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15 January 2023, Volume 44 Issue 1
Invited Papers
Progress in Research on Saltiness Perception and Salty Peptides
WANG Shaoyun, HUANG Xincheng, GAO Tingting, CHEN Xu, HUANG Jianlian, CAI Xixi
2023, 44(1):  1-13.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20221103-030
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With the improvement of living conditions, people’s eating habits gradually trend to “healthy” development. However, it is difficult to strike a balance between “healthy” and “delicious”. Seasoning is a crucial step during cooking. Saltiness is one of the five basic tastes, and it is produced mainly by adding salt in daily life. Salt plays an important role in human life, but excessive sodium intake can lead to many cardiovascular diseases. Today many health authorities around the world advocate a low-sodium diet. In this context, reducing the amount of salt in foods without affecting their flavor or quality has become a popular research topic. This paper reviews the mechanism of salty taste perception and the current status of salt reduction in foods, with special focuse on salty peptides. The sources, preparation and identification methods, synergistic effect and application prospects of salty peptides are outlined in this paper, so as to provide a basis for the development and application of salty peptides, which will help in advancing the salt reduction campaign.
Basic Research
Inhibitory Mechanism of Geraniol against Geotrichum citri-aurantii in Citrus
WENG Tian, WANG Yuqing, LONG Chao’an
2023, 44(1):  14-21.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220214-087
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In order to study the antifungal mechanism of geraniol on Geotrichum citri-aurantii, the effects of different concentrations of geraniol on the spores and mycelia of G. citri-aurantii were investigated by physicochemical analysis and microstructural observation. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fugicide concentration (MFC) of geraniol against G. citri-aurantii were both 0.500 g/L. The spore germination rate of G. citri-aurantii treated with geraniol at MIC for 12 h was only (3.28 ± 1.28)%, which was significantly lower than that (92.17 ± 1.88)% in the control group (P < 0.05). Transmission rlectron microscope (TEM) showed that geraniol treatment destroyed the integrity of G. citri-aurantii cells, and led to separation between the cell wall and membrane, the organelles were indistinguishable, and the cells were vacuollated. The membrane permeability was altered, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and nucleic acid was leaked out from the cells, the relative conductivity was increased, membrane lipid peroxidation was enhanced, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were accumulated. In conclusion, geraniol affects the normal physiological function of G. citri-aurantii by inhibiting the spore germination and mycelial growth, disrupting the cellular structures, and promoting the accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation and ROS, which provides a new idea for the effective control of G. citri-aurantii in citrus.
Effect of Selenium and Sulfur Interaction on the Glucosinolate Content and Antioxidant Activity of Sprouts of Chinese Cabbage
ZHAO Shuang, ZHOU Yuqi, YANG Xuyan, FAN Zhenyu, LI Fangquan, YUAN Taiyong, WU Tong, WANG Yushu
2023, 44(1):  22-29.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220209-032
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In order to explore the effect of selenium-sulfur interaction on the glucosinolate content and antioxidant properties of Chinese cabbage sprouts, the seeds were sprayed with 4 mmol/L ZnSO4, 50 or 100 μmol/L Na2SeO3 or their combination during sprouting and the changes in the major physiological and biochemical indexes, antioxidant capacity and glucosinolates content of Chinese cabbage sprouts were analyzed. The results showed that the application of ZnSO4 alone caused growth stress on Chinese cabbage sprouts, while the application of Na2SeO3 alone increase the length and fresh mass of sprouts per plant. The combined application of Na2SeO3 and ZnSO4 could effectively alleviate the inhibitory effect of ZnSO4 on the growth and development of Chinese cabbage sprouts. Moreover, compared with the control group (deionized water), ZnSO4 combined with Na2SeO3 significantly increased total selenium content and the contents of total glucosinolates (P < 0.05), and the combined application of ZnSO4 and 50 μmol/L Na2SeO3 resulted in an approximate 50% increase in the total content of glucosinolates. The contents of total selenium and total glucosinolates were significantly higher on the sixth day than on the fourth day of sprouting. The results of the study provide data support for the production of functional Chinese cabbage sprouts rich in selenium and glucosinolates.
Physiological Response of Postharvest Tea Leaves under Vibration Stress
HAO Zhilong, LIN Hongzheng, XU Xingyan, LI Xinlei, YU Xiaomin, YUE Chuan, SUN Yun, JIN Xinyi
2023, 44(1):  30-37.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211205-061
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Shaking is one of the key processes contributing to the quality formation of oolong tea. As an abiotic stress factor, mechanical stress leads to a series of physiological and biochemical changes in plants through various biological effects, which has been widely used in the processing of scented black tea, scented white tea, scented green tea and other tea types to improve their quality. In order to ascertain the physiological changes of green tea leaves in response to mechanical stress, postharvest fresh shoots with 3–4 leaves?from the tea cultivar ‘Tieguanyin’ were evaluated for changes in water content, photosystem II (PS II) parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities and subcellular structure under natural spreading or continuous vibration stress treatment after withering. Compared with naturally spread leaves and withered leaves, the water content in the leaves subjected to vibration stress was not significantly different within the first 30 min of vibration (P > 0.05) but was significantly lower at 60 min (P < 0.05). The green-grassy odor became stronger with increasing vibration time, the refreshing aroma became weaker, and the clear compact lamellar structures of the chloroplast and the thylakoid were gradually loosened, deformed, shrunk, and disrupted. The number of starch granules increased significantly at 5 min, and the number of osmiophilic granules increased significantly at 15 min, resulting in the formation of aggregates. The actual photosynthetic efficiency Y (II) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) of PS II generally showed a decreasing trend with increasing vibration time, and the electron transfer rate (ETR) declined initially and then rose. The Y (II) and ETR at 5 and 10 min of vibration were significantly lower than those observed in naturally spread leaves (P < 0.05). The quantum yield Y (NO) of non-regulated energy dissipation increased with the prolongation of vibration stress treatment time, and was significantly higher than that of naturally spread leaves at 30 min (P < 0.05). The relative conductivity of tea leaves under vibration stress for 10 min was significantly higher than that of naturally spread leaves (P < 0.05). The activities of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase in tea leaves under vibration stress for 5 and 10 min were higher than those in naturally spread leaves. Vibration treatment (for up to 30 min) did not show significant variations in water content, but enhanced the green-grassy odor. Continuous vibration treatment caused cell injuries by increasing the cell membrane permeability, thereby facilitating the release of intracellular contents and increasing cell conductivity. At the subcellular level, vibration treatment promoted thylakoid degradation and severely damaged chloroplasts, thus destroying PS II stability. Meanwhile, it protected tea leaf cells against mechanical stress-induced damage by elevating the activities of defense enzymes. Taken together, this study lays a foundation for the regulating of shaking during the processing of oolong tea.
Effect of Dietary Structure on Bioavailability and Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Carotenoids
LI Mengjie, PAN Siyi
2023, 44(1):  38-45.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211213-144
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In order to explore the effect of different dietary structures (normal diet, high-protein diet, high-fat diet, high-sugar diet) on the bioavailability and antioxidant activity of citrus carotenoids, the changes in the carotenoid content, ferric reducing capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity of mandarin pulp were monitored during in vitro simulated digestion. The correlation between carotenoid content and antioxidant activity was also evaluated. The results showed that as digestion progressed, the contents of total carotenoids and two carotenoid monomers in mandarin pulp mixed with whey protein, soybean oil and corn starch in four different proportions decreased continuously and the antioxidant activity of carotenoids in the four groups also decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Among these groups, the content of carotenoids in the high-fat diet group was higher at all digestion stages, and the antioxidant activity of carotenoids in this group was also stronger. There was a significantly positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and content of citrus carotenoids (P < 0.05). The comprehensive analysis showed that dietary structures had a great impact on the bioavailability and antioxidant activity of citrus carotenoids. The bioavailability of carotenoids in the high-fat diet group was (24.08 ± 1.78)% and significantly higher than that ((19.26 ± 1.06)%) in the normal diet group (P < 0.05), and the antioxidant activity of carotenoids in the high-fat diet group was the strongest. The bioavailability of carotenoids in the high-protein diet group was (15.27 ± 0.90)% and significantly lower than that in the normal diet group (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in carotenoid bioavailability between the high-sugar ((19.71 ± 1.58)%) and normal diet groups. This study suggests that high-fat diet can significantly improve the bioavailability and antioxidant activity of citrus carotenoids.
