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25 November 2010, Volume 31 Issue 22
Processing Technology
Isolation and Purification of Polysaccharides from Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf
XIAO Xiao-nian1,ZENG Hai-long1,YI Xing2,XIONG Hua1,*
2010, 31(22):  1-5.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022001
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In order to maximize the extraction yield of polysaccharides from the seeds of adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. mayuen Stapf), an orthogonal array design L9(33) was applied to optimize the extraction conditions including raw material/ water as well as extraction temperature and duration, of which the effects on polysaccharide extraction yield were initially dealt with by single factor method. Finally, the extracted polysaccharides were purified on Sephadex G-75 gel column, and the chromatographic characteristics were investigated and purity identification was carried out. Material/water ratio of 1:15 (g/mL), extraction temperature of 100 ℃ and extraction time of 150 min were found optimal, and the extraction yield of polysaccharides was 5.53% under these optimal extraction conditions. The purified polysaccharides were analyzed by UV spectroscopy to contain neither protein nor nucleic acids.

Optimization of Total Flavonoids Extraction from the Leaves of Adinandra nitida and Their Inhibitory Effect on Lung Cancer A549 Cells
ZHAN Yu,ZENG Qing-zhu,FANG Ling
2010, 31(22):  6-10.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022002
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Adinandra nitida is a traditional Chinese herb for health drink, of which leaves are rich in flavonoids. The optimization of total flavonoids extraction from the leaves of Adinandra nitida with ethanol as the extraction solvent was conducted in this work, which was also aimed at examining if the total flavonoids from the leaves of Adinandra nitida have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells. The optimal extraction conditions of total flavonoids from Adinandra nitida leaves were determined by response surface methodology to be: extraction time, 10 min; ethanol concentration, 63%, extraction temperature, 70 ℃; and material/liquid ratio, 1:20. The extraction rate of total flavonoids was (95.58 ± 0.49) % under the optimal extraction conditions. The inhibitory effect of the total flavonoids from the leaves of Adinandra nitida on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. The total flavonoids could significantly inhibit the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells in significant time-dependent and dose-dependent manners.

Effect of High-speed Shearing Pretreatment on Limited Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Soy Protein Isolate
QI Lian-zi,CHI Yu-jie*
2010, 31(22):  11-15.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022003
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The aims of the present study were to determine the effect of high-speed shearing before flavourzyme hydrolysis on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of soybean protein isolate and to analyze the relationship between the DH and dispersibility of soy protein isolate (SPI) in an aqueous solution at the isoelectric point. The introduction of high-speed shearing effectively propelled the enzymatic modification of SPI with flavourzyme. As the hydrolysis time was prolonged from 0.5 to 2.0 h, both the DH and disperisibility of SPI showed a gradual rise. The optimal shearing treatment conditions were found to be: substrate concentration, 100 g/L; shearing rate, 6000 r/min; and shearing duration, 4 min, and the DH of SPI was increased from 1.92% to 4.16% and the disperisibility at the isoelectric point from 20.62% to 46.82% under these conditions, reaching 3.22- and 2.27-fold increments, respectively, but the time required for the completion of enzymatic modification was shortened from 4.5 to 2.0 h.

Application of Wastewater from the Alkaline Refining of Oil to the Enzymatic Degumming of Oil
WEI Zhen-wei1,LI Hong-ling2,WANG Yu2,WANG Jun-guo1,YU Dian-yu2,*
2010, 31(22):  16-19.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022004
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In this study, the wastewater from the alkaline refining of oil was centrifugated, followed by the supernatant was then added to gross soybean oil for the removal of hydrated phosphatides, followed by further enzymatic degumming for the removal of non-hydrated phosphatides in order to achieve the recycle utilization of the wastewater. Based on single-factor and orthogonal array experiments, the optimal conditions for the enzymatic degumming with the wastewater were determined to be: wastewater loading, 2.5%; phospholipase A1 loading, 30 mg/kg; reaction temperature, 55 ℃; reaction pH, 4.9; and stirring speed, 90 r/min. The soybean oil degummed under the optimal conditions showed a phosphorus content of 4.9 mg/kg. This demonstrates that the wastewater from the alkaline refining of oil can be used as an alternative to softened water for the degumming of gross oil, and 34-36 kJ calorie will be saved during the production of 1 kg of finished oil but the yield will be increased by above 0.2%.

Effect of Extraction Conditions on Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanins from the Fruits of Lonicera edulis
BAO Yi-hong,LI Wen-xing,QI Jun-jun,WANG Zhen-yu*
2010, 31(22):  20-24.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022005
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Anthocyanins in the fruits of Lonicera edulis was extracted using aqueous ethanol, and the effects of six extraction conditions on anthocyanin extraction and the abilities of the extracted anthocyanins to scavenge hydroxyl and DPPH free radicals were evaluated by single factor and orthogonal array design methods. Using the Z-score comprehensive evaluation method, the orthogonal array experimental results were analyzed. UV spectrophotometry and a H2O2/Fe system were used to determine anthocyanin extraction yield and hydroxyl free radical scavenging rate, respectively. Ethanol concentration of 70%, material/liquid ratio of 1:15, extraction temperature of 60 ℃, extraction duration of 90 min, pH of 2 and extraction number of 3 were found optimal. The absorbance at 520 nm of the extract obtained under the optimal extraction conditions was 0.789, and tis hydroxyl free radical and DPPH radical scavenging rates were 18.92%and 41.57% respectively.

Preparation of ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Soybean Protein Isolate by Enzymatic Hydrolysis Coupled with Optimized Plastein Reaction
GAO Bo,ZHAO Xin-huai*
2010, 31(22):  25-30.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022006
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Soybean protein hydrolysates (SPHs) with a degree of hydrolysis of 16.6% were prepared by 4 h hydrolysis with alcalase, and then subjected to plastein reaction for modification. Response surface analysis was applied to optimize the conditions for plastein reaction, and the optimal conditions obtained were as following: substrate concentration 45%, enzyme loading 275 U/g proteins, reaction time 3 to 4 h and reaction temperature 30 ℃. Nine modified products were prepared, and their ACE inhibitory activities were evaluated in vitro. It was found that the IC50 values of the modified products were in the range of 0.64 to 1.30 mg/mL, lower than that of SPHs (1.45 mg/mL). The analytical results from size exclusion chromatography confirmed that more large peptides with higher molecular weight were generated in the modified products. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysis coupled with plastein reaction might be served as a new approach to prepare ACE inhibitory peptides with higher activity from soybean protein isolate.

Fixed Bed Esterificaiton of Lactic Acid with Methanol
LIU Mo,JIANG Shao-tong,LI Chao-meng,WU Xue-feng,PAN Li-jun,TANG Xiao-ming
2010, 31(22):  31-35.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022007
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The esterification-hydrolysis method has been reported to be an effective technique for the refining of crude lactic acid product, which based on the principle that lactic acid is easy to react with lower alcohols to form volatile esters, which donate high-purity lactic acid after being hydrolyzed. Under the catalysis of strong acid cation exchange resin bed, the esterification between lactic acid and methanol was performed in the present study. The effects of feed flow rate, reaction temperature and acid/alcohol molar ratio on esterification rate were examined. As the feed flow rate descended, the esterification rate showed a change trend to initially ascend and then keep stable. Increasing reaction temperature led to a higher reaction rate, but the equilibrium esterification rate was kept basically unchanged. With increasing acid/alcohol molar ratio, the equilibrium esterification rate revealed a smaller incremental increase. The reaction rate data were correlated with a kinetic model based on the pseudohomogeneous catalysis. The activation energy, pre-exponential constant and equilibrium constant of the reaction were found to be 33805.56 J/mol, 4856.63 mol-1·L·min-1, and 1.1151, respectively. The mean relative deviation between the experimental and predicted values was 2.74%.

Extraction and SDS-PAGE Analysis of Proteins from Ginkgo biloba Seed
LI Ying-ying1,WU Cai-e1,*,YANG Jian-ting2,JIA Shao-qian1,XU Wen-bin1,PENG Fang-ren1
2010, 31(22):  36-40.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022008
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A comparative investigation of the effects of material pretreatment ways and extraction solvents on protein extraction from Ginkgo biloba seeds was made, and based on the experimental results Tris-HCl as the optimal extraction solvent and lyophilization as the optimal material pretreatment way were selected for the subsequent investigations, including optimization of protein extraction from Ginkgo biloba seeds by single-factor and orthogonal array design methods and SDS-PAGE analysis of the proteins extracted from Ginkgo biloba seeds. The optimal conditions for extracting proteins from this material were determined to be: pH, 8.5; Tris-HCl concentration, 0.15 mol/L; material/liquid ratio, 1:20; and extraction duration, 4 h. A protein yield of 75.01% was obtained under the optimal extraction conditions. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the proteins from Ginkgo biloba seeds contained approximately 13 subunits (mainly 21 kD and 32 kD ones) and that majority of them had a molecular mass varying from 31 to 100 kD, with a relative content of 77%.

Using Fe3O4-PSF Magnetic Composite Ultrafiltration Membrane for the Separation of Ophiopogon japonicus Polysaccharides
XIE Hui-ming,LI Chao,PAN Jian,ZHANG Shi-fa,WU Zhi-gang,ZHU Ying-ying
2010, 31(22):  41-45.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022009
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A Fe3O4-PSF magnetic composite ultrafiltration membrane with a molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of 33000 D was obtained by in-situ generation method. The effects of magnetic intensity and ultrafiltration pressure on retention rate were dealt with under MWCOs of 30000 and 10000 D, and it was found that the optimal magnetic intensity and ultrafiltration pressure were 0.1 T and 0.4 MPa for 30000 D MWCO ultrafiltration and 0.8 T and 0.5 MPa for 10000 D MWCO ultrafiltration, respectively. The polysaccharide-rich extract from Ophiopogon japonicus prepared in this study was continuously separated using the two MWCOs, and the fractions (A, C and D) obtained were subjected to the determination of molecular weight based on the use of the GPC software. Fraction A exhibited a molecular weight of 32610 D, and contained 85.6% polysaccharides having a molecular weight exceeding 30000 D. The molecular weight of fraction C was 24069 D, and it contained as high as 87.6% polysaccharides having a molecular weight varying from 10000 to 30000 D. Fraction D had a molecular weight of 8664 D, and the content of polysaccharides having a molecular weight varying from 1000 to 10000 D in it was as high as 88.7%.

Optimal Process Conditions for the Ultrasonic-assisted Surfactant Extraction of Dioscin from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright
YANG Zhuan-ping,LUO Cang-xue,LI Xiang
2010, 31(22):  46-49.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022010
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The optimal ultrasonic-surfactant extraction of dioscin from Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright was studied. The effects of ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic treatment time, material/liquid ratio and surfactant concentration on the extraction rate of dioscin were explored through single factor and orthogonal array experiments. The optimal conditions for the extraction of dioscin were determined as follows: material/liquid ratio, 1:14; surfactant concentration, 8.6×10-3 mol/L; ultrasonic frequency, 25.8 kHz; and ultrasonic treatment time, 40 min. The extraction rate of dioscin reached up to 6.50% under the optimal extraction conditions, which was higher than that of 3.33% using water extraction. This extraction method is characteristics of high yield, time-saving, energy-saving and pollution-free advantages.

Flash Extraction of Polyphenols from Fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii
LIU Can1,RONG Yong-hai1,WANG Zhi-bin2,RONG Long1,*
2010, 31(22):  50-53.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022011
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The flash extraction method was employed to extract polyphenols from the fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii, and the extraction parameters were optimized by means of response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: biomass-to-solvent ratio 1:25, voltage 153 V, temperature 8.5 ℃, time 3.5 min, and the polyphenols yield 2.73%. The mathematical model of flash extraction of polyphenols from Siraitia grosvenorii was established and the optimal condition was obtained, which offered reference for the industrial extraction of polyphenols of Siraitia grosvenorii.

Enzymolysis of Pneumatophorus japonicns Heads by Using Response Surface Analysis
FU Chun-yan,ZHOU Dan-jun,LU Yan,LIU Bing-bing,YANG Wen-ge*
2010, 31(22):  54-58.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022012
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The effects of neutral, papain and flavor protease on the degree of hydrolysis of Pneumatophorus japonicns heads were studied, then the enzymolysis conditions of flavor protease were optimized by using response surface method (RSM). The results showed that flavor protease has the best enzymolysis effect. The effect of enzyme dosage, enzymolysis temperature and time on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were significant. By the RSM transactional analysis, the optimum enzymolysis conditions were optimized as following: enzyme dosage 1311 U/g, enzymolysis temperature 46 ℃ and time 7 h, respectively. The DH was up to 31.18% under the optimum condition.

Microwave-assisted Extraction of Antibacterial Substances from Inflorescence of Chrysanthemum lavandulaefolium (Fisch.) Mak.
JIANG Yu1,CHEN An-jun1,YU Xin2,*,CHU Fu-hong3,ZHAO Mei-mei2
2010, 31(22):  59-63.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022013
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Box-Behnken experimental design coupled with response surface analysis was employed to optimize the microwaveassisted extraction of antibacterial substances using 50% aqueous ethanol form the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum lavandulaefolium (Fisch.) Mak. Anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of the extract was investigated by determining the diameter of inhibition zone. The optimal conditions of microwave extraction were as follows: liquid-to-solid ratio 40:1(mL/g), microwave treatment time 15 min, microwave power 480 W. The experimental diameter of inhibition zone was 27.02 mm, which was in accordance with the predicted value of 24.56 mm.

Use of Enzymatic or Acid Hydrolysis for Preparation of Microporous Starch from Broken Rice
LI Ying,WANG Ze-nan*,DENG Wei,JIANG Yu,LIU Peng,ZHANG Qiu-zi,WU Hong-yin
2010, 31(22):  64-68.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022014
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Micorporous starch was prepared from broken rice by using enzymatic or acid hydrolysis. The optimum technological conditions were obtained by single factor test and the following orthogonal experiment. The optimum conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis method were as follows: liquid to solid ratio 4:1, enzyme dosage 23.0 U/g, pH 7.0, temperature 60 ℃, time 7 h. The optimum conditions for acid hydrolysis were as follows: liquid to solid ratio 4:1, the concentration of hydrochloric acid 4 mol/L, temperature 35 ℃, time 6 h. Granule surface of 2 microporous starch was studied by scanning electronic microscope and compared, and microporous starch produced by enzymatic hydrolysis had higher porosity, lager and deeper porous structure, than those from acid hydrolysis.

