellular immune response resulting from the transformation from Th2-type cytokines to Th1-type cytokines.
Inhibitory Mechanism of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide against Cardiac Fibroblast Activation Induced by TGF-β1
MA Zhihua, NIU Pilian, XU Xingbo, ZHANG Ziping, ZHOU Xuezhang, BAI Mingsheng
2022, 43(19):  144-150.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210927-323
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Objective: To explore the ameliorative effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on TGF-β1-induced cardiac fibrosis in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). Methods: Mouse primary CFs were cultured and treated with 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 to induce fibrosis. After treatment with LBP, the morphology of cells was observed by microscopy. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was detected by immunofluorescence. Western blot was used to detect the expression and phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in the TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway. The mRNA expression levels of Snail, Twist and S100A4 were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Compared with the control group (spindle-like in shape), the morphology of TGF-β1-induced cells was longer and narrower, and the number of cells increased significantly. The relative expression level of α-SMA, and the expression and phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in the TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway increased, and the mRNA expression of Snail, Twist and S100A4 was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). After treatment with LBP, the proliferation of CFs induced by TGF-β1 was significantly inhibited (P < 0.001), the expression of α-SMA and proteins involved in the TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway in CFs decreased, and the mRNA expression of Snail, Twist and S100A4 was down-regulated (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide can ameliorate TGF-β1-induced cardiac fibrosis, in CFs and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway.
Protective Effect and Mechanism of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched Phospholipids and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Enriched Phospholipids on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice
HUANG Yujie, HAO Yiming, ZHOU Mengqing, WU Zijian, YANG Yuhong, LIU Xiaofang, WANG Baozhen, DU Lei
2022, 43(19):  151-157.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211006-038
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Purpose: To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (DHA-PL) and eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids (EPA-PL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury. Methods: DHA-PL and DHA-PL were obtained from the eggs of Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis and the body wall of Cucumaria frondosa, respectively. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. control group, LPS-induced model group, LPS + DHA-PL group and LPS + EPA-PL group. The mice in the LPS + DHA-PL and LPS + EPA-PL groups were given DHA-PL and EPA-PL via the intragastric route at 400 mg/kg mb on a daily basis for 28 days, respectively, while those in the control and model groups were gavaged with normal saline. The mice in the control group were injected with normal saline intraperitoneally at day 29, while those in the other groups were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg mb) at an injection volume of 10 mL/kg mb to establish a model of acute liver injury. The pathological changes of liver tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were measured. The transcriptional levels and contents of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in liver tissues were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 were determined by Western blotting. Results: DHA-PL and EPA-PL intervention effectively alleviated LPS-induced acute liver injury and reduced hepatic index and serum ALT and AST activities, decreased the hepatic mRNA expression and contents of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and down-regulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and NF-κB p65. Conclusion: DHA-PL and EPA-PL can prevent LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice, and the mechanism may depend on regulation of the MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways.
Protective Effect of Astaxanthin Docosahexaenoic Acid Monoester on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses
WU Lulu, WANG Xiaoxu, LUO Jingyi, LI Yiyang, WANG Zhigao, XU Jie, XUE Changhu
2022, 43(19):  158-164.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210831-407
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Purpose: The anti-inflammatory activity of astaxanthin docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) monoester was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse microglial BV2 cells and zebrafish. Methods: Cell morphology was observed by light microscope, cell activity was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, and nitric oxide (NO) level was determined by Griess method. Zebrafish embryos were microinjected with astaxanthin, and embryo development was observed under a stereomicroscope. The contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected with commercial kits. The expression levels of inflammatory factors were determined by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: After astaxanthin DHA monomer intervention, the expression level of intracellular inflammatory factors decreased significantly compared with the model group, approaching that in the blank control group. Both free astaxanthin and astaxanthin DHA monomer could protect the development of zebrafish embryos, lower the incidence of embryo malformations induced by LPS, effectively inhibit ROS production in zebrafish with inflammation, significantly reduce the content of MDA, and down-regulate the expression levels of inflammatory factors, and the effect of astaxanthin DHA monomer was more pronounced. Conclusion: Astaxanthin DHA monoester has a stronger anti-inflammatory activity, and a more significant protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation than free astaxanthin.