Synthesis and Antibacterial Properties of Trimethylamine-Based Cationic Pillar[5]arene
WU Huixiang, YANG Hua, ZHAO Dengqi, HUANG Jianying, YANG Lijun
2023, 44(1):  46-52.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211116-201
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In this study, a pillar[5]arene was synthesized based on trimethylamine, and its antibacterial activity and mechanism against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Escherichia coli DH5α were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined, and the influence of the pillar[5]arene on the formation of bacterial biofilms was evaluated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the damage to the bacterial cell membrane caused by trimethylamine-based pillar[5]arene, and the cytotoxicity was determined by the?3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium?bromide (MTT) method. The results showed that the MIC and MBC were 0.125 and 1.000 mg/mL for S. aureus ATCC 6538, respectively, and 0.250 and greater than 1.000 mg/mL for E. coli DH5α, respectively. The effect of trimethylamine-based pillar[5]arene on biofilm formation was more pronounced for S. aureus ATCC 6538 than for E. coli DH5α. TEM showed that the trimethylamine-based pillar[5]arene could differently damage the cell membrane of the two strains. The MTT assay showed that the trimethylamine-based pillar[5]arene was non-toxic within the MIC range. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for further development and utilization of the trimethylamine-based pillar[5]arene in the food field.
Changes in the Physicochemical Properties of One Bud and Two Leaves at Different Leaf Positions during Congou Black Tea Processing
ZHOU Jingyun, HUANG Rui, OUYANG Ke, LU Anxia, CHEN Linmu, TONG Huarong
2023, 44(1):  53-62.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220127-277
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Fresh leaves of Fuding Dabai tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) consisting of one bud and two leaves were used to manufacture Congou black tea, and the changes in the physicochemical properties and microstructure of the bud and the two leaves were explored during the manufacturing process. It was found that during the rolling process, the color of the bud and the leaves gradually turn from green to red, but the degree of color change of the lower leaf was lower than that of the bud and the upper leaf. Besides, optical microscopic (OM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis showed the structures of mesophyll cells and chloroplasts in both leaves were destroyed in the rolling process, indicating the beginning of fermentation. The chemical composition analysis showed that during the Congou black tea manufacturing process, the contents of tea polyphenols and catechins decreased, the contents of theaflavins and thearubigins increased at first, then decreased and finally leveled off, and the content of theabrownins kept increasing; the contents of all these compounds changed most during rolling. There was no significant difference in the oxidation degree of total catechins, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and theaflavins between the two leaves (P > 0.05), indicating that their fermentation degrees were similar. During the entire process, the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll decreased and the contents of pheophytin and pheophorbide increased for the bud and the leaves. The content of chlorophylls in the lower leaf was always much higher than that in the upper leaf (P < 0.05). This study provides a theoretical basis for processing high-quality congou black tea by improving the utilization rate of fresh tea leaves.
Food Engineering
Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Thawing on the Quality of Euphausia superba and Its Changes during Cold Storage
QIAN Yunfang, YU Jiayi, WANG Minchen, ZHANG Qu, WANG Chuyan, ZHU Guoping, SHI Wenzheng, YANG Shengping
2023, 44(1):  63-69.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210929-352
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In order to study the effect of ultrasound-assisted thawing on the quality of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and its changes during cold storage, frozen Antarctic krill was placed into net bags or polyethylene (PE) bags and thawed by water immersion with or without ultrasound treatment. The quality changes of thawed samples during cold storage were evaluated in terms of sensory scores, microbial growth, hardness, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and trypsin activity as well as the signal intensity of hydrogen protons in low field nuclear magnetic resonance. The thawing time was 105 and 145 min for net bag and plastic bag packaging combined with water immersion thawing, respectively, while it took only 65 and 75 min for net bag and plastic bag packaging combined with ultrasound-assisted immersion thawing. After thawing, the sensory score of Antarctic krill continued to decline during storage at 4 ℃ and reached an unacceptable level after 24 h of storage. However, the total viable count remained less than 2.5 (lg (CFU/g)) before and after thawing and during subsequent cold storage for 28 h, but the activity of PPO and trypsin increased firstly and decreased at the end of storage, while TVB-N content increased during storage. The quality of thawed Antarctic krill contained in net bags deteriorated more slowly than in plastic bags. Collectively, net bag packaging combined with ultrasound-assisted thawing can not only accelerate the thawing rate, but also improve the storability of Antarctic krill.
Effect of Vacuum-Assisted High Pressure Curing on the Quality of Grass Carp Pieces
XIA Yuting, WU Weilun, ZHANG Wei, WANG Chao, SHI Liu, WU Wenjin, DING Anzi, QIAO Yu, LI Xin, WANG Lan
2023, 44(1):  70-77.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211115-176
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The effects of vacuum-assisted high pressure curing on the histological structure and sensory and physicochemical quality of grass carp pieces were studied. Fish pieces cured at normal pressure (control) or at high pressures (0, 2.3, 4.6 and 6.9 kPa) in vacuum were evaluated for salt content, histological structure and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, water content and water distribution. Results indicated that during curing, salt gradually penetrated into fish tissue, and vacuum curing resulted in a decreased yield of the fish product, an increase in shear force, hardness, resilience and viscosity, a decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARs) value, water content and centrifugal loss, and an increase in the intercellular spaces. After vacuum-assisted high pressure curing treatment, the salt content was increased, the product yield was decreased, and the whiteness was increased. The fish cured at 6.9 kPa had the lowest shear force, hardness, cohesiveness, elasticity, and viscosity, but the TVB-N content was not significantly changed, and the juice loss rate was increased. In conclusion, vacuum-assisted high pressure curing can improve the quality of cured fish, and slow down the spoilage rate.
Effect of Different Storage Temperatures on Storage Stability of Fresh Lettuce Juice Treated with Ultra-High Pressure
LI Zhixuan, CHAO Chunming, ZHANG Jialong, LI Yuling, TANG Xuanming, PAN Yanfang
2023, 44(1):  78-87.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211214-156
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To investigate the storage stability of fresh lettuce juice treated with ultra-high pressure under different temperatures (0, 4 and 8 ℃), microbial and physicochemical parameters, color, chlorophyll content, physical indicators and turbiscan stability index were determined every five days for 30 days. The results indicated that the total aerobic bacterial count and the total count of yeasts and molds in FLJ remained below less than 100 and 10 CFU/mL during 30 days of storage, respectively, both of which were within the national standard range. After 30 days of storage at 0, 4 and 8 ℃, the color of FLJ changed from green to dark brown, and the total chlorophyll content decreased by 18.96%, 46.84% and 67.07% respectively. After 30 days storage at 4 and 8 ℃, the pH decreased to 4.66 ± 0.08 and 4.37 ± 0.08, respectively. The total soluble solid (TSS) content of FLJ was not significantly changed, but the pellet volume, particle size and apparent viscosity were increased and the stability and turbidity were decreased. As the storage temperature rose, the change rate of all the parameters tested accelerated, while the change was the slowest at 0 ℃. Considering the color, physicochemical parameters and stability indicator of FLJ, the optimal storage temperature for FLJ is 0 ℃, and the shelf life of FLJ at 4 and 8 ℃ are 15 and 10 days, respectively. The results of this study can provide a technical reference for the processing and storage of fresh lettuce juice.