Optimization of HS-SPME Extraction for Volatile Flavor Compounds from Soybean Paste by Response Surface Methodology
QIAO Xin1,HUANG Hong-xia1,QIAO Yu3,KANG Xu1,LI Dong-sheng1,2,*
2010, 31(22):  69-74.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022015
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In order to enhance the extraction efficiency of soybean paste flavor components, Plaekett-Burman design and response surface methodology were used to optimize extraction conditions. Eight factors were evaluated by Plackett-Burman design on the basis of total peak area and further optimization was performed by Box-Behnken experiments. Results showed that extraction temperature, extraction time and the addition amount of inorganic salts played important roles in the extraction of essential flavor components. The optimal extraction parameters were extraction temperature of 56 ℃, extraction time of 42 min and sodium chloride addition amount of 0.98 g. Under the optimal extraction condition, the total content of volatile flavor components was significantly improved according to the increase of total peak area from 12880000 to13107129.

Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
LU Jian-feng,LIN Lin,ZHANG Wei-wei,WENG Shi-bing,YE Ying-wang,JIANG Shao-tong
2010, 31(22):  75-80.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022016
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Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) by aqueous enzymatic extraction method. The optimum extraction parameters were as follows: initial hydrolysis pH 7.5, ratio of viscera to water 1:1, amount of papain 3500 U/g, hydrolysis temperature 55 ℃, hydrolysis time 0.5 h. Under these conditions, the extraction ratio of fish oil was up to 80.94%. The extracted fish oil (namely crude fish oil) was yellow-brown in appearance with fishy smell and light rancidity odor, and it had a lower peroxide value and high acid value. The relative content of the saturated fatty acids accounted for 19.42% of the total fatty acids. The relative content of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 61.76% and 16.83%, respectively. The ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids is 3.63. The above results show that the viscera of channel catfish are a good resource for fish oil production.

Effect of Ultrasound on Adsorption of Non-sugar Components on Calcium Sulfite
HUANG Yong-chun,LU Yu-lun,YANG Feng,HE Ren,REN Xian-e
2010, 31(22):  81-85.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022017
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The effects of ultrasound on the adsorption of non-sugar on calcium sulfite were studied. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm equation were estimated under the optimum condition of ultrasound. It was indicated that ultrasound improved the apparent purity (AP) of the sugar cane juice effectively. The optimum result was achieved when the ultrasound was applied after adding the polyacrylamide (PAM), under the ultrasound power 260 W,ultrasound time of 90 s conditions. Under the optimum condition, the apparent purity of sugar cane juice was increased by 2.13%. Results indicated that the adsorption kinetics was accord with granulometric diffusion equation, and the adsorption isotherm was accord with Freundlich equation.

Use of Ultra-filtration for Separation of Insulin-like Growth Factor-Ⅰ from Bovine Colostrums
GUO Hong,CHEN Qing-sen*,YAN Ya-li
2010, 31(22):  86-90.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022018
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Insulin-like growth factors play important roles in the cell differentiation, animal growth, development, reproduction and metabolism, and are largely present in the bovine colostrums. In present study, insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ) was separated from bovine colostrums by using ultra-filtration, and the degreasing and ultra-filtration conditions were optimized. The IGF-Ⅰand total protein concentrations were detected by radio-immunoassay(RIA) and coomassie blue staining, respectively. The results showed that the optimum degreasing conditions were as follows: centrifugation temperature 36 ℃, centrifugation speed 4000 r/min and centrifugation time 15 min. Macromolecular impurities protein and lactose could be removed after ultra-filtration with molecular weight cut-off 10-20 kD and 6 kD membrane, respectively. The relative concentration of IGF-Ⅰwas 3660 times higher than that in colostrums after ultra-filtration.

Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Antimicrobial Substances from Tephrosia vogelii Hook f. Seeds
HU Lin-zi1,2,JIANG Yu3,MA Yong-quan2,YU Xin2,*
2010, 31(22):  91-95.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022019
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Ultrasonic wave was applied for extraction of effective component from Tephrosia vogelii Hook f. seeds. Effects of liquid/material ratio, extraction time and ethanol concentration on the antimicrobial effect of the extract were investigated. On the basis of single factor tests, the method of response surface analysis (RSA) with three factors and three levels was adopted. Results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: liquid-to-material ratio 12:1 mL/g, the ethanol concentration 55% and the ultrasonic processing time 52 min. Under these conditions, the inhibition zone of 20% original concentrated extract for Staphlococcus aureus reached up to 20.24 mm, which was in close agreement of the predicted value(20.70 mm).

Optimization of Alkaline Extraction Conditions for Crude Polysaccharides from Rana Egg Jelly by Response Surface Methodology
LIU Xiao-dan,ZHENG Ming-zhu,LIU Jing-sheng*
2010, 31(22):  96-100.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022020
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Rana egg jelly was used as the raw material to extract polysaccharides by an alkaline extraction method. Based on single factor experiments, NaOH concentration, material-liquid ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time during extraction process were optimized by response surface methodology. Results exhibited the best extraction conditions were NaOH concentration of 1.2 mol/L, material-liquid ratio of 1: 8, extraction temperature of 56 ℃ and extraction time of 73 min. The extraction rate of crude polysaccharides can reach up to 24.01 mg/g.

Optimal Extraction Parameters and Antibacterial Properties of Pigment from Chestnut Shell
ZHOU Guo-yan1,SANG Ying-ying1,GONG Chun-bo2,CAO Bin-hong1,WANG Ai-min1
2010, 31(22):  101-105.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022021
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Brown pigment was extracted from chestnut shell by both alcohol-method and ultrasound-method. Both methods were analyzed and compared. The antibacterial effect and application of pigment from chestnut shell were also investigated. Results indicated that the ultrasound-method could save time and energy to obtain high extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions for ultrasonic extraction were ethanol concentration of 40% ultrasonic power of 200 W, and extraction time of 8 min. The pigment from chestnut shell had antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Actinomycete and Aspergillus niger. Therefore, the pigment has preservative effect on juice and can be developed to be a natural food preservative.

Effect of Vacuum Treatment on Sugar Permeability of Coconut Kernel
WANG Guo-liang,LIU Si-xin,CAI Kun,CHEN Bao-zhu,ZHAO Ji-qing,LI Cong-fa*
2010, 31(22):  106-109.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022022
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Effect of vacuum treatment on sugar permeability of coconut kernel was investigated in this paper. Sugar permeability rate exhibited an increase with the increase of vacuum treatment duration within 15 min. No significant change in sugar permeability was observed at the vacuum treatment time over than 15 min. Increased number of repeated vacuum treatments did not exhibit obvious effect on sugar permeability of coconut kernel. After removing vacuum treatment, sugar permeability rate of coconut kernel could increase by extending gas-filling time within 90 min. During immersing coconut kernel in sugar solution, sugar permeability of coconut kernel was mainly occurred in the first 6 h after vacuum treatment. In addition, it was better for sugar permeability to vacuum-treated coconut kernel with immersion into sugar solution. Higher temperature of sugar solution could promote sugar permeability within 90 ℃.

Optimal Extraction Processing of Red Pigment in Salvia miltiorrhiza by Subcritical Water
ZHANG Li-ying1,YU Guo-ping1,*,YU Chun-miao2
2010, 31(22):  110-114.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022023
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Red pigment was extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza using subcritical water. The major factors including extraction temperature, extraction time, particle size, liquid-material ratio and ethanol concentration played an important role in subcritical water extraction processing. The effects of above factors on extraction rate of red pigment were investigated. Moreover, the optimal extraction conditions of red pigment were explored by orthogonal experiments to be extraction temperature of 200 ℃, particle size of 40-60 meshes, liquid-material ratio of 25:1, extraction time of 10 min and ethanol concentration of 15%. The extraction rate of red pigment from Salvia miltiorrhiza was 0.319% under the optimal extraction conditions.

Optimization of HTST Sterilization Processing for Orange Juice Based on CFD
WANG Jin-feng,TANG Yi,XIE Jing*,YUAN Xun-hong,XIAO Hong
2010, 31(22):  115-118.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022024
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In order to explore the accurate sterilization processing with reduced energy, orange juice in bottle was used as the material to subject high temperature-short time (HTST) sterilization for analyzing the lowest sterilization temperature on common bacteria. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology was used to design the mimic experiments of HTST sterilization for orange juice to explore the optimal sterilization time under different temperatures. Results indicated that the optimal sterilization time was 12 min at 120 ℃, 11 min at 125 ℃, 8 min at 130 ℃ or 7 min at 135 ℃. Meanwhile, the energy consumption in above-mentioned four conditions were 127, 150, 217 or 263 W according to the calculation of Carnot cycle. Based on the lowest energy consumption principle, the optimal sterilization processing was 12 min at 120 ℃.

Optimization of Microwave Extraction Processing for Trehalose by Orthogonal Polynomial Regression Design
CHEN Yan1,CHENG Sheng2,*,WANG Xiao-li3,LIN Song-yi3
2010, 31(22):  119-123.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022025
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In order to facilitate the development and utilization of waste beer yeast resource, trehalose was extracted from waste beer yeast by microwave extraction processing. The optimal extraction processing parameters were explored by single factor and orthogonal polynomial regression experiments. Results indicated that a regression model for trehalose extraction was Y=3.672+0.00142Z12 - 0.0297Z1+0.00187Z3 (where, Z1, microwave treatment time; Z2, liquid-solid ratio; Z3, microwave power). The optimal extraction conditions were liquid-solid ratio of 40:1, microwave power of 500 W, microwave treatment time of 25 min, and microwave treatment temperature of 80 ℃. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of trehalose could reach up to 5.07%. Compared with microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted methods, microwave treatment has less yield of trehalose; however, microwave extraction time was only 1/9 of microwave-assisted extraction method, and 1/15 of ultrasound-assisted extraction method.

Purification and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus Mycelium
CAO Xiang-yu,LIU Jian-li*,LU Xiu-li,LOU Hong,HUO Ya-peng
2010, 31(22):  124-128.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022026
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Crude polysaccharides were extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium by cellulase. Optimal extraction conditions were explored to evaluate the effects of enzyme dosage, extraction temperature, extraction time and pH on extraction rate of polysaccharides through orthogonal experiments. Crude polysaccharides were purified with DEAE-32 and Sephadex G100 column chromatography. The purity of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium was determined by UV scanning and cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Antioxidant activity of polysccharides was evaluated by the scavenging capability of surperoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals and the inhibition rate of erythrocyte hemolysis. Results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions for preparing polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium by cellulase were enzyme dosage of 1.0%, extraction temperature of 55 ℃, extraction time of 2 h and pH 5.3. The extraction rate was up to (4.91 ± 0.15)% under the optimal extraction conditions. The purified polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium revealed antioxidant activity such as scavenging capability of free radicals and suppression of erythrocyte hemolysis in a dosage-dependent manner. Therefore, the polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium have strong antioxidant activity in vitro in a certain concentration range.

Extraction Processing of Antibacterial Substances from Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl Flowers
LUO Yu-yan1,LU Cheng-ying1,2,*,WU Gang2,GUI Ke-yin2
2010, 31(22):  129-133.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022027
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Objective: To optimize the extraction processing of antibacterial substances from Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl flowers. Methods: On the basis of antibacterial activity as an index, orthogonal experiments were used to investigate the effects of solvent concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time on extraction rate of antibacterial substances from Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl flowers. Results: The optimal extraction conditions were 90% ethanol, extraction temperature of 60 ℃ and extraction time of 2 h. The extract from Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl flowers had the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.125g/mL and the minimum bactericidal concentration of 0.25 g/mL for Staphylococlus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus subitilis, Proteusbacillus vulgaris and Escheichia coli. Strong acid and heating treatments of the extract could result in the loss of antibacterial effect. On the other hand, antibacterial activity of the extract was not affected by UV, oxidants and reductants in alkaline environments. Antibacterial substances were existed in ethyl acetate and n-butanol phase during extraction process. Conclusion: The extraction processing in this study is feasible to extract bioactive substances with antibacterial activity from Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl flowers.

Ultrasonic Extraction and Protein Removal of Polysaccharides from Blueberry
SUN Xi-yun1,LIU Ning2,MENG Xian-jun1,*,ZHU Jin-yan1,LIU Xiao-jing1
2010, 31(22):  134-138.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022028
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Ultrasonic treatment was used to extract polysaccharides from blueberry. The optimal extraction processing parameters were optimized by orthogonal experiments to be extraction time of 40 min, extraction temperature of 50 ℃ and ultrasonic power of 80 W. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the yield of polysaccharides from blueberry was 2.34%. Three methods for removing protein from crude polysaccharides extracted from blueberry were compared. Results indicated that the combinatorial method between enzymatic hydrolysis and trichloroacetic acid-n-butanol was better than the single method for protein removal rate of 95.32%. In contrast, the retention rate of polysaccharides was more than 80%. The method was simple and suitable to remove protein in polysaccharides from blueberry.

Extraction of Glutathione and Wheat Germ Protein from Defatted Wheat Germ
HUANG Ji-nian,SONG Guo-hui,SUN Qiang,ZHAN Chuan-bao,WEI Hong
2010, 31(22):  139-144.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022029
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In this paper, the extraction and separation of glutathione (GSH) and wheat germ protein from defatted wheat germ was investigated. Glutathione was extracted from defatted wheat germ under the low pH condition. Glutathione and wheat germ protein in extract were separated by ultra-filtration method. The protein residue after GSH extraction was subjected to further alkali extraction. The obtained protein was purified by isoelectric precipitation method. The extraction conditions for GSH were optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiments to be material-liquid ratio of 1:13, pH of 6.3, extraction temperature of 55 ℃ and extraction time of 15 min. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the yield and extraction rate of GSH was up to 0.31% and 72.1%. The extraction conditions for wheat germ protein were optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiments to be material-liquid ratio of 1:11, pH of 10.5, extraction temperature of 65 ℃ and extraction time of 60 min. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the yield and extraction rate of protein was up to 39.2% and 90.4% based on the amount of alkali extraction precipitate. The yield and extraction rate of protein were 20.8% and 58.8% based on the amount of defatted wheat germ. The ultra-filtration liquid and supernatant after alkali precipitation was combined. The optimum pH for precipitating protein from combined solution was 4.2. The precipitation rate and yield of protein were 97.5% and 85.2%. After the combination, the extraction rate of protein was 81.1% based on the amount of deffated wheat germ.

