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15 September 2010, Volume 31 Issue 17
Invited Papers
Analysis of Applied and Approved Projects in Food Science Discipline of NSFC in 2010
YANG Xin-quan1,JIANG Zheng-qiang1,YANG Zhen-feng2,WANG Wei-yi3,ZHU Li4
2010, 31(17 ):  1-9.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017001
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Official statistics was reported on proposals and funding of general program projects, the young scientists fund, and fund for less developed regions in Food Science Discipline of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in 2010. The situation of the proposals and funding in Food Science Discipline, research fields distribution, type of the projects and the research institutes were also analyzed in this report. These results are helpful to the applicants for understanding the detailed information about application and funding in Food Science Discipline, and will provide application guidance for the next year, guide the development of the basic research in food science of China.

Basic Research
Effects of Different Solvent Extracts from Buckwheat Bran on α -Glucosidase Activity
LI Yan-qin1,ZHOU Feng-chao1,SHAN Fang2,BIAN Jun-sheng2,WANG Yao-wen1,XIA Nan1
2010, 31(17):  10-13.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017002
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The respective effects of buckwheat bran ethanol extract mainly composed of flavonoids and its high-pressure hydrolysate as well as the water extract from the material mainly composed of fagopyritols on α-glucosidase activity were measured using acarbose or D-chiro-inositol as a reference substance. The major components of the ethanol extract were flavonoids, with a total content of 74.0%, in which the relative content of rutin was 86.5% and those of quercetin and isoquercetin were at trace levels according to colorimetric and HPLC determinations. However, after high-pressure hydrolysis, the content of total flavonoids in the ethanol extract increased to 76.2%, of which rutin, quercetin and isoquercetin represented 60.6%, 25.2% and 13.5%, respectively. The major components of the water extract were 43.6% D-chiro-inositol and 2.9% inositol. All the three tested samples had inhibition effect onα-glucosidase in the following decreasing order: the hydrolysate of the ethanol extract >the ethanol extract > the water extract. Their IC50 values were 0.0085, 0.0578 g/L and 17.3551 g/L, respectively. Therefore, highpressure hydrolysis could increase the inhibition effect of buckwheat bran ethanol extract onα-glucosidase activity (the IC50 of the hydrolysate was approximately one quarter of that of acarbose; the smaller IC50, the stronger inhibition effect). In addition, the water extract did not inhibit the activity of the enzyme at low concentrations, but had inhibition effect at high concentrations.

Extraction Mechanism during the Sterilization of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
ZHOU Xian-han1,2,CHENG Li-mei2,ZENG Qing-mei1,ZHANG An2,SONG Jun-hua2,ZHOU Dian-fei2
2010, 31(17):  14-17.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017003
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Functional components in cytoplasm, cell membrane and cell wall can be dissolved by supercritical carbon dioxide. As a result, the cells will be damaged and die due to inactivation. The extraction mechanism during supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization was explored in this study. An Escherichia coli suspension at a concentration of 108 CFU/mL was prepared and treated with supercritical carbon dioxide and composition analysis was performed on the extracts obtained at different time points. The results indicated that both non-polar fatty acids and polar weak small amino acids were the functional components in cells. This investigation demonstrates that extraction indeed occurs during supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization.

Scavenging Effect of Selenium-rich Flammulina velutipes on Hydroxyl Free Radicals
LI Hua-wei1,ZHAO Su-yun2,TIE Mei2,*
2010, 31(17):  18-21.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017004
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The fruit bodies of selenium-rich Flammulina velutipes were extracted by modern separation techniques to obtain Se-binding polysaccharides and Se-binding proteins. Phenol-sulfuric acid method, ICP-MS and Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 dye method were used for the quantifications of polysaccharides, selenium and proteins, respectively. The scavenging effects of the Se-binding polysaccharide extract and the Se-binding protein extract on hydroxyl free radicals generated in a Fenton system were evaluated under optimal experimental conditions. It was found that the hydroxyl free radical scavenging effects of Sebinding polysaccharides and Se-binding proteins were more obvious than those of inorganic selenium, pure polysaccharides or pure proteins at the same concentrations. The maximum scavenging rates of Se-binding polysaccharides and Se-binding proteins on hydroxyl free radicals were 65.05 % and 19.67%, respectively.

Analysis of Characteristic Description for the Aroma and Sensory Properties of Shiraz Wine
LI Hua1,2,ZHANG Li1,2,WANG Hua1,2,*,TAO Yong-sheng1,2
2010, 31(17):  22-24.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017005
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The aroma description for 4 kinds of Shiraz wine was subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analytical results indicated that 2 principal components provided 90.15% cumulative contribution. Systematic cluster analysis exhibited that 4 factors including pepper (or roasted), spicy (or berry or rose or sweet fruit), licorice and chocolate (or pineapple) could reflect most information on the aroma of Shiraz wine. Therefore, these 4 terms were used as the description of aroma for sensory evaluation. It could simplify terms of sensory evaluation and improve the precision and sensitivity of sensory evaluation.

Composition Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil from Citrus Peel
CHEN Lin-lin1,MI Qiang2,XIN Jia-ying1,3
2010, 31(17):  25-28.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017006
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Citrus peel essential oil was obtained by distillation and its composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Totally 17 compounds were identified and represented 99.80% of the essential oil, including D-limonene (92.72%), the most predominant compound, terpenoids having the highest relative content (97.90%) and small amounts of aldehyde, alcohol and ketone compounds. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was determined by measuring inhibition zone diameter, and the results showed that it had stronger inhibitory effect against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus cremoris and Penicillium sp., especially against Escherichia coli. The inhibition zone diameters against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus cremoris were both larger than 15 mm, indicating high sensitivity, and that against Penicillium sp. 14.1 mm, moderate sensitivity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus cremoris were 1.25% and 2.5%, respectively.

Effect of Frozen Storage on Lipid Composition in Different Tissues and Organs of Mini-pig
YANG Yong1,2,ZHAO Chun-jiang3,WANG Zhen-yu1,XIAO Shan1,WU Chang-xin3,MA Chang-wei1,*
2010, 31(17):  29-35.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017007
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In order to investigate the effect of frozen storage on lipid composition in different tissues and organs of mini-pig, subcutaneous fat, longissimus dorsi muscle and livers from three mini-pigs of the same age were subjected to frozen storage at- 18℃for 150 days. Pre- and post-storage samples were determined for their lipid content, lipid composition, fatty acid composition and malonaldehyde content. No obvious change in the lipid content of all the tested tissues and liver before and after storage was observed. However, phospholipid content exhibited a significant decrease (P<0.01) in all the samples and the biggest decrease (from 45.61% to 34.96%) in the liver of mini-pig was observed. After 150 days of frozen storage, subcutaneous fat, muscle and liver tissues showed 6.6-, 7.7- and 9.1-fold increases in fatty acid contents, respectively. In addition, an obvious difference of fatty acid compositions was observed among different tissues. The content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in neutral lipid increased (P<0.01), whereas that of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid decreased (P<0.01), and that of saturated fatty acids decreased to the largest extent (P<0.01). The TBARS values of subcutaneous fat, muscle and liver tissues were 0.7, 16.7 mg/kg and 120.5 mg/kg, respectively, which revealed a significant difference (P<0.01). The above results also suggested that the lipolysis of SFA was slower than that of non-SFA during frozen storage. Lipids in liver were the most susceptible to oxidation, followed by those in muscle, and the oxidative stability of subcutaneous fat was the best under the condition of frozen storage.

Purification and Structural Identification of the Major Component of the Red Pigment from Black Sunflower Seed Shell
ZHANG Hai-yue,XU He,WANG Lei
2010, 31(17):  36-40.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017008
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Eight kinds of macroporous adsorption resins were used for the static adsorption of the red pigment extract from black sunflower seed shell, and AB-8 type resin presented the highest adsorption ratio and was consequently selected for further investigations. The optimum conditions for the dynamic adsorption and desorption of the pigment extract were explored. After purification using AB-8 type resin under the optimized adsorption and desorption conditions, a 5-fold elevation in the color value of the pigment extract was obtained. Lyophilization gave a crystallized red pigment. The major components of the red pigment was identified to be ascyanidin-3-glucoside through qualitative tests and IR spectroscopic, thin layer chromatographic, HPLC and MS analyses.

Using Pulsed Electric Field to Reduce the Bromate Content in Drinking Water
YU Lin-lin,CHEN Xiao-qing,CHEN Wan-qing,CHEN Lin-lin,WENG Da-yan,FANG Ting*,CHEN Jin-quan
2010, 31(17):  41-43.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017009
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To explore a new alternative technology to ozone sterilization for reducing the bromate content in drinking water, pulsed electric field (PEF) was used for the sterilization of drinking water in this study. Indigo carmine spectrophotometry and ion chromatography were used to determine the contents of ozone and bromate, respectively. PEF had strong sterilization effect on common microorganisms in water, resulting in a decrease by more than 5.5 logarithmic orders. The bromate contents in the water samples treated with 1.769 mg/L and 4.728 mg/L ozone were 0.039 mg/L and 0.045 mg/L, respectively. However, no bromate was detected in the water treated by PEF at 30 kV/cm.

Physico-chemical Properties of Pingguoli Pear Pectin
HAN Miao-miao1,LI Fan-zhu1,PIAO Yi-long2,ZHANG Xian1,*
2010, 31(17):  44-46.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017010
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Acid hydrolysis was used to extract Pingguoli pear pectin from young fruits and pomace of matured fruits after juicing and the crude extract was then purified by absolute ethanol precipitation method. The purity colour, methoxy content, esterification degree, intrinsic viscosity and molecular mass of Pingguoli pear pectin were determined. The purity of the purified Pingguoli pear pectin was more than 70%. The color of the pectin from young and matured fruits was light brown and white, respectively. The intrinsic viscosity and molecular mass of the pectin from matured fruits were 1.51×10-7Pa·s and 6.96×105, which were both higher than those of the pectin from young fruits. However, both kinds of pectin were high methoxyl (HM) pectin. The pectin from young fruits was slow-setting pectin and the pectin from matured fruits was rapid-setting pectin.

Static Adsorption Properties of Total Flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba Leaves on Modified Attapulgite Clay
YIN Xiu-lian,YOU Qing-hong
2010, 31(17):  47-50.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017011
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Modified attapulgite clay as an adsorbent was used to explore the adsorption properties of the total flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Four different kinds of modified attapulgite clay were investigated for their adsorption capacities towards the total flavonoids, and chitosan-modified attapulgite clay was found to have the largest adsorption capacity, which was up to 112.70 mg/g. The adsorption properties of the total flavonoids on chitosan-modified attapulgite clay were explored, and the curves showing the respective effects of sample concentration and pH on the adsorption capacity of the total flavonoids on chitosanmodified attapulgite clay and the adsorption isothermal curves and kinetic curves were plotted. The optimal desoprtion solvent for achieving both high desorption rate (91%) and total flavonoid purity (56%) was composed of 70% ethanol and 1% acetic acid.

Establishment of Traceable Code System for Quality and Safety of Vegetables
ZHAO Yan1,WANG Qiang2,*,WU Li-yu2,SHANG Jing3,FANG Zhi-fei1
2010, 31(17):  51-54.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017012
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In this paper, a traceable code system for controlling quality and safety of vegetables from primary production to consumers was established. Based on the investigation of EAN·UCC, a global identification system combined with actual situation of agricultural supply chains and relevant national standards, the codes related to production origin of vegetables, products, harvesting, processing and traceability system were explored. The established traceable code system will be beneficial to standardize manufacture, processing, circulation and distribution and traceable management of vegetables. This study also can provide a technical support for realizing quality and safety traceability of vegetables.

Physico-chemical Properties of Arrowhead Resistant Starch
ZHAO Li-chao,DU Zheng,LIU Xin,YOU Man-jie
2010, 31(17):  55-59.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017013
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Arrowhead resistant starch (RS) was prepared by acid hydrolysis followed by microwave heating. New continuous compact structure was formed in arrowhead RS. Elementary crystallites were the major components of arrowhead RS crystal. The crystalline pattern of arrowhead RS was changed into C type and the crystallinity was 23.62%. The maximum absorption wavelength of arrowhead RS-iodine complex was 564.40 nm. As more RS was formed, there was a significant decrease in the degree of polymerization (DP) and the DP of purified arrowhead RS was 22.94, and most soluble amylose was converted into insoluble amylase, but less change in amylose content was observed. Infrared spectral analysis showed arrowhead RS contained primary and secondary alcoholic hydroxyl groups and the structure of α-D-pyran ring. Structurally, arrowhead RS presented only more formed hydrogen bonds when compared with its native counterpart. Therefore, the modification for arrowhead starch is physical modification. Moreover, arrowhead RS also exhibited lower solubility and transparency but higher water-holding capacity in comparison with its native counterpart.