Effects of Different Drying Methods and Crushing Degrees on the Physicochemical, Nutritional and Functional Properties of Agaricus bisporus
CHEN Cong, YE Shuang, WANG Guihua, SHEN Wangyang, GAO Hong, FAN Xiuzhi, YIN Chaomin, YAO Fen, CHENG Shilun, SHI Defang
2023, 44(1):  88-97.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211215-172
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In order to investigate the processing suitability of Agaricus bisporus, coarse (passing through a 60-mesh sieve) and superfine (passing through a 300-mesh sieve) powders were prepared from the mushroom after dried by hot air drying (HAD), heat pump drying (HPD) or vacuum freeze drying (VFD) and were used to evaluate the effect of different drying methods and grinding degrees on the physicochemical, nutritional and functional properties of A. bisporus. The results showed that among the three drying methods, VFD dried sample had the smallest color difference, lowest browning degree, highest rehydration and hydration capacity, highest tap density and largest dissolution of polysaccharides, soluble protein, and total triterpenoids, indicating the best overall quality. The overall quality of HAD dried sample was the worst. The dissolution of ergosterol from HPD dried sample was the highest, and its overall sensory quality was between that of VFD and HAD dried samples. Compared to coarse powder, superfine powder showed a smaller particle size, a larger tap density, better water solubility, higher dissolution of nutritional and functional components, stronger antioxidant activity, and lower water retention capacity and swelling degree. In general, VFD is the most effective in maintaining the eating quality of A. bisporus, which is more suitable for the production of high value-added products. The eating quality of HPD dried mushroom is much superior to that of HAD dried mushroom, and HPD requires low energy consumption and is a better choice for the industrial dehydration of A. bisporus. Additionally, superfine grinding can significantly decrease the particle size of A. bisporus powder and improve its water solubility, antioxidant activity and nutrient dissolubility, which can be used as a pre-treatment method for the development of functional foods based on A. bisporus.
Nutrition & Hygiene
Effect of Extrusion on Nutrient Components and in Vitro Fermentation Characteristics of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)
FANG Fang, HE Yuxin, ZHAO Jutang, HU Mengwei, NIE Shaoping, XIE Mingyong, HU Jielun
2023, 44(1):  98-106.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220130-306
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In this study, the changes in the nutritional components and in vitro fermentation characteristics of quinoa were measured after extrusion treatment. Results showed that extrusion could significantly reduce the contents of amylose, fat, total dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber in quinoa (P < 0.05), and increase the content of soluble dietary fiber (P < 0.05). During in vitro fermentation, the gas production increased with fermentation time, and the pH decreased significantly at the early stage of fermentation (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, extruded quinoa could significantly increase the relative abundances of Prevotella, Megamonas, Megasphaera, Phascolarctobacterium, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides (P < 0.05), but significantly reduce the relative abundance of Ruminobacteriaceae and Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05) during the fermentation. At the same time, the level of short chain fatty acids in the fermented broth of all groups increased and was higher in the extruded quinoa group than in the control group after 48 h of fermentation. Therefore, extrusion treatment can affect the nutritional composition of quinoa, and use of extruded quinoa as fermentation substrates can improve the fecal microbiota, which in turn may be beneficial for human gut health. The findings of this study can provide data support for obtaining quinoa products by extrusion and promoting the development of intestinal health products.
Ameliorative and Protective Effects of Houttuynia cordata on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice
DENG Daixia, LI Fenglan, LI Chaoyun, FU Ping, WU Tianxiang
2023, 44(1):  107-114.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220128-293
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Houttuynia cordata on inflammation and pathological injury in mice with ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Seventy-two male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into blank, model, positive control, Houttuynia cordata juice low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups. All groups except the blank one were induced for UC by using 3% DSS solution. Four days later, the animals were intragastrically administered with physical saline, mesalazine or Houttuynia cordata juice (HCJ) for 10 consecutive days. Disease activity index (DAI) was calculated and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the colon tissues of mice, and serum lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and D-lactic acid (D-La) levels were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to evaluate histopathological changes in the colon. The results showed that compared with the model group, hematochezia in the low-, medium- and high-dose HCJ groups was improved, and the mental status was better. The body mass, colon length and thymus index of mice in the medium- and high-dose HCJ groups were significantly increased (P < 0.01), DAI, spleen index and the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ were significantly decreased (P < 0.01), the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.01), the content of MDA and the activity of MPO were significantly decreased (P < 0.01), the activity of SOD was significantly increased (P < 0.01), serum D-La and LPS levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.01), colon tissue injury was significantly reduced, and pathological score was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). In conclusion, Houttuynia cordata juice can improve the inflammatory response of mice with DSS-induced UC, reduce the intestinal permeability, regulate the level of oxidative stress and alleviate intestinal injury.
Absorption and Distribution of Chitosan Oligosaccharide Monomers with Different Polymerization Degrees in Mice
WANG Bin, WANG Ling, YAN Hua, JIANG Qixing, YU Peipei, XIA Wenshui
2023, 44(1):  115-123.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211215-177
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Fluorescent probe labeling is easy to operate and the sensitivity of fluorescence detection is 3–4 orders of magnitude higher than traditional methods such as ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The absorption and distribution of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) monomers with different degrees of polymerization (DPs) in mice was analyzed by fluorescent probe labeling. In this study, we analyzed the differences in the absorption and distribution of COS monomers with DPs of 2–5 in mice gavaged with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled COS monomers through fluorescence signal detection by a small animal intravital optical imaging system and fluorescence quantification. The results showed that at 1 h after administration, the fluorescence signal in the mice reached its peak level. COS could be absorbed into the blood and cross the blood-brain barrier to distribute into the brain tissue. COS mainly distributed into the kidney and liver, followed by the heart and spleen, and a small amount of COS distributed into the lung and brain. The distribution of COS monomers in the kidney and liver was positively correlated with the DP, while the peak distribution in serum, heart, spleen, lung, and brain in decreasing order was as follows: chitobiose > chitotetraose > chitotriose > chitopentose. The findings of this study are meaningful for guiding future study of the structure-activity relationship of functional COS and provide a reference for further study of the functional mechanism of COS, which will accelerate the development and application of COS in functional foods.
Sturgeon Head Soup Promoted Milk Secretion in Rats with Postpartum Hypogalactia
JIANG Bo, WANG Jinlin, WANG Haiyan, GAO Ruichang, XU Xinxing, BAI Fan, ZHAO Yuanhui, LIU Kang
2023, 44(1):  124-131.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211009-075
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This research aimed to explore the effect of sturgeon head soup, made by high-pressure liquefaction after cooking, in promoting milk secretion in rats with postpartum hypogalactia. Lactating Wistar rats were randomly assigned into blank, bromocriptine-induced hypogalactia, positive control (whey + seabass power), and experimental (sturgeon head soup) groups (n = 6). After 14 days of oral administration, the changes in body mass and milk secretion were investigated. Mammary gland morphology, related hormone levels and protein expression were measured by hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that for the experimental group, an increase in the secretion of proteins that showed a brownish yellow in immunohistochemical analysis was observed in the mammary glandular ducts and acini along with a decrease in the number of adipose connective tissue between the mammary glandular lobules compared with the model group. Milk productivity, mammary gland to body mass ratio, and percent body mass gain of the whole litter of suckling rats were significantly increased in the experimental group (P < 0.05). The levels of prolactin (PRL), prolactin receptor (PRLR), β-casein (β-CN), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), lactose synthase (LS) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were significantly elevated in the maternal serum and mammary tissue. The mRNA expression of the genes regulating the synthesis of β-CN and FAS in the mammary gland was significantly up-regulated compared with the model group. These results suggest that sturgeon head soup can promote milk secretion in rats with postpartum hypogalactia, and the underlying mechanism may be related to increasing the contents of PRL and PRLR and promoting the expression of β-CN, α-LA and FAS.
Dietary Risk Assessment of Deoxynivalenol in Barley Subjected to Different Storage Conditions or Processing Treatments
LOU Yuhao, CAO Dongmei, ZHANG Dongjie, CUI Hang, WANG Jifei, YANG Jian, SHAO Yi
2023, 44(1):  132-139.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220123-236
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To explore the dietary intake risk of deoxicallenol (DON) from barley subjected to different storage conditions or processing methods, barley was stored for different periods (180, 270 and 360 days) at different temperature (5, 15, 25 and 35 ℃) and relative humidities (55%, 65%, 75% and 85%). Another part of samples were processed by boiling, steaming or fermentation. DON content in all samples was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the risk of chronic and acute dietary intake of DON was explored by point and probability assessment. The results showed that the estimated daily intake (EDI) of DON from fresh barley was 0.000 30 to 0.001 30 mg/kg, and the chronic risk index was 0.30 to 1.31, which increased by up to 0.63 after 360 days of storage. The risk of dietary exposure to DON was 32.7%, the national estimated short-term intake (NESTI) was 0.002 6 to 0.005 5 mg/kg and the hazard quotient (HQ) for acute risk assessment was 0.33 to 0.69, indicating no acute exposure risk. After processing, the risk of chronic exposure decreased from 0.60–2.60 to 0.17–2.34, and the risk of acute exposure decreased by up to 0.64. After long-term storage, the level of exposure to DON from barley was high, causing a high health risk, which was effectively reduced after processing, and the exposure risk for children was more serious than that in adults, to which much attention should be paid.
Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Inhibited High Glucose and High Fat-Induced Ferroptosis through the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in MIN6 Cells
ZHANG Liyuan, LIU Dandan, LI Haiyan, WANG Tongling, LU Heng, YANG Ruirui, WANG Hao, DING Yusong
2023, 44(1):  140-148.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220111-089
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Objective: Ferroptosis may be an important mechanism of high glucose and high fat-induced pancreatic β cell death. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on ferroptosis in pancreatic β cells induced by high glucose and high fat. Methods: An islet β cell injury model was established by treating MIN6 cells with 25 mmol/L glucose and 200 μmol/L sodium palmitate. Then, the cells were transfected with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 small-interfering RNA (Nrf2 siRNA) and treated with 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L GSPE. The cell activity was detected by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, and the levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by commercial kits. The protein expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), iron metabolism indicator transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ferritin, solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) were measured by Western blot. Results: Compared with the control group, high glucose and high fat caused intracellular iron deposition, up-regulated the protein expression levels of TfR1, DMT1 and ferritin, increased the levels of MDA, ROS and ACSL4, decreased the level of GSH and down-regulated the protein expression levels of GPX4 and SLC7A11. Intervention with GSPE could activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway to up-regulate GPX4 and SLC7A11 protein expression and increase the level of GSH. GSPE could also decrease the levels of MDA, ROS and ACSL4 and iron metabolism indices (TfR1, DMT1 and ferritin protein expression), thereby preventing ferroptosis in MIN6 cells induced by high glucose and high fat. After?inhibition of the Nrf2 signaling pathway?by?Nrf2-siRNA?transfection, the protective effect of GSPE was inhibited and the expression of the antioxidant enzymes HO-1, GPX4 and SLC7A11 was decreased. Conclusion: GSPE reduces ferroptosis induced by high glucose and high fat possibly by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway and up-regulating antioxidant enzymes, consequently improving the cell viability of MIN6 cells.
Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC04 on Reducing Thrombosis and Regulating Intestinal Flora in Mice
YI Ruokun, LIU Jia, FENG Xia, ZHAO Xin
2023, 44(1):  149-159.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220209-035
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In this study, the effect of 10-day intragastric administration of different concentrations (1 × 108 and 1 × 109 CFU/mL) of Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC04 (LF-CQPC04) suspension at a dose of 0.2 mL/(g mb·d) on blood coagulation, oxidative stress levels, inflammation levels and intestinal microbial composition in a mouse model of thrombosis induced by injecting 0.01 mL/(g mb·d) of 0.2% carrageenan was analyzed. Biochemical kits, hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to detect related indicators in serum and tissues, and high-throughput sequencing was used to observe the composition of gut microbiota. The experimental results showed that LF-CQPC04 could shorten the length of black tail, prothrombin time and thrombin time in mice with thrombosis, reduce the blood fibrinogen (FIB) concentration, and increase the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). LF-CQPC04 could also reduce malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and IL-1β levels in serum, and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. H&E staining showed that LF-CQPC04 could reduce tissue damage caused by tail vein thrombosis. LF-CQPC04 down-regulated the mRNA expression of the NF-κB p65, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ genes in colon tissue, and up-regulated the mRNA expression of the genes encoding copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and CAT. LF-CQPC04 could also down-regulate the mRNA expression of the genes encoding NF-κB p65, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin in tail vein tissue. The gene sequencing results of gut microbiota showed that LF-CQPC04 could increase the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria such as norank_f_Muribaculaceae, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae NK4A136, unclassified_f__Lachnospiraceae. These results indicated that LF-CQPC04 could inhibit thrombosis in mice, reduce oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in mice with thrombosis, and regulate the intestinal flora, and high concentrations of LF-CQPC04 showed more pronounced effects, close to those of the drug heparin.
Effects of Dietary Fibers on Calcium Balance and Bone Biomechanics in Rats
QIN Xiangxiang, ZHOU Yuheng, CHEN Haishan, CAI Aihua, LIU Jinlei
2023, 44(1):  160-165.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220116-154
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Objective: To study the effects of dietary fibers with different structures on calcium balance and biomechanical properties. Methods: Rats were fed a basal diet supplemented with 50 g/kg wheat bran, cellulose, xylan, pectin, inulin, konjac gum or their mixture. The contents of calcium in diets, feces, urine and femur were detected by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The levels of total calcium, free calcium and bound calcium in serum were measured by an electrolyte analyzer. The maximum load of femur was measured by a three-point bending method. The effects of different dietary fibers on calcium absorption, blood calcium level, urinary calcium loss, calcium retention, bone calcium content and bone biomechanical properties were compared. Results: The calcium absorption rates in the wheat bran and cellulose supplementation groups were higher than those in the xylan, pectin, inulin and konjac supplementation groups, and the difference between the xylan and konjac supplementation groups and the wheat bran supplementation group was significant (P < 0.01). The level of urinary calcium in the xylan and cellulose supplementation groups were lower than that in the other groups. The pectin supplementation group had the lowest calcium retention rate and showed a negative calcium balance. There was no difference in serum free calcium level between the wheat bran supplementation group and the other groups (P > 0.05), but the concentrations of bound calcium and total calcium in the wheat bran supplementation group were higher than those in the other groups. The bone calcium content and bone biomechanical properties in the pectin supplementation group were significantly lower than those in the other groups, and the maximum load of femur was the highest in the xylan supplementation group. Conclusion: The intestinal calcium absorption of low fermentable dietary fibers such as wheat bran and cellulose is higher than that of high fermentable dietary fibers such as xylan, pectin, inulin and konjac. Xylan can improve the biomechanical properties of rat bones. Different dietary fibers have different effects on calcium absorption, bone calcium content and calcium balance in rats.
Ameliorative Effect of Orally Administered Nano-Superoxide Dismutase Liposomes on Ulcerative Colitis in Mice
LI Qiaoling, LI Henian, GUO Jingke, ZHU Zeliang, TENG Wei, HU Yujia, LUO Yuanyuan, WANG Mengtian, LIU Shutao
2023, 44(1):  166-174.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220313-141
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With an increasing incidence rate,ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic inflammation of the colon causing diarrhea and blood in the stool. Existing studies have shown that oxidative stress is an important factor leading to UC, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a certain effect on relieving UC symptoms. To improve its bioavailability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) was self-assembled into nanoparticles (ΔSOD) by heating it. The activity, transmembrane capacity and radical scavenging capacity of ΔSOD were significantly better than those of native SOD. ΔSOD liposomes (L-ΔSOD) were prepared by reverse-phase evaporation and orally administered to mice with UC. The results showed that compared with the positive control and model groups, L-ΔSOD significantly ameliorated UC, reduced disease activity index (DAI) score, restored the morphology of colon tissue, increased the length of colon, reduced the density of colon and spleen coefficient, and restored the integrity of mucosal epithelium. Besides, L-ΔSOD could reduce the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory factors in colon tissue and increase the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and tight junction protein mRNA expression. These results confirmed that oral L-ΔSOD has a good ameliorative effect on UC, which will lay the foundation for the application of SOD in promoting human health.