Extraction of Small Peptides from Sesame by Enzymatic Hydrolysis
LIU Ai-wen,CHEN Xiao-gang,CHEN Xin,BU Hai-dong
2010, 31(22):  145-148.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022030
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Black sesame seeds were degreased using several degreasing agents including ethyl acetate, isopropanol and petroleum ether. Sesame protein was extracted by alkali extraction and acid precipitation. The optimal single enzyme was selected by the degree of hydrolysis. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized through orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that ethyl acetate was the most effective degreasing agent with a degreasing rate of 90.22%. Alkali protease was the optimal enzyme for the hydrolysis of sesame protein. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were substrate concentration of 1.0 g/100mL, hydrolysis temperature of 40.0 ℃, hydrolysis pH of 9.0, enzyme-concentration (E/S) ratio of 3.0%, and enzymatic hydrolysis time of 4.0 h. The degree of hydrolysis of sesame protein reached up to 24.10% and the recovery rate of total nitrogen was 78.28% under the optimal hydrolysis conditions. The average length of prepared small peptides was 2.93.

Microwave-assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Gynstemma pentaphyllum
WANG Qing-hao,FANG Fang,ZHANG Xiong-lu
2010, 31(22):  149-152.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022031
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Microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Gynstemma pentaphyllum was explored by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The optimal extraction processing parameters were 30% ethanol as solvent, material-liquid ratio of 1:32 (g/mL), and microwave treatment time of 15 min. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of flavonoids from Gynstemma pentaphyllum was 4.18%. Compared with traditional extraction method, microwave-assisted extraction can shorten extraction time and improve the extraction rate of flavonoids from Gynstemma pentaphyllum.

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Processing of Collagen
ZHAO Yan-yan,HU Lin-lin,FANG Fang,JIANG Shao-tong
2010, 31(22):  153-155.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022032
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Collagen was used as the material to prepare collagen polypeptide through enzymatic hydrolysis by trypsin. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were explored by single factor and response surface experiments on the basis of hydrolysis degree. Results indicated that the optimal hydrolysis conditions were hydrolysis pH of 6.91, hydrolysis temperature of 60 ℃, enzyme dosage of 200 mg per 1 g collagen, material-liquid ratio of 1: 615 (g/mL), and hydrolysis time of 4 h. Under the optimal hydrolysis conditions, the hydrolysis degree of collagen was 29.36%. The solubility and emulsification capability of hydrolyzed collagen were significantly improved.

Comparison of Proteases for Hydrolyzing Porcine Hemoglobin
YANG Wan-gen1,WANG Wei-dong1,SUN Hui-gang1,MA Mei-hu2,*
2010, 31(22):  156-159.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022033
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In order to screen a protease suitable for producing heme-enriched polypeptides, the effects of various proteases on hydrolysis efficiency of porcine hemoglobin were compared. Under the optimal pH and temperature of proteases such as AS1398 neutral protease, 2709 alkaline protease, papain and trypsin, orthogonal experiments were used to explore the effects of enzyme type, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration and hydrolysis time on the hydrolysis degree of porcine hemoglobin and the contents of polypeptides and heme. Results showed that the effects of enzyme type and hydrolysis time on the degree of hydrolysis reached an extremely significant level (P < 0.01). Substrate concentration was the most important factor to affect the content of polypeptide production. The effect of enzyme type on heme content reached a significant level (P< 0.05). Neutral protease is beneficial for the increase of hydrolysis degree and papain is good for the increase of polypeptide content, while alkali protease is helpful for the increase of heme content.

Optimal Enzymatic Degradation of Cartilage Protein from Polyodon spathula
WU Yue1,2,3,SHEN Shuo1,3,XIONG Shan-bai1,2,3,ZHAO Si-ming1,2,3,HUANG Qi-lin1,2,3
2010, 31(22):  160-163.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022034
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In order to improve the utilization value and biological activity of cartilage protein, Polyodon spathula cartilage was used as the material to extract cartilage protein by microwave-alkali extraction method. The optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of cartilage protein were explored by single factor and orthogonal experiments to be enzymatic hydrolysis temperature of 50 ℃, cartilage protein concentration of 1%, hydrolysis pH of 7.5, alkaline protease amount of 9000 U, and hydrolysis time of 5 h. The yield of amino nitrogen was 21.89% under the optimal conditions.

Effect of Zeolite-loaded Chitosan on the Clarification of Apple Cider
XI Chao,ZHANG Zan,YAN Zhen-hua,DAI Hong-yi*
2010, 31(22):  164-169.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022035
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Apple cider fermented by “Lujia 6” was used as the material to explore the effect of zeolite-loaded chitosan on the clarification of apple cider through response surface methodology on the basis of single factor experimental results according to the Box-Behnken central composite design principle. A second order quadratic mathematic model was established for the clarification of apple cider. The response values and contour plots were established by the clarity of apple cider to investigate the effects of zeolite-loaded chitosan dosage, treatment time and treatment temperature on clarification efficiency of apple cider. The optimal processing conditions were zeolite-loaded chitosan dosage of 11.6 g/L, treatment time of 47.6 min, and treatment temperature of 27 ℃. Compared with traditional clarification method, the clarity of apple cider treated by zeolite-loaded chitosan was enhanced by 16.8%. The soluble proteins and total phenols in apple cider treated by zeolite-loaded chitosan exhibited an obvious decrease; however, total acids, soluble solids, catechol, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid did not exhibit obvious change and the epicatechin exhibited a decrease. These investigations can provide theoretical references for the clarification of apple cider.

Preparation and Characteristic of Medium-chain Fatty Acid Liposome
ZHENG Hui-juan,LIU Cheng-mei*,LIU Wei,LIU Wei-lin,YANG Shui-bing,YIN Ting-ting,TONG Gui-hong
2010, 31(22):  170-175.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022036
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Film-dispersion-dynamic high-pressure micro-fluidizer (Film dispersion-DHPM) method and DHPM-freezethawing method were used to prepare medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) liposome with lecithin and cholesterol as the membrane materials, and MCFA as the core material. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) and average particle size of MCFA liposome were chosen to evaluate both preparation methods. The optimal preparation conditions of MCFA liposome using Film dispersion-DHPM method were lipid content of 8% (m/V), lecithin-cholesterol ratio of 5:1 (m/m), treatment pressure of 140 MPa and repeated treatment number of 4. The optimal preparation conditions of MCFA liposome using DHPM-freeze-thawing method were freezing time of 0.5 h, maltose as the cryoprotectant content of 3% (m/V) and thawing temperature of 40 ℃. Under the optimal preparation conditions, the average diameter and EE of MCFA liposome prepared by Film-dispersion-DHPM method were 87.1 nm and (66.5 ± 3.1)%; MCFA liposome prepared by DHPM-freeze-thawing method exhibited a relative higher average diameter and lower EE, which were 110.1 nm and (53.5 ± 4.9)%, respectively. The stability of MCFA liposome was explored by leakage kinetics. Results exhibited that MCFA liposome prepared by Film dispersion-DHPM method and DHPM-freezethawing method had good stability. Therefore, both methods can be used to prepare MCFA liposome.

Effect of Enzymatic Modification on Viscosity and Rehydration of Lotus Seed Powder
XIE Jing,TU Shi,LIU Rui*
2010, 31(22):  176-179.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022037
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In freeze-drying process, the heat transfer efficiency of high-starch fruit-vegetable juice is reduced due to its high viscosity. In this study, α-amylase was used to appropriately hydrolyze the starch in lotus seed powder to reduce its viscosity, improve the freeze-drying efficiency and explore the relationship between viscosity and rehydration. Based on the effects of hydrolysis time, hydrolysis temperature, pH and enzyme amount on the viscosity of lotus seed powder, the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were achieved by orthogonal experiments to be enzyme amount of 16.56 U/mL, hydrolysis temperature of 70 ℃, hydrolysis time of 15 min and pH 6.5. The viscosity of hydrolyzate was 77 mPa·s and its DE value was 4.95%. Four factors had a significant impact on results (P < 0.01). At the same time, the viscosity of lotus seed powder was negatively correlated with the rehydration property. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis and freeze-drying had a significant influence on rehydration property (P < 0.05).

Extraction of Crust Oil and Kernel Oil from Pepper Seeds by Two-step Extraction Technology
ZHENG Xu-xu,YIN Zhong-yi,DU Ruo-yu,FANG Ming-jian,WANG Xing-min,LI Qiang
2010, 31(22):  180-184.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022038
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Da-Hong-Pao pepper seeds were used as the raw materials to extract crust oil and kernel oil by two-step extraction technology using the same kind of solvent. The extraction processing was optimized on the basis of extraction rate. Results indicated that the extraction rates of crust oil and kernel oil with solvent oil under the optimal conditions were 96.00 % and 97.51%, respectively. The crust oil was mainly composed of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid ester such as palmitic acid, palmitolei acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid. The kernel oil mainly contained unsaturated fatty acid ester such as oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which can be expected as a kind of high nourishing and health edible oil.

Optimization of Extraction for Cactus Flavonoids by Response Surface Methodolgy
ZHU Zhu,LENG Jin-song
2010, 31(22):  185-189.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022039
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Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction processing of cactus flavonoids according to central composite design principle based on the single factor experimental results. Through screening of factors and levels, and the analysis of cross-interaction among factors, the optimal extraction conditions for cactus flavonoids were material-liquid ratio of 1:20, extraction temperature of 52.5 ℃, extraction time of 4 h, and alcohol concentration of 85%. The extraction rate of flavonoids was 0.784% under the optimal extraction conditions.

Extraction Processing of Total Flavonoids from Oenanthe javanica using Accelerated Solvent Extraction Method
TANG Qiao-yu1,ZHOU Yi-feng2
2010, 31(22):  190-193.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022040
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In order to improve the extraction efficiency, the extraction processing of total flavonoids from Oenanthe javanica was optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiments based on the extraction rate of total flavonoids as an evaluation index. Results indicated that the optimal extraction processing parameters were ethanol concentration of 60%, extraction temperature of 100 ℃, extraction time of 5 min and repeated extraction number of 3. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of total flavonoids was 3.64%. This accelerated solvent extraction method has the advantages of shortening extraction time and improving extraction rate of total flavonoids.

Extraction, Isolation and Free Radical-Scavenging Activity of Flavonoids from Prunella vulgaris Linn
XIONG Shuang-li,LI An-lin
2010, 31(22):  194-197.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022041
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The aims of this study are to explore the effect of ultrasonic-assisted extraction on extraction rate of flavonoids from Prunella vulgaris Linn, optimize extraction processing of flavonoids using orthogonal experiments, screen appropriate macroporous resin for flavonoid purification, and investigate the scavenging capability of flavonoids on free radicals. Results indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction did not increase the extraction rate of flavonoids from Prunella vulgaris Linn. The optimal extraction conditions were ethanol concentration of 50%, material-liquid ratio of 1:30, extraction temperature of 80 ℃ and extraction time of 3 h. The extraction rate of total flavonoids was up to 5.05% under the optimal conditions. Meanwhile, macroporous resin AB-8 was suitable for the separation of total flavonoids. UV-visible spectrum exhibited that flavanone and dihydroflavonol were the major components. The scavenging capability of total flavonoids from Prunella vulgaris Linn on DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals was a concentration-dependent manner, which was close to the scavenging capability of ascorbic acid and higher than that of tert-butylated hydroxyanisonle (BHA).

Optimal Extraction of Polysaccharides from Different Parts of Clematis songarica Bge. in Xinjiang
GULIBAHAER Ababaikeli
2010, 31(22 ):  198-202.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022042
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Polysaccharides were extracted from different parts of Clematis songarica Bge. and determined by using spectrophotometry method with glucose as the standard. The optimal extraction parameters of polysaccharides were explored by orthogonal experiments to be extraction temperature of 90 ℃, material-liquid ratio of 1: 60, extraction time of 2.5 h and repeated extraction number of 5 for stem; extraction temperature of 90 ℃, material-liquid ratio of 1: 60, extraction time of 2 h and repeated extraction number of 5 for leaves; extraction temperature of 90 ℃, material-liquid ratio of 1: 60, extraction time of 2 h and repeated extraction number of 5 for flowers; extraction temperature of 90 ℃, material-liquid ratio of 1: 60, extraction time 2 h and repeated extraction number of 5 for fruits. The absorbance of polysaccharides extracted from stem, leaves, flowers and fruits at 600 nm were 0.408, 0.493, 0.418 and 0.315, respectively.

Microwave-drying Characteristics and Quality of Cut Dioscorea opposite Slices
REN Guang-yue,HUA Chun-guang,DUAN Xu,ZHU Wen-xue
2010, 31(22):  203-206.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022043
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The effects of microwave power, microwave power per unit mass and slice thickness on drying characteristics of cut Dioscorea opposita were investigated in this paper. The optimal drying processing was explored through orthogonal experiments by evaluating energy efficiency, drying rate and polysaccharide content. Results showed that the drying process exhibited a three-phase process including increasing speed, constant speed and decreasing speed phases. The optimal processing parameters were microwave power of 600 W, microwave power per unit mass of 8 W/g and slice thickness of 5 mm. These studies provide a theoretical reference for microwave drying of cut Dioscorea opposite slices.