Anti-hyperglycemic Activity and Effects of Plantain on Glucolipid Metabolism Indices and Hormones
FU Jinfeng, TU Shiyun, WANG Juan, SHENG Ou
2022, 43(19):  165-173.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211010-088
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Plantain is a new banana cultivar grown in China, which is rich in resistant starch and dietary fiber. By the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) method for the evaluation of assisting blood sugar reduction function, the anti-hyperglycemic activity of plantain was tested. Twenty-four normal rats were arbitrarily allocated into a control group (NC) and a high-dose plantain group (NH), and 48 rats with experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) were randomized into four groups: model control, low- (LP), medium- (MP) and high- (HP)-dose plantain. The effect of plantain on glucolipid metabolism was evaluated by testing blood biochemical indices and hormone levels. Results showed that plantain had no adverse effect on normal rats and alleviates the increase of body mass in normal rats to a certain extent and that plantain intervention alleviated the typical symptoms of diabetes, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria and emaciation, decreased blood sugar, and improved glucose tolerance. Compared with the model control group, blood sugar levels were significantly reduced by 10.70%, 10.19% and 13.94% in the low-, middle- and high-dose plantain groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Besides, disorders of glucolipid metabolism were ameliorated. The serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free fatty acid were decreased and so were serum insulin, C-peptide, amylin and glucagon-like peptide-1. Compared with the model control group, insulin levels were decreased by 28.54%, 39.50% and 49.14% in the low-, middle- and high-dose groups, respectively. Therefore, plantain has anti-hyperglycemic activity. It may impact glucolipid metabolism through regulating hormone secretion.
Immunomodulatory Mechanism of Bangia fusco-purpurea Polysaccharides in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppressed Mice
WU Jingna, PAN Nan, CHEN Xiaoting, CHEN Bei, LIU Zhiyu
2022, 43(19):  174-183.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210929-351
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The immunomodulatory effects of Bangia fusco-purpurea polysaccharides (BFP) in a mouse model of cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppression were investigated. As a result, BFP intervention significantly improved natural killer (NK) cell viability, macrophage phagocytosis and carbon clearance capacity, enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation, up-regulated the proportions of CD4+, down-regulated the proportions of CD8+ T cells, increased the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ cells, reduced the proportion of Th17 cells and the ratio of CD3-CD19+ B cells, and increased the levels of serum hemolysin, immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG and immune-related cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (INF-γ), which demonstrated its potent regulatory effects on nonspecific immunity, cellular immunity and humoral immunity in immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, the effects of BFP on the surface receptors of intestinal immune cells in immunosuppressed mice were analyzed. It was found that BFP significantly down-regulated the mRNA (P < 0.05) and protein (P < 0.01) expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, IL-6 and TNF-α. Based on this, we speculated that BFP can enhance the immunity through the regulation axis of the TLR2/TLR4 downstream signaling pathway. This study provides scientific support for in-depth understanding of the nutritional value of sea foods and promoting the incorporation of sea foods into residents’ diets.
Protective Effect of Arctigenin on Liver Injury in Diabetic Mice Induced by Alloxan
YOU Gaofei, TANG Jinxin, SUN Hang, LIU Shiwei, LI Qiuyang, XU Ping, YU Lei, BI Yunfeng
2022, 43(19):  184-190.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210713-133
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Objective: To explore the protective effect of arctigenin (ATG) on liver injury in diabetic mice. Methods: Alloxan was used to induce diabetes in male ICR mice. Six groups of mice were set up: control, model, positive control (metformin, Met), and high-, medium-, and low-dose ATG (120, 90 and 60 mg/kg mb). The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and asparate aminotransferase (AST) and the concentrations of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were in the serum determined. Liver glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were analyzed, and histomorphological observation of the liver was performed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Protein expression levels involved in the toll-like receptors (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65) signaling pathways were measured. Results: Compared with the model group, high-dose ATG significantly reduced ALT and AST activities in the serum of diabetic mice (P < 0.01); high- and medium-dose ATG significantly reduced serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels (P < 0.01); high-dose ATG significantly increased liver CAT and SOD activities (P < 0.01) as well as GSH levels (P < 0.05); high- and medium-dose ATG significantly improved the cellular morphology of liver tissue, increasing the red-stained area of cells in liver slices and reducing cell vacuoles and bleeding areas. High-dose ATG significantly reduced the protein expression of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 in the liver (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). The hepatoprotective mechanism of ATG may be related to reducing the expression of key proteins in the TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 signaling pathways, and inhibiting the expression of downstream inflammatory factors, such as NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-6, thereby reducing the level of oxidative stress. Conclusion: ATG has a protective effect on diabetic liver injury. This study provides a reference for the application of ATG in the prevention and treatment of diabetic liver injury.
Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract from Dictyophora indusiate and Its Potential to Improve Lipid Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans
XIAO Meifang, CHEN Xintong, CAI Wenwen, LI Na, CHEN Haiming, LIU Bin, ZENG Feng
2022, 43(19):  191-199.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211004-024
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The in vitro antioxidant activity of water extract from Dictyophora indusiate was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) cation radical scavenging assays. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as a model organism to observe the effects of the extract at high (1.0 mg/mL), medium (0.5 mg/mL) and low (0.25 mg/mL) doses on oxidative and heat stress. In addition, the effects of the extract on fat deposition was analyzed by oil red O staining, and the level of triglyceride (TG) and the expression of fat metabolism-related genes in C. elegans were determined. The results showed that the extract enhanced antioxidant capacity in C. elegans. Its half maximal inhibitory concentrations on DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and ABTS cation radical were 2.36, 1.44 and 0.86 mg/mL, respectively. The average life span of C. elegans under oxidative and heat stress was prolonged by 54.6% (P < 0.01) and 19.8% (P < 0.05) in the high-dose group, respectively. Compared with the control group, lipid deposition and TG level in the high-dose group decreased by 57.0% (P < 0.01) and 40.5% (P < 0.01), respectively. The mechanism may be that the water extract can down-regulate the regulation of mod-1, daf-1, fat-7, acs-2, daf-16 and mdt-15, up-regulate the expression levels of daf-2, sbp-1, nhr-49, fat-5 and fat-6, thereby improving lipid metabolism. These results show that the water extract of D. indusiate has antioxidant properties and can improve lipid metabolism.
Preparation of Isoflavones from the Tuber of Apios americana Medik. and Their Protective Effects on RIN-m5F Cells from Oxidative Damage
DENG Ke, CHEN Liu, YANG Liangyuan, HU Yu, XU Guangzhi, ZHANG Youzuo, WANG Yan, NI Qinxue
2022, 43(19):  200-207.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210906-067
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The intention of this study was to optimized the enrichment process of isoflavones from the tuber of Apios americana Medik. using macroporous adsorption resin and to evaluate their bioactivities. Isoflavones from the tuber of A. americana Medik. were extracted by successive hot ethanol reflux extraction and ethyl acetate extraction, and then the concentration process of isoflavones was optimized based on isoflavone concentration. The antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the obtained isoflavone-rich fraction (AI-3) and its protective effect against oxidative damage to RIN-m5F cells were studied. The optimized processing parameters were as follows: use of D101-type macroporous resin as sorbent, sample concentration of 1.5 mg/mL, use of 80% ethanol as eluent, and eluent volume of 80 mL (the bed volume (BV) was 20 mL). The yield of AI-3 from the dried tuber of A. americana Medik. was 0.44%, and the isoflavone content was 50.83%. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of AI-3 for scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation radical were 19.51 and 3.40 μg/mL, respectively, and the ferric reducing capacity was 387.83 μmol/mg. The IC50 against α-glucosidase was 235.97 μg/mL. The survival rate of RIN-m5F cells treated with AI-3 at concentrations in the range of 0–300 μg/mL had no significant difference from that of the control group (P > 0.05), and AI-3 concentrations in the 25–300 μg/mL range significantly improved the survival rate of oxidatively damaged cells (P < 0.01). At 300 μg/mL AI-3 concentration, the survival rate of RIN-m5F cells was 84.19%, which was higher than that of the positive control group. D101-type macroporous resin can effectively enrich isoflavones from the tuber of A. americana Medik. yielding a fraction (AI-3) with strong antioxidant activity, α-glucosidase-inhibitory capacity and protective effect against oxidative damage to RIN-m5F cells. This study will provide a theoretical basis for the development of functional foods for the prevention of diabetes and other metabolic syndromes.
Packaging & Storage
Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Brochothrix thermosphacta on Quality Changes of Pork during Low-temperature Storage
ZHOU Binjing, LIU Xiaohua, PENG Jing, TU Kang, PAN Leiqing, WU Jie
2022, 43(19):  208-216.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211010-093
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In order to investigate the correlation between Pseudomonas fluorescens and Brochothrix thermosphacta and pork quality, in this study, the microbial load, pH, color (L*, a* and b* values), texture, total sugar content, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value were determined and the microstructure of pork muscle fiber was observed by scanning electron microscopy during storage at 4 ℃. The results showed that the microbial load, pH, TVB-N content and TBARS value of pork increased with storage time, while the total sugar content, L* value, a* value, hardness and chewiness decreased. Microbial growth during the storage of meat caused changes in the structure of muscle fibers. The change in the physicochemical quality pork was correlated with the species and growth rate of microorganisms on it, and the spoilage capacity of B. thermosphacta was higher than that of P. fluorescens. The correlation analysis showed that the total bacterial count, pH, total sugar content, TVB-N content and TBARS value were closely related to storage time, among which the total bacterial count had the highest correlation with storage time and therefore could be used as an indicator for quality evaluation and shelf life prediction.