Effects of Panax ginseng Fruit Juice Concentrate on Immune Function in Immunocompromised Mice
YANG Zhengli, LIU Junli, QIAN Kelei, LIU Xi, YANG Jun, HONG Xinyu
2023, 44(1):  175-181.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220115-143
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Objective: To explore the effects of Panax ginseng fruit juice concentrate on immune function in immunocompromised mice. Methods: Totally 72 specific pathogen-free (SPF) C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12): blank, model, and low-, medium- and high-dose Panax ginseng fruit juice concentrate (83, 166, 249 and 332 mg/kg mb). The model and Panax ginseng fruit juice concentrate groups were injected intraperitoneally with 40 mg/kg mb cyclophosphamide on a daily basis for 10 days while the blank group was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Afterwards, the mice in the Panax ginseng fruit juice concentrate groups were intragastrically administrated with different dosage of Panax ginseng fruit juice concentrate at a volume of 20 mL/kg mb, and those in the blank and model groups were gavaged with the same volume of distilled water for 15 days. Then, body, spleen and thymus mass, white blood cell count, the number of lymphocyte subsets, cytokine expression levels, and nuclear transcription factor expression levels in immune cells were measured. Results: Panax ginseng fruit juice concentrate could improve the spleen mass/index (spleen/body mass ratio) in immunocompromised mice, increase the number of peripheral blood cells and the number of lymphocytes in immune organs, promote the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-17, inhibit the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in immunocompromised mice and partially restore the RNA expression of T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) and forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) (P < 0.05), and the effect of Panax ginseng fruit juice concentrate at a dose of 249 mg/kg mb was the most significant. However, Panax ginseng fruit juice concentrate had no significant effect on restoring the body mass or thymus mass of immunocompromised mice. Conclusion: Panax ginseng fruit juice concentrate can enhance immune function in immunocompromised mice.
Packaging & Storage
Effect of Preharvest Spray of Diethyl Aminoethyl Hexanoate on Postharvest Fruit Quality and Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism in ‘Kyoho’ Grape
YU Peng, MENG Xiangxuan, YU Yihe, YANG Yingjun
2023, 44(1):  182-188.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220124-241
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The vigorous metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in postharvest ‘Kyoho’ grapes shortens the storage period, and reduce the commercial value. In this study, different concentrations (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 mg/L) of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) were sprayed on table grapes at veraison to investigate the effects of DA-6 treatment on postharvest fruit quality and ROS metabolism in ‘Kyoho’ grapes. By measuring the physiological indexes related to fruit quality, it was found that DA-6 treatment significantly reduced fruit mass loss, and delayed the decrease in fruit firmness and total soluble solid content, and this effect was most significant at a concentration of 50 mg/L. More importantly, 50 mg/L DA-6 treatment significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and total reducing capacity, and suppressed the decrease in reduced ascorbic acid and glutathione contents and the accumulation of superoxide anion radical and malondialdehyde. In conclusion, pre-harvest spray of DA-6 maintained the stability of the ROS scavenging system in postharvest table grapes, kept ROS metabolism in a relatively balanced state, reduced oxidative damage, delayed fruit senescence, and prolonged the shelf life of ‘Kyoho’ grapes.
Application of Edible Films Containing Antimicrobial Peptide BCp12 in Preservation of Milk Fan
YANG Tingting, YANG Jing, YUAN Ziyou, ZHAO Qiong, YANG Kun, HUANG Aixiang
2023, 44(1):  189-198.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220310-118
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In order to prolong the shelf life of milk fan, casein-chitosan edible films incorporated with antimicrobial peptide BCp12 were prepared. One-factor-at-a-time method combined with orthogonal array design was used to determine the optimum preparation process based on elongation at break and tensile strength. The antimicrobial activity of the composite film was evaluated, and its formation mechanism was explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and molecular docking. Finally, the composite film was applied to the preservation of milk fan. The results showed that the optimum preparation conditions were casein/chitosan mass ratio 1:1.5, BCp12 concentration 1 mg/mL, glycerin concentration 1.5% (m/m), and drying temperature 55 ℃. SEM showed good compatibility of the composite film and FT-IR analysis revealed that the film exhibited an absorption peak at 1 545.67 cm–1 attributed to the stretching vibration of C–O. Molecular docking showed that the hydrogen bond interaction between BCp12 and casein and chitosan occurred through the active sites of residues Y4 and –NH2. Compared with the control group, the change of peroxide value of milk fan treated with the antimicrobial film was slower and the shelf life was prolonged by 60 days during storage at 4 ℃, indicating the film could inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria. The results of this study provide a technical reference for the development and application of chitosan-casein composite films incorporated with BCp12.
Shelf Life Evaluation and Correlation between Changes in Volatile Compounds and Bacterial Communities in Fresh Tuber indicum Treated with Alcohol during Cold Storage
LI Qi, ZOU Lulu, MA Qinqin, ZHU Lin, HE Shuhao, LIANG Shihui, MIAO Yuzhi
2023, 44(1):  199-208.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220123-237
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Objective: explore a simple and effective preservation technology to prolong the shelf life of fresh Tuber indicum during cold storage. Methods: quality characteristics of fresh Tuber indicum such as sensory quality, total number of colonies, main nutrients content and volatile compounds were studied during storage at 4 ℃. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to reveal the bacterial community structure of fresh Tuber indicum during storage at 4 ℃. What’s more, the correlation analysis between the main aromatic compounds and the bacterial community structure was clarified. The 16S rRNA gene identification technology was used to identify the specific spoilage organisms those isolated from truffles during storage at 4 ℃. The results showed that the shelf life of fresh truffle soaked in 75% alcohol and vacuum packaged was 30 days during storage at 4 ℃. The contents of total sugar, total protein and crude fiber in truffle stored for up to 38 days decreased significantly in comparison with those in fresh truffle. Meanwhile, the mass loss percentage increased evidently, the content of volatile aroma compounds decreased markedly and the content of volatile off-flavor compounds increased obviously. The results of high throughput sequencing showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia were the dominant phyla in fresh truffle during cold storage. The redundancy analysis showed that during 0–15 days of storage, the contents of nutrient components (total sugar, total protein and crude fiber) and characteristic aroma substances (1-octene-3-ol, pentyl valerate, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-ethyl butyrate, 2-octenone, 1-octene-3-one, hexaldehyde and n-hexanol) were positively correlated with the relative abundance of Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Bosea, Variovorax, Dyadobacter, Janthinobacterium and Pedobacter. The contents of total protein, 1-octene-3-ol and n-amyl pentanoate were significantly positively correlated with the relative abundance of Bosea. The relative abundance of Pseudomonas and Serratia showed a significantly positive correlation with mass loss percentage from days 15 to 38. The contents of pyridine, dimethyl ether, 3-methyl-butyric acid, hexanoic acid, heptanal, crotonol, 3-methylthiopropanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol were positively correlated with the relative abundance of Ensifer, Pseudomonas, and Serratia from days 30 to 38. The results of this study will provide a theoretical basis for the in-depth study of the spoilage mechanism of and the development of new preservation technologies for fresh Tuber indicum.
Shelf Life Prediction of Milk Powder Based on Changes in Headspace Oxygen Concentration in Packaging
CAI Jia’ang, LU Lixin, LU Lijing, PAN Liao
2023, 44(1):  209-214.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220119-196
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Purpose: To predict the shelf life of milk powder based on the change of oxygen concentration in the packaging headspace. Methods: The relative oxygen consumption rate was used to characterize the oxidation characteristics of whole milk powder, and the oxygen consumption threshold was determined by analyzing several oxidation indexes. Oxygen permeability of the packaging materials and oxidation characteristics of milk powder were integrated to characterize the change of headspace oxygen concentration, and a shelf life prediction model of milk powder was established based on the total oxygen consumption. The model was verified by accelerated storage test of polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene packaged whole milk powder at 45 ℃. Results: The oxygen consumption threshold of whole milk powder was 0.041 47 mg/g. The experimental data of oxygen concentration in the packaging headspace during accelerated storage was consistent with the predicted data, and the relative deviation between the experimental and theoretical shelf life was 6.06%. Conclusions: The shelf life of whole milk powder can be predicted by the change of oxygen concentration in the packaging headspace.