Antibacterial and Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activities and Trace Element Determination of Ethanol Extract from Erythronium japonicum Decne
CAI En-bo,ZHAO Yan,YANG Zhi-hui,TIAN Yang,CHEN Hong-mei,GAO Yu,WU Qian,ZHENG You-lan
2010, 31(17):  60-63.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017014
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Objective: To evaluate whether the ethanol extract from Erythronium japonicum Decne has antibacterial activity and the ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and determine its trace elements. Methods: The antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract against four common bacteria was assessed by measuring its minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) by filter paper method and the effects of temperature, pH and UV irradiation on its antibacterial activity were dealt with. Trace elements such as iron, magnesium, zinc and copper were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Experimental results were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS16.0. Results: The MICs of the ethanol extract were 12.5, 100, 100 mg/mL and 200mg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thermal treatment, acidic environment and UV irradiation had no obvious effect on the antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract. The contents of iron, magnesium, zinc and copper of the ethanol extract were 633.25, 30.45, 39.95μg/g and 12μg/g, respectively. Conclusion: Erythronium japonicum Decne contains high levels of trace elements and exhibits excellent antibacterial and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Thus, this herb has a high exploitation value.

in vitro Inhibitory Effect of Water Extract from Douchi on Alpha-glucosidase Activity
CHEN Jing1,LI Li-te2
2010, 31(17):  64-67.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017015
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Thirty-seven Douchi samples collected from various regions of China were tested for the inhibitory effects of their water extracts on alpha-glucosidase in vitro. The water extracts from all these Douchi samples could inhibit mouse intestinal alpha-glucosidase to a certainty extent. In addition, samples NO.5 (L.Y), NO.16 (W.N.H) and NO.21 (M.W) showed stronger inhibitory effect against the enzyme (P < 0.05). Moreover, microamounts of glucose existing in Douchi samples had less interrupting effect on the anti-hyperglycemic activity of Douchi water extract. This study suggests that there are some active components in Douchi, which can strongly inhibit alpha-glucosidase and present excellent water solubility. These components may have sacchride-like structures. However, this needs to be deeply investigated.

Rheological Characteristics of Gums from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. Seeds with different Shapes
JIAN Hong-lei1,ZHU Li-wei1,ZHANG Wei-ming2,JIANG Jian-xin1,*
2010, 31(17):  68-72.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017016
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The rheological properties of gums from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. seeds with different shapes were studied with Brookfield rheometer, at different levels of heating time, temperature, pH and salt (NaCl) and white sugar concentrations. The results showed that both the Gleditsia sinensis gums were a type of pseudoplastic fluid and the relationship between the detected shear rate and shear stress accorded with the Power-law model. The gum from round seeds was more viscous than that from flat seeds. It was found that the two gums achieved complete hydration by heating at 80 ℃ for 1 h. The viscosity of the fully hydrated gum solution decreased with increasing temperature. The Gleditsia sinensis gum solution was stable with pH values varying from 2 to 11. The viscosity of the gum solution decreased with increasing salt concentration, while slightly increased with increasing white sugar concentration. Salt had more obvious effect on the viscosity of round seed gum than that of flat seed gum.

Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Carminic Acid
GUO Yuan-heng,MA Li-yi,ZHENG Hua,ZHANG Hong*,GAN Jin,LI Kun
2010, 31(17):  73-76.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017017
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In order to evaluate the ability of carminic acid to scavenge DPPH, ABTS+ and superoxide anion radicals, the absorbance changes of the solutions of these three free radicals at certain characteristic wavelengths before and after addition of this acid were measured. Meanwhile, comparison among scavenging activities of carminic acid against these three free radicals was carried out. Carminic acid at certain concentrations could scavenge all of these free radicals and presented scavenging ratios of around 83%, 85% and 46.84% against DPPH, ABTS+ and superoxide anion radicals, respectively. This investigation reveals that carminic acid has certain free radical scavenging activity, thereby providing a food additive.

Effects of Respective Additions of Five Minor Cereal Flours on Flour Properties and Biscuits Quality
REN Hong-tao1,CHENG Li-ying2,HUA Hui-ying2,YANG Lian-zhi2
2010, 31(17):  77-80.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017018
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Flours from 5 minor cereal species including sweet potato, corn, millet, black rice and pea were separately added to wheat four at 5 different levels in order to study the effects of their additions on flour properties and the quality of the processed biscuits. The results indicated that wet gluten content, dry gluten content, SDS sedimentation value, falling number all gradually decreased with increasing amounts of added minor cereal fours. Flour peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown and setback also tended to decrease, while gelatinization temperature increased slightly. Both biscuits color and flavor could be improved by adding minor cereal fours at a level of about 20%. Moreover, tenacity, appearance score and overall sensory score were also improved.

Effects of Glycerol and Methylellulose on the Properties of High-amylose Corn Starch-Chitosan Edible Films
ZI Ming-yang1,QIU Li-ping2,*,HU Bi-jun1,WEN Qi-biao1
2010, 31(17):  81-85.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017019
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In this study, edible films composed of high-amylose corn starch (HACS) and chitosan (CS) as basic materials were developed by casting the film solution containing glycerol as a plasticizer and methylcellulose (MC) as an enhancer on leveled trays. The effects of HACS-to-chitosan ratio and amounts of glycerol and methylcellulose (MC) on the tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (E), water vapor permeability (WVP), and color of the edible composite films were investigated. The results showed that higher amounts of chitosan and glycerol both resulted in a decrease in TS but a remarkable increase in E and WVP a color change of the edible films into yellow. Added MC could improve their mechanical properties and WVP. With increasing MC amount, the TS and E increased gradually, while the WVP decreased, and the color had no obvious change.

Nitrite Scavenging Effect of the Mechanically Prepared Juice from Chinese Onion, a Condiment Vegetable
ZHANG Rui-yu,WANG Ci-qin
2010, 31(17):  86-91.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017020
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In the present study, we evaluated the nitrite scavenging effect of the mechanically prepared juice from Chinese onion eaten as a condiment vegetable in China. Single factor experiments were initially carried out to investigate the effects of preheating temperature and amount of the juice and reaction pH and time on its scavenging ratio against nitrite and based on these investigations, orthogonal array design was then used to search for the optimum values of the above reaction conditions maximizing its scavenging ratio against nitrite. The results showed that preheating at high temperature was necessary for scavenging nitrite by the juice. The scavenging ratio of the juice against nitrite was over 50% at natural pH. pH had exceedingly significant effect on this index. The reaction of 11.0 mL of the juice for 10 min at pH 2.0 gave a nitrite scavenging ratio of 82.7%. Furthermore, precooked mustard leaves (as a simulation for cooking) was soaked in the juice or deionized water (as control) and stored at 7 ℃ and the accumulation of nitrite in mustard leaves was observed during storage. After 13 days of storage, a slow accumulation of nitrite was observed for mustard leaves soaked in deionized water or the juice. Mustard leaves soaked in the juice always presented a lower nitrite content than those soaked in deionized water did throughout the entire storage period. Thus, precooking, low temperature and soaking in the juice all had the ability to suppress the formation of nitrite. Meanwhile, the fresh leaves of mustard were cleaned and packaged in polyethylene bags and stored at 40 ℃ (as a simulation for high-temperature storage and transportation environment) and the nitrite content change of mustard leaves was examined during storage. It was found that the nitrite content in mustard leaves slightly increase in the first days of storage at 40 ℃, followed by a steep increase and reached 356.4 mg/kg on the sixth day and that 2.0 mL of the juice gave nitrite scavenging ratios of 21.1% on the first day and 5.9% on the sixth day.

Physico-chemical Properties of the Pigments from the Fruits of Padus L. Plants
WANG Zhen-yu1,2,REN Jian1,ZHANG Ning1,HAO Xiu-mei1
2010, 31(17):  92-97.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017021
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The spectral and physico-chemical properties of the pigments extracted from the fruits of Padus racemosa and largefruit and small-fruit species of Padus virginiana were investigated in order to offer helpful references for the development and utilization of these pigments. The results showed that the all these pigments from different Padus L. plants had good resistance to light and heat but were sensitive to pH value, oxidants and reductants. The pigment from Padus racemosa exhibited higher resistance to oxidation and reduction but poorer resistance to light when compared with that from large-fruit species of Padus virginiana, while the resistance of both of them to light, heat, oxidation and reduction was weaker than that of the pigment from small-fruit species of Padus virginiana. Except Fe2+, Fe3+ and Cu2+, other metal ions including Na+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Al3+, Mg2+,NH4+, Ba2+ and Mn2+ had no adverse effect on all these pigments. Citric acid as a common food additive had hyperchromic effect on them, while two others, ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate had hypochromic effect. Sucrose and glucose had no significant effect.

Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extracts from Different Tissues of Banana (Musa AAA Cavendish subgroup cv. Brazil) Inflorescence
SHENG Zhan-wu1,TANG Yan-ping2,CHEN Yu-jie2,ZHANG Wei-min2,MA Wei-hong1,JIN Zhi-qiang1,3,*
2010, 31(17):  98-102.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017022
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The 70% ethanol extracts from three different tissues of banana (Musa AAA Cavendish subgroup cv. Brazil) inflorescence including petal, bract and growth point were assessed for their free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities and reducing power. Among the three tissues of banana inflorescence, the highest contents of total flavonoids (5.9mg/100 g), total phenolics (14.91 mg/g) and saponins (14.77 mg/100 g) were found in petals, bracts and growth points, respectively. All the extracts from them could scavenge DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals and protect against lipid peroxidation and had pronounced reducing power in a concentration-dependent fashion and the extract from banana bracts had the strongest ability to scavenge DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals and reducing power and anti-lipid peroxidation activity, followed by that from banana growth points. Furthermore, compared with galic acid, all the extracts from banana petal, bract and growth point presented higher reducing power.

Changes in Chemical Forces and Protein Conformations during the Formation of Grass Carp Surimi Gels
LI Jie,WANG Zhi-he,SHI Wen-zheng
2010, 31(17):  103-106.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017023
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Fresh water fish surimi products processing is one of the main directions of fisheries processing industry in China. Gelation is the most important factor that affects the quality of surimi products. So making the mechanism of gel formation clear is of great significance. In the present study, chemical methods were used to determine the changes in ion, disulfide and hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions during the formation of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) surimi gels and the technique used to analyze protein conformation changes was laser-Ramman spectroscopy. Furthermore, the effects of chemical forces and protein conformation on the formation of surimi gels were elucidated. The results illustrated that during surimi gel formation, ion bonds and hydrogen bonds decreased significantly. However, hydrophobic interactions, disulfide bonds and non-disulfinde covalent bonds increased markedly. The α-helix of protein conformation was change into turn and random coil structures in part. Based on these results, it can be concluded that hydrophobic interactions, disulfide bonds and non-disulfide covalent bonds are the main chemical forces affecting the formation of surimi gels from frozen grass carp and that α-helix and random coil structures are the main protein conformations keeping the structure of frozen grass carp surimi gels stable.

Properties of Starches from Pueraria lobate and Some Other Starchy Plants
LU Cheng-ying1,2,LI Gui1,GUI Ke-yin2,BU Xiao-ying2,CHEN Gong-xi1
2010, 31(17):  107-109.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017024
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In order to provide experimental references for distinguishing Pueraria lobate starch and starches from other plants, some properties of starches from Pueraria lobate and 11 other plants including potato, corn, sweet potato, glutinous rice, oat, millet, mung bean, sorghum, long-grain nonglutinous rice and red kidney bean were measured. Pueraria lobate starch and starches from the other plants exhibited large differences in viscosity, transparency, freeze-thaw stability, swelling power and solubility. This will make it easy to rapidly identify Pueraria lobate starch.

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Blueberry Polysaccharides
MENG Xian-jun,LIU Xiao-jing,SUN Xi-yun,ZHANG Qi,PAN Xuan
2010, 31(17):  110-114.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017025
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Polysaccharides in blueberry fruits were extracted by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, and after preliminary purification, the precipitate was assessed for its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The results showed that blueberry polysaccharides had a strong ability to scavenge both hydroxyl and DPPH free radicals, with IC50 values of 2 mg/mL and 7 mg/mL. However, almost no scavenging effect against superoxide anion radicals was observed. The polysaccharides could inhibit the growth of all of the following microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylosocus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the corresponding minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) varied from 50 to 75 mg/mL. However, no inhibitory effect on G.tropicalis, Penicillium sp. or Aspergillus niger was observed.

An FTA/FMECA-based Traceability Method for Hazard Identification in Meat Foods
LU Shun-yi1,ZHANG Xiao-shuan1,*,ZHANG Jian2,ZHANG Hu1
2010, 31(17):  115-119.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017026
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Traceability systems have become an effective method of providing safe food supplies and connecting producers and consumers. In the current period, most studies of traceability systems for meat foods focus on production information transmission and system hardware implementation. However, there have been fewer studies on mining of production information and setting up of product safety models. In this study, FTA and FMECA which have been widely used as two mature risk analysis approaches in combination with Delphi method were introduced into the food industry to set up a traceability method for determining hazard sources in meat foods. Meanwhile, the method was applied to analyze the problem of coliform counts in beef cattle slaughtering workshops exceeding the standard. It was found that the method was effective in finding hazard sources, ensuring production safety and improving production regulations.