Fermentation and Extraction of Resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum
CAO Liang,ZHOU Jian-jun*,WEI Rui,LIU Yi-hong
2010, 31(22):  207-210.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022044
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Objective: To explore the fermentation and extraction processing of resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum. Methods: Polygonum cuspidatum from Hanzhong area was used as the material to explore the optimal fermentation and extraction conditions of resveratrol by orthogonal experiments. Results: The optimal conditions for fermentation were fermentation temperature of 45 ℃, material-liquid ratio of 1:3, and fermentation time of 48 h. The conversion rate of polydatin was 96.1% under the optimal fermentation conditions. The optimal conditions for the extraction of resveratrol were 98% methanol as solvent, solid-liquid ratio of 1:6, extraction time of 1 h, and extraction repeat number of 3. The yield of resveratrol was 1.912% under the optimal extraction conditions. The extraction rate of resveratrol could reach up to 90% through optimal fermentation and extraction. Conclusion: These studies provide a theoretical reference for the fermentation and extraction of resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum.

Optimization of Processing Parameters for Butter Hotpot Seasoning
DAN Xiao-rong1,LI Dong-gang1,LU Xiao-li2
2010, 31(22):  211-215.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022045
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The fully automatic stir-frying parameters of butter hotpot seasoning were optimized through response surface methodology. The optimal processing parameters were Pixian bean paste of 16.8% (m/m), stir-frying time of 27 min, stir-frying temperature of 185 ℃, spice amount of 0.66% and rotation speed of 31 r/min. Under these conditions, the grade values of butter hotpot seasoning were 90.44 for shape, 91.22 for color, 90 for aroma, 88.44 for turbid, 92 for taste, and the best comprehensive index of 90.58. These studies can provide a theoretical reference for future product improvement of butter hotpot seasoning.

Optimization of Porous Starch by Response Surface Methodology
ZHOU Qiong1,2,WANG Hao-dong2,ZHANG Bo2,CHEN Zong-dao1,*
2010, 31(22):  216-220.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022046
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The preparation parameters of porous starch were optimized by single-factor, partial-factor and response surface experiments. Results indicated that the optimal preparation parameters were reaction temperature of 51.92 ℃, reaction time of 13.15 h, enzyme addition amount of 4.20%, starch concentration (V/V) 14.24%, reaction pH of 4.4 and glucoamylase-amylase ratio of 4:1. Under these optimal conditions, the water-absorbing capacity of porous starch was 156.01%.

Optimization of Extraction Processing of Soluble Dietary Fiber from Peanut Stems by Microwave Technology
LI Hong-xia1,2,WANG Shi-qing1,*,YU Li-na2,YANG Qing-li2,LIU Zhi-qiang1,ZHANG Yue-ting1
2010, 31(22):  221-225.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022047
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In this study, peanut stems were used as the raw materials to extract soluble dietary fiber (SDF) through microwaveassisted technology. The optimal microwave-assisted extraction processing conditions were explored by single factor and orthogonal experiments through evaluating the effects of soaking time, microwave treatment time, microwave power, microwave treatment temperature and material-liquid ratio on extraction rate of SDF from peanut stems. Results indicated that the optimal microwaveassisted extraction processing conditions were soaking time of 55 min, microwave treatment time of 4 min, microwave power of 800W, microwave treatment temperature of 90 ℃ and solid-liquid ratio of 1:14. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of SDF was 6.0% and the content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in SDF was 94.68%. The average comprehensive score of SDF was 65.12%. These studies can provide a theoretical reference for the extraction of SDF from peanuts stems.

Extraction Processing and Physico-chemical Properties of Polysaccharides from Seeds of Plantago asiatica L.
LIN Hui-xia,NIE Shao-ping*,YIN Jun-yi,LI Jing,LI Chang,XIE Ming-yong
2010, 31(22):  226-231.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022048
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Polysaccharides were isolated from seeds of Plantago asiatica L. by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, and then subjected to protein removal by Sevag method and purification using gel permeation chromatography on SephacrylTM S- 400HR column. Extraction conditions were optimized by orthogonal design and response surface methodology on the basis of extraction rate of polysaccharides. Three fractions were obtained and named as PLCP-1, PLCP-2 and PLCP-3. Results showed that PLCP-2 (also named as PLP) was a kind of homogeneous polysaccharides with molecular weight of 1849268 Da determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography. The contents of polysaccharides and protein were 87.32% and 1.16%, respectively; while the content of uronic acid was 14.66%. The optimal extraction conditions were extraction temperature of 99℃, material-liquid ratio of 1:30 (g/mL) and extraction time of 5.45 h. Under these optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of polysaccharides from Plantago asiatica L. was 13.79%, which was in agreement with the predicted value. This optimal extraction conditions are economic, simple and feasible, and also provide a theoretical reference for industrial preparation of polysaccharides from seeds of Plantago asiatica L..

Purification of Lac Red Pigment by Macroporous Resin
ZHANG Hong1,2,FANG Gui-gan1,ZHENG Hua2,GAN Jin2
2010, 31(22):  232-236.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022049
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The purification of lac red pigment using macroporous absorption resin was investigated in this paper. The absorbance of lac red pigment was used to evaluate the absorption characteristics and desorption parameters of macroporous resins for screening optimal resin and establish an optimal purification processing parameters. Results indicated that type AB-8 macroporous resin had the best absorption capacity. The absorption rate was up to 90% at the condition of absorption solution with 20% ethanol at pH 7. Compared with lac red pigment without treatment of macroporous resin, the color value of lac red pigment treated with macroporous resin exhibited an enhancement of 2.96 folds. Meanwhile, macroporous resin can be repeatedly used. Therefore, it is feasible to purify lac red pigment by using macroporous resin.

Enzymatic Preparation of Angiotensin Ⅰ -converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Products Derived from Viscera of Channel Catfish
YANG Xiao-jun,LU Jian-feng*,LIN Lin,DUAN Rui-xia,WENG Shi-bing,YE Ying-wang,JIANG Shao-tong
2010, 31(22):  237-241.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022050
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In this study, viscera of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were used as the raw materials to prepare angiotensin Ⅰ-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory products on the basis of its inhibitory rate of ACE. Papain was identified as the optimal enzyme. The effects of enzymatic hydrolysis time, enzyme addition amount, initial pH, hydrolysis temperature, and liquidmaterial ratio on the inhibitory rate of prepared ACE inhibitory products were investigated by orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were initial pH of 7.5, hydrolysis temperature of 60 ℃, and liquidmaterial ratio of 2:1. Under the optimal conditions, the ACE inhibitory rate of enzymatic hydrolysate reached up to 72.34%.

Optimal Extraction of Coumestrol from Alfalfa by Response Surface Methodology
SONG Wan-rui,NIE Shao-ping,HU Xiao-juan,GAO Li-ying,QIU Qi-qi,LI Chang,XIE Ming-yong*
2010, 31(22):  242-246.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022051
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The extraction processing of coumestrol from Alfalfa was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). On the basis of single-factor experiments, a mathematical regression model was established for predicting between extraction rate of crude coumestrol and three critical extraction factors including material-liquid ratio, extraction temperature and extraction time. The optimal extraction processing parameters were material-liquid ratio of 27.28:1 (mL/g), extraction temperature of 67.7 ℃ and extraction time of 13.77 h. Under these optimal conditions, the actual extraction rate of crude coumestrol from Alfalfa was 2.64‰, which was well consistent with the predicted value. These results can provide a theoretical reference for the extraction of coumestrol from Alfalfa.

Ultrasonic Extraction of Flavonoids from Euryale ferox Planted in Suzhou
ZHANG Ran1,WANG Jing2,*,ZHU Chun-hua1,ZHU Zhen-hua1
2010, 31(22):  247-250.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022052
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Euryale ferox planted in Suzhou was used as the raw material to extract flavonoids by ultrasonic extraction. The optimal extraction processing conditions for flavonoids from Euryale ferox were explored by orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that the impacts of factors on extraction rate from strong to weak were ultrasonic power, ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time. The optimal extraction processing parameters were ultrasonic power of 200 W, 80% ethanol as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 40 ℃ and extraction time of 60 min. The extraction rate of flavonoids was 0.146 mg/g under the optimal extraction conditions.

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Rice Bran Protein
LI Xin-hua,FU Yan-xin,ZHENG Yu-yan*
2010, 31(22):  251-254.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022053
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Rice bran was used as the raw material to extract rice bran protein by alkali extraction method and enzymatic hydrolysis method. The optimal extraction processing parameters were explored by orthogonal experiments through evaluating the effects of material-liquid ratio, enzyme addition amount, extraction time and extraction temperature on extraction rate of rice bran protein. Results indicated that the optimal extraction processing parameters for alkali extraction method were material-liquid ratio of 1:10, extraction time of 2.5 h, and extraction temperature of 45 ℃. The extraction rate of rice bran protein was 57.8% under the optimal extraction conditions. Similarly, the optimal extraction processing parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis method were enzyme dosage of 2% (E/S), hydrolysis time of 2.5 h, hydrolysis temperature of 50 ℃. The extraction rate of rice bran protein was 38.4% under the optimal hydrolysis conditions. These studies will provide a theoretical reference for protein extraction from rice bran.

Optimization of Lycopene Extraction from Red Grapefruit by Response Surface Methodology
XU Yuan,WANG Lu-feng,XU Xiao-yun,PAN Si-yi*
2010, 31(22):  255-259.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022054
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The extraction processing of lycopene from red grapefruit was investigated in this paper. Based on single factor experiments, response surface methodology was used to explore the effects of extraction temperature, extraction time and liquidmaterial ratio as well as their cross-interactions on extraction rate of lycopene. An extraction regression equation was established through orthogonal experiments and the optimal extraction processing parameters were petroleum ether as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 30 ℃, extraction time of 3.8 h and liquid-material ratio of 3.5:1. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of lycopene was 15.61μg/mL. The processing parameters achieved from these experiments were accurate and can be applied to the extraction and production of lycopene from red grapefruit.

Cold Pressed Processing of Sesame Oil
WEI Dong,DOU Fu-liang
2010, 31(22):  260-263.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022055
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The optimal technological parameters of cold pressed sesame oil were investigated by single factor and orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that the optimal extraction condition processing parameters were the sesame power granule size of 20 mesh, extraction temperature of 50 ℃, extraction time of 60 min and extraction pressure of 40 MPa. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction of sesame oil was 43.46%. Meanwhile, the sesame oil extracted under the optimal extraction conditions was rich in antioxidant components without benzopyrene, and exhibited a better physicochemical properties and oxidative stability than ordinary sesame oil.

Extraction of Hesperidin from Sweet Orange Peels
ZHU Yu-chang1,2,ZHOU Da-zhai1,2,WANG Cheng2
2010, 31(22):  264-267.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022056
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In order to develop the resource of sweet orange peels with maximum economic profits, optimal extraction conditions of hesperidin from sweet orange peels were explored by single factor and orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions were extraction temperature of 70 ℃, extraction time of 3.5 h and material-liquid ratio of 1:30 with 80% methanol as solvent. Through comparing the contents of hesperidin in 6 kinds of samples, no obvious difference was observed. Extraction efficiencies of different extraction equipments were compared. Rapid extraction-ASE exhibited the highest extraction efficiency and can be used for industrial production. This extraction method has promising potential due to its stability, simple equipment, less time consumption and industrial scale.

Optimization of Microwave and Ultrasonic Extraction of Polysaccharides from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus Fruits by Response Surface Methodology
FENG Ying1,CHEN Qiao-hong1,MENG Xian-jun1,WANG Jian-guo2
2010, 31(22):  268-272.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022057
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The response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design principle was used to optimize processing parameters of ultrasonic and microwave extraction for polysaccharides from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits. Results showed that the optimal processing conditions of ultrasonic extraction were material-liquid ratio of 1:70 (g/mL), ultrasonic power of 175W, extraction temperature of 60 ℃ and extraction time of 50 min. The optimal processing conditions of microwave extraction were material-liquid ratio of 1:40 (g/mL), microwave power of 595 W and extraction time of 80 s. The yields of polysaccharides were up to 3.491% and 3.482% under the optimal ultrasonic and microwave extraction conditions, respectively, which was consistent with the predicted results.

Extraction and Identification of Flavonoids in Rape Bee Pollen
YANG Jie,CHEN Chun,XING Jian-jun,LIU Rui*
2010, 31(22):  273-278.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022058
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Rape bee pollen was used as the raw material to identify its characteristic component-flavonoids. The optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction processing conditions for flavonoids from rape bee pollen were explored by quadratic regression orthogonal rotation experiments, response surface analysis and ridge analysis. The extracted sample with acid hydrolysis was analyzed using HPLC-DAD and HPLC/MS. Results showed that the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were ethanol concentration of 76%, material-liquid ratio of 1:30, ultrasonic treatment time of 33 min, ultrasonic treatment temperature of 51 ℃. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of flavonoids was 1.89%, which was close to theoretical yield of 2.12%. HPLCDAD and HPLC/MS analyses exhibited that nine kinds of flavonoid aglycones were identified in rape bee pollen. The identified flavonoids included quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and naringenin. These investigations provide a research method and theoretical reference for the identification of plant sources and authenticity of bee pollen.

Osmotic Dehydration of Pineapple Enhanced by Ultrasonic Treatment
REN Xian-e,HE Ren,HUANG Yong-chun,ZHANG Jian-miao,YANG Feng
2010, 31(22):  279-282.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022059
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In this paper, the osmotic dehydration processing of pineapple after ultrasonic treatment was investigated. Results showed that the optimal dehydration conditions were moderate ultrasonic frequency (48.1 kHz), ultrasonic power of 300 W, sugar concentration of 60%, sugar temperature at 60 ℃, ultrasonic treatment time of 40 min. Under these optimal dehydration conditions, the dehydration rate of pineapple was 41.41%. Ultrasonic treatment could improve mass transfer rate and decrease osmotic dehydration time.