Physiological Changes of Penaeus vannamei in Response to Combined Stress of Acute Cold Exposure and Waterless Duration
LIU Cheng, WU Jiaxin, XU Defeng, SUN Lijun, QIN Xiaoming, FAN Xiuping
2023, 44(1):  215-221.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211007-055
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To elucidate the physiological regulation mechanism of Penaeus vannamei in response to combined stress of acute cold exposure and waterless duration, and provide a solid foundation for waterless live transport management and improvement in the survival rate, the effects of acute cold exposure combined with waterless duration on the metabolic homeostasis and hepatopancreas histopathology of Penaeus vannamei were explored under conditions simulating waterless live transport. The results showed that the level of lactic acid (LD) in the hemolymph and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the hepatopancreas and muscle increased, the activities of LDH, hexokinase (HK), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and Na+/K+-ATPase in the hemolymph increased initially and then decreased with increasing waterless duration, while the contents of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glycogen decreased. After resuscitation, the concentrations of glucose (Glu) and LD in the hemolymph were (23.92 ± 0.59) and (6.27 ± 0.32) mmol/L, respectively, and were still significantly higher than those in the normal control group (P < 0.05); the contents of ATP and glycogen in muscle tissues were (4.88 ± 0.31) μmol/g and (1.74 ± 0.10) mg/g, respectively, and were significantly lower than those in the normal control group (P < 0.05). The other indices tested returned to the normal levels. The glycolysis reaction of Penaeus vannamei accelerated with increasing waterless duration from 0 to 3 h, and aerobic respiration was the major respiration pattern. After 3 h, the gluconeogenesis reaction was strengthened, and the anaerobic metabolism was dominant. A waterless duration of 9 h resulted in metabolic disorder, but it could be restored after resuscitation. These findings show that the combined stress of acute cold exposure and waterless duration results in compensatory adjustments in Penaeus vannamei and causes damage to the structure of hepatopancreas, which will provide a theoretical basis for targeted control of metabolism imbalance.
Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Fumigation on Quality and Browning of Broad Beans
ROUZHAHONG Nuerkaixi, HOU Yuanyuan, ZHAO Yaqin, ZHAO Liyan, ZHENG Yonghua, JIN Peng
2023, 44(1):  222-230.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220218-136
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To study the effect of chlorine dioxide fumigation on the preservation of postharvest broad beans, broad beans were fumigated with different concentrations of ClO2 (0, 15, 30 and 60 μL/L), stored at room temperature and evaluated for color difference, firmness, mass loss percentage, browning index and decay index after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. The results showed that compared to the control group, ClO2, at all concentrations tested, could inhibit the increase in mass loss percentage, browning index and decay index, and delay the decline in firmness, especially at a concentration of 30 μL/L. Furthermore, 30 μL/L ClO2 fumigation significantly reduced the respiratory intensity, inhibited chlorophyll degradation and malondialdehyde accumulation in broad beans during the 8-day storage period, suppressed the increase in superoxide anion generation rate and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, and maintained higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), suggesting that ClO2 fumigation could alleviate oxidative damage to the cell membrane. In addition, ClO2 treatment repressed the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), maintained the activity of phenylalanine aminolyase (PAL) and the content of total phenols, and delayed the occurrence of browning. Moreover, ClO2 treatment increased the contents of vitamin C, soluble protein and starch, and inhibited the increase of the reducing sugar content in broad beans (P < 0.05), thus maintaining better quality of broad beans. In conclusion, 30 μL/L ClO2 fumigation effectively maintained the edible value of broad beans and improved the storage quality while enhancing the antioxidant capacity.
Effects of Combined Treatment with 1-Methylcyclopropene and Phytic Acid on Quality Preservation of Spinach
ZHANG Yue, LI An, PAN Ligang, ZHAO Jie
2023, 44(1):  231-238.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220228-259
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During postharvest storage, spinach is prone to problems such as oxidation, dehydration, wilting and decay, causing severe losses. In view of this, postharvest spinach was treated with 1 μL/L 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), 0.1% phytic acid (PA) or their combination to explore the effects of preservatives on the physiology and storage quality of spinach. Spinach not treated with preservatives was used as a control. All samples were stored at room temperature (20 ± 1) ℃ and a relative humidity between 80% and 90%. The decay index, mass loss percentage, chlorophyll content, soluble solid content, ethylene release, peroxidase (POD) activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity were measured. In addition, sensory evaluation was performed in terms of appearance, morphology and smell. The results showed that all three treatments were effective in maintaining spinach quality. Specifically, compared with the other three groups, combined treatment with 1-MCP and PA significantly enhanced peroxidase (POD) activity and DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, thereby delaying the increase in decay index, mass loss percentage and ethylene release and increasing the chlorophyll content of spinach and maintaining high soluble solid content and sensory evaluation score during storage. As a result, 1 μL/L 1-MCP + 0.1% PA composite treatment had the best preservation effect, which could effectively delay the postharvest senescence and quality deterioration of spinach.
Quality Change of Sea Bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) Muscle during Cold Storage at 4 ℃
YANG Ruqing, CHEN Yulei, SUN Lechang, ZHANG Lingjing, LIU Guangming, CAO Minjie
2023, 44(1):  239-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211210-126
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This study was conducted in order to explore the changes in muscle quality of sea bass during cold storage. The physiological and biochemical changes of fish meat during storage at 4 ℃ were evaluated in terms of its pH, total bacterial count, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content, K value and texture. Morphological changes of muscle were evaluated by Masson staining and immuno-histochemical staining. The enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was determined by hydrolyzing fluorescent peptide substrates. The results showed that the pH of sea bass muscle decreased firstly and then increased during cold storage. The total bacterial count, TVB-N content and K value increased with storage time, and exceeded the threshold on the 8th day. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that there was little change in the protein composition in sea bass muscle after 6 days of storage, while the myosin heavy chain was significantly degraded on the 8th day. Masson staining and immuno-histochemical staining of type I collagen showed that the endomysium was gradually degraded during storage. On the 12th day, an evident gap between type I collagen and muscle fibers was observed. The activity of MMPs increased significantly with storage time while the hardness of fish muscle decreased gradually. Hence, the softening of fish muscle during cold storage is closely related to collagen decomposition, and type I collagen degradation by MMPs may be the major reason for muscle softening after fish death.
Effect of Dual-Frequency Ultrasound Combined with Citric Acid Treatment on Quality Changes of Large Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) during Refrigerated Storage
ZHU Shengyun, LAN Weiqing, PU Tianting, ZHAO Xinyu, XU Zhenfei, XIE Jing
2023, 44(1):  246-255.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220204-006
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In order to explore the combined effects of dual-frequency ultrasound (DUS) and citric acid (CA) on the quality changes of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) during refrigerated storage, fresh fillet samples were treated with sterile distilled water (as a control), DUS at 20/28 kHz and 175 W, 8.0 g/L CA or DUS combined with CA (DUS + CA) for 10 min, packaged in sterile bags and stored at 4 ℃. Microbial parameters (total viable count (TVC), and psychrophilic bacterial count (PBC)), physicochemical properties (texture characteristics, color difference, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content, thiobarbituric acid reaction substance (TBARS) value), water migration (water-holding capacity (WHC), low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and sensory evaluation were measured every two days during storage. The results showed that CA treatment could inhibit lipid oxidation and microbial growth in large yellow croaker during refrigerated storage. On the 8th day of storage, the logarithm of TVC in the control group was (8.26 ± 0.02) (lg(CFU/g)), which exceeded the spoilage limit and was significantly higher than that of the CA group (6.60 ± 0.06) (lg(CFU/g)). The TBARS value of the CA group was (0.51 ± 0.05) mg/kg on the 8th day of storage, which was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). DUS treatment delayed the transformation of immobile water (T22) into free water (T23), indicating improved WHC. Overall, the quality of large yellow croaker treated with DUS + CA was better than that of all other groups during refrigerated storage. At the end of storage, the TVB-N content of the DUS + CA group was (13.79 ± 0.57) mg/100 g and its quality was the best. Collectively, we concluded that 20/28 kHz, 175 W dual-frequency ultrasound combined with 8.0 g/L citric acid treatment can significantly delay the quality deterioration of large yellow croaker, and prolong the shelf-life for at least six days during refrigerated storage compared with the control group.