Isolation, Purification and Structural Characterization of a Polysaccharide Fraction from Stem Tuber of Bletilla striata, Named BSPI-A
WANG Bo,XU Sha,HUANG Lin-juan,WANG Zhong-fu*
2010, 31(17):  120-123.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017027
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The crude polysaccharide extract, named CBSP, from the stem tubers of Bletilla striata was purified/fractionated by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and two fractions were obtained and they were named BSPI and BSPII. BSPI was further purified by Bio-Gel P-300 column chromatography, and a sub-fraction was obtained and it was named BSPI-A. HPGPC analysis showed that the molecular weigh of BSPI-A was more than 4.0 × 105 D. By means of IR spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and methylation analysis, the polysaccharide fraction was characterized structurally, and the results indicated that BSPI-A was a linear polysaccharide and that the backbone was composed of 1,4-linked mannose (Man) and 1,4-linked glucose (Glc), with a molar ratio of 8.09:1.

Adsorption Kinetics of Triterpenoid Saponin from Luohanguo, the Fruit of Momordica grosvenori Swingle on AB-8 Macroporous Resin
LI Hai-bin,ZHANG Yue-hua
2010, 31(17):  124-128.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017028
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In the present study, we investigated the adsorption kinetics of Luohanguo, the fruit of Momordica grosvenori Swingle on AB-8 macroporous resin and established the kinetic equations and adsorption breakthrough curves.

Characterization of High Content Natural Vitamin E Oil Microcapsules
LONG Ji-yun,ZHENG Wei-wan*,LIAO He-jing,KONG Ling-wei,ZHANG Hai-ling,ZOU Jin
2010, 31(17):  129-132.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017029
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In this study, natural vitamin E oil with a content of 62.5% was embedded using modified starch as the wall material and mixed lipophilic and hydrophilic emulsifiers with a total amount of 3%. The properties of the microcapsules obtained were studied by using ultraviolet spectrometry, petroleum ether extraction, laser scanning particle size analyzer, environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) to measure total and surface vitamin E contents, the particle size distribution of the reconstituted emulsion and surface microstructure, respectively. The results showed that the total vitamin E content of freshly prepared microcapsules was as high as 30% and after 6-month storage, the surface vitamin E content decreased to smaller than 5%. The reconstituted emulsion displayed a narrow particle size distribution spectrum. Moreover, a compact structure was observed for both freshly prepared and stored microcapsules. Therefore, modified starch, vitamin E oil and a mixture of lipophilic and hydrophilic emulsifiers can compose a stable emulsifying system and the vitamin E oil microcapsules obtained by spray drying have excellent properties.

Antibacterial Activity of Water and Ethanol Extracts from Solanum alatum Moench. Fruits
Gulzar ABDUKEYUM,Abdulla ABBAS
2010, 31(17 ):  133-135.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017030
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To assess the antibacterial potency of Solanum alatum Moench. fruits, the water and ethanol extracts from Solanum alatum Moench. fruits were examined for their antibacterial activity against five common bacteria. It was found that both extracts had a notable inhibitory effect against the growth of all the bacteria tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the water extract against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Enterobacter aerogenes were 2, 1, 0.5, 3 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, and those of the ethanol extract were 2, 2, 1, 5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL, respectively.

Composition and Structure Characterization of Two Mulberry Leaf Polysaccharide Fractions
LUO Jing-jie,CAO Xue-li
2010, 31(17):  136-140.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017031
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In the present study, we characterized the composition and structural attributes of two polysaccharide fractions (named MPL1 and MPL2) in mulberry leaves obtained after microwave-assisted extraction and Sephadex G50 purification. The HPGPC analysis showed that the weight-average molecular weights of MPL1 and MPL2 were 11800 D and 7630 D, respectively. According to the GC analysis, both polysaccharide fractions were composed of five monosaccharide, namely D-Flu, L-Ara, L-Rha, D-Xyl and D-Glu, and their molar ratio was 58 : 9.9 : 5.8 : 5.1 : 21.2 for MPL1 and 45 : 6.74 : 17.2 : 7.3 : 24.1 for MPL2. By using the classic methods of periodate oxidation and Smith Degradation reaction, both the backbones of MPL1 and MPL2 were found to consist of 1→3 glycosyl bonds and the side chains consisted of 1→2 glycosyl bonds. C-H absorption peak of α configuration was contained in both polysaccharide fractions according to the IR analysis.

Effect of High-density Stone Milling on Physico-chemical Properties and Sensory Quality of Green Tea
TAN Jun-feng,PENG Qun-hua,LIN Zhi*,LU Hai-peng,GUO Li
2010, 31(17):  141-142.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017032
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Green tea materials were milled using a high-density variable frequency speed miller at various rotational speeds ranging from 40 to 80 r/min in order to study the effect of high-density stone milling on the physico-chemical properties and sensory quality of green tea. The results showed that powdered green tea obtained at 60 r/min had a bright light green color, a pure aroma and a neutral taste, was uniform in particle size and scored the highest overall sensory score.

Mechanical Properties of Apricot Seeds under Compression Loading
ZHANG Li-hua1,2,QIN Wen2,*,MA Rong-chao2
2010, 31(17):  143-147.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017033
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In order to further improve the design and manufacture of apricot seed processing machinery, we used a LDS-W10A type microcomputer controlled mechanical testing machine to explore the effects of material moisture content and pressure direction on apricot seed cracking characteristics. Meanwhile, corresponding mathematical models were established. The results showed that moisture content varying between 5.97% and 30.14% had a significant effect on both rupture forces and energy consumptions (P < 0.10) along the X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis of apricot seeds. Increasing moisture content resulted in lower rupture forces and energy consumptions along X-axis and Y-axis. Both required rupture forces and energy consumptions along different directions for cracking apricot seeds with the same moistures exhibited a significant difference, and the largest required rupture force and energy consumption were along X-axis, 992 N and 1304.48 mJ, respectively and the required rupture force and energy consumption along Y-axis were the smallest, 268 N and 294.80 mJ, respectively. Compared with X-axis and Y-axis, apricot seeds compressed along Z-axis were more easily ruptured and the higher the moisture content, the more easily apricot seeds were ruptured. Consequently, apricot seeds should be compressed along Y-axis and be dried properly in advance so as to prevent almond breaking.

Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Wild Berries
FAN Zi-luan1,WANG Zhen-yu1,2,*,CHENG Cui-lin1,ZHAO Hai-tian1,ZHANG Hua1
2010, 31(17):  148-152.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017034
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Some wild berries have been shown to have the functions of protecting against cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers due to the existence of phenolics. In the present study, the ripe fruits of five wild berries, Sorbus pohuashanensis H. (rowanberry), Vaccinium uliginosum L. (blue honeysuckle), Lonicera caerulea L., Hippophae rhamnoides L., and Fragaria orientalis Los., selected from the Greater Higgnan Mountains area of Northeast China were extracted with 80% acetone and the extracts were measured for their contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids and anthocyanins, ABTS+·, DPPH and total oxyradical scavenging capacities and anti-proliferative activities against HepG2 and HT29 cell (MTS assay). The results showed that rowanberry had the highest contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids among all the five berries, while blue honeysuckle had the highest anthocyanin content (367.5 ± 8.7) g/100 g. All the five berry extracts could exert antioxidant activities in vitro, of which rowanberry showed the highest inhibition effects on the proliferation of HepG2 and HT29 cells. As a conclusion, rowanberry has a huge potential for being developed as effective cancer drugs.

Evaluation of Suitability of Several Citrus Varieties for Juicing
XIE Jiao1,2,WANG Hua1,*,MA Ya-qin1
2010, 31(17):  153-157.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017035
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Comprehensive assessment of sensory and physico-chemical parameters was used for suitability study of several citrus varieties (namely, Beibei Jincheng orange No. 447, Zhongyu sweet orange No. 7, Xuegan Jincheng orange, Jiangjin longleaf orange, Xupu Hamlin sweet orange, Hongjiang Dahong sweet orange, Dahong seedless sweet orange and Xupu oval-shaped seedless sweet orange) for juicing. Sensory evaluation score was on 100 scale. The physico-chemical parameters assessed were juice percentage, the contents of soluble solids, total flavonoids, volatile oil and limonin, titratable acidity and so on. Beibei Jincheng orange No. 447, Zhongyu sweet orange No. 7, Jiangjin long-leaf orange, Xuegan Jincheng orange, Xupu Hamlin sweet orange and Dahong seedless sweet orange scored a comprehensive score over 80, indicating excellent suitability for juicing. The soluble solids-to-acid ratios of Hongjiang Dahong sweet orange and Xupu oval-shaped seedless sweet orange were both less than 10, but the comprehensive scores exceeded 75; therefore, the two varieties have good suitability for juicing.

in vitro Singlet Oxygen Quenching Ability Assessment of β-Cryptoxanthin from the Calyx of Physalis alkengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino
CAI Jin,ZHAO Ting,HUI Bo-di,GONG Ping
2010, 31(17):  158-161.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017036
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Objective: To assess the ability of β-cryptoxanthin from the calyx of Physalisalkengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino to quench in vitro singlet oxygen. Methods: β-cryptoxanthin eater was extracted from the calyx of Physalisalkengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino with n-hexane and then saponified to produce β-cryptoxanthin fraction. The fraction was identified and quantified on C18-HPLC-PDA. Based on the reaction between NaClO and H2O2, singlet oxygen was produced. Singlet oxygen quenching ability of the β-cryptoxanthin fraction was determined on ultra-weak luminescience analyzer. Results: By C18-HPLCPDA, the prepared fraction was identified as β-cryptoxanthin. The data from ultra-weak luminescience analyzer suggested that the β-cryptoxanthin fraction was able to reduce the maximum number of photon generated from the reaction solution in positive correlation with its amount. β-Cryptoxanthin with an amount ranging between 0.049 g/L and 0.49 g/L resulted in a 50% reduction of maximum photon number.

Effects of Hurdle Factors on Sterilization of High-moisture Ready-to-eat Oyster Products
CHEN Sheng-jun1,2,CHEN Xiao-feng2,YANG Xian-qing1,*,LI Lai-hao1,ZHANG Chao-hua3,WU Yan-yan1,DIAO Shi-qiang1,MA Hai-xia1
2010, 31(17):  162-165.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017037
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Based on the theory of hurdle effect, several hurdle factors with moderate strength including sterilization temperature, acidity (pH), water activity and packaging way were selected and their interactions were used to form a hurdle that efficiently prevents food deterioration so that high-moisture semi-dry oyster products with excellent quality could be developed. The results showed that the sterilization effects of these hurdle factors at different strength were different. An optimal sterilization effect was obtained after roasting at 60 ℃ for 2 h, adjusting pH to about 5.5 by adding 10% acetic acid, adding 16% white sugar for adjusting water activity to about 0.90 during seasoning, sterilization for 30 min at 100 ℃ and vacuum packaging. The products obtained remained original texture and flavor well.

in vitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) Tubers
YANG Shao-hui,SONG Ying-jin,WANG Jie-hua,JI Jing
2010, 31(17):  166-169.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017038
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Antioxidant capacity is an important factor indicating nutritional and health value of fruits and vegetables. Yacon is a both edible and medicinal plant, which has some preventing roles for a number of chronic diseases. In this study, to assess the in vitro antioxidant potential of yacon tubers, the 60% methanol extract from yacon tubers was tested for its scavenging capacities against DPPH, ABTS+·, superoxide anion radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power and ferrous ions chelating capacity. The DPPH radical scavenging assay of the extract showed a trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 410.263mg Trolox /g md, a ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) of 230.485 mg VC/g md and a median inhibition concentration (IC50) of 1.464 mg/mL, and the ABTS+· radical scavenging assay showed a TEAC of 267.584 mg Trolox/g md, an AEAC of 41.597 mg VC/g md and an IC50 of 1.269 mg/mL, and the TEAC, AEAC and IC50 obtained in the superoxide anion radical assay were 652.816 mg Trolox/g md, 101.451 mg VC/g md and 7.720 mg/mL, respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract from yacon tubers has scavenging effect against all DPPH, ABTS+·, superoxide anion radicals. Moreover, the extract also presented high ferric reducing antioxidant power (131.723 mg FeSO4 /g md) and strong ferrous ions chelating capacity (73.193%).

Antioxidant Activity Study of Phenolic Compounds from Pingguoli Pear Peels
ZHAO Jin-wei,LI Fan-zhu,ZHANG Xian
2010, 31(17):  170-172.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017039
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An antioxidant activity study of phenolic compounds from young and ripe Pingguoli pear peels was carried out by DPPH free radical, hydroxyl free radical and nitrite scavenging assays. It was found that phenolic compounds from Pingguoli pears had good scavenging effect against all DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals and nitrite and that the phenolic extract from young fruit peels was superior to that from ripe fruit peels.