Optimization of Extraction Processing for Total Flavonoids from Osmunda japonica
TIAN Guo-zheng,HE Yi-fa
2010, 31(22):  283-285.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022060
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Osmunda japonica was used as the material to explore the optimal extraction processing for total flavonoids. The effects of ethanol concentration, soaking time, material-liquid ratio, and extraction temperature on extraction rate of total flavonoids from Osmunda japonica were investigated by orthogonal experiments. The optimal extraction processing parameters were ethanol concentration of 60%, extraction time of 1.5 h, material-liquid ratio of 1:25 (g/mL) and extraction temperature of 70℃. The extraction rate of total flavonoids from Osmunda japonica was up to 1.29% under the optimal extraction conditions. This extraction method is characteristics of low cost and high efficiency.

Microwave-assisted Extraction of Pigment from Orange Skin
ZHANG Xiong-lu,XIE Sheng-hui,LAI Jun-jie
2010, 31(22):  286-288.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022061
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The optimal microwave-assisted extraction conditions of pigment from navel orange skin were explored by single factor and orthogonal experiments. Results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were material-water ratio of 1: 80 (g/mL), microwave power of 260 W, microwave extraction time of 150 s. The achieved processing parameters were accurate and could be applied to produce pigment from orange skin.

Microwave Extraction and Stability of Red Pigment from Pericarp of Ficus carica L.
ZHANG Xiao-man,MA Yin-hai*,LIU Zhu-li,CHEN Xiao-ni
2010, 31(22 ):  289-292.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022062
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A red pigment was extracted from pericarp of Ficus carica L. by microwave technology. The optimal extraction conditions were explored by orthogonal experiments to be microwave power of 400 W, microwave treatment of 15 min, microwave treatment temperature of 35 ℃, and material-liquid ratio 1:20 (g/mL) through evaluating the extraction rate of red pigment. The extraction rate of red pigment was 89.69% under optimal extraction conditions. Meanwhile, red pigment from pericarp of Ficus carica L. exhibited strong stability to heat, light and acids. Commonly used food additives, oxidant, reluctant and metal ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Al3+ except Fe3+ did not affect the stability of red pigment. The extraction rate of red pigment of Ficus carica L. can be enhanced by microwave technology, and this red pigment has excellent stability.

Lipase-catalyzed Synthesis of Phytosterol Ester in Supercritical CO2
WANG Teng-yu1,HU Li-zhi2,SUN Bo1,LIU Jing1,YU Dian-yu1,*
2010, 31(22):  293-296.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022063
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In the supercritical CO2 condition, the synthesis of phytosterol ester was investigated using sunflower oil and phytosterol as the materials and Novozym 435 lipase as the catalyst. The optimal esterification conditions were achieved through single factor and orthogonal experiments to be reaction temperature of 85 ℃, phytosterol concentration of 5%, reaction pressure of 8 MPa, reaction time of 1 h, stirring speed of 600 r/min, and lipase dosage of 1%. The conversion rate was up to 92.1% under the optimal reaction conditions. This study will provide a theoretical reference for the preparation of phytosterol ester.

Extraction Processing of Potato Protein Isolate
QI Bin1,2,ZHENG Li-xue1,PIAO Jin-miao1
2010, 31(22):  297-300.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022064
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Potato protein isolate (PPI) was prepared from fresh potato by salt-soluble alkali extraction and acid precipitation. Extraction conditions and functional properties of PPI were investigated. SDS-PAGE revealed that PPI was composed of proteins with a broad range of molecular weights, especially rich in proteins with small molecular weight less than 21.0 kD. Meanwhile, the optimal extraction conditions were material-liquid ratio of 1:10 (g/mL), extraction temperature of 40 ℃, pH 8.0, and NaCl concentration of 0.4 mol/L.

Analysis & Detection
Total Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Health Food by Fluorescence Spectrophotometer
ZHAO Jian,LIU Xuan,WEN Jing*
2010, 31(22):  301-305.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022065
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Objective: To establish a determination method of total antioxidant capacity by fluorescence spectrophotometer. Methods: Total antioxidant capacity of health food were determined by a fluorescence method using AAPH as the source of peroxy free radicals, sodium fluorescein (FL) as the fluorescent indicator, water-soluble vitamin E (Trolox) as the quantitative standard and half fluorescence decay time as the observation index. Results: This established method had the detection limit of 0.22 μmol/L, linear regression equation of Y = 25.432X + 2.0625 with a coefficient constant of 0.9949, parallel precision of 3.5% and repeatability precision of 3.9%. The recovery rates of spiked samples were in the range of 90%-104% through the determination of six health food samples. Conclusion: Fluorescence spectrophotometer can be used for total antioxidant capacity of health food.

Main Flavoring Substances of Pottery Jar Chicken Soup
HE Xiao-feng,YUE Xin-yu,WANG Yi,HUANG Wen*
2010, 31(22):  306-310.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022066
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The main flavoring substances of pottery jar chicken soup was investigated and compared with those in chicken soup cooked with pressure cooker or induction cooker. Results showed that the main taste of chicken soup were umami and sweet, and the total content of nucleotides and free amino acids in pottery jar chicken soup were higher than those in other two ones, however, chicken soup cooked with chicken soup had the highest contents of peptides of the three chicken soup. Glutamic acid and 5'-inosinic acid were the main amino acid and nucleotide that gave the umami flavor. Pottery jar chicken soup had significant higher glutamic acid and gave better flavor.

Establishment of Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification for the Detection of Streptococcus hemolyticus
YIN Huan,LI Qi,CHEN Jiang-yuan,MA Yin-zhong,LI Rui,LIU Zhi-guo*
2010, 31(22):  311-314.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022067
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Objective: To develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of Streptococcus hemolyticus. Methods: According to the scpA gene of Streptococcus hemolyticus, 4 specific primers were designed for LAMP amplification. Six different Streptococcus hemolyticus strains were validated by LAMP and identified by enzymatic digestion. The sensitivity of LAMP method was evaluated by serial gradient dilution of Streptococcus hemolyticus solution. Results: LAMP could be used for the rapid and sensitive detection of Streptococcus hemolyticus with a high sensitivity and a detection limit of 16.7 CFU/mL. Moreover, the detection limit was 10 CFU/mL in milk samples. Conclusion: LAMP method is a simple, rapid and feasible method for the detection of Streptococcus hemolyticus.

Analysis of Volatile Components in Pitaya Flower by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction-GC/MS
SHEN Li-qun,LEI Fu-hou
2010, 31(22):  315-317.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022068
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Objective: To explore the analytic method of volatile components in pitaya flower. Methods: Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS/SPME) technology was used to extract volatile components from pitaya flower. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify volatile components in pitaya flower at the condition of programmed temperature increase to 250 ℃, sample injection temperature at 250 ℃ and electronic ionization as the ion source. Results: A total of 49 volatile compounds were identified, which included sesquiterpenes and their oxidized derivatives (27.78%), alkanes (25.14%) and esters (14.40%), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (10.08%) and siloxane compounds (6.27%). Conclusion: HS/SPME-GC/MS strategy is a useful and feasible method for the analysis of volatile components in pitaya flower.

High Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprint of Tomentose Pummelo Peel
XIAO Wei-qiang1,ZHANG Chao-hong2,HUANG Bing-xiong1,DAI Hong-fen1,XIE Lu-si2,WANG Xiao-rong1,*
2010, 31(22):  318-321.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022069
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In order to establish the fingerprint of HPLC analysis for tomentose pummelo (Exocarpium citri Grandis) peel, reversed-phase HPLC using Nucleosil C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3μm) as the stationary phase, H2O-CH3OH-CH3CN as the mobile phase, triple gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.3-1 mL/min, DAD as the detector, column temperature at 35℃ and detection wavelength at 315 nm was used to determine the extract from tomentose pummelo peal. Results showed that 9 common peaks in HPLC chromatogram were observed in 11 samples. Through calculating by fingerprint analysis system of Chinese medicine, relative standard deviations (RSD) for relative retention time of common peaks were less than 0.3% and their similarity was more than 0.965. Therefore, a chromatographic fingerprint was established to provide scientific quality evaluation for tomentose pummelo peel.

Rapid Detection of Enterobacter sakazakii by LAMP
MA Yin-zhong1,CHEN Jiang-yuan2,FANG Guo-liang1,LI Qi1,LI Rui1,ZHOU Guo-ping1,LIU Zhi-guo1,*
2010, 31(22):  322-325.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022070
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Objective: To develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for rapid detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in food. Methods: LAMP primers were designed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) and outer membrane protein A gene (OmpA) in Enterobacter sakazakii. The LAMP products were evaluated by electrophoresis or SYBR-GREEN I. Results: The detection limit of Enterobacter sakazakii by LAMP assay was 32 CFU/mL using 16S rRNA primers or 3 CFU/mL using OmpA primers. The similar detection sensitivity of LAMP products using SYBR-GREEN I and electrophoresis was observed. Conclusion: LAMP method was effective and sensitive for rapidly detecting Enterobacter sakazakii, which will have a broad application prospect in food.

Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in Duck-slaughtering Chain by PCR
YUAN Wei,TANG Shan-hu*,CEN Lu-jia,LI Xue,CHEN Nuo,LUO Wei
2010, 31(22):  326-331.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022071
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In order to establish a rapid and accurate detection method of Salmonella typhimurium contamination in duck-slaughtering chain, PCR was used to monitor duck-slaughtering chain in real time. A pair of primers 5'-GCA TTCCGCTCATTAGAT-3'and 5'-TGGAGGCTGATAACAAGG-3' were designed to amplify fimY gene by PCR according to the published fimY gene sequence of Salmonella typhimurium. PCR reaction conditions were optimized. Results indicated that a fragment with 275 bp in length was amplified in both standard strain and isolated strain of Salmonella typhimurium. The detection limit of PCR assay was 1.2 pg. This established PCR method was used for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium in a typical duck-slaughtering chain. Totally 25 samples from plucking pool, cooling wax pool, cleaning pool, feathers, esophagus, intestine, colorectal feces, and dripping peritoneal were amplified to produce the 275 bp fragment. In contrast, no amplified fragment was achieved in the negative control. In the present study, a PCR assay was first developed for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium in duckslaughtering chain and typical duck-slaughtering chain with serious contamination of Salmonella typhimurium was observed. These results provided a practical application and useful guidance to the management of duck meat production and food safety.

Detection of Adulterated Maize Starch in Potato Starch by Scanning Electron Microscope and Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis
WANG Shao-qing,WU Shi-kui,MU Tong-na,CAO Hong,CAO Bao-sen
2010, 31(22):  332-335.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022072
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In order to distinguish the adulteration of edible starch, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and stable carbon isotope ratio (SCIR) analysis were used to qualitatively and semi-quantitatively identify the adulteration of maize starch in potato starch. Due to the difference in microscopic morphology between potato and maize starch granules, the adulterated maize starch granules can be easily distinguished from potato starch granules under SEM. Moreover, the SCIR technology can not only qualitatively discriminate the adulterated maize starch from potato starch, but also determine the content of adulterated maize starch at the condition of higher than 10%. This method can be used as product quality supervision of domestic starch market.

Detection and Analysis of β-Lactamase in Cheese and Whey
LIU Xiao-chuan,YU Dong-wei,ZHAO Yuan,LIU Zhi-nan,XUE Zhi-qing,LI Mei
2010, 31(22):  336-339.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022073
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To explore the destination of the β-lactamases of raw milk in the process of cheese, antibiotics and β-lactamasefree raw milk was mixed with β-lactamases to a final concentration of 50 U/mL. Then the raw milk was processed to cheese according to the general procedure, and β-lactamase in the cheese and whey was determined by using E50 method and Oxford cup method. The result of β-lactamase is negative in the cheese and positive in the whey. So β-lactamase is mainly left in whey in the processing of cheese.

Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry Separation and Identification of Organic Weak Polar Components from Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) Hara Leaves
LIN Lian-zhu, ZHAO Mou-ming*
2010, 31(22):  340-342.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022074
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Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) Hara leaves were extracted with 60% ethanol, and were further separated by solvent extraction into four fractions, i.e., petroleum ether fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction and water fraction. Components in petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Totally 15 compounds were identified, and most of these compounds are higher fatty acids, especially n-hexadecanoic acid and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid. Trace 2,2'-methylene bis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol), a strong antioxidant, was found in the petroleum ether fraction.

Determination of Polyphenols and Alkaloids in Tea and Cluster-Linear Discrimination Analysis
XIAO Jun-song1,2,YUAN Ying-hao1,ZHANG Ai-xue1,CAO Yan-ping1,2,*
2010, 31(22):  343-348.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022075
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Objective: To establish a HPLC method for the determination of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), gallic acid (GA), caffeine (CAF) and theobromine (THEO) in green, oolong and black tea samples, and to develop a discrimination method for green, oolong and black tea by cluster analysis and linear discrimination analysis on the basis of determined chemical components. Methods: Tea samples were extracted by 70% aqueous methanol. Totally 200 mg of grinded tea samples was extracted with 5 mL of 70% aqueous methanol for 10 min in 70 ℃water bath. The extract was centrifuged at 3500 r/min for 10 min, and the supernatant was collected. Then the precipitate was extracted with 5 mL of 70% methanol under the same conditions. The supernatants were combined in a volumetric flask and diluted to 10 mL. A total of 2 mL of such solution was diluted by 5 times with stabilizing solution, filtrated with 0.45 μm membrane, and then used for HPLC analysis. Eight compounds were separated by a C18 column using a mobile phase containing methanol-2% aqueous acetic acid at a ratio of 25:75 (V/V) in an isocratic elution at 30 ℃, and detected using a photodiode array detector at 278 nm with the reference wavelength at 210 nm. The cluster and linear discrimination analyses were performed using SPSS 14.0 software. Results: Eight compounds in all tea samples were well separated under the proposed conditions. The recovery rates of spiked samples were in the range of 87%-112.8%. The contents of 8 compounds determined by an external standard method were used to conduct cluster analysis and linear discrimination analysis. The good differentiation of green, oolong and black tea samples were achieved. Conclusion: This established method is feasible to discriminate green, oolong and black tea.