Reviews
Progress in Research on the Formation Mechanism and Physiological Functions of D-Amino Acids in Foods
GAO Li, XU Piao, REN Jiaoyan
2023, 44(1):  256-267.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220303-044
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Among the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, 19 can exist in two stereoisomeric forms, D- and L-enantiomers except glycine. According to conventional theory, L-amino acids are the main body involved in life activities, while little attention has been paid to the existence and physiological activity of D-amino acids in organisms. With the development of analytical technologies for chiral amino acids, a large number of D-amino acids and bioactive peptides containing D-amino acids have been found in various organisms, including mammals, plants, microorganisms and humans. D-amino acids possess unique physiological activities such as neural signal transduction, hormone regulation, antibacterial effect and immune regulation. Daily diet is an important source of D-amino acids for humans, and the daily average supply of D-amino acids for humans is about 100 mg. D-amino acids in foods mainly origin from processing conditions such as fermentation, high temperature and certain pH, along with a small amount from food raw materials. At present, emerging functional foods with D-amino acids as the major component have begun to appear in the market. D-amino acids hold great potential that deserves to be explored further and are expected to be an important ingredient for the development of new functional foods in the future.
Progress in Cell-Based Biosensors for Food Flavor Evaluation
GUO Chenglin, FAN Yuxia, CHEN Gaole, LIU Dengyong, LIU Yuan
2023, 44(1):  268-276.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211103-032
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Food flavor is an important attribute of high-quality foods. The consumers’ preference for foods is largely determined by taste and smell perception. The traditional food flavor evaluation methods include sensory evaluation, smart devices and instrumental analysis methods. Sensory evaluation is reliable but prone to taste fatigue and individual subjectivity. The structure of smart devices is complex, and there are some differences between the working principle and the actual taste transmission, resulting in limited applications. The cell-based biosensor is a new method to detect and evaluate food flavor that integrates living cells as sensitive elements, transducers and signal processing devices. They show the advantages of high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response and have become a hotspot in the field of biosensors. Based on a review of recent research achievements, this paper briefly introduces the concept and basic structure of cell-based biosensors, and focuses on the results of research in the field of taste and smell evaluation and their application. The perception and transmission mechanisms in practical application are elucidated, and the flavor perception information for foods that has been obtained by researchers is summarized. Finally, the problems existing in the development of cell-based biosensors are discussed, and possible future trends are projected in food flavor evaluation.
A Review of Speciation Analysis and Toxicity Evaluation of Arsenolipids in Marine Organisms
CHEN Jiajia, ZHONG Yingxiong, ZHOU Xuewei, LI Rui, CHEN Jianping, LIU Xiaofei, JIA Xuejing, SONG Bingbing, ZHONG Saiyi
2023, 44(1):  277-284.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20210809-111
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Arsenic is a poisonous semi-metal (metalloid) and has been identified as a human carcinogen. Arsenic poisoning can cause a variety of health damage to the human body. Arsenic can exist in both inorganic and organic forms. It is generally considered that inorganic arsenic is more toxic than organic arsenic. Arsenolipids are organic arsenic and widely exist in tissues of marine organisms. Arseniolipids have been previously thought to be extremely low toxic. With the progress and development of science and technology in recent years, intensive research has been conducted on arsenolipids, and the speciation analysis and toxicity evaluation of arsenolipids have gradually become a hot spot. At present, there are three known species of arsenolipids, namely arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFAs), arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs) and arsenic-containing phospholipids (AsPLs), which differ in their toxicity. However, due to the complex speciation pattern, low bioavailability and low content of arsenolipids, and the difficulty to extract and detect them, the mechanism of arsenolipid toxicity remain unclear. Therefore, this paper reviews the latest progress in the methods for speciation analysis and toxicity evaluation of arsenolipids in marine organisms, with the aim to provide an inspiration for further elucidating the speciation, toxicity, and human health risk of arsenolipids.
A Review on the Mechanism of Action of Honey against Metabolic Syndrome
CHEN Sinan, ZHAO Hao’an, CAO Wei
2023, 44(1):  285-293.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211108-092
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Metabolic syndrome (MS), a pathological state in which insulin resistance (IR) is the core of the body and the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and other substances is disrupted, leading to obesity, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases and other metabolic disorders, is an important factor threatening human health. Honey is rich in sugars, phenols and other nutrients, and has many biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. Numerous studies have shown that honey could alleviate MS and related diseases, and has a regulatory effect on the gut microbiota. With the aim of providing a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of MS and the development of functional honey products, this paper reviews the alleviative effect of honey and its bioactive components on MS from the perspectives of insulin resistance, regulating the glucose, lipid and protein metabolism pathways and modulating the gut microbiota, and summarizes recent progress in understanding the mechanism of action of honey against MS.
Advances in the Relationship between Food Allergy and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
CHEN Bihua, WU Yuhong, WU Huan, MENG Xuanyi, CHEN Hongbing
2023, 44(1):  294-304.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220112-113
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With the increase in the number of people with food allergy across the globe, people are increasingly concerned about food allergy. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) plays an important immunological role in the development of food allergy. An increasing number of studies have shown that food allergy and IBD have similar epidemiological data, pathogenesis and clinical symptoms, and the treatments for them are similar. Moreover, IBD can increase the risk of food allergy. This review begins with a discussion of the similarity between the incidence and clinical symptoms of food allergy and IBD, focusing on the pathogenesis of food allergy and IBD as well as the factors associated with their occurrence. Finally, we summarize the strategies for IBD patients to alleviate and avoid food allergy in the future. The purpose of this paper is to provide a scientific understanding of the relationship between food allergy and IBD, and provide new information for the prevention and treatment of food allergy in patients with IBD.
Review and Prospect of Maillard Reaction Products from Food-Derived Protein Hydrolysates/Peptides and Saccharides in Food Application and Research
DING Jian, HUANG Zhenxiu, YANG Mengzhu, HUANG Yongchao, MA Shulin, FANG Yong
2023, 44(1):  305-318.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220627-313
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Food-derived protein hydrolysates/peptides and saccharides are valuable and exploitable food resources. Covalent complexes formed by the Maillard reaction of food-derived protein hydrolysates/peptides and saccharides are superior in their structure and nutritional functions. Therefore, the Maillard reaction has been widely used to improve the functional characteristics of protein hydrolysates, and has currently become a hot spot in the field of food research. This article reviews the sources of raw materials for and the mechanism of the Maillard reaction between food-derived protein hydrolysates/peptides and saccharides and the preparation methods, structural characteristics, functional properties, nutritional and biological activities of the Maillard reaction products as well as their current applications and future prospects in the fields of food and medicine. This review provides a new idea for the development of functional food products based on the Maillard reaction between food-derived protein hydrolysates/peptides and saccharides, and provides a theoretical basis to explore their health effects in the future.
Advances in Understanding of the Interaction between Anthocyanins and Proteins
ZANG Zhihuan, CHOU Shurui, TANG Siyi, LI Zhiying, TIAN Jinlong, LI Bin
2023, 44(1):  319-326.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220123-232
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As functional bioactive substances, anthocyanins have attracted more and more attention, but their application is limited by their poor stability and low bioavailability. As one of the three essential nutrients needed by the human body, protein has good biocompatibility and biodegradability. It is often used in food processing, but its functional properties need to be improved. Proteins and anthocyanins usually coexist in food, and can easily interact with each other both covalently and non-covalently. The non-covalent interactions are predominant, including hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic interaction and van der Waals force. This paper summarizes recent progress in the research on the interaction between anthocyanins and proteins, including the effect of proteins on anthocyanin stability and bioavailability, the effect of anthocyanins on protein functional properties, and the application status of anthocyanin-protein complexes, which will provide a theoretical basis for the application of anthocyanins and proteins in food deep processing.