Comparative Study of Physico-chemical Properties of Kidney Bean and Mung Bean Starches
XU Xin1,HAN Chun-ran1,YUAN Mei-juan2,MA Yong-qiang1,*
2010, 31(17):  173-176.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017040
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Differences in some physico-chemical properties of kidney bean and mung bean starches, including shape, size, solubility, swelling power, transparency, pasting and retrogradation properties, were compared. The results showed that most of the granules of kidney bean starch were oval in shape, with a diameter ranging between 17.89 μm and 28.80 μm, and the granules of mung bean starch were round or oval in shape, with a diameter ranging between 10.50 μm and27.59 μm. Compared with kidney bean starch, both the swelling power and solubility of mung bean starch began to increase obviously at a lower temperature, and were slightly higher at the same concentrations. The transparency of kidney bean starch paste was higher than that of mung bean starch paste, but became lower and lower than that of mung bean starch paste after a certain period of storage. It was easier to paste mung bean starch than to paste kidney bean starch. Furthermore, kidney bean starch had higher retrogradation speed than mung bean starch.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Starch from Polished Germinated Rice with the Germ Left Intact
ZHANG Dong-sheng,LIU Yong-le*,LI Xiang-hong,YU Jian,WANG Fa-xiang,WANG Jian-hui
2010, 31(17):  177-181.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017041
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The physical and chemical characteristics of starches from polished germinated rice with the germ left intact, polished fresh rice with the germ left intact and fresh and germinated brown rice were measured and compared in order to investigate the effect of germination on the physical and chemical characteristics of polished germinated rice with the germ left intact. The results showed that the amylose content of polished germinated rice with the germ left intact was lower than that of polished fresh rice with the germ left intact. However, higher swelling power, solubility and transmittance were observed for polished germinated rice with the germ left intact, and its freezing-thawing stability was also better. In addition, polished germinated rice with the germ left intact exhibited lower peak viscosity and breakdown but higher final viscosity, setback viscosity and consistency viscosity. Furthermore, the storage modulus of polished germinated rice with the germ left intact was always the lowest during heating among the four starches tested mainly due to its lowest amylose content.

Effects of Respective Additions of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified Starches from Different Sources on Physical Properties of Flour and Textual and Sensory Properties of Processed Quick-frozen Dumpling Wrappers
SONG Xiao-yan,LI Zhen,YANG Nian,AI Zhi-lu
2010, 31(17):  182-185.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017042
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The pasting properties of native and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified waxy corn and rice starches were determined. The two OSA modified starches were separately added to flour in different proportions, and their effects on quickfrozen dumpling wrappers processed were also investigated. The results showed that OSA modified waxy corn and rice starches had higher paste clarity, lower retrogradation and better freeze-thaw stability than their respective native counterparts. Additions of both OSA modified starches could result in increases in flour viscosity and dumpling wrapper hardness, springiness, chewiness (P < 0.05). Dumpling wrappers with 5% pregelatinized OSA modified corn starch had the lowest cold cracking rate and the best sensory quality (eg. colour and lustre, transparency, toughness and mouthfeel).

Antioxidant Effects of the Soxhlet Extraction Product from Porphyra haitanensis and Its Different Solvent-soluble Fractions
ZHAO Guo-ling1,LIU Cheng-chu1,*,XIE Jing1,LI Ying-sen2,LI Jia-le2,3
2010, 31(17):  186-191.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017043
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The Soxhlet extraction product from Porphyra haitanensis was fractionized according to solubility difference in different solvents into petroleum ether (PE)-soluble fraction, ethyl acetate (EA)-soluble fraction, n-butanol-soluble fraction and water-soluble, and the extraction product and its fractions were tested and compared for their DPPH radical scavenging capacity and reducing power and their contents of total polyphenols and total flavonoids were also determined. All these fractions had an antioxidant effect in a significant dosage-dependent manner in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 g/L and the EV-soluble fraction exhibited the highest ranking for both DPPH radical scavenging capacity and reducing power and followed by the n-butanol-soluble fraction, the PE-soluble fraction and the water-soluble fraction. The EA-soluble fraction at a concentration of 1.5 g/L exhibited a reducing power absorbance of 1.97, which was higher than that (1.90) of 80% tea polyphenols, a commercial product and close to that (2.00) of BHT. Likewise, the EV-soluble fraction ranked first for both the contents of total polyphenols (69.84 mg GAE/g dry weight) and total flavonoids (299.49 mg RE/g dry weight), and the water-soluble fraction last, with a total polyphenol content of 11.1 mg GAE/g dry weight and a total flavonoid content of 32.36 mg RE/g dry weight. Therefore, phenolics are mainly distributed in mid-polarity solvents rather than high-polarity ones. Moreover, the contents of total polyphenols and total flavonoids of the Soxhlet extraction product and its four fractions were linearly plotted against their DPPH radical scavenging capacities or reducing power at 1 g/L, respectively, and the results showed that correlation coefficients were 0.9311 and 0.7530 for the relationship between total polyphenol content and DPPH scavenging capacity or reducing power and 0.8899 and 0.7211 for the relationships between total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging capacity or reducing power, respectively. Based on these investigations, it can be concluded that polyphenlics mainly contribute to the antioxidant effect of Porphyra haitanensis.

Effects of Glutaminase on the Functional Properties of Rice Glutelin
LI Xiang-hong,ZHOU Xiao-ling,LIU Yong-le*,YU Jian,ZHANG Dong-sheng
2010, 31(17):  192-196.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017044
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To probe into the effect of glutaminase modification on the functional properties of rice glutelin, rice glutelin was prepared in our laboratory and enzymatically modified with glutaminase, and rice glutelin and its modification products at different treatment time points were analyzed for their solubility, emulsifying properties, foaming properties, viscosity, waterbinding capacity, oil-binding capacity and so on. The results showed that glutaminase modification could improve various functional properties of rice glutelin. After glutaminase modification, the solubility of rice glutelin was obviously increased (up to 96.99%). The modification products of rice glutelin in the hydrolysis time range of 1 to 12 h had the best emulsifying properties, and after hydrolysis for 1 to 5 h, the strong acid resistance of rice glutelin was remarkably improved and an optimal foaming capacity was observed. However, its foam stability and viscosity both gradually decreased with increasing reaction time. Furthermore, glutaminase modification resulted in a 1.75 to 2.03-fold increase in water-binding capacity and a 1.58 to 1.94- fold increase in oil-binding capacity.

Bioengineering
Isolation and Screening of Protease-producing Lactobacilli in Duck Gastrointestinal Tract
TONG Min,PAN Dao-dong
2010, 31(17):  197-200.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017045
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Two lactic acid bacterial stains having the ability to produce protease were isolated and screened from the gastrointestinal tract of duck with the aid of skim milk medium. The stains were identified as Lactobacillus casei subsp., Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei through the systematic investigations of morphology, staining reaction, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequences analysis.

Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Viscosity-producing Lactobacillus plantarum to Prepare Soybean Milk
LI Cheng-cheng,CHEN Xiao-hong,JIANG Mei,DONG Ming-sheng
2010, 31(17 ):  201-205.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017046
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Soybean was used as the fermentation substrate to produce fermented soybean milk by Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from pickle. The optimal production conditions of fermented soybean milk were explored by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. Soybean-to-water ratio of 1:8 (m/V), sucrose amount of 4 g/100mL and lactose amount of 3 g/100mL, inoculum amount of 4%, incubation time of 8 h and incubation temperature of 33 ℃ were found optimum, and under these optimum conditions, the maximum viscosity of fermented soybean milk was 3589.1 mPa·s, the acidity 48.88 oT, the sensory evaluation score 86, and the total bacterial count 1.2 × 109 CFU/mL.

Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Different Sources on the Aromatic Composition of Orange Wine
LI Rui,FENG Kui,WU Jing,FAN Gang,PAN Si-yi,XU Xiao-yun
2010, 31(17):  206-213.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017047
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In order to explore the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different sources on the aromatic composition of orange wine, several strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suitable for brewing orange wine were obtained from decayed Jincheng orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Jincheng) peel and orange orchard soil after cultivation, separation, purification, preliminary screening and secondary screening. The optimal growth temperature, pH and resistance to ethanol and sulfur dioxide of these yeast strains were investigated and the aroma composition of orange wine fermented by each of them was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The screened yeast strains L3, L5 and L9 exhibited an optimal growth temperature ranging from 28 to 30 ℃ and an optimal pH of around 3.5. In addition, they had the strongest resistance to abnormal temperatures, sulfur dioxide and alcohol, respectively. Moreover, an obvious difference in aromatic composition was observed among orange wines fermented by these three yeast strains. Ethyl oenanthate, terpinolene, and 13 kinds of other aromatic components were unique in orange wine fermented by yeast strain L3. Dodecyl alcohol, isobutyl acetate and 8 kinds of other aromatic components were special for orange wine fermented by yeast strain L5 and octanol, 5-methyl furfural and 4 kinds of other aromatic components for wine from yeast strain L9.

An Investigation on Some Technological Conditions for Solid-state Fermentation by Actinomucor elegans for the Production of Rapeseed Peptides
ZHOU Jian-xin,ZHANG Hong,HE Rong,WANG Lu,JU Xing-rong,YUAN Jian
2010, 31(17):  214-217.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017048
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The production of rapeseed peptides based on solid-state fermentation by Actinomucor elegans was investigated by one-factor-at-a-time method with respect to the effects of some technological conditions on rapeseed peptide yield, nitrogen solubility index and amino nitrogen. The optimal technological conditions were determined as follows: rapeseed meal granular diameter, 0.18 to 0.28 mm, solid-to-liquid ratio 1:1, glucose amount 3%, KH2PO4 amount 0.5%, pH 9.0, fermentation temperature 30 ℃ and fermentation time 96 h.

Optimization of Lipase Production from Burkholderia cepacia C1
YU Yu-feng1,LU Zhao-xin2,WANG Jin1,CHEN Zhou-zhou1,LU Ya-ping1,2,*
2010, 31(17):  218-223.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017049
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A stain C1 with high ability to produce lipase was isolated from soil and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. In order to improve the production of lipase, some fermentation conditions were optimized. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source were determined to be bran and peptone according to single-factor experiments, respectively. Three key factors such as bran, peptone and liquid volume were selected out of eleven factors affecting lipase production by Plaekett-Burman design, and were further optimized by Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. A maximum lipase activity of 89.65 U/mL was obtained after 72 h fermentation of 30 mL of a fermentation medium composed of wheat bran 1.50 g/100 mL, peptone 1.05 g/100mL, olive oil 1.63 g/100 mL, K2HPO4 0.2 g/100 mL and MgSO4 0.05 g/100 mL at an initial pH of 7.0 with 180 r/ min shaking, which was 2.15 times higher than before optimization (28.50 U/mL).

Enzymological Characteristics of Lignin Peroxidase (LiP) from Coriolus versicolor
JIN Jian,KANG Wen-li,SHENG Ji-ping,CHENG Fan-sheng,WANG Quan-shuai,ZHANG Yan-xin,ZHANG Guo-peng,SHEN Lin
2010, 31(17 ):  224-227.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017050
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In this paper, the enzymological characteristics of lignin peroxidase (LiP) from C. versicolor were investigated. The effects of temperature, pH, metal ions and compounds on the activity and stability of the enzyme were explored. Meanwhile, the relationship between substrate concentration and LiP activity was also studied, and the enzyme was measured for its Km. The highest enzyme activity was 72 U/mL when C. versicolor was cultured for up to 12 days. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were 40 ℃ and 2.5, respectively. It exhibited a good stability in a range from 30 to 40 ℃ for temperature and from 2.0 to 3.5 for pH. Its activity could be activated by Zn2+ and inhibited by Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, EDTA, SDS and β-mercaptoethanol, while Na+ had no effect on its activity. The Km of the enzyme was 2.05 × 10-4 mol/L.

Hydrolysis Effect of Heat-resistant Protease on UHT Milk
WANG Hui1,2,LU Jia-ping1,*,LIU Lu1,JIN Lei1
2010, 31(17):  228-231.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017051
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The effect of heat-resistant protease on protein proteolysis of UHT milk was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and Urea- PAGE. Results indicated that different proteases reacted with different substrates in milk to produce different peptides. Pseudomonas fluorescens protease hydrolyzed κ -casein into para- κ -casein. Plasminogen hydrolyzed α -casein and β -casein into γ-casein, peptone and peptides. In addition, the leftover supernatants after trichloroacetic acid precipitation of the 3 h hydrolysates of UHT milk prepared with plasminogen and bacterial proteases exhibited different RP-HPLC profiles and those of the pH 4.6 soluble peptide in the 3 h hyolroluysates were also different.