Preparation of Antibacterial Coating Containing ε-Polylysine and Its Application in Freshwater Fish Preservation
WANG Rui, WANG Yu, WANG Yicheng, DUAN Xinxin, LEI Peng, LI Sha, GU Yi’an, SUN Liang, LUO Zhengshan, XU Xiaoqi, WU Wenjin, XU Hong
2022, 43(19):  217-222.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210416-225
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In order to prolong the shelf life of freshwater fish at room temperature, an antibacterial coating consisting of ε-polylysine (ε-PL) and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) was prepared by one-step electrostatic assembly, and its molecular structure, stability and antibacterial properties were studied. The effect of the antibacterial coating on preserving the quality of grass carp fillets was evaluated as well. The results showed that a stable ε-PL-AOT complex insoluble in water and soluble in ethanol was formed at pH 2, ε-PL concentration of 1.5 g/100 mL and AOT concentration of 3 g/100 mL. The complex at 2% in ethanol formed a stable coating on the surface of plastic wrap, which was effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The ε-PL-AOT antibacterial film had a higher antibacterial effect compared with ordinary commercial polyethylene (PE) film. After the ε-PL-AOT treated fish was kept at 37 ℃ for 24 h, the total number of bacterial colonies on the surface was 870 CFU/g, which meets the requirement of the Chinese national standard for the first freshness grade of meat products. The ε-PL-AOT composite coating has the advantages of simple preparation process, good stability and significant antibacterial effect and is promising for industrial production. The present study will hopefully promote the application of ε-PL-based coating in the preservation of freshwater fish products.
Effect of Programmed Cooling Coupled with 1-Methylcyclopropene or Preservative Paper on Storage Quality and Peel Browning of Flat Peach Grown in Xinjiang
XIE Xiaoyan, LIU Dejiang, LI Fangjie, YAN Yingying, SONG Fangyuan, CHEN Jiluan
2022, 43(19):  223-231.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211011-107
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This work was undertaken in order to study the effects of programmed cooling coupled with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) or preservative paper on the storage quality and peel browning of flat peach (cv. ‘Yinggeer’, grown in Xinjiang). The results showed that both treatments significantly inhibited peel browning by inhibiting the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrolyte leakage (REL), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity as well as increasing the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids and catalase activity. Path analysis showed that MDA content, REL, and catalase (CAT), POD and POD activities were the most important factors affecting peel browning. Programmed cooling coupled with preservative paper treatment increased fruit firmness, soluble solid content and sucrose content, delayed the decrease in titratable acid level, increased the relative contents of linoleic acid and linolenic acid and reduced the incidence of peel browning, and it maintained flat peach quality better than programmed cooling coupled with 1-MCP treatment.
Effect of Cold Storage on Metabolites and Microstructure of Grass Carp Muscle
GUO Weidan, ZHOU Xiangren, XU Lina, FU Xiangjin
2022, 43(19):  232-240.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211025-268
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In order to analyze the mechanism of the quality change of grass carp meat during cold storage, grass carp meat was stored at 4 ℃ and evaluated for changes in the composition of small-molecular-mass metabolites and ultrastructure after 24 and 72?h by gas chromatography time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. As refrigeration time increased, the gap between muscle fibers became larger, the arrangement became disordered, and some sarcomeres were broken. A total of 211 metabolites were identified by metabolomics, of which 42 metabolites changed by more than 1.5 times (P < 0.05). The accumulation of lactic acid and phosphoric acid was the major reason for the pH decrease of fish meat. It was found that succinic acid was the only tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolite that was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), which was converted into 4-hydroxybutanoic acid methyl ester and γ-aminobutyric acid, and levels of these three metabolites may be potential indicators of of the freshness of refrigerated grass carp meat. The contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as linolenic acid and arachidonic acid) decreased significantly (P < 0.05), while the content of azelaic acid increased significantly (P < 0.05). Moreover, the contents of valine and L-cysteine increased significantly during cold storage (P < 0.05), and lipid oxidation preceded protein degradation. Plant secondary metabolites (piperine, naringenin, methyl jasmonate, loganin, α-ascarisin, abietic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid) contained in grass carp meat could affect the nucleotide metabolism and taste of fish meat by inhibiting xanthine oxidase.