Progress in Research and Application of Intestinal Absorption Cell Models on Carotenoids
WU Fan, CHEN Nan, WU Yuqing, NI Yuanying, WEN Xin
2023, 44(1):  327-336.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220314-153
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Dietary compounds are crucial in maintaining human physiological functions and preventing diseases, but they can give full play to their functional activities only after being effectively absorbed and utilized by the human body. In vitro intestinal cell models have become an effective means to study the absorption and utilization mechanism of dietary compounds. Selecting the appropriate intestinal cell model and improving the existing intestinal cell models are of great significance to effectively simulate the absorption and utilization of dietary compounds in human body. In this paper, the structure and function of human intestinal epithelial cells are introduced, and recent progress in research on in vitro intestinal cell models is systematically reviewed. The intestinal absorption and transport mechanism of carotenoids is expounded, and the focus of this review is on the application of the Caco-2 single cell model and the Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture cell model in research on the absorption and utilization of carotenoids, so as to provide a reference for better simulation of absorption and utilization of dietary compounds in human body by using the in vitro intestinal cell absorption models.
Progress in Understanding the Postmortem Aging Mechanism of Meat and Monitoring the Aging Process
YU Qianqian, LI Shimeng, CHENG Bei, LIU Shuo, SUN Chengfeng
2023, 44(1):  337-344.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20211104-060
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Postmortem aging is a critical approach to improving the eating quality of meat, such as tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. There are three common aging methods, namely wet aging, dry aging, and their combination, each of which has its own characteristics. The final goal of these aging methods is to improve the edibility and palatability of meat. However, too long aging will lead to adverse effects such as severe mass loss and lipid and protein oxidation. Therefore, elucidating the postmortem aging mechanism of meat, monitoring and optimizing the aging process, and improving the eating quality of meat and simultaneously minimizing the quality defects caused by excessive aging are of great significance to the development of the meat industry. Although few studies have so far been reported on the monitoring and optimization of the meat aging process and meat quality prediction, precise control of the postmortem aging process will be an important development direction for the meat industry in the future. In this paper, the effects and mechanisms of different postmortem aging strategies on meat tenderness, flavor, color and oxidation stability are reviewed. Monitoring of the dry aging process based on mold coverage and electrical resistance on meat surfaces, and monitoring of the wet aging process based on meat exudate are discussed and future prospects are proposed in order to lay a theoretical foundation for the establishment of muscle-specific aging strategies.
Progress in Research on Contamination, Toxicity and Transformation of Acetylated Deoxynivalenol
WANG Ruihu, LI Mengmeng, GUAN Erqi, LIU Yuanxiao, JIN Rui, BIAN Ke, ZHAO Shitong
2023, 44(1):  345-352.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220225-225
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Deoxynivalenol (DON, commonly known as vomitoxin) is one of the most common pollutants in grains and grain products, and it is a secondary metabolite produced by fungi such as Fusarium graminearum. DON is usually produced concurrently with its acetylated derivatives, including 3-acetyl-DON and 15-acetyl-DON, which show similar or even higher toxicity than DON, increasing the safety risk of grains and grain products. In this paper, we briefly describe the current status of research on the production, detection technologies and pollution status of DON acetylated derivatives. We also review recent progress in research on the toxicity and transformation of DON acetylated derivatives. Through this review, we hope to provide a theoretical foundation for future research on the degradation, prevention and control of DON acetylated derivatives in foods.
Progress in Research on Composition, Structure, Functions and Mechanism of Action of Radix Puerariae Isoflavones
ZENG Wenshen, HUANG Darong, XIE Siwei, DU Bing, LI Pan
2023, 44(1):  353-361.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220121-218
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Radix Puerariae (RP) is an important medicinal and edible food in China. The country has an abundant RP output and a large number of RP consumers. Isoflavones are the most abundant and bioactive ingredients in RP. This article comprehensively reviews the composition and structure of isoflavones from RP, and systematically expounds their functions such as anti-hypertension, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia and antioxidant activity, alleviating a hangover, liver protection, alleviating post-menopausal osteoporosis and improving cognition as well as the underlying mechanism of action. The current research hotspots and problems existing in the field of research on RP isoflavones and their significance to the development of drugs and functional foods containing RP isoflavones are also proposed. We believe that this review will provide useful ideas and guidance for the basic research on RP and the commercialization of research achievements in this field.
Visual Analysis of Surimi Research Using CiteSpace and Bibliometric Analysis Platform
ZHANG Xin, WANG Ji, HU Jingrong, WANG Ying, LAI Jing, ZHOU Liyuan, ZHU Yingchun
2023, 44(1):  362-370.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220125-251
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In order to summarize the current status and evolution of surimi research in China and globally, 944 and 1 082 research paper published in the period of 2009 to 2021 were retrieved using the keywords: yumi (in Chinee) and surimi from the China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and Web of Science (WOS) databases and were test mined for the number of research papers, authors, countries, institutions and journals using CiteSpace and the online bibliometric analysis platform. Moreover, data visual analysis was carried out by plotting keyword clustering, time line and burstness maps. It was found that there has been increasing interest in surimi research. The number of surimi research papers indexed in CNKI and WOS has shown an increasing trend in the period from 2009 to 2021, and most papers were published in the top journals in the food field. China has published 441 research papers in English, ranking first in the world, accounting for 37.99% of the world’s total, followed by Thailand, the United States and Japan. The close cooperation between authors and research institutions in different regions and countries has formed an international academic community. The research content has shifted from the macroscopic field to the microscopic field, and the research hotspots have changed from processing technology and surimi quality to preservation and antifreezers. At present, “protein” “myosin” and “secondary structure” have become new keywords and the research content has reached the molecular level. The time zone analysis showed that the keywords “sensory evaluation” and “quality” span the entire research period and have become the cornerstones of surimi research. In conclusion, surimi research is still in an active stage and will have a bright future.
Progress in Research on Biological Activities and Delivery Systems of Resveratrol
TIAN Yanjie, SHI Aimin, LIU Hongzhi, DAI Lei, LIU Zhe, WANG Qiang
2023, 44(1):  371-379.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220308-104
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Resveratrol is a natural bioactive polyphenolic compound found in many plants such as grapes, peanuts and Polygonum cuspidatum. It has a variety of biological activities including antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-tumor activities, and has been widely applied in the fields of foods, medicine and daily chemical products. However, due to its unstable nature and poor water solubility, its application scope is limited. Therefore, the improvement of its bioavailability by using delivery systems will be a key research direction. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties and biological activities of resveratrol are summarized, and the resveratrol delivery systems developed in recent years are reviewed, and problems with some of these systems are pointed out. We hope that this review will provide a reference for the development of new resveratrol delivery systems.
Advances in Understanding the Structure and Biological Activity of Poria cocos Polysaccharides
LIU Peiyao, WANG Kun, LIANG Shan, LI Pan, DU Bing
2023, 44(1):  380-391.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220207-020
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Poria cocos, an important edible and medicinal material, has obvious diuretic, spleen-enhancing and tranquilizing functions. Polysaccharides are one of the most important bioactive ingredients in P. cocos. Polysaccharides from P. cocos have a variety of bioactivities, indicating their great potential in the fields of food, medicine and nutraceutical. In this paper, the structure, bioactivity, mechanism of action and structure-bioactivity relationships of P. cocos polysaccharides are systematically summarized, which will provide a basis for further development of P. cocos polysaccharides.
Advances in Screening of Edible Fungi Capable of Secreting Laccase and Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 by Laccase from Edible Fungi
LOU Haiwei, YANG Chuangming, ZHAO Yu, NIU Yongwu, TIAN Shuangqi, ZHAO Renyong
2023, 44(1):  392-403.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20220128-296
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A large number of grains are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) every year, which causes great harm to the health of humans and livestock. The biodegradation of AFB1, which has the advantages of strong substrate specificity and mild reaction conditions, has attracted considerable attention. Microorganisms safe for consumption should be used to degrade AFB1 in grains in order to avoid introducing new contaminants. Therefore, edible fungi that can secrete laccase are a good choice to degrade AFB1. Based on the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) and the Uniprot (Unified Protein Database) databases, edible fungi with laccase gene or amino acid sequences are selected, and the reported edible fungi capable of secreting laccase are summarized in this article. Then, the methods used to screen for edible fungi that can secrete laccase are reviewed. In addition, the structure and physicochemical properties of laccase from edible fungi are outlined, and recent progress in understanding the role of laccase in the growth of edible fungi and applying laccase from edible fungi for the degradation of AFB1. It is expected that this review can provide theoretical support for the safe, efficient, and green degradation of AFB1 by laccase from edible fungi.