Organic Components, Amino Acids and Inorganic Elements in Pearl Nacre Powder of Trochus pyramis Born
LIU Shi-sheng1,LI Fei-ran1,WANG Hui-min1,FENG Yong-qin2,XIE Zhen-yu2
2010, 31(22):  349-351.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022076
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Organic components in methylene dichloride fraction, amino acid in acid-insoluble fraction, and minerals in and inorganic elements in pearl nacre powder prepared from Trochus pyramis Born were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed the existence of 13 compounds in methylene dichloride fraction, and 9 compounds were identified. Totally 18 kinds amino acids, including 8 kinds essential amino acids, were found in the acid insoluble fractions by automatic amino acid analyzer. Inorganic elements, such as Mg, Fe, Zn, Se, as well as As, Hg, Pb were found and determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The shell of Trochus pyramis Born is a resource worthy of development.

Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Yellow Pigment from Buddleja officinalis Maxim Flowers
LUO Chun-zi1,2,KONG Yong-qiang3,ZHANG Hong1,*,ZHENG Hua1,ZHANG Jia-yan2,LI Kai1
2010, 31(22):  352-356.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022077
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Yellow pigment in flowers of Buddleja officinalis Maxim was extracted by water with the assistance of ultrasound. The effects of ultrasound power, extraction time, water-to-solid ratio on the yield of yellow pigments (expressed as the absorbance of extract at 435 nm) were studied by conducting single factor tests. Then Box-Behnken experimental design involving the above 3 factors at 3 levels was employed, and coupled with response surface analysis to optimize the extraction conditions. Results showed that ultrasound treatment accelerated the extraction of yellow pigment. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasound power 800 W, extraction time 24 min, the ratio of water to solid 27:1. Under such conditions, the theoretical absorbency of Buddleja officinalis Maxim yellow pigment can reach 0.257, while the experimental value is 0.259, with a relative stand error 0.78% to the theoretical value. The yield of yellow pigment reached up to 5.95% .

Quantitative Relationship Between Molecular Structure and Retention Index of Volatile Compounds from Houttuynia cordata Thunb
DU Xi-hua,CHEN Yan,YUE Wei
2010, 31(22):  357-360.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022078
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The quantitative structure-retention index relationships (QSRR) of 56 volatile compounds in Houttuynia cordata Thunb were studied, using molecular connectivity indices, molecular shape indices and the electrotopological state indices to describe the chemical structure of the volatile compounds. Various multiple linear regression models were established with variable screening by the stepwise multiple regression technique and statistics. QSRR for estimating retention index (RI)of volatile compounds in Houttuynia cordata Thunb were achieved based on multiple regression, and the regression equations were proposed with the correlation coefficient 0.991. In order to test the stability and prediction ability of the model, the leave-oneout procedure was performed and good results (R > 0.99)were obtained. These results indicate that molecular connectivity indices, molecular shape indices and the electrotopological state indices have good rationality and efficiency for attribute RI of volatile compounds of Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

Use of Capillary Electrophoresis for Determination of Genuine Proteins in Milk and Milk Products
DING Xiao-jing1,2,YANG Yuan-yuan1,3,LI Yun1,2,ZHAO Shan1,WANG Zhi3
2010, 31(22):  361-366.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022079
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The contents of theα -lactalbumin (α -Lac), β -lactoglobulin A (β -LgA) and β -lactoglobulin B (β-LgB) were determined by capillary electrophoresis in whey protein powder, bovine colostrum and raw milk from the local farm, infant formula of the same brand but for different age stages or of the same age stages from different plants and countries, liquid milk with different shelf-life, ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk and yogurt from different countries and domestic reconstituted milk. The contents of the above three proteins decreased in the order of whey protein powder, bovine colostrum and raw milk, and were negatively related to the shelf-life of milk and milk products. The content of α-Lac in most of the yogurts were higher than that in UHT milk. The contents of the α-Lac in infant formula increased with the age stage. Infant formula with the same age stages of different brands and countries had significant differences in the contents of α-Lac. The contents of α-Lac in imported formula were not always higher than those from domestic ones. The results provide a valuable asset for the analysis of true proteins in milk and milk products.

Variation of Aromatic Components in Solid Phase Fermented Grains During Fermentation of Fen Liquor
CAO Yun-gang1,HU Yong-gang2,MA Yan-hong2,DU Xiao-wei3,MA En-bo1,
2010, 31(22):  367-371.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022080
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The dynamic change of the aromatic components in the solid phase fermented grains during different fermentation stage of Fen liquor was studied by using GC and GC-MS, and the relationship among alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters was investigated. The results show that: (1) The contents of major aroma components in fermented grains displayed an upward trend in the fermentation process, which grew rapidly in the earlier fermentation stage but became slow in the middle-later period. However, the absolute contents and relative ratios of some aroma components in fermented grains are different from those in the final liquor product. (2) The fermentation time of Fen liquor in summer need not to be prolonged, and it is supposed to be better if being properly shortened. (3) The key to improve the quality of liquor production is to increase ethyl acetate while decrease ethyl lactate, to clarify the liquor distillation mechanism and to improve the distillation conditions.

Use of Solid Phase Extraction - Flow Injection- Chemiluminescence for Determination of Sarafloxacin in Eggs
HUANG Jin-hui,GAO Xiang-yang*
2010, 31(22):  372-374.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022081
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A high sensitive and fast method was developed for determination of sarafloxacin(SAR) in eggs. Sarafloxacin in sample was extracted with phosphate, and purified by solid phase extraction (SPE). Since sarafloxacin could significantly enhanced the reaction between luminol and potassium ferricyanide, it could be detected by flow injection-chemiluminescence method. The linear ranges of this method was 6×10-9-6×10-5 mol/L, and the detection limit was 3.97×10-11 mol/L. The average recovery was 96.2%, and the relative stand deviation (RSD) was 1.71%(n=11).

Determination of 2-Keto-D-gluconic Acid in Fermentation Broth by Polarimetry
SUN Wen-jing1,ZHOU Yan-zheng1,FENG Xiao-yan2,WEI Zhuan3,YU Si-lian4,ZHOU Qiang4
2010, 31(22):  375-377.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022082
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The 2-keto-D-gluconic acid in fermentation broth was calculated on the basis of glucose concentration determined by optical rotation degree. The application feasibility of polarimetry was also investigated. Results indicated that a good linear relationship between optical rotation degree and the concentration of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid and glucose (R2 > 0.9999). The average recovery rate was 102.60% with RSD of 2.17%. This method has characteristics of precision, stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it can be used for determining 2-keto-D-gluconic acid in fermentation broth.

Aroma Components in Cabernet Sauvignon Dry Red Wine Fermented with Three Species of Yeast Strains
LI Yan1,2,KANG Jun-jie1,CHENG Xiao-ling1,ZHANG Yun-feng1,LU Jiu-wei1
2010, 31(22):  378-382.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022083
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The aromatic components in Cabernet Sauvignon dry red wine fermented with DHS-1, BM45 and Angel yeast were compared using liquid-liquid extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that the three wines had the same aroma component. However, the relative contents of 15 aroma components had significant difference among the three wins. So S. cerevisiae has an important influence on the aroma characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon dry wine.

Comparative Analysis of Key Quality Index in Bovine Colostrums Powder
MA Zhi-wei,CHEN Qing-sen*
2010, 31(22):  383-386.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022084
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In this study, key quality index in four kinds of bovine colostrums powder from markets were analyzed. According to the RHB 602—2005, all tested products were fulfilled the new standard except sample 2 with exceeded fat content. The content indices were well matched with labels except sample 2 with small difference in IgG contents. Bovine colostrums powder from markets was more stable with guaranteed quality. Moreover, the content of IgG in bovine colostrums powder made in our laboratory was 44.94%, which was much more than that in four samples from markets.

Enrichment Characteristics and Contamination Evaluation of Heavy Metal in Five Tissues of Meretrix meretrix Cultured from Haizhou Bay
DONG Zhi-guo1,2,LI Xiao-ying1,CHENG Han-liang1,MENG Xue-ping1,YAN Bin-lun1
2010, 31(22):  387-390.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022085
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In this paper, the content of 6 heavy metals, i.e., Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu and Zn were analyzed in five dry tissues of adductor muscle , hepatopancreas, gill, mantle, foot of Meretrix meretrix cultured in Haizhou bay pond. Results indicated that adductor muscle and hepatopancreas were major heavy metal enriching tissues. The contents of Cr, Pb and Ni in adductor muscle were highest among the five tissues, and were 58.981, 4.298μg/g and 10.873μg/g, respectively, which had significant difference with those in other tissues (P<0.05). The concentration of Cu and Zn were 0.844μg/g and 58.076μg/g in adductor muscle, obviously lower than that in hepatopancreas 17.776μg/g and 173.147μg/g, respectively (P<0.05). On the contrary, the concentration of Cd and Ni was lower in hepatopancreas (0.140μg/g and 4.807μg/g) than that in the other tissues (P<0.05). Among the six heavy metals, the highest content was Zn (173.147-58.076μg/g), and the lowest was Cd (0.140-0.336μg/g), followed by Pb (1.549-4.298μg/g). The major contaminated tissue was the adductor muscle for M. meretrix and the contamination index for Cr, Ni and Pb ranged from 1.52 to 6.40, however, there was a minor contamination in foot and the contaminative index was only 0.01-0.96 except for Ni. All the five tissues were slightly contaminated by Ni and the contamination index ranged from 2.77 to 6.40, but the contamination index for Cd and Cu were in the range of national standard for health aquatic products.

Determination of Fatty Acids Composition and Octadecadienoic Acid in Corn Embryo Oil
HOU Dong-yan,HUI Rui-hua,LI Tie-chun,LIU Xiao-yuan
2010, 31(22):  391-393.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022086
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The fatty acid composition and the contents of octadecadienoic acid in corn embryo oil were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. The corn embryo oil was extracted by soxhlet extraction, then the fatty oil obtained was esterified by sodium hydroxide-methanol. After purification, the methylated fatty acids were subjected to GC-MS analysis. Totally 8 fatty acids were identified in the corn embryo oil, and 74.94% fatty acids were unsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of octadecadienoic acid (46.33%) and the octadecenoic acid (28.01%). In the following, the content of the octadecadienoic acid in corn embryo oil was determinated by HPLC. The column was Kromasil C18. The mobile phase consisted of iso-propyl alcohol and acetonitrile (35:65). The column temperature was 25 ℃, and detected at 205 nm. The regression equation obtained was y = 1×106x +0.7×106, r =0.9999. The coefficient of variation was less than 1.35%, and the recovery of the method was 98.8%-109.1%. The result indicates that the method is simple , accurate and feasible for determination of octadecadienoic acid in corn embryo oil.

HPLC-MS/MS Determination of Nandrolone and Nandrolone Phenylpropionate Residues in Aquatic Products
HUANG Dong-mei,SHI Yong-fu,WANG Yuan,CAI You-qiong
2010, 31(22):  394-397.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022087
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A method was established for the determination of nandrolone and nandrolone phenylpropionate residues in aquatic products. Samples were extracted with mixed solution after enzymatic hydrolysis, purified with liquid-liquid extraction. Then the impurities were removed by C18 column, and the eluant was concentrated and subjected to liquid chromatography-tamden mass spectrometry analysis. Good linear correlation was obtained between the peak area and the concentration in the range of 0.005 0.25μg/mL. The spike recoveries were 76.8%-98.6% and 84.2%-91.3% for nandrolone and nandrolone phenylpropionate standard. The relative standard deviations were all below 13.6%, and the limits of detection was 5.0μg/kg.

Application of Quantitative Structure Retention Relationship of Esters in Food Packaging Materials
WANG Tian-rui1,LI Mei-ping1,FENG Yan-lin2,HU Yong-gang2,ZHANG Sheng-wan1,*
2010, 31(22):  398-402.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022088
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The retention time (tR) of 21 ester additives in food packaging materials was determined by using gas chromatographyflame ionization detector (GC-FID). The molecular electronegativity distance vector (MEDV) and orientation group index (T) were used to characterize molecualr structures of esters, and then the model of quantitative structure retention relationship (QSRR) for above-mentioned 21 compounds was established through multiple linear regression (MLR). The correlation coefficient (R) for the established model and the correlation coefficient (RLOO) of leave-one-out (LOO) were 0.9840 and 0.9747, respectively. Meanwhile, the estimated stability and generalized ability of the model were strictly analyzed by external validation and the Qext was 0.9789. Furthermore, the practical application of this model has been investigated. Results indicated that this model was good for stability and predictability. The proposed model can provide an important support to explore the migration of esters to packaged food and to develop a method for the separation and detection of ester additives in food packaging materials .

Development of a Duplex PCR for Detection of Salmonella spp and Campylobacter jejuni in Food
CHEN Nuo1,TANG Shan-hu1,*,CHEN Jin-hui2,CEN Lu-jia1,LI Xue1,LONG Hu1
2010, 31(22):  403-406.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022089
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A rapid assay for simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp and Campylobacter jejuni in food was developed. The primers were designed based on the fimY gene of Salmonella spp and hipO gene of Campylobacter jejuni. Annealing temperatures, Mg2+ concentrations, and primer concentrations were optimized. The detection limit was 3.98 pg for Salmonella spp and 4.05 pg for Campylobacter jejuni using the single PCR method. However, the detection limit of the duplex PCR method was significantly higher, which was 398 pg, 40.5 pg for Salmonella spp and Campylobacter jejuni, respectively. In this study, a duplex PCR with high specificity and sensitivity was developed and it would provide useful information for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp and Campylobacter jejuni in food.

Determination of Aluminum in Flour Food by Microemulsion Sensitization-Spectrophotometry
ZHOU Ju-feng1,XIE Hong1,PENG Ai-jiao2,ZHANG Hui1
2010, 31(22):  407-410.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022090
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Objective: To determine the content of aluminum in flour with spectrophotometry in microemulsion medium. Methods: Samples were dissolved using an intelligent electronic digestion system in microemulsion medium composed of PVA, n-butanol, n-heptanol and water in acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer system. The chromogenic agent was chrome azurol S (CAS) and the absorbance has a direct proportion to the concentration of aluminum in solution. Results: Standard curve revealed an excellent linearity within the range of 0.0-6.0 μg/25 mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9971. The recovery rates of spiked samples were 95%-108%. Conclusion: This method is simple, sensitive and stable, and it can be used to determine the content of aluminum in flour.