Effect of Low-Sodium Salt Mixtures on the Quality of Salt-Baked Chicken during Storage
ZHANG Jie, FENG Meiqin, ZHANG Yiwen, HAN Minyi, SUN Jian
2022, 43(19):  241-248.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220429-392
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Salt-baked chicken was prepared with a low-sodium salt mixture containing 52% sodium chloride, 30% potassium chloride, 8% calcium lactate and 10% yeast extract (m/m) as a low-sodium (LS) group, and with 100% sodium chloride as a control group. The effect of the low-sodium salt formulation on the physicochemical and microbiological quality of salt-baked chicken was explored during storage. The results showed that pH of salt-baked chicken first rose and then fell with storage time. Total sulfhydryl content and sensory score from fuzzy mathematics decreased. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) value and total colony number increased. At day 0 of storage, coliform and pathogenic bacterial count complied with the national hygienic standard for cooked meat products GB 2726-2016, but exceeded it at day 30. pH, TVB-N content, TBARS value and total colony number were always higher in the LS group than the control group, whilst the opposite was true for the degree of fat and protein oxidation. However, the color parameters a* and b* values and sensory score were not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05). TVB-N and total number of colonies indicated that the salt-baked chicken from LS group had severe deterioration during the same storage period. High-throughput sequencing showed that the most dominant bacterial phylum in salt-baked chicken was Firmicutes, and the most dominant bacterial genus in both groups were Serratia and Paeniclostridium. In summary, the application of the low-sodium salt formulation can inhibit fat and protein oxidation in salt-baked chicken while having no significant effect on its color or sensory quality and no negative effect on its safety. Neither of the groups is fit for consumption after 20 days of storage.
Reviews
Progress in Research on the Health Effects of Medium- and Long-Chain Free Fatty Acids and Their Receptors
ZHENG Ziqing, NIU Bo, LU Dingqiang, PANG Guangchang
2022, 43(19):  249-261.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210228-308
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Medium- and long-chain free fatty acids are not only an important source of energy for the body, but also important signal molecules in the body’s immunity. Recent studies have shown that medium- and long-chain free fatty acids interact with free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) 1 and 4 to regulate insulin secretion and inflammation and in turn the body’s immune system and metabolism. In this review, we discuss the nutritional role and metabolism of dietary medium- and long-chain free fatty acids in the body, focusing on the latest progress in understanding the key physiological functions of medium and long-chain free fatty acids and their receptor-mediated signal pathways in taste signal transduction, metabolic regulation, and immune response and in research on synthetic agonists of FFAR1 and FFAR4.
A Review of the Key Mechanism of Oil and Water Retention in Emulsified Meat Products
Han Zongyuan, Zhao Lingling, Zhang Yuyuan, Shao Junhua
2022, 43(19):  262-269.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210927-326
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Chopping and emulsification treatment can play a decisive role in the texture and oil and water retention of emulsified meat products, but unreasonable chopping or emulsifying process will cause quality defects such as water and oil exudation and loos structure. Thus, how to improve meat product quality is a major technical difficulty in the meat processing industry. The stability of emulsified gels involves myosin aggregation behavior, gelation and interfacial membrane emulsification-adsorption behavior. In this context, this paper reviews the effect of myosin spatial conformation on the stability of emulsified gels in the process of chopping and emulsification from the perspective of protein hydration, focusing on the effects of hydration characteristics during chopping and the spatial conformation of myosin aggregates on the structure of heat-induced gels and the influence of the interfacial protein membrane’s structure on the stability of emulsified gels.?The interactions between water, fat and myosin during the emulsification-adsorption process are discussed, and the significant effects of the structure, thickness and viscoelastic properties of interfacial protein membranes on emulsion stability are clarified, which will provide an improved understanding of the stabilization mechanism of emulsified gels. Hydrogels have good gelling and emulsifying properties, so it can be used as an animal fat substitute to reduce the fat content in meat products.?Furthermore, hydrogels can improve the rheological and mechanical properties of muscle proteins, thus enhancing the printability of meat products. Therefore, the application of hydrogels to 3D printed meat products will become a new strategy to improve the oil and water retention properties and texture of meat products.