Identification of IgE-binding Epitopes on αs1-Casein
CONG Yan-jun1,REN Fa-zheng2,*,YUN Zhan-you3
2010, 31(17):  232-235.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017052
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A series of casein overlapping decapeptides (offset by 5 amino acids) were synthesized on the basis of the sequence of αs1-casein. IgE-binding epitopes were identified using individual sera from cow milk allergic patients. Moreover, the critical amino acids (AAs) for IgE binding were explored. The results indicated that five IgE-binding epitopes were identified to locate in the sequence of aa21-35, aa26-40, aa91-105, aa141-155 and aa186-200, respectively. In addition, histidine, glutamic acid and proline were the critical amino acids for the allergenicity of αs1-casein.

Isolation and Identification of a Lactobacillus plantarum Strain and Sequence Analysis of Its Cryptic Plasmid
DU Li-hui1,HUO Gui-cheng2,*,JU Xing-rong1,LIU Fang3
2010, 31(17):  236-239.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017053
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A strain isolated from traditionally fermented dairy product was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on API 50 CH bacteria identification system and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Plasmid profile indicated that this strain harbored several plasmids. A small plasmid designated as pLD1 was subjected to sequence analysis. This small plasmid had 2112 bp and G+C content of 37.8%. Meanwhile, a sequence with 17 bp was repeated 13 times in this small plasmid. BLAST results showed that pLD1 plasmid had more than 95% similarity with pLP2000 and that there was a difference in replication protein among this plasmid and others. The accession number of this small plasmid is NC_012220 and it is useful for the construction of genetically engineered vectors.

Screening and Liquid-state Fermentation of Morchellas spp. Strain Having Gastricprotective Effect
REN Dan1,2,LUO Xia2,YU Meng-yao2,ZHENG Lin-yong1,3,4,WEI Wei1,2,4,JI Chao-hong1,GE Shao-rong1,*
2010, 31(17):  240-244.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017054
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Objective: To screen a Morchellas spp. strain having gastricprotective effect and higher biomass from 9 strains, and to optimize carbon and nitrogen sources for cultivation of the screened Morchellas spp. strain. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into normal group, control group and different dose administration groups. An experimental gastric damage model was established by ethanol intragastric infusion. On the basis of selection of the optimum carbon and nitrogen sources, their optimum amounts were optimized by complete combination experiments involving three levels for achieving an optimum compromise among low lesion index and high biomass and extracellular polysaccharide production. Results: The water extract of strain M1 could significantly reduce the injury index of acute gastric mucosa lesion in ethanol-induced mice and the amount of biomass was up to 10.28 g/L. In addition, the extract exhibited the best gastricprotective effect and provided inhibition rates up to 80.92% and 53.02% against gastric mucosa damage when the carbon and nitrogen sources were soluble starch and yeast extract during liquidstate fermentation. Better gastricprotective effect and higher biomass production could simultaneously be achieved by using 2.0% soluble starch as carbon source and 1.5% yeast extract as nitrogen source. As a result, the inhibition rate against grastric mucosa lesion was 76.02% and the biomass was 8.88 g/L. Conclusion: Strain M1 has the potential to protect against gastric mucosa lesion, and higher biomass during liquid-state fermentation can be achieved by using 2.0% soluble starch as carbon source and 1.5% yeast extract as nitrogen source.

Effect of Bovine Lactoferricin on Cytokines
HU Zhi-he,LIU Chuan-guo,LI Na,PANG Guang-chang,CHEN Qing-sen
2010, 31(17):  245-249.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017055
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In order to figure out whether bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) has immuno-regulation function, cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in blood sera from mice orally administered with LfcinB were tested using ELISA kits. The results indicated that IL-2 and TNF-α levels in lactoferricin treatment mice at 3 h post-administration were both even higher (P ≤ 0.01) than those in negative control mice, whereas the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 (P ≤ 0.01) and IL-6 (P ≤0.05) revealed a significant decrease, and IL-10 level which is positively correlated with TNF-α level and plays a balancing role also changed notably. Therefore, oral administration of lactoferricin has the potential to provide the function of immune enhancement and regulation.

Isolation and Identification of Decay-inducing Pathogens from Melon Stored in Winter
Abduwali ABDUREYIM1,SUN Lei1,Gulsumay ABAYDULLA1,Erkin AMIR2,KUANG Hai-ju1,Zilaygul MIJIT1,Erken RAHMAN1,Gulsumay ABAYDULLA1,﹡
2010, 31(17):  250-253.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017056
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Isolation and identification of pathogens from the decayed tissues of melon stored in winter were carried out using LB (lysogeny broth) and PDA (potato dextrose agar) media. Based on morphological characteristics, D1/D2 region of 26S rRNA sequences for fungi, 16S rRNA gene sequences for bacteria and phylogenetic trees, a total of 22 strains were isolated. Thirteen of them belonged to the family of fungi, including 2 strains of the genus Penicillium, 4 strains of the genus Alternaria, 4 strains of the genus Geotrichum, and 3 yeast strains (2 strains of the genus Metschnikowia and 1 strain of the genus Pichia); the rest were all bacteria, including 5 strains of Serratia. sp, 1 strain of cloves. sp, 1 strain of Klebsiella. sp, 1 strain of Enterobacter. sp and 1 strain of Bacillus. sp. The results of 26S rRNA and phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that 2 isolates (strain 121 and strain 122) were yeast, which may be a new species belonging to the genus Metschnikowia. Alternaria and Penicillium were pathogenic fungi for melon, and Geotrichum and Serratia. sp were pathogens for human. Therefore, these investigations demonstrate that current conditions for winter storage of melon should be improved.

Effect of Simultaneous Additions of Nicotine and Hydrogen Peroxide on the Biosynthesis of Lycopene in Rhodotorula
WANG Hai-bing,WU Xiao-ying*,LIANG Wen-zhi,XIE Yu-na,YUAN Si-min
2010, 31(17):  254-257.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017057
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The effect of simultaneously added nicotine and hydrogen peroxide on lycopene accumulation during Rhodotorula fermentation was explored. Amounts and addition time point of nicotine and hydrogen peroxide significantly affected the biosynthesis of lycopene during fermentation. A maximum lycopene content of 86.88 mg/L was achieved after Rhodotorula fermentation for 36 h with additions of 2.5 mL/L nicotine and 1.6 mL/L hydrogen peroxide, which was 21.2 times higher than that without additions of nicotine and hydrogen peroxide.

Screening of Maotai-flavor Strains Producing Highly Active Fibrinolytic Enzyme
LIN Fen,XIE He
2010, 31(17):  258-262.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017058
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Daqu starter, vinase and pit mud applied for producing Maotai-flavor liquors were used as materials to isolate and screen strains with high activity of fibrinolytic enzyme. Totally 24 bacterial strains having excellent ability to produce Maotaiflavor and 16 ones having good ability to produce Maotai-flavor were obtained. A strain (named GZJSI-2) with the highest activity of fibrinolytic enzyme was screened out of the Maotai-flavor strains and identified as Bacillus subtilis. The activity of fibrinolytic enzyme of the fermentation broth of this strain was approximately 1479.11 U/mL and the specific activity was 21751.62U/mg. Studies using physiological saline as a negative control and urokinase as a positive control demonstrated that the fermentation supernatant of GZJSI-2 had obvious anticoagulant and thrombolytic effects in vitro. Hence, this strain has a potential application value.

Elimination of Allergens in South American Shrimp by Protease Hydrolysis
WANG Li-juan,HU Zhi-he1,2,ZHOU Xun2,CHEN Zhao-li2,WU Hai-ming2
2010, 31(17):  263-266.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017059
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In order to eliminate the allergens in South American shrimp, proteases such as trypsin, papain and bromelain were individually used to hydrolyze South American shrimp proteins. General immunity experiments in allergic guinea pigs and allergic contraction experiments of isolated ileum were used to evaluate the allergenicity of hydrolysates. The results showed that hydrolysates from South American shrimp proteins digested by each of the three proteases could result in an obvious attenuation of general allergic reactions (Compared with the group of South American shrimp protein, 0.01<P<0.05 or P< 0.01). Meanwhile, a reduced allergic contraction reaction of isolated ileum smooth muscle was observed in hydrolyzed South American shrimp proteins (Compared with the group of South American shrimp protein, 0.01 < P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Comprehensive evaluation exhibited that papain hydrolysates could provide an excellent elimination effect on allergens and higher food safety.

Analysis of the Phylogenetic Relationships of Pleurotus pulmonarius Strains
LI Wei-huan,CAI De-hua,ZHENG Fang,MA Qian-nan,YANG Shu-de,GAO Xing-xi
2010, 31(17):  267-271.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017060
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ERIC-PCR technique was used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among 12 kinds of Pleurotus pulmonarius strains. The results indicated that the amplified product bands of ERIC-PCR were mainly distributed in a range from 150 to 3500 bp with good reproducibility and high polymorphism. The number of amplified bands varied from 9 to 16 for each strain. Cluster analysis revealed 79% similarity and 4 distinctive clusters among 12 strains. Based on the close phylogenetic relationship, MY Gray and MY White were designated as the first cluster, and HZ845 was designated as the second cluster, and the third cluster included HZ3, HZ5 and HZ Xia, and the fourth cluster included LD1, GY16, GY18, GY163, SM and XY-Xiu1. Meanwhile, the third cluster and the fourth cluster exhibited much closer phylogenetic relationship. The tested phylogenetic relationships among P. pulmonarius strains by ERIC-PCR were consistent with the results from antagonistic test and isozyme analysis of esterase. Therefore, ERIC-PCR is reliable in the identification of P. pulmonarius strains.

Identification and Enzymatic Elimination of Major Allergens in Litopenaeus vannamei
WU Hai-ming,HU Zhi-he*,WANG Li-juan
2010, 31(17):  272-276.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017061
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The major allergenic protein components in Litopenaeus vannamei were determined by Western blotting. Either trypsin, papain or bromelain was used to hydrolyze water-soluble proteins from Litopenaeus vannamei for the elimination of allergens. ELISA and general immunity experiments in allergic guinea pigs were used to evaluate the elimination of allergens. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for achieving a maximum elimination of allergens were also determined. The results showed that the major allergens in Litopenaeus vannamei were found to have molecular weights of 99, 33, 19 kD and 14 kD, respectively. The optimal conditions for trypsin hydrolysis were as follows: pH 8.0, hydrolysis temperature 45 ℃, enzyme-to-substrate ratio 1: 100, protein concentration 3 g/100 mL and hydrolysis time 3 h; those for papain digestion were pH 6.5, hydrolysis temperature 60 ℃, enzyme-to-substrate ratio 1:100, protein concentration 3 g/100 mL and hydrolysis time of 3 h; and pH of 7.5, hydrolysis temperature of 55 ℃, enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:100, protein concentration of 5 g/100 mL and hydrolysis time of 3 h were found optimum for bromelain hydrolysis. The hydrolysates derived from trypsin and papain hydrolysis were safer for allergic guinea pigs.

Processing of Saprophytic staphylococcus Fermented Duck Sausages
YU Hai,QIN Chun-jun,LI Chen,LI Xiang,GE Qing-feng,WANG Zhi-jun
2010, 31(17):  277-280.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017062
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In this study, Saprophytic staphylococcus was employed for the manufacture of traditional fermented duck sausages. Changes in pH, water activity (Aw) and free amino acids (FAA) and development of characteristic flavor of the final products were investigated by single-factor and orthogonal array experiments. The technique used to analyze kind and amount of volatile compounds in Saprophytic staphylococcus fermented duck sausages was solid-phase microwextraction/gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS). The results showed that none of the following factors: fermentation time and sugar or salt amounts had obvious effect on the water activity and pH of fermented duck sausages. Fermented duck sausages with the highest free amino acid content and good flavor and preservation suitability were obtained after 9 days of fermentation with 2% sugar addition and 2.5% salt addition.

Spirulina platensis Polysaccharides Exert Immunoregulatory Effect through the Mucous Membranes of the Abdominal Cavity
CHANG Jing-yao,PANG Guang-chang*,LI Yang
2010, 31(17):  281-285.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017063
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Objective: To analyze the effects of three different administration routes of Spirulina platensis polysaccharides on 24 cytokines in mouse serum, followed by understanding of the immunoregulatory effect of Spirulina platensis polysaccharides. Methods: Three administration routes used were oral administration, intraperitoneal injection and intravenous injection at different doses each. Mice orally administered the same volume of normal saline were served as a control group. Serum was separated from eye ball at 3 h after administration for oral administration and at 2 h after administration for intraperitoneal injection and intravenous injection. The contents of 24 cytokines in mouse serum were examined using Milliplex map kit or luminex xMAP technology. Results: Compared with the control group, each treatment group showed significantly higher serum IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ contents, indicating that Spirulina platensis polysaccharides have an anxo-action on inflammation cytokines. Among the three administration routes, the effect of intraperitoneal injection on cytokines was the most obvious, and the cell signaling mode of this route mainly consisted of NF-κB,MAPK and JAK/STAT. Conclusion: In general, Spirulina platensis polysaccharides have immunopromoting effect on cytokines, and their immunoregulatory and multiple physiological functions may be exerted through interactions among intestinal mucous membrane receptors and exciting the secretion of cytokines by homologous cells.