UV Spectrophotometric Detection of Undesirable Flavor in Soybean Peptide
HE Zhen-xiong,LIANG Yun-xiang*
2010, 31(22):  411-413.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022091
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A UV spectrophotometric method was established to determine the undesirable flavor in soybean peptide. Totally 60 mL of soybean peptide solution in 100 mL saline bottle was adjusted to pH 6.0 with NaCl concentration 4 g/60 mL, sealed with a rubber plug and heated at 50 ℃ for 1 hour. In the following, totally 20 mL headspace gas in the bottle was collected with a syringe and absorbed in 5 mL of 0.2 mol/L NaOH, then the absorbance of the NaOH solution at 217 nm was used to express the relative content of undesirable flavor in soybean peptide. This method is simple and quick, which can be applied to detect undesirable flavor in soybean peptide.

Analysis of Meat Quality Characteristics and Nutrient Content in Meat of Yak from Gannan
LI Peng1,WANG Cun-tang2,HAN Ling3,YU Qun-li3,*
2010, 31(22):  414-416.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022092
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The meat quality related indexes and nutrient content in yak meat from Gannan were studied, and compared with the meat of yellow cattle. Results showed that the content of dry matters were 23.19% higher than those in the local yellow cattle meat, and the content of protein was 6.14% higher, ash 12.5% higher, total amino acid 13.38% higher, essential amino acids 10.88% higher than those in the local yellow cattle meat. However, the fat content was 13.54% less than in the local yellow cattle meat.

Determination of Preservative Benzoic Acid by Catalytic Oxidation Fluorometry
ZHOU Fu-lin,SONG Shao-fei,GONG Qiao-juan,ZHANG Wen-chan,ZHOU Bei
2010, 31(22):  417-420.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022093
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Based on the catalytic effect of cobalt (II) on the oxidation of benzoic acid by potassium bromate in NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffer solution at the condition of pH 8, a new catalytic oxidation fluorometry method was proposed for the indirect determination of benzoic acid. Under optimal determination conditions, an excellent linear relationship between benzoic acid concentration within a range of 5×10-7-3×10-5 g/mL and fluorescence intensity was observed. The detection limit of this established method was 2×10-8 g/mL. The reproducibility experiments revealed the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.9% for benzoic acid solution at the concentration of 1×10-6 g/mL. This established method has been applied for the detection of benzoic acid in vinegar and sauce. The recovery rates were in the range of 95.7%-101.6% with satisfactory results.

Analysis of Volatile Components in Laver Harvested in Different Time Points
YING Miao-miao1,SHI Wen-zheng2,*,LIU En-ling1
2010, 31(22):  421-426.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022094
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In this study, volatile components in laver were identified by electronic nose and SPME-GC-MS. Results indicated that electronic nose could discriminate the volatile components in laver harvested in different time points and SPME could effectively extract the volatile components from laver. According to the analysis of GC-MS, 35, 38, 51 and 55 kinds of volatile compounds were identified in laver harvested in the first, second, third and fourth time, respectively. Among these compounds, volatile carbonyl compounds and alkanes such as 8-heptadecene, nonanal and hexanal were the major volatile compounds in laver. Moreover, compared with the laver harvested in the third and fourth time, the quality of laver was more stable and less change of odor was observed in laver harvested in first and second time. Therefore, the laver harvested in first and second time is suitable for food development.

Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Peanut by Assisted Solid-phase Dispersion Accelerated Solvent Extraction-Gas Chromatography
YU Hui,SHI Jun-wen,ZHAO Ping*
2010, 31(22):  427-430.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022095
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Five organophosphorus pesticide residues from peanut were determined by using solid-phase dispersion-assisted accelerated solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography. The peanut samples were mixed with florisil and diatomite to fill the extraction instrument. Extraction was performed with acetone at 10.0 MPa and 80 ℃ for heating 5 min and static extraction 5 min. Elution was analyzed with GC-NPD detector. At the spiked sample levels of 0.05 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, the recovery rates of organophosphorus pesticide residues were 88.2%-104.5% with a relative standard deviation less than 7.1% and the detection limit of 0.030-0.038 mg/kg. This method has excellent resolution, high sensitivity, good precision and wide linearity.

Determination of Lead and Cadmium in Beverage by Using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Pre-concentration
CHEN Xue-ze,SU Yan-yan,YANG Rong
2010, 31(22):  431-434.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022096
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A method was developed for the determination of lead and cadmium in beverage by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry(GFAAS) after pre-concentration. The trace lead and cadmium ions was chelated with ammonium pyrrolidine dithio carbamate (APDC), and fixed on active carbon at pH 4.0-7.0. Then the active carbon was collected on through vacuum filtration, washed with 1ml of diammoniumhy drogenosphate solution (10 g/L) containing 0.2% nitric acid, and the suspension was directly used for the determination by GFAAS. Concentration of lead and cadmium in beverage samples was 2.50×10-12 g, 6.94×10-13 g respectively, with the relative standard deviation(RSD) from 3.04% to 6.21% and spike recoveries from 97.9% to 107.0%. This method could be used to determinate trace heavy metal in beverage.

Effect of Sichuan Pepper Seasoning on Jiaoma Chicken Appraised by Electronic Nose
XIONG Min1,XIAO Lan1,GU Xue-quan2,TANG Ying-ming1
2010, 31(22):  435-438.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022097
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Jiaoma juice made from Sichuan pepper seasoning from different factories was appraised by electronic nose. Then, the acquired data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and discrimination factor analysis (DFA). Results showed that jiaoma juice made from water-soluble Sichuan pepper and oil-soluble Sichuan pepper exhibited quite different flavor. Water-soluble Sichuan pepper juice cannot reach the characteristic flavor of oil-soluble Sichuan pepper oil. Although sensory evaluation of Sichuan pepper oil from different factories was same, jiaoma juice made from Sichuan pepper oil revealed different flavor through evaluation of electronic nose. The characteristic flavor of Sample 2 was more prominent.

Determination of Benzoyl Peroxide in Flour by Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Method
WU Ying-chun,NIE Feng
2010, 31(22):  439-441.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022098
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Objective: To develop a new flow injection chemiluminescence method for determining benzoyl peroxide in flour. Methods: KI can be oxidized by benzoyl peroxide to produce I2. This reaction is coupled with a luminal-H2O2 chemiluminescence system to determine benzoyl peroxide in flour. Results: The determination range of this method is 3.0 × 10-8-4.0 × 10-6 g/mL, and the detection limit of this method is 4.0 × 10-9 g/mL with a relative standard deviation of 2.2%. Conclusion: This method is characteristics of simple, high selectivity, accuracy and sensitivity.

GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Components in Celery Leaves
SUN Xiao-yuan,LI Tie-chun,ZHOU Xue
2010, 31(22):  442-444.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022099
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In order to compare chemical compositions of essential oil in celery leaves from different areas, essential oil in celery leaves from 3 areas in Liaoning province was extracted by using steam distillation method and the compositions of essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Totally 32 kinds of volatile compounds were identified in celery leaves from 3 areas. A total of 12 kinds of volatile compounds including characteristic compounds of β-myrcene, nhexadecanoic acid and 9, 12, 15-octadecadienoic acid were identified in celery leaves from Anshan, which was accounted for 27.29% of total volatile oil. Sixteen kinds of volatile compounds such as phenol and 5-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexyl)-2-methyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene as the characteristic components were identified in celery leaves from Fushun, which was accounted for 21.78% of total volatile oil. Nine volatile compounds including special compounds of diene, dibutyl phthalate and octadecane were identified in Baiqiao celery leaves with 12.59% of total volatile oil.

Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods for Transgenic Rice
SONG Shang-xin,XIAO Hong-mei,GAO Feng,ZHOU Guang-hong*,QIU Liang-yan
2010, 31(22):  445-449.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022100
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Objective: To establish a simple, fast and effective DNA extraction method from transgenic rice. Methods: DNA extraction methods including traditional CTAB method, improved alkali-treated method and boiling-treated method for DNA extraction from transgenic brown rice, non-transgenic brown rice and transgenic milled rice were compared to screen the optimal extraction method. Results: The integrity, purity and PCR result of template DNA extracted by improved alkali-treated method were similar with the DNA extracted by traditional CTAB method. Meanwhile, compared with traditional CTAB method, improved alkali-treated method had higher DNA extraction rate, less consuming time and lower cost. Conclusion: Improved alkalitreated method can replace traditional CTAB method as DNA extraction method for the detection of transgenic rice.

Detection of Bovine β-Casein by Competitive ELISA
SONG Hong-xin,PAN Jie,BAI Hong-mei,XUE Hai-yan
2010, 31(22):  450-452.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022101
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In order to establish a competitive ELISA method for detecting β-casein of bovine milk, the factors to affect competitive-ELISA were investigated. The optimal conditions for competitive ELISA method were coated anti-β-CN IgY concentration of 1:160, 1% gelatin-PBST as the blocking solution and blocking time of 1 h. The working titers betweenβ-CNHRP and detection samples were 1:20 and 1:80, respectively. The reaction time of antibody and antigen was 1 h and the optimum enzymatic reaction time was 20 min. Detection results indicated that the detected limit was 3.5% with a variation coefficient (CV) of less than 5%. This method can be used for rapid and accurate detection ofβ-casein in bovine milk and dairy products.

Quantification of All-trans-lycopene from Tomato Fruits by C30-HPLC with External Standard Method
DING Jing,HUI Bo-di*,LIU Yuan
2010, 31(22):  453-456.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022102
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An external standard method was established to determine all-trans-lycopene on C30-HPLC. Stationary phase was YMCTM Carotenoid column C30 (4.6 mm × 250 mm, SOD-5μm, Waters); mobile phase A was acetonitrile-methanol (3:1, V/V); mobile phase B was methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE); both mobile phase A and B were added 0.05% (V/V) triethylamine; linear gradient elution was conducted with an increase of mobile phase B from 0 to 80% (V/V) in 20 min followed by maintaining at 80% mobile phase B for 15 min; flow rate was 1.0 mL/min; monitoring wavelength was 470 nm; injection volume was 20μL; column temperature was set at room temperature. Under these determination parameters, the minimum detection limit was 0.10μg/mL; in the range of 10 100μg/mL, linear correlation equation was y = 212181x (R2 = 0.9738) with a RSD of 4.04%. The recovery rate of external standard was 97.34% with a RSD of 0.904%. Therefore, this established method is suitable for determining alltrans-lycopene in tomato fruits.

Packaging & Storage
Effect of Postharvest Nitric oxide Treatment on Jasmonates Biosynthesis and Disease Incidence to Botrytis cinerea Pers. in Tomato Fruits
LIU Ling-yi1,YU Meng-meng1,ZHENG Yang1,SHENG Ji-ping1,SHEN Lin1,2,*
2010, 31(22):  457-461.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022103
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Nitric oxide (NO) and jasmonates (JAs) are important signaling molecules in plant disease resistance. Recent studies have shown the evidences about NO cross talks with jasmonic aicd (JA) pathway. In order to find the relationship between NO and JAs during disease resistance induction, tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. No.4 Zhongshu) were treated with different concentration of NO, then measured the effects on resistance to Botrytis cinerea Pers., NO level, JAs content, the key enzyme activity of JA biosynthesis and phenylalnine ammonialyase activity which is related to disease resistance. Our results showed that treatment with NO could induce disease resistance at all NO levels tested, however, the most obvious induction symptom was recorded in low concentration (0.02 mmol/L). Low concentration treatment increased JAs contents and the key enzyme activity of JA biosynthesis, while inhibited in high concentration treatment.

Effects of Chitosan and Ultraviolet-C Treatments on Storage Quality of Winter Jujube
WANG Jin-li1,LIN Qiang2,LI Jian-jie3,FENG Chun-yan3,YANG Chun-yan3,RONG Rui-fen3,*
2010, 31(22):  462-466.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022104
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In order to improve disease resistance and extend storage time, color development, incidence and quality property of winter jujube with pre-harvested chitosan treatment and post-harvested ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment were analyzed during storage. Results indicated that chitosan treatment and 0.5-1 kJ/m2 UV-C irradiation could promote the color development, reduce the infection rate and disease index, and postpone disease incidence for 3-6 days. In addition, 0.5-1 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment could retain the contents of total acids, total sugar and vitamin C, and improve the product quality. However, chitosan treatment had not significant effect on the quality of winter jujube.

Effects of Post-harvest Calcium Treatment on Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Angeleno Plum Fruits
GUO Xiao-min1,2,WANG You-sheng1,2,*,WANG Gui-xi3,LI Li-ping1,2
2010, 31(22):  467-472.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022105
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The effects of treatments using calcium chloride, calcium propionate and calcium lactate on quality and antioxidant activity of post-harvest Angeleno plum fruits were investigated. Results indicated that calcium chloride and calcium propionate could suppress the decay of post-harvest plum fruits at 20 ℃ and calcium chloride exhibited stronger suppression effect; whereas, no significant effect on fruit color was observed. In contrast, calcium lactate could promote the decay rate and result in the decline of a* value of peel, L* and b* value of pulp, as well as the increase of a* value of pulp. Moreover, all treatments using calcium agents could affect oxidant and antioxidant system of plums, improve the accumulation of H2O2, accelerate the reduction of total antioxidant activity, scavenging activity of superoxide anion and DPPH free radicals, as well as increase scavenging activity of hydroxyl fee radicals. However, no significant correlation between decay rate and H2O2 concentration or total antioxidant activity was observed. Moreover, total antioxidant activity, and scavenging activity to superoxie anion and DPPH free radicals of plum fruits had positive correlation with the contents of total phenols and total flavonoids.