Interactions between Plant Proteins and Saponins and Their Role in the Stabilization of Food Emulsions and Foams: A Review of Recent Progress
CHEN Xiaowei, YIN Wenjun, MA Chuanguo
2022, 43(19):  270-276.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210718-205
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Such interface-dominated food systems as plant protein-based emulsions and foams have some problems such as difficulty in preparation, environmental susceptibility and instability, which can be solved using a multi-dimensional strategy of “molecule-interface-droplets/bubbles” based on the interactions between saponins and plant proteins. This review summarizes the interactions in the water phase and at the interface of plant proteins and saponins and their adsorption and stabilization behaviors, and reveals the construction and stabilization of emulsion- and foam-based food systems and the relationship between them at the molecular level and from a macroscopic point of view in order to provide theoretical support for the preparation, stabilization and functional properties of plant-based interface-dominated foods.
Progress in Research on Functional Properties of Curdlan and Its Application in Food
YU Shan, DUAN Mengxia, TONG Cailing, SUN Jishuai, JIANG Haixin, LI Danjie, ZHAO Jianbo, PANG Jie, WU Chunhua
2022, 43(19):  277-284.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211011-099
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Curdlan is a microbial extracellular polysaccharide, which has good gel properties, water-holding capacity, thickening capacity and freeze-thaw stability, and is widely used in food industry. Curdlan has been increasingly researched and applied in recent years. In this paper, the sources, chemical structure and functional characteristics of curdlan are reviewed, with emphasis on the latest progress in the application of curdlan in various food processing fields, in order to provide a theoretical reference for further application of curdlan in food processing.
Formation, Interaction and Novel Control Strategies of Mixed-Species Biofilm in the Food Industry
TAN Lijun, WANG Jingjing, PENG Zhiyun, LI Yufeng, ZENG Qiaohui, ZHAO Yong
2022, 43(19):  285-294.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211026-287
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Bacteria can adhere to foods or food contact surfaces and form biofilms, which may cause equipment damage, food spoilage, and even human diseases. As the major form of bacteria in the food industry, mixed-species biofilms often have a stronger resistance to disinfectants and antibiotics compared with single-species biofilm. However, the formation and inter-species interactions of mixed-species biofilms are quite complicated, and its potential effects in the food industry remain to be explored. In this review, we summarize the formation and inter-species interactions of mixed-species biofilms and novel control strategies developed in recent years, and discuss future trends in the prevention and control of mixed-species biofilms in the food industry. This review aims to provide a theoretical basis for further research of mixed-species biofilms in the food industry and the development of efficient novel control strategies, in order to better safeguard food safety and public health.
A Review of the Application of Cellulose-Based Biomaterials for Cultured Meat Production
TANG Yunan, SHI Chenchen, YANG Ming, SHENG Kuichuan, ZHANG Ximing
2022, 43(19):  295-307.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220504-032
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As cultured meat research has become popular, edible scaffolds that can be used in cultured meat production have attracted great attention. Cellulose is characterized by abundant supply, easy availability, edibility, non-animal source, low cost and commercial scale production, showing potential application in cultured meat. In this review, we introduce the basic physical and chemical properties of different kinds of cellulose (plant-based cellulose and bacterial cellulose). Next, based on a series of specific structures of scaffolds (porous, directional, spherical, natural precise and customizable structure), we propose methods for preparing cultured meat scaffolds based on cellulose. Finally, we discuss the key challenges for the application of cellulose in cultured meat scaffolds and propose possible solutions. We hope that this review will be helpful for the cost-effective and continuous production of cellulose-based scaffolds and good cultivation of muscle and fat cells.
Progress on the Application of Omics Technologies in Exploration of Stress Resistance Mechanismsin Foodborne Pathogens
HE Shoukui, LI Danhong, SHI Chunlei, SHI Xianming
2022, 43(19):  308-317.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210907-084
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Foodborne pathogens pose a major threat to food safety, and they are able to develop stress resistance to many physical treatments (e.g., heating) and chemical agents (e.g., disinfectant) commonly used in food industries, making it easier to cause food poisoning. The development of stress resistance in foodborne pathogens is usually due to the coordinated function of multiple genes, sRNAs, proteins and metabolites, and these genetic elements are generally involved in multiple metabolic pathways. Recent advances in omics technologies have provided solid technical support for the exploration of genetic elements related to bacterial stress resistance and the characterization of their interaction networks, which will eventually contribute to the establishment of resistome databases for foodborne pathogens. In this context, this article provides a systematic overview on the application of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics technologies in research on stress resistance mechanisms in foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, future research perspectives are also presented to provide a theoretical basis to curb foodborne diseases caused by stress-resistant pathogens.