Orthogonal Array Optimization of Acidic Phytase Production by Solid-state Fermentation
WANG Tao,LI Wen
2010, 31(17):  286-289.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017064
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The production process of acidic phytase based on the use of wheat bran as fermentation substrate in solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus niger TW012 was optimized using single factor method and orthogonal array design in this study. The optimum fermentation conditions were found to be: ammonium sulfate content in medium 1.6%, medium initial pH 5.0, medium water content 70%, fermentation temperature 30 ℃, and fermentation cycle 5 days. Under these optimum conditions, the maximum acidic phytase activity in the final fermentation product reached up to 346.576 U/g dry matter, 23.77% higher than before optimization.

Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for 1-Deoxynojimycin (DNJ) Production by Bacillus subtilis B2
ZHU Yun-ping1,LI Xiu-ting1,LI Li-te
2010, 31(17):  290-293.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017065
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To prepare a fermentation broth rich in 1-deoxynojimycin (DNJ) available for the development of hypoglycemic functional foods containing DNJ using soybean dregs, a low-cost byproduct of agricultural products processing, as fermentation substrate and Bacillus subtilis B2 as fermentation strain, some fermentation conditions were optimized. The results indicated that the effect of inoculum size on the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of fermentation broth was not significant. An inoculum size above 104 CFU/mL resulted in a α-glucosidase inhibitory activity above 20. However, fermentation substrate concentration, medium initial pH and fermentation temperature and time had substantial effect on the α -glucosidase inhibitory activity of fermentation broth. After fermentation for 48 h under the conditions of fermentation substrate concentration 30 mg/mL, medium initial pH 6-8 and 40 ℃, a maximum α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was obtained.

Affecting Factors of Protease and Glutaminase Activities during Soy Sauce Koji Processing
MA Yong-qiang,GONG An-xu,CHEN Xiao-xin,SUN Bing-yu
2010, 31(17):  294-297.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017066
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In the present study, a series of single factor experiments were conducted to examine the effects of pretreatment and inoculation conditions on protease and glutamine activities during soy sauce koji processing. This was followed by the investigations on importance order of these conditions and their optimum values using orthogonal array design. The results showed that the importance order of process conditions affecting protease activity was: inoculum size>fermentation time>fermentation temperature and the optimum conditions for maximizing protease activity were as follows: inoculum size 0.8%, fermentation temperature 32 ℃ and fermentation time 36 h; and the importance order of process conditions affecting glutamine activity was: fermentation temperature>fermentation time>inoculum size and the optimum conditions for maximizing glutamine activity were as follows: noculum size 0.5%, fermentation temperature 28 ℃ and fermentation time 60 h.

Production of Polypeptides Derived from Acanthogobius hasta Muscle by Fermentation and Assessment of Their Antioxidant Activity
FANG Yao-wei,YU Bo,WANG Shu-jun,XU Wei-feng,LIU Shu,LU Ming-sheng,JIAO Yu-liang
2010, 31(17):  298-301.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017067
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Aspergillus oryzae AS3.951 was inoculated into Acanthogobius hasta muscle homogenate (pH 5.0) and incubated in order to produce proteases to hydrolyze fish proteins. Investigations on protease production kinetics during fermentation and the hydrolysis kinetics of Acanthogobius hasta muscle proteins were made. The fermentation broth was ultrafiltrated through membranes with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and its fractions were measured for their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The results revealed that as fermentation time was prolonged, the degree of hydrolysis of Acanthogobius hasta muscle proteins and peptide yield gradually increased and the average chain length of ploypeptides decreased. After 48- hour fermentation, the average chain length of polypeptides, degree of hydrolysis, polypeptide yield obtained were 14, 26.6% and 8.98% and the resultant product exhibited a notable antioxidant effect. Among its ultrafiltration fractions, the polypeptides with an average chain length of 14 amino acid residues had the strongest antioxidant effect.

Optimization of Yeast Cell Disruption and Screening of Strains with High Peptidase Activity
LI Yong-xia,ZENG Hai-ying,QIN Li-kang
2010, 31(17):  302-306.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017068
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To construct a method for determining total peptidase activity in yeast cells, a L9(34) orthogonal array design generated based on single-factor experiments was employed to optimize conditions for yeast cell disruption. In the optimization, the effects of 4 conditions for yeast cell disruption on total free amino acid amount in reaction system were dealt with. Snailase dose of 10 mg/mL, ultrasonic power of 500 W, ultrasonic treatment time of 8 min and ultrasonic operation interval of 5 s were found optimum. Under these optimum conditions, 61 yeast strains originated from unique Guizhou-style fermented soybean products were subjected to total peptidase activity determination, and 4 of them, namely WCF-5, XWF-1, XWF-7 and YZJ-4, were found have higher pepetidase activity.

Construction and Identification of a Page p Ⅷ Vector with the Nucleotide Sequence of Ochratoxin A Mimotope
XU Ling,QIU Xue-mei,LIU Ren-rong
2010, 31(17):  307-309.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017069
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Objective: To construct a novel vector with the nucleotide sequence of ochratoxin A (OTA) mimotope based on M13 phage with pⅧ gene, which can give a highly efficient amplification of high-density OTA mimotope so as to provide a basis for preparing an alternative to OTA competitive antigen. Methods: The mimotope with the highest affinity was selected out of OTA mimotopes from the random peptide library of phase pⅢ. Two nucleotide sequences containing the nucleotide sequence of this mimotope and endonuclease sites were chemically synthesized, formed into a double-chain sequence by annealing, inserted into the gap between the genes of pⅧ leader peptides and mature amino acids for connection with vector pC89S4 that had been doubly digested with EcoRⅠ and BamHⅠand transformed into XL1-Blue competent cells. The transformed XL1-Blue competent cells were incubated in liquid SOC medium with shaking and then spreaded on solid LB medium in order to provide single colonies for cell amplification before plasmid extraction. The extracted plasmids were separately digested with XbaⅠ, EcoR Ⅰ and BamHⅠ, preliminarily screened and identified by sequencing. Results: The results of plasmid sequencing were in good accordance with the synthetic sequence. Conclusion: A phase display vector that can efficiently amplify high-density OTA mimotope has been successfully constructed.

Effect of Oral Administration of Casein Co-peptide on Human Intracellular Communication Networks
HUA Yan-jun,PANG Guang-chang*,GUO Li
2010, 31(17):  310-317.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017070
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To explore the effect of casein co-peptide on the communication networks among human cytokines, young volunteers recruited orally took three different doses of casein co-peptide after breakfast and lunch each once, and blood was harvested at 3 h after the last administration and changes in the levels of 32 serum cytokines were assayed with Millipore Human Kit or liquid chip scanner. There were 9 serum cytokines exhibiting a significant decrease due to casein co-peptide administration at different doses. Information retrieval was carried out for these cytokines, and based on the data from cells synthesize and secrete these cytokines and their target cells, human intracellular communication networks responding to different doses of casein co-peptide were constructed and compared. The comparative results reveal that casein co-peptide has immune down-regulatory effect. Meanwhile, the signaling pathways of casein co-peptide might involve NF-κB, JNK, JAK/STAT, P38/MAPK and PI-3K/AKT. Different cytokines were changed obviously due to different doses of casein co-peptide, and different intracellular communication patterns were also observed, indicating that the immune regulatory effect of casein co-peptide is in an obvious dose-dependant fashion.

Immunologic Cross-reactivity of Peanut Allergen Ara h 6 on the Basis of Epitope Prediction
ZHU Pan1,2,CHEN Hong-bing1,2,*,HU Chun-qiu1,2,LI Xin1,2,LUO Chun-ping1,2,3
2010, 31(17):  318-322.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017071
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In order to explain cross-reactivity between peanut allergen Ara h 6 and other homologous proteins, various kinds of bioinformationcal databases, including Genbank and DiscoTope, and net tools/software, including BLAST, NPS@, Protean, Clustal x and PyMOL, were used for the epitope analysis between these proteins. It was indicated that the linear epitopes on Ara h 6 existed with high probability in the regions of AA10-15, 45 -48, 53 -60 and 116 -118, and the conformational epitopes in the regions of AA1-13, 35-51, 53-59 and 89-105. According to the prediction of linear epitopes, there were fifteen proteins might cross-react with Ara h 6, and the possibility of cross-reactivity of four of them (Ara i 6, conglutin, Ara d 6 and conglutin 8) was 100%. However, according to the prediction of conformational epitopes, the number of proteins could cross-react with Ara h 6 with high probability was 17, and the possibility of cross-reactivity of four of them (Ara i 6, conglutin, Ara d 6 and conglutin 8) was 100%. These investigations will be beneficial for understanding peanut Ara h 6 allergy and help to develop an approach for the immunologic detection of Ara h 6 in foods in the future.

Screening of Optimal Liquid Medium for Hypsizigus marmoreus and Optimization of Its Shake Flask Incubation Conditions
WANG Li-juan,LIU Lin-de,BU Qing-mei,WANG Ai-yun,WANG Shu-fang
2010, 31(17):  323-326.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017072
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In this study, medium composition and process conditions for the liquid-state incubation of Hypsizigus marmoreus in a shake flask were explored. The optimal medium composition was found to consist of 3 g/100 mL glucose, 1 g/100 mL corn starch, 1.5 g/100 mL soybean cake, 0.3 g/100 mL (NH4)2SO4, 0.2 g/100 mL KH2PO4, 0.1 g/100 mL MgSO4·7H2O and 10 mg/L Vitamin B1. Initial pH of 6.0, medium volume contained in a 500 mL flask of 140-150 mL, shaking speed of 180 r/min, incubation temperature of 26 ℃, incubation time of 72 h and inoculum size of 10%-12% were found optimal.

Effects of External Factors on Anti-Listeria LIN 3 Activity of Recombinant Enterocin A
ZHAO Ai-zhen1,XU Xing-ran1,HAN Wen-yu2
2010, 31(17):  327-330.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017073
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With and without sole exposures to proteases (trypsin and protease K), reductant (2-mercaptoethanol), temperature and pH, recombinant Enterocin A was tested for its anti-Listeria LIN 3 activity by agar diffusion, agar spot or plate count methods in order to figure out the effects of these external factors on this biological activity. Due to protease hydrolysis, recombinant Enterocin A thoroughly lost its anti-Listeria LIN 3 activity. The presence of β-mercaptoethanol also resulted in a near-complete loss of its anti-Listeria LIN 3 activity. Recombinant Enterocin A presented high thermal stability. In spite of heating for 10 min at 100 ℃, its anti-Listeria LIN 3 activity could still be detected. Recombinant Enterocin A could maintain anti-Listeria LIN 3 activity in the pH range from 2.0 to 8.0.

Effect and Mechanisms of Ultrasonic Treatment on Polyphenol Oxidase Activity
WANG Wen-zong,LI Lin,LIN Hong-jia,CHEN Ling,LI Bing
2010, 31(17):  331-334.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017074
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The effects of different ultrasonic treatment conditions on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were investigated. Meanwhile, related mechanisms were explored. The results indicated that with prolonged ultrasonic treatment time, PPO activity initially increased, followed by a decrease. Higher ultrasonic power resulted in a slight increase followed by a gradual decrease. The stable temperature and pH for PPO treated by ultrasonic were respectively 40 ℃ and 6.8, respectively. After ultrasonic treatment, an increase in the Km of PPO and a decrease in its Vmax were simultaneously observed, and the content of β -turn secondary structures decreased.

Isolation, Purification and Biological Activity Assessment of an Antimicrobial Protein from Marine Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain L1-9
MA Gui-zhen1,2,WANG Shu-fang1,BAO Zeng-hai1,2,WU Shao-jie1,XIA Zhen-qiang1,LI Shi-dong3
2010, 31(17):  335-339.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017075
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An antimicrobial protein was obtained from the fermentation broth of a Paenibacillus polymyxa strain isolated from the sea area near Lianyungang (numbered L1-9), which has antagonic effect against a variety of pathogenic fungi, after ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow ion exchange and Sephacryl G-200 filtration chromatographic separation. This protein was found to have the ability to inhibit the growth of Staphyloccocus aureus and the mycelial growth and spore germination of Helminthosporium sativum and possess a molecular weight of about 31 kD.

Response Surface Optimization of Medium Composition and Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Anti-Fusarium soloni Substances by Streptomyces HD-010
ZHANG Hai-xiu,DU Chun-mei
2010, 31(17):  340-344.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017076
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In this study, anti-Fusarium soloni substances were produced by means of Streptomyces HD-010 fermentation. In order to maximize anti-Fusarium soloni potency, Plackett-Burman (PB) experimental design was initially used to screen the most important affecting factors out of nine ones including medium components and fermentation conditions, followed by central composition design based response surface optimization of three screened factors. Glucose, sucrose and corn flour concentrations in fermentation medium were the most important factors affecting the production of anti-Fusarium soloni substances and their optimum levels were 10, 10.2 g/L and 25.8 g/L, respectively. The anti-Fusarium soloni potency of the fermentation supernatant obtained under these optimum levels was 71.3784 AU/mL, much higher than before optimization (45.9669 AU/mL).