Texture Stability of High-temperature Ham Sausage during Storage
LI Miao-yun,HAO Hong-tao,ZHAO Gai-ming*,LIU Yan-xia,HUANG Xian-qing,ZHANG Qiu-hui,SUN Ling-xia
2010, 31(22):  473-476.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022106
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In order to provide technological supports for production and distribution, high-temperature ham sausages with different grades were selected as the experimental materials to investigate the changes of texture characteristics during storage at normal atmospheric temperature. Results indicated that the hardness, brittleness and chewiness of high-temperature ham sausages exhibited a trend of initial increase and then decrease during storage, finally reached the maximum value at the storage period of 90 days. The cohesiveness revealed a stable tendency during storage and an increase at the storage period of 180 days. The adhesiveness of premium ham sausage exhibited a trend of initial decrease and then increase; in contrast, the adhesiveness of excellent and general class ham sausage revealed an overall increase trend. The springiness of premium and excellent ham sausage was reduced at the storage period of 90 days, and then increased at the late storage period; however, the springiness of general class ham sausage with lower value exhibited a big fluctuation. In general, the texture of premium and excellent ham sausage remained the stable characteristics in early and late stages during storage; to contrary, the texture of general class ham sausage had a remarkable change during storage stage.

Effect of 1-MCP Treatment on Fruit Aroma Components in Nanguo Pears during Storage at 20 ℃
DONG Ping1,2,XIN Guang1,2,*,ZHANG Bo2,FENG Fan1,2,LI Tie-chun2
2010, 31(22):  477-479.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022107
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The fruit aroma components of Nanguo pears with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment during storage at 20℃ were determined by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that the release of fruit aroma components had close correlation with fruit post-ripening degree, which exhibited a trend of initial increase and final decrease. The 1-MCP treatment could extend the shelf life time of Nanguo pears during storage at 20℃, while reduced the quantity of fruit aroma components. Compared with the fruits without 1-MCP treatment, the quantity of total fruit aroma components and esters aroma components decreased by 27.8 % and 31.3%, respectively.

Design and Application of Modified Atmosphere Package for Whangkeumbae Pears
YE Xing-hua,JIANG Qi-yong,LIU Meng,ZHOU Wei-ning,WANG Mei-lan*,ZHOU Zhi-cai
2010, 31(22):  480-483.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022108
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In order to improve the storage period of Whangkeumbae pears, the modified atmosphere package (MAP) was designed through orthogonal experiments and multiple regressions. The optimal atmosphere compositions of MAP were composed of 1.5%-2.4% CO2 and 14%-15.9% O2. The storage period of Whangkeumbae pears can be improved to 210 days with satisfactory quality.

Prediction Model Establishment for Shelf Life and Freshness of Chilled Cyprinus carpio
GUO Quan-you1,2,WANG Xi-chang2,YANG Xian-shi1,*,XU Zhong1,LI Xue-ying1
2010, 31(22):  484-487.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022109
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Sensory, physicochemical and microbiological indices of chilled Cyprinus carpio stored at low temperature from 0-15 ℃ were explored to determine the shelf life time of chilled Cyprinus carpio during storage. A relationship between temperature and freshness of chilled Cyprinus carpio was described by exponential relative rate of spoilage equation. A prediction model for the shelf life time of chilled Cyprinus carpio was also established and validated. Results indicated that the shelf life time of chilled Cyprinus carpio at 0, 5, 10 ℃ and 15 ℃ were 29.7, 15.9, 6.1 and 3.6 days, respectively. At the end of shelf life, the counts of total bacteria, Pseudomonas and Psychrotrophs were (7.23 ± 0.29), (6.67 ± 0.33), (6.96 ± 0.37) lg (CFU/g); total volatile basic nitrogen was (20.41 ± 1.14) mg/100 g. The shelf life (SL) model for chilled Cyprinus carpio stored at 0-15 ℃ can be described as SL(T) = 29.7/[Exp(0.15×T]. Shelf life model was validated by shelf life of chilled Cyprinus carpio at 0-15 ℃ with relative standard error of 3.3% - 23.8%.

Effects of 1-MCP and Butylamine on Storage of Loquat
SONG Yan1, XU Li2,*, LIANG Fang2, KUANG Xiao-ling2
2010, 31(22):  488-491.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022110
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In order to extend the storage period and shelf life of loquats, the effects of 1-MCP and butylamine on postharvest loquats were explored. Big Red Robe loquats were used as the experimental subjects to explore fresh fruit rate, water loss rate, total sugar, vitamin C content, soluble solids, respiration intensity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and peroxidase (POD) activity in postharvest loquats treated with 1-MCP at various dosages and 0.1 mL/L butylamine during the storage at 4 ℃. Results indicated that the treatment with 0.1 mL/L butylamine and 20 mL/L 1-MCP could provide the best preservative effect on postharvest loquats, which revealed a significant inhibition effect on respiration intensity, PPO and POD activities and thus inhibit the ripen and senescence of postharvest loquats, decrease water loss rate and maintain fresh fruit rate of loquats, and attenuate the reduction of total sugar and vitamin C. All of these changes will be benefit for quality of loquats. Therefore, this combinatorial treatment can provide bright color, high quality and excellent preservative effect for loquats after the storage of 64 days.

Induction of Enzyme Activity in Peach with Oxalic Acid Treatment during Storage
ZHANG Kuo1,QIN Wen1,*, LI Zheng-guo2, PENG Chun-hua3
2010, 31(22):  492-495.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022111
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The peach ball peach fruits were treated with oxalic acid solution after harvest and then placed in atmospherecontrolled cold storage at the conditions of (1 ± 1), (4 ± 1) ℃ and (8 ± 1) ℃. The activities of resistant enzymes and the content of malondialdehye (MDA) during atmosphere-controlled storage were determined to explore the effects of oxalic acid and temperature on resistant physiology of postharvest peach fruits. Compared with the control group, oxalic acid solution could improve the activities of SOD and CAT, and improve the activity of PPO in the mid and late period of storage as well. However,oxalic acid treatment did not exhibit direct influence on POD activity and decrease the content of MDA in postharvest peach fruits during storage. The most obvious effect of oxalic acid treatment at (1 ± 1) ℃ on peach fruits was observed. Therefore, oxalic acid treatment and low temperature storage can enhance the resistance of peach fruits to a certain degree.

Effect of Cold Shock on Quality of Guanxi Honey Pomelo Fruits Stored at Room Temperature
ZHENG Yi-mei1,ZHANG Xiao-xi1,ZENG Ping-ping1,LU Ya-zhou2,LU Xiao-lin1,ZENG Jiao-mei1
2010, 31(22):  496-499.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022112
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Guanxi honey pomelo fruits were immersed in ice-water (0 ℃) for 0 (CK), 0.5 (L0.5h), 1 (L1h), 1.5 (L1.5h) and 2h (L2h), and then stored at room temperature for 166 days to evaluate the effect of cold shock pre-treatment on product quality during storage. Juice rate, edible rate, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugar (TS), total acids (TA), malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AA), catalase activity (CAT) and relative permeability of plasma membrane (RPPM) were analyzed. Results indicated that relative conductivity of the cold shock treatment group was lower than that of cold shock control group (0.44), and the relative conductivity of the L1h group was the lowest (0.35). TS content in L1h group was the highest (2.83 g/10 g) and then followed by L0.5h group (2.37 g/10 g), which was higher than CK group by 31.6% and 10.2%, respectively. MDA content in L1h group was the lowest, which was 0.81-fold of CK and next was in L0.5h group with 0.83-fold of CK. Edible rate in L1h group was the highest (72.8%) and next was in L0.5h group (2.37 g/10 g), which was higher than 5.2% and 3.6% of CK, respectively. CAT activity in L1h group remained the highest level, which was 1.12-fold of CK group and next was in L0.5h group, which was 1.03-fold of CK. AA content was totally higher than CK, and the order from high to low was L1.5h, L0.5h, L2h, L1h and CK. Short time cold shock could alleviate the reduction of juice rate and maintain a higher TA content. The juice rates were 76.4 % and 75.6% in L0.5h and L1h groups, which were higher than CK group (75.1%). TA content in L1h group (168.3 g/kg) was the highest level with 19.2% higher than CK group and next was in L0.5h group (155.5 g/kg) with 10.0% higher than CK. TSS content was a little higher than or close to CK group. In a word, cold shock pretreatment can improve the product quality of Guanxi honey pomelo fruits during storage at room temperature and immersion in ice-water for 1 h has the best effect.

Technology Application
Preparation of Flexible Immobilized Papain
CHEN Xin1,ZHANG Jun-min1,SUN Hui-li2,DU Jian-hai1,YUAN Yi-hua1,CHEN Zhi-gang3
2010, 31(22):  500-503.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022113
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Long-chain dialdehyde starch was linked to the surface of chitosan membrane to obtain an immobilization carrier for enzyme. Flexible immobilized papain was prepared through fixing papain on the carrier and applied to prepare small molecule peptide by hydrolyzing aphia undulate. The optimal immobilization conditions were explored by evaluating the effect of immobilization temperature, pH, enzyme amount and immobilization time on enzyme activity and recovery rate of flexible immobilized papain. Results indicated that the optimal immobilization conditions were reaction temperature of 25 ℃, reaction time of 20 h, enzyme amount of 40 mg/g, and pH 8.0. Under the optimal immobilization conditions, the obtained immobilized papain exhibited the highest activity and the recovery rate of papain was 63.35%.

Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Kiwi Wine
LI Jia-xing1,2,CHEN Shuang-ping2,LIANG Xian-chang1,CHEN Jian-fu2,LI Jing-ye3
2010, 31(22):  504-507.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022114
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Kiwi fruits were used as the raw materials to prepare kiwi wine through fermentation technology. The optimal fermentation conditions were explored by single factor and orthogonal experiments to be yeast inoculum amount of 0.7g/L, SO2 content of 80 mg/L, fermentation temperature of 26℃, and fermentation time of 21 days. Under the optimal fermentation conditions, the flavor of kiwi fruit wine was relatively prominent.

Preparation Processing of Ginseng-fermented Wine
WEN Lian-kui,ZHANG Wei,WANG Li-fang,GAO Yuan,WANG Jun-ying
2010, 31(22):  508-511.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022115
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Ginseng was used as the raw material to perform extraction, fermentation and clarification for developing ginseng wine. The optimal preparation processing of ginseng wine was explored by orthogonal experiments to be pH 5, inoculum amount of 1.0 g/L, and fermentation temperature of 21 ℃. The transmittance of prepared ginseng wine was up to 97.3% at the best clarification using 0.1% chitosan. The prepared ginseng wine revealed light yellow in color, clear and transparent without impurities, slightly acidic and refreshing natural mellow, and typical characteristics of fermented ginseng. The alcohol content in this kind of ginseng wine was 11.4%.

Preparation Processing Optimization of En Seven Sweet Gynostemma pentaphyllum Tea
LIU Jin-long1,2,ZHENG Xiao-jiang1,LUO Xing-wu2,TIAN Guo-zheng2,PENG Qian-cheng2
2010, 31(22):  512-515.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022116
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In order to optimize the preparation processing of En Seven sweet Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea, the optimal preparation parameters including Shaqing temperature, time, material-liquid ratio and cooling time after Shaqing were investigated. The optimal processing conditions were temperature at 100 ℃, Shaqing time of 2 min, and cooling down time on stainless wire bed of 5 min. In addition, 15 min of piling up was necessary before drying of prepared tea products. The optimal drying conditions were drying at 100 ℃for 4 h. These optimal preparation and drying conditions could result in a high retention rate of bioactive components, less loss of nutrients, superior color and taste, and stable quality of prepared tea products. The optimal brewing conditions were soaking tea products in hot water at 80 ℃ for 45 min with the material-liquid ratio of 1: 50. Under the optimal brewing condition, the bioactive and nutritional components in tea products can be dissolved in water to provide health functions. These investigations will provide a theoretical reference for future depth development of Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea.

Development of Pu er Tea-Panax notoginseng Buccal Tablets
ZHANG Hui,ZHANG Yun-long,TIAN Yang,XIAO Rong*,LI Dong,HE Meng-heng
2010, 31(22):  516-520.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022117
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In this study, Pu er tea powder was prepared from Pu er tea. Pu er tea powder, Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) and xylitol were used as the major raw materials with the addition of corn starch and other additives as supplementary materials to prepare Pu er tea-Panax notoginseng buccal tablet through a series of processing including spray drying, mixing, granulation, drying, tablet and irradiation sterilization. The optimal formula and processing parameters were explored by orthogonal experiments. Results showed that the optimal formula were 70% ethanol as wetting agent, 10% Pu er tea powder, 86% filling agents (xylitol: cornstarch: dextrin: β-cyclodextrin = 4: 2: 1.5: 0.6), 1.2% PNS and 0.5% aspartame. Under the optimal preparation processing conditions, prepared Pu er tea-Panax notoginseng buccal tablets with good flavor can meet national standards.

Development of Soaking-exempt Soybean by Freeze Drying
WANG Li-ping,XU Yi*,ZHONG Yan-qian,SHEN Chao,LI Bao-guo
2010, 31(22):  521-524.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022118
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To prepare soaking-exempt soybean with better rehydration property, vacuum freeze-drying technology was used to dry fully soaked soybean. Sensory evaluation, CT scanning of internal structure and nutrition determination were also utilized to explore the effects of processing parameters including soaking time, pre-freezing temperature and primary drying temperature on freeze-drying rate and freeze-dried product quality. Results indicated that the optimal processing parameters were soaking time of 18 h, pre-freezing temperature of-90 ℃ and primary drying temperature of -20 ℃, which could provide vacuum freezedried soybean products with high quality. This study can offer a theoretical reference for depth development of soaking-exempt soybean.

Development of Compound Beverage from Cactus and Cucumber
ZHENG Ya-qin
2010, 31(22):  525-528.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201022119
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Cactus and cucumber were used as the raw materials to develop a compound beverage through exploring the color retention of cactus juice, optimal formula, stability and product quality of compound cactus-cucumber juice drink. Orthogonal experiments were used to investigate the optimal formula of compound cactus-cucumber beverage. Results indicated that the optimal formula were 15% cactus juice, 15% cucumber juice and 9% sugar. Better color retention effect of cactus juice was observed under the conditions of 0.6 g/L vitamin C, 0.02 g/L Na2SO3, blanching time of 3 min and color protection time of 0.5 h. The optimal compound stabilizers were 0.1% CMC-Na and 0.01% carrageenan.