Progress in Research on the Bioactivity of Theaflavins
LIU Changwei, ZHANG Ziying, WANG Junyi, ZHOU Fang, ZENG Hongzhe, ZHANG Sheng, HUANG Jian’an, LIU Zhonghua
2022, 43(19):  318-329.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210603-045
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Theaflavin is a general name for a class of compounds with a benzodiazepine structure formed by the condensation of catechins, which is catalyzed by polyphenol oxidase, during the processing of black tea. Theaflavins are the determinant of the quality of black tea and have been reported to have a variety of biological functions. Theaflavins are called the “soft gold of tea” and have great potential and promising applications in the fields of foods, health products and natural medicine. Theaflavins are sought after by the consumer market because of their various special biological activities, which have attracted the growing interest of researchers in recent years. Numerous studies have shown that theaflavin has a variety of biological activities such as hypolipidemic, anti-tumor, blood glucose regulatory, and anti-aging activities. Their mechanism of action involves a wide range of signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), and activating protein-1 (AP-1) signaling pathways, with multi-target, multi-link, multi-effect characteristics. However, the mechanism of action of theaflavins has not yet been clearly investigated due to the inaccessibility of high-purity theaflavins and theaflavin monomers, and the unstable nature and low bioavailability of theaflavins. Therefore, this paper outlines the latest progress in understanding the various biological activities of theaflavins, with the aim of providing a reference for the research and development of natural dietary supplements and functional foods using theaflavins as raw material.
Advances in Synthesis, Purification and Bioactivities of Total Acetylated Epigallocatechin Gallate
LIU Miaomiao, PAN Yue, FAN Xin, HUANG Junrong, CAO Yungang
2022, 43(19):  330-337.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210731-378
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the important catechins in tea, is reported to have a variety of bioactivities. However, EGCG is not fully utilized due to its poor liposolubility and stability, as well as low bioavailability. Acetylation modification of EGCG is an effective method to improve these limitations. Total acetylated epigallocatechin gallate (AcEGCG) is the fully acetylated product of EGCG. Compared to EGCG, AcEGCG has higher liposolubility, stability and bioavailability. Moreover, its physiological functions, such as anti-ultraviolet, cell damage repair and anti-cancer functions, are better than those of EGCG, suggesting a wide range of application prospects in the fields of food, medicine and chemical industry. This review will summarize recent advances in the synthesis, purification, physicochemical properties and bioactivities of AcEGCG, in order to provide a reference for further research, development and utilization of AcEGCG.
Sources and Evaluation Methods of Umami Taste in Foods
YU Zheng, GE Xiaotong, ZHANG Jiahui, WANG Fang, LI Xiaoyan, LIU Taiang, WANG Xichang
2022, 43(19):  338-347.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210831-405
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As one of the five basic tastes, umami makes an important contribution to food taste and quality, and has received widespread attention in recent years. This article introduces readers to the umami substances in foods, including free amino acids, nucleotides, and umami peptides, summaries several evaluation methods of umami taste, including chemical analysis, artificial sensory evaluation and intelligent sensory evaluation, and outlines the physical and biological methods of obtaining umami. Furthermore, this review points out that food raw materials and processing methods can have a significant effect on umami, and proposes future directions for umami research. We expect this review to provide a reference for the research on umami substances in foods.
Progress in Research on Combined Application of Ultrasound with Bactericides in Food Sterilization
LI Yinhui, WANG Wenjun, LÜ Ruiling, LIU Donghong
2022, 43(19):  348-358.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211111-141
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Ultrasound is a green processing technology which causes no harmful residues, and therefore it has attracted wide research interest in the field of non-thermal processing, especially sterilization. However, research has shown that ultrasonic treatment alone has limited effect on microorganisms, which can be improved by hurdle technology, namely combined treatment with other sterilization technologies. Bactericides have several advantages such as a wide scope of application, low price, easy availability, and convenient storage. The combined use of ultrasound with bactericides can not only improve the bactericidal effect, but also reduce the residue of harmful by-products, and enhance the poor permeability of bactericides. This article reviews three effects induced by ultrasonic cavitation including sonoporation, sonochemistry and sonoluminescence, and it focuses on the mechanism and influential factors of microbial killing by combined treatment of ultrasound with bactericides and its application in the food field. Finally, some future research directions are discussed. We anticipate that this review will provide a reference for the development of food sterilization technologies based on combined use of ultrasound and bactericides.