Nutrition & Hygiene
Effect of Gender on Natural Lycopene Accumulation in Rat Serum and Liver
HUI Bo-di1,PEI Ling-peng2,SHI Wen-juan1,LI Jing3
2010, 31(17):  345-350.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017077
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Objective: To determine natural lycopene accumulation in the serum and liver of male and female rats and analyze the difference in lycopene accumulation between male and female rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty-six male and 408 female SD rats with body weight of (250 ± 5) g were randomly divided 17 and 51 groups of 8 rats each, respectively. As for female rats, 17 groups were subjected to ovariectomization surgery, 17 other groups were subjected to pseudo-surgery and the rest were used as the controls. The gastric administration solution was prepared from natural lycopene extract and salad oil with a final lycopene concentration of 0.625 mg/mL. Each of the rats was fed natural lycopene at a dose of 1 mL of solution by single gastric administration. Eight milliliters of blood of each rat from male and female controls, surgery and pseudo-surgery groups was collected and 4 g of liver tissue of those rats was harvested at fixed time points. Total carotenoids were extracted from harvested sera and liver samples, and lycopene content was determined by C18-HPLC external standard method. Results: Compared with female rats, the maximum accumulation of lycopene in serum and liver tissues of male rats exhibited a faster rate and higher level. In addition, the maximum accumulation of lycopene exhibited a significant increase in serum of female rats and a significant decrease until a stable level within 8 to 24 h in liver tissues of female rats due to surgery. Conclusion: The metabolism of lycopene in male rats is quicker than that in female rats. The metabolism of lycopene is related to female hormone level in rats, and the shortage of female hormone can promote the metabolism of lycopene in rats.

Analysis and Identification on Contamination Status of Raw Milk in Tianjin and Shanxi Regions
GAO Wen-ru,CHEN Qing-sen*,YAN Ya-li,PANG Guang-chang,HU Zhi-he
2010, 31(17 ):  351-354.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017078
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Salmonella is one of the most important gastrointestinal pathogens for human and animals. Approximately 70%-80% of bacterial food poisoning cases are caused by Salmonella in China. Therefore, food poisoning caused by Salmonella has become one of the most common and comparatively pernicious bacterial species. The contamination in raw milk from Tianjin and Shanxi regions in China was investigated by determining total bacterial count and coliform bacteria and Salmonella bacteria. The results indicated that the quality of raw milk from different sources in the two regions exhibited a great difference. The average total bacterial counts varied from 104 CFU/mL to 107 CFU/mL. Most of the tested samples could meet the quality standard and few of them were unqualified. However, coliforms bacterial count exhibited tremendous difference among samples from different sources. The quality of raw milk from Shanxi region was better than that from Tianjin region. The coliforms bacterial count was lower than 110 MPN/mL in the samples from Shanxi region. However, The coliforms bacterial count in the samples from Factory A were up to 1100 MPN/mL and from Factory B were no less than 11000 MPN/mL, respectively, although no Salmonella was detected. Therefore, the quality and safety issues of raw milk from the two regions can not be ignored.

Effects of Organic Compounds on Bioavailability and Toxicity of Ferric Salts
HE Wan-ling,LI Xiao-li
2010, 31(17):  355-358.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017079
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In order to explore the effects of organic compounds on the bioavailability and toxicity of ferric salts, the media containing 1.5 mmol/L ferric chloride alone (as a control) or its respective mixtures with glucose, lactose, ascorbic acid and oxalic acid were used to incubate Caco-2 cells for 24 h, and after completion of the incubation, intracellular iron concentration characterizing bioavailability was measured and the cellular toxicity of ferric was assessed by MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, alkaline phosphatase (ALK) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity assays. Compared with the control medium, the cells incubated in the media containing ferric chloride/glucose, ferric chloride/lactose or ferric chloride/scorbic acid mixtures showed 2.57, 4.08 and 4.52-fold increases in iron bioavailability, respectively. However, the presence of oxalic acid in the control medium resulted in a decrease of iron bioavailability of the cells by 18.73%. Compared with the control medium, the cells incubated in the medium containing ferric chloride/ascorbic acid complex exhibited a significantly higher MTT absorbance (P <0.05) but a lower LDH leakage (P <0.05); in contrast, the medium containing ferric chloride/lactose mixture significantly improved LDH leakage (P <0.05). In addition, ferric chloride exhibited a reduction effect on the activities of SOD and ALK (P <0.01) when compared with deionized water. However, respective additions of these organic compounds could improve the activities of SOD and ALK. On the other hand, the medium containing ferric chloride/ascorbic acid mixture had a promoting effect on the activities of SOD, ALK and GSH-Px (P <0.05).

Starch Digestion Characteristics of Several Waxy Cereal Foods
WANG Lu,FAN Zhi-hong*,SHI Hai-yan,CHEN Ran
2010, 31(17):  359-363.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017080
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In order to study the digestibility characteristics of waxy cereal foods, rice (Oryza sativa L.), millet (Setaria italica L.) and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) from waxy and non-waxy varieties were subjected to mimic digestion in vitro. The starch digestion rates of fresh-cooked, refrigerated, and reheated waxy samples were determined and a few types of commercial waxy cereal foods were analyzed for their starch composition. The results indicated that waxy varieties exhibited a higher digestion rate than non-waxy varieties. However, waxy whole grains still exhibited slightly lower digestion rate than polished cooked rice. An obvious difference in digestive behavior between short-grain waxy rice and long-grain waxy rice was observed after refrigeration. In addition, the digestion rate of reheated waxy varieties was much higher than that of fresh-cooked samples. Therefore, both fresh-cooked and reheated waxy starch cereal foods have higher digestion rate. It should be careful for people who need to control blood glucose and body weight.

Nutritional Evaluation of Egg White Hydrolysates Prepared Using an Enzymatic Membrane Reactor
YANG Wan-gen1,WANG Wei-dong1,SUN Yue-e1,WANG Zhang2,CHENG Yun-hui3
2010, 31(17):  364-367.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017081
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In this study, the egg white hydrolysates which were prepared using an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) equipped with a 10 kD molecular weight cut-off ultra-filtration membrane, and refined by macroporous adsorption resin chromatography were analyzed and evaluated for their nutritional composition. Native egg white was used as the control to analyze their free amino acid composition, relative molecular mass distribution and amino acid composition. Besides, their amino acid scores were determined according to the analytical results of amino acid composition. The results indicated that the free amino acid content of the hydrolysates was 0.386%. The peptides composed of 2 to 4 amino acid residues in the hydrolysates were approximately 71%. The essential amino acids in the hydrolysates represented approximately 44.8% of the total amino acids and their amino acid score was 113.3, which was much higher than that of native egg white (55.1). The hydrolysates were characteristic of fast absorption, balanced nutrition and high healthcare value. As a conclusion, they can be extensively applied in functional food products.

Toxicological Evaluation of β-Glucan from Fermented Mycelia of Grifola frondosa
WANG Bao-qin1,XU Ze-ping2,YANG Chuan-lun2
2010, 31(17):  368-372.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017082
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Objective: To evaluate the food safety of β-glucan from the fermented mycelia of Grifola frondosa strain GF-932. Methods: Maximum limited amount method was used for the evaluation of acute toxicity. Microorganism reverse mutation test (Ames test) and mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test were used to explore mutagenesis. Mouse spermatogonium chromosomal aberration test and sperm malformation test were used to assess reproductive toxicity. After 30-day feeding, rat body weight, food intake, blood cell and biochemical index were determined. Results: according to acute toxicity test, the LD50 ofβ-glucan from fermented the mycelia of Grifola frondosa was more than 20 g/kg bw. Negative results were observed in Ames test and mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and spermatogonium chromosomal aberration test and sperm malformation test. Through 30-day feeding, the growth and development status of rats was improved. Compared with the control group, body weight, food utilization rate, organ-weight ratio, hematology and serum biochemical indices in rats fed the polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa at different dosages did not exhibited an obvious difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion: β-glucan from Grifola frondosa is nontoxic and has no genetic toxicity. It does not have any negative effect on the growth and development status of animals.

Amino Acid Composition Analysis and Nutritional Evaluation of Jingyang Fowl
ZHENG Xiao-jiang,XIANG Dong-shan,XIAO Hao
2010, 31(17):  373-375.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017083
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Defatted muscle of Jingyang fowl was analyzed for its amino acid composition using automatic amino acid analyzer. The results showed the total amino acid content in Jingyang fowl muscle was up to 89.04% and the contents of flavor amino acids and aromatic amino acids were up to 21.72% and 7.92%, respectively. All kinds of human essential amino acids in a balanced proportion were contained and the SRC was 77.44. Among human essential amino acids, the first limited amino acid was Met + Cys.

Alleviating Effect of Camel Milk on Chronic Renal Failure in Rats
PAN Lei1,WANG Jing2,WANG Juan2,HE Jun-xia2,LI Jian-mei2,JIRIMUTU1,*
2010, 31(17):  376-380.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017084
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Purpose: To figure out whether camel milk has the ability to alleviate adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats or not. Methods: Rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure received intragastric administration of camel milk, distilled water or Niaoduqing once a day for 28 consecutive days. As a normal control, normal rats were given distilled water. During this time, the average body weights of all the rats were measured periodically and they were subjected to determination of some blood and urine biochemical parameters, kidney coefficient calculation and renal histopathological observations at the end of administration. Results: Compared with distilled water, camel milk could reduce serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and urine 24-hour protein levels, regulate Ca and P levels and increase SOD and TP levels in rats with chronic renal failure after 28-day administration. Conclusion: camel milk has remarkable alleviating effect on chronic renal failure in rats.

Composition Analysis and Nutritional Evaluation of Acanthogobius hasta Muscle
LIU Shu1,YU Bo2,WANG Shu-jun1,XU Wei-feng3,LU Ming-sheng1,JIAO Yu-liang1,FANG Yao-wei1
2010, 31(17):  381-384.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017085
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The muscle of A. hasta living in the sea area near Lianyungang was subjected to composition analysis and nutritional evaluation. The contents of moisture, crude fat, crude protein, and crude ash in the muscle of A. hasta were 76.32%, 1.52%, 18.06% and 1.23%, respectively. Eighteen common amino acids were found in the muscle of A. hasta, among which glutamic acid content was the highest (2.27%), and the ratios of total essential amino acids to total amino acids (WEAA/ WTAA) and to non-essential amino acids were 46.79% and 87.93%, respectively. According to the nutritional evaluation on amino acid score (AAS) and chemical score (CS), the first limited amino acid was tryptophan. The essential amino acid index (EAAI) was 75.95. The values of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 37.97%, 22.20%, and 10.20%, respectively. These results indicate that A. hasta muscle possess high nutritional value and health care function and thus, has promising prospects for further development.

Influence of Polysaccharides from Scrophularia radix on Antioxidant Capacity of Tissues in Exercising Mice
WANG Zhen1,SONG Jian2
2010, 31(17):  385-387.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017086
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To explore the influence and mechanism of polysaccharides from Scrophularia radix, the dry root of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl on the antioxidant capacity of some tissues in exercising mice, mice were orally given different doses of polysaccharides from Scrophularia radix or normal saline 2 hours before swimming exercise for 3 consecutive weeks. The results showed that polysaccharides from Scrophularia radix had enhancing effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in mice with exercise-induced fatigue and could inhibit lipid peroxidation in mouse tissues to a certain extent.

Reviews
Microbial Fermentation as an Alternative to Nitrite Addition for Colorizing Cured Meat Products: a Review
LI Pei-jun,KONG Bao-hua*,ZHENG Dong-mei
2010, 31(17):  388-391.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017087
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One of the most important roles of nitrite in food industry is to improve the pink color of cured meat products. However, the use of nitrite is limited due to its potential carcinogenicity. In this paper, the alternation of microbial fermentation to nitrite addition for colorizing cured meat products has been reviewed and related mechanisms have been discussed. Moreover, the development trend of this alternation has been predicted.

Research Progress in Metallothionein
LI Jian-rong1,XUAN Wei1,LI Xue-peng1,XIONG Chun-hua1,WANG Xi-chang2
2010, 31(17):  392-396.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017088
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Metallothionein (MT) is a cysteine-rich, highly conserved, low molecular and heavy metal-binding protein, which plays important roles in modulating concentrations of trace elements and detoxification of heavy metals. In addition, MT is also involved in the regulation of hormonal and cell metabolism, the control of cell differentiation and proliferation, UV reaction and the scavenging of free radicals. In this paper, current research progress in the properties, physiological functions, extraction and purification technologies and detection strategies of MT have been reviewed and application prospects have been proposed, which will provide theoretical references and a basis for its future development and applications.

Research Progress of Applications of Hapten-based Immunoassay in the Detection of Food Safety
ZHANG Xiao-ying,ZHAO Jin-zi,CHEN Chen,HAN Shui-zhong,TIAN Ze-hua
2010, 31(17):  397-401.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017089
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Immunoassay is one of the most important methods for the detection of food safety. This article reviews the design and synthesis of artificial antigens, the design of haptens, current problems of artificial antigens and applications of computation technology in hapten synthesis. Meanwhile, the applications of polyclonal antibodies, monoclonal antibodies, IgY antibodies, and genetically engineered antibodies in the detection of food safety are also discussed. Furthermore, comprehensive information on major immunological methods such as ELISA, gold-based colloidal immunochromatographic assay and immunosensor is also summarized. Hapten immunoassay methods for food safety detection have the advantages of low detection limit, fast detection, convenience and low cost. However, several key techniques including the predictable design of artificial antigens, the mass production of high-tittered antibodies and the combination with novel immunoassay methods for meeting the requirement of high-throughput screening and real-time multiple detection also need to be improved.

Applications of Membrane Technology in Dairy Industry: a Review
MA Ying1,DONG Jing-ying2,Jean-Louis Maubois3
2010, 31(17):  402-409.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017090
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In this paper, membrane design and configuration, and the applications of membrane technology in dairy industry have been reviewed. Due to the development of membrane technology and clear analysis of milk compositions, membrane technology exhibits an extensive application in dairy industry including the sterilization of liquid milk, separation of milk proteins, production of cheese, preparation of whey and colostrum, and purification of waste water. Membrane technology will provide a new strategy to improve product quality, accelerate product development, increase productivity and earn more profit for diary products.

A Review of Affecting Factors and Their Mechanisms of the Radio Frequency-Microwave Dielectric Properties of Foods
ZHU Xin-hua,GUO Wen-chuan
2010, 31(17):  410-414.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017091
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Understanding radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) dielectric properties of foods is important to exploit electromagnetic energy during heating and to develop food composition sensors. In order to provide useful information on the microwave dielectric properties of food, the effects of signal frequency, sample temperature and major compositions including water, salt and fat as well as bulk density on RF-MW dielectric properties of food have been reviewed on the basis of dielectric properties and dielectric polarization mechanisms of commonly-available foods, which will be beneficial for future analysis of its mechanisms and future development trends.

Progress in Evaluation Techniques for Antioxidant Activity of Natural Products in vitro
LIU Wei-wei,REN Hong*,CAO Xue-li,XU Chun-ming,WANG Qiao-e
2010, 31(17):  415-419.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017092
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Antioxidant activity evaluation of natural products has become a hot topic. In this paper, current evaluation methods and antioxidation mechanisms of natural products have been reviewed. The principles and mechanisms of chemical determination and cellular evaluation of antioxidant activity have also been discussed. In addition, the difference is described between both methods.

Research Progress in Bactericidal Mechanisms of Nano-silver
QU Feng,XU Heng-yi,XIONG Yong-hua,LAI Wei-hua,WEI Hua
2010, 31(17):  420-424.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017093
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Nano-silver has become a hot topic in the field of antibacterial materials due to its high efficiency, wide spectrum and low drug-resistance to bacteria. However, the bactericidal mechanisms of nano-silver are still unclear. In this paper, current research progress in bactericidal mechanisms of nano-silver has been discussed, which will provide technical supports for further development and applications of nano-silver as an antimicrobial material.

Research Progress in Polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes
ZHENG Yi,LI Chao,WANG Nai-xin
2010, 31(17):  425-428.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017094
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As the major biological activity components, Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides have attracted tremendous attentions due to their antitumor and immunoregulation functions. Current research progress in the extraction, purification, structure characterization and biological activities of polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes are reviewed in this paper. Meanwhile, problems encountered during the investigations of Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides are also discussed, which will provide a useful guidance for future studies.

Current Situation of Rabbit Meat Processing in China
YANG Jia-yi,LI Hong-jun
2010, 31(17):  429-432.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017095
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In China, the production and export of rabbit meat is increasing year by year due to its high nutritional value. Because the rabbit meat processing industry in China is started late, most of rabbit meat processing enterprises are lack of standardized management. Meanwhile, deep-processed products are less due to multiple levels of product quality. In this paper, current situation of rabbit meat processing in China is summarized, which will provide new strategies to improve basic construction, standardize manufacture and management, execute innovative technologies and explore a long-term sustainable development path for this industry.

Effect of Processing on Egg Allergens: a Review
JIAN Shan1,2,TONG Ping1,2,GAO Jin-yan3,CHEN Hong-bing1,2,*
2010, 31(17):  433-437.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017096
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Ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme are the major egg allergens, the allergenicity of which can be decreased by proper physical, chemical or biological process. The hypoallergenic egg products originated from physical process can be used as food and immunotherapy medicine for the population slightly allergic to egg, while the feasibility of industrial production of the hypoallergenic egg products originated from chemical or biological process still needs to be further investigated due to their potential safety risk. What’s more, food processing can influence the structure of allergen protein, such as the disulfide bonds and high-level even primary structure, resulting in the change of its allergenicity. In short, the impact of processing on the structure and allergenicity of egg allergens is a scientific issue deserves in-depth exploration. Understanding this is very important for the development of hypoallergenic and non-allergenic egg products.

Research Progress of Detection and Migration of Metals in Ceramic and Glass Packaging Materials for Foods
LIN Qin-bao1,CHEN Yue1,SONG Huan2,WU Hai-jun2
2010, 31(17):  438-442.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017097
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As harmful chemicals which can migrate from ceramic and glass packaging materials into foods threaten the health of consumers, relevant regulations have been established throughout the world to guarantee the safety of these packaging materials. This article summarizes residual contaminants in ceramic and glass packaging materials for foods, relevant regulations of EU and our country, food sample preparation methods and detection technologies of residual contaminants and migration.

Recent Advances in the Healthcare Function and Food Safety of Antarctic Krill
LIU Li,LIU Cheng-chu*,ZHAO Yong,WANG Xi-chang,LI Jia-le
2010, 31(17):  443-447.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017098
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Antarctic krill are a group of perennial crustacean zooplankton that widespread in the Antarctic Ocean. They are characterized by large biological storage capacity, wide distribution, high nutritional value, and so on and therefore, provide an important new marine resource of proteins, which needs to be exploited and utilized. This article summarizes the major components (protein, lipids, etc.) and bioactive components (low-temperature enzymes, mycosporine-like amino acids astaxanthin and chitin) of Antarctic krill reported recently at home and abroad. In addition, its safety for consumption and application potential as a food resource is also discussed.

Recent Research Progress in the Effect of Lactoferrin on the Balance of Th1/Th2 Cells
ZHANG Hao,HU Zhi-he
2010, 31(17):  448-451.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017099
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Latoferrin is a kind of natural iron-bonding protein with a variety of specific physiological functions. This paper describes the importance of Th1/Th2 balance for immune function and summarizes recent advances in the effect of lactoferrin on Th1/Th2 balance. Meanwhile, application perspectives of lactoferrin are also put forward in this paper.

Advances in the Applications of Aptamers in Antibiotic Residue Detection
LIU Bin1,LIU Ying1,YI Zhi-zhong2,LAI Yi-dong2,PENG Xi-chun1,WU Xi-yang1,*
2010, 31(17):  452-456.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017100
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Although it is difficult to immunize animals with antibiotics as half-antigens for antibody generation, immunoassay techniques have become the most popular methods for detecting antibiotics in foods and environment, such as commercially available chloramphenicol and neomycin test kits. Nevertheless, actual applications of immunoassay techniques are limited due to the wide variety of antibiotics, high cost of preparing antibodies against some antibiotics, difficulties in large-scale screening of samples and low sensitivity of these techniques. Aptamers, also named chemical antibody, are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands, which can be bound to different targets from a huge library of molecules containing randomly created sequences with high specificity and affinity. Aptamers have some advantages over conventional immune antibodies, such as easy in vitro selection by their target molecules, the possibility of chemical synthesis and modification and high stability. This paper describes the finding history of aptamers, methods for selecting them, their characteristics and techniques established based on them for the detection of antibiotics and other small molecules. Furthermore, application perspectives of the aptamers based detection techniques are proposed.

Hazard and Pollution Analysis of Cadmium in Chinese Domestic Shellfish
LI Xue-peng,DUAN Qing-yuan,LI Jian-rong
2010, 31(17):  457-461.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017101
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In this paper, based on the data of cadmium content in shellfish from sample survey, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization were carried out for assessing the hazard and pollution levels of cadmium in domestic shellfish. Although the contents of cadmium in surveyed shellfish samples exceeded the national standard, the results of risk assessment showed that the theoretical most weekly intake (TMWI) of the eating crowd was lower than provisional tolerated weekly intake (PTWI) posed by JECFA, so there is little possibility that eating surveyed shellfish species will harm human health. The hazard analysis is followed by exploring the cadmium limit in shellfish published in the current national standards, which can provide some information for the adjustment of the national standards and useful guidance for shellfish consumption.

Advances in the Application of Enzyme Inhibition/Colorimetric Assay to the Rapid Detection of Pesticide Residues
DU Mei-hong,SUN Yong-jun,WANG Yu,CHEN Shun-cong
2010, 31(17):  462-466.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017102
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This paper summarizes the principles of enzyme inhibition/colorimetric assay, sources and preservation of enzymes used in the assay and enzymatic reaction conditions. In addition, the problems encountered during its application and the future development trends are pointed out.

Progress in the Applications of Electronic Nose in Dairy Production and Quality Control
LAN Hui-hui,HU Zhi-he
2010, 31(17):  467-471.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017103
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Electronic nose technique has the ability to analyze, identify and detect both complex flavor and composition and electronic nose detection is characterized by rapidity, objectivity, accuracy, and so on. This article presents the primary frame and working principles of an electronic nose system and summarizes the applications of electronic nose technique in dairy production and quality control, such as detecting the shelf-life of dairy products, classifying dairy products produced using different processing technologies, determining special components in dairy products, analyzing microbiological parameters of milk and milk products, distinguishing dairy products from different producing areas, and so on.

Research Progress in Mechanisms of Preserved Egg Processing
ZHAO Yan1,2,XU Ming-sheng1,TU Yong-gang1,3,*
2010, 31(17):  472-475.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017104
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Preserved eggs are one of the unique traditional Chinese egg products. Although preserved egg processing has a long history, understanding of its mechanisms is still relatively weak, which has become a bottleneck restricting the further improvement of preserved egg processing technology. This paper summarizes studies on the mechanisms of metal regulation and the formation of flavor, strong elastic protein gel, color and pine flower pattern during the processing of preserved eggs, analyzes existing problems on them and puts forward future research perspectives.

A Review of Preparation, Functional Properties and Edible Uses of Peanut Protein Products
XU Wei-yan1,WANG Wei-dong1,2,QIN Wei-dong1,*
2010, 31(17):  476-479.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017105
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Peanuts are rich in nutrients and an excellent source of proteins. At present various forms of peanut proteins are utilized for their functional effects rather than their nutritional properties. This article summarizes recent advances in preparation and nutritional and functional effects of peanut protein products as a food ingredient, briefly analyzes factors affecting their functional properties and introduces their edible uses, which will provide useful references for further studying functional properties of peanut proteins and extending their applications.

Multi-physiological Functions of Lactic Acid in Fermented Milk
DONG Jia-kang,PANG Guang-chang
2010, 31(17):  480-486.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017106
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Functional foods are becoming one of the main development trends of the food industry. Now fermented milk with nutritional and health function is becoming a hot spot for the exploitation of the world market. This paper is structured in four sections. Section 1 covers pertinent topics on the conception of lactic acid as the most cause of skeletal muscle fatigue; section 2 discusses the meaning of lactic acid as a prognostic factor; section 3 identifies the relation between lactic acid and fuel supply for energy metabolism; and the last section reviews the potential of lactic acid as a anti-cancer agent.

Distribution of Carotenoids in Foods
ZHANG Tong,ZHAO Ting,HUI Bo-di
2010, 31(17):  487-492.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017107
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With beneficial functions for health, carotenoids are a group of secondary metabolites from cells. They are widely distributed in foods. A comprehensive understanding of carotenoid distribution in foods has been achieved by the promotion of modern analytical technology, especially the development of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Currently, it is necessary to make summarized conclusions from plenty of analytical data and to process confused results. For those purposes, this article reviews data on carotenoid distribution in foods and makes an attempt to draw a summarized conclusion. Additionally, it is also suggested in this article that variations in both culture conditions and heredity of a species result in a variation in its carotenoid amount. Data from those analyses should be applied properly. With a scope for future work, it is outlined to undertake a number of projects such as the exploration of relationship between carotenoids and health, the bioavailability promotion of carotenoids from foods, novel resource discovery and so on.

Biological Activity and Structure of Plant Polysaccharides
HE Yu-tang,PAN Xiao-ming
2010, 31(17):  493-496.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201017108
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Plant polysaccharides are a variety of biomacromolecules with important physiological functions and broad applications in foods. Composition, structure and physiological activity of plant polysaccharides are reviewed in this article, which will offer practical guidance for their exploitation.