Advances in Understanding the Formation Mechanism of Red Pigment in Nitrate-Free Dry-Cured Ham
YANG Zijiang, ZHANG Lihong, LIAO Guozhou, TIAN Mei, LÜ Donglin, HE Ying, WANG Guiying
2022, 43(19):  359-366.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210924-295
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Dry-cured ham, produced through long-term curing, fermentation and ripening, is rich in bioactive substances and has good sensory characteristics. In the traditional production process of dry-cured ham, nitrate or nitrite is often added to obtain a stable color. However, nitrite reacts with secondary amines to produce carcinogenic nitrosamines, which have attracted extensive attention. Research has found that zinc protoporphyrin IX contributes mainly to the red color of Parma ham, cured without added nitrate or nitrite. This paper summarizes the rescent progress in research on the red pigment in dry-cured ham with or without added nitrate, focusing on the formation mechanism of Zn protoporphyrin IX in nitrate-free dry-cured ham. The purpose of this review is to provide a scientific theoretical basis for the color regulation of dry-cured ham.
Progress in Eliminating Bacterial Contamination in Ready-to-Eat Lettuce
BAI Yalong, LIAO Xiaoyan, CUI Yan
2022, 43(19):  367-374.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210813-170
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As the concept of a balanced diet has been accepted by more and more people, the consumption of vegetables has been on the rise. Lettuce, a popular vegetable around the world, plays an important role in our daily diet. However, lettuce can be contaminated by bacteria during planting, picking, distribution and sale, including pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. High concentrations of bacterial contamination have an impact on the shelf life of lettuce. Furthermore, lettuce contamination by pathogenic bacteria can cause food safety incidents. At present, a large number of methods are available to eliminate bacterial contamination in lettuce, including physical cleaning, disinfection using disinfectants, physical sterilization. This paper provides a systematic review of the applications of these bacterial contamination methods and their advantages and disadvantages, which will provide a theoretical reference for follow-up research or application.
Cottage Food Safety: Legal Analysis and Suggestions on Governance
GUO Nan, WANG Zhaohui
2022, 43(19):  375-381.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210928-342
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In recent years, the sales volume of cottage foods through the channels of “online + offline” and “e-commerce platforms + mobile social applications”, has increased significantly. However, due to there being no unified definition of cottage foods sold by a micro-business, the low market access threshold, and the unclear responsibility for supervision of social platforms, food safety problems have frequently occurred, posing challenges to the application of relevant laws, supervision methods and social platform management. Compared to a registered and licensed small food production operator, the main services of a micro-business selling cottage food are closer to those of a small food workshop, so it is suitable to enter the market after an official record. When providing transaction services for the sale of cottage foods such as order placement and online payment, the social platforms assume the the same responsibilities as the third-party online food trading platforms, which are legal. In order to ensure the safety of cottage foods sold by a micro-business, detailed provisions on the types, pre-packaging and labeling requirements, business places and sample inspection of cottage food products should be made in local regulations or laws. Moreover, a multi-stakeholder collaborative mechanism which is dominated by administrative departments and involves the social media platforms, the food producers and operators, the industry associations, and the consumers should be established to enhance information sharing. Based on the principles of fairness, reasonableness and moderation, an incentive, restraint and punishment mechanism should be created for the social platforms to fulfill their responsibilities.
Progress in Research on Food Pollution by and Absorption, Metabolism and Intestinal Toxicity of Vomitoxin
GUO Hongyan, YANG Jiaqing, LIU Yuan, MO Nina, JIA Huiting, CHEN Yan, ZHENG Liyou
2022, 43(19):  382-390.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211007-047
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Vomitoxin, also known as deoxynivalenol (DON), is the most commonly found trichothecene contaminant in foods and it is the most toxic mycotoxin that causes vomit and anorexia. DON is produced by Fusarium and toxic to organs and tissues such as the intestinal system, immune system, nervous system, liver, kidney and spleen of animals and humans, and has strong cytotoxicity. The intestine is the first barrier against its toxic effect. In this paper, DON pollution characteristics in foods, DON absorption and metabolism, and its intestinal toxicity in different models are reviewed. In view of the easy transformation of DON, the intestinal toxicity of its derivatives also is also summarized. We believe that this paper will provide a reference for toxicological research of DON and its derivatives in the future.