Table of Content

25 September 2010, Volume 31 Issue 18
Invited Papers
Development of a Low Carbon Food System for Enhancing Chinese National Low Carbon Economy
Da-Wen Sun
2010, 31(18 ):  1-4.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018001
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A Low-Carbon Economy is an economy that has a minimal output of greenhouse gas emissions, with the purpose to develop the more advanced zero-carbon society. China is one of the biggest countries in the world in food production and consumption. Therefore the development of a low carbon food system in China can significantly enhance the national low carbon economy. In the paper, the concept of a low carbon food system from farm to fork is proposed. Low carbon factors in each process of the food system including production, processing, packaging, consumption and disposal of food and food-related wastes are analysed,and main methods and techniques to lower the carbon footprint in these processes are discussed. Finally measures that should be taken by consumers, manufacturers and governments in order to develop the low carbon food system are presented.

Processing Technology
Optimization and Stability of Micro-algal Oil Microcapsules
BAI Chun-qing,HAN Dan,XIONG Hua*,LIU Yu-zhen,ZHAO Li-ping,SHI Su-hua,DENG Bo,JIANG Yan
2010, 31(18):  5-9.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018002
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In order to optimize the formula of micro-algal microcapsules, the effects of emulsifier, casein, cyclodextrin on microencapsulation efficiency of micro-algal oil were explored using response surface methodology. Results indicated that the optimal formulation for micro-algal oil microcapsules were 3.98% emulsifier, 3.52% casein, 11.1% cyclodextrin and 30% microalgal oil as the core-material, respectively. The microcapsulation efficiency of micro-algal oil reached up to 93.37% at this optimal condition. Compared with the control samples, the peroxide value (POV) of total oil in microcapsules remained one third after accelerated oxidation at (60 ± 1) ℃ for 14 days, which revealed a promising oxidation stability of micro-algal oil in microcapsules. The retention rate of DHA in formula milk powder containing micro-algal oil microcapsules was up to 91.06% after storage for 1 year under the conditions of vacuum packaging, room temperature and lightlessness. Therefore, micro-algal oil microcapsules exhibited an excellent oxidation stability and storage stability.

Gel Property of Transglutaminase-modified Rapeseed Protein
YUAN Jian1,JU Xing-rong1,HE Rong2,WANG Li-feng1,2,ZHU Xiao-hu1
2010, 31(18):  10-13.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018003
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Enzymatic modification with transglutaminase (TG) was used to improve gel property of protein. The effects of TG amount, pH, reaction temperature and reaction time were explored on the basis of single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that pH and reaction temperature exhibited a significant effect on gel strength on of rapeseed protein isolate (RPI). The optimal conditions for modifying gel property of RPI with TG were protein concentration of 1.5 g/10 mL, TG addition amount of 50 U/g, pH 9.0, reaction temperature of 40 ℃ and reaction time of 20 min.

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Deer Tendon Collagen
ZHANG He,ZHAO Yu*,XU Yun-feng,LI Yun-tong,ZHAO Da-qing
2010, 31(18):  14-17.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018004
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Pepsin hydrolysis was used to extract and prepare collagen from deer tendons. The optimal extraction conditions were explored by single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments to be acetic acid concentration of 5.5%, material-to-liquid ratio of 1:9, extraction time of 10 h, pepsin-substrate ratio of 1:1000, and hydrolysis time of 24 h. The yield of deer tendon collagen was 74.56% and protein content was 65.54%. The optimized extraction method for deer tendon collagen was characteristic of simple operation and high extraction rate.

Enzymatic Extraction Technology of Asparagus Instant Tea
CAI Guang-xia1,CHEN Ji-wang1,*,WANG Yuan-feng2,WEI Xin-lin2
2010, 31(18):  18-21.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018005
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In order to modify the extraction technology of asparagus instant tea, neutral protease and cellulase was used to improve the extraction efficiency during the extraction of asparagus. The optimal extraction parameters were explored using orthogonal array design. Single factor experimental results indicated that the extraction rate of flavonoids and amino acid content exhibited an obvious improvement under the following conditions: cellulase-to-substrate ratio of 12 U/g and enzymatic hydrolysis time of 30 to 60 min; neutral protease-substrate ratio of 6 AU/kg and enzymatic hydrolysis time of 60 to 90 min. Moreover, the optimal parameters for hydrolysis with compound enzymes were cellulase-to-substrate ratio of 10.56 U/g, neutral proteaseto-substrate ratio of 2.64 AU/kg and enzymatic hydrolysis time of 50 min. The extraction rate of flavonoids was 95.8%, and amino acid content was 20.1 mg/g under these optimal conditions for compound enzymes.

Separation of β-amylase from Sweet Potato by Different Precipitation Methods
JIA Yan-jie,LIANG Xin-hong,ZHU Wen-xue,SUN Jun-liang,GUO Zu-feng
2010, 31(18):  22-25.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018006
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Salting out and organic solvent precipitation methods were solely used to precipitate β-amylase from the supernatant of sweet potato homogenate. The effects of saturation degree for salting out, volume ratio for organic solvents and pH on the recovery rate and purity of β-amylase were investigated. Results indicated that the specific activity ofβ-amylase reached up to 78.1% and its purity exhibited a 1.56-fold enhancement when the saturation degree of ammonium sulfate was 70%; the specific activity of β-amylase reached up to 76.8% and its purity exhibited a 2.61-fold enhancement when 4-fold volume of ethanol was added to the supernatant of sweet potato homogenate; and the highest separation efficiency was achieved and the specific activity ofβ-amylase reached up to 90.66% with a 3.29-fold enhancement in purity when pH varied from 4.5 to 5.0 and 3-fold volume of acetone was used instead of 4-fold volume of ethanol.

Optimization of Ethanol Extraction of Total Flavonoids from the Leftover Residue of a Chinese Herbal Medicine Combination after Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology
GAN Lu-jing,DENG Ze-yuan
2010, 31(18):  26-30.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018007
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Ethanol extraction was employed to extract total flavonoids from the leftover residue of a Chinese herbal medicine combination consisting of lotus leaves, cassia seeds, hawthorn fruit and oriental water plantain rhizome after supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The optimal conditions for the extraction of total flavonoids were explored by response surface methodology. Box-Behnken design was applied to provide experimental data for establishing a mathematical regression model describing the relationship between the extraction rate of total flavonoids and four independent variables including material-to-liquid ratio, ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time. Correlation analysis of the established model was performed, and the results indicated that it could be employed to optimize the ethanol extraction of total flavonoids from the start material. Material-to-liquid ratio of 1:20, ethanol concentration of 50%, extraction temperature of 80 ℃ and extraction time of 80 min were found optimum. The experimental values of the extraction rate of total flavonoids under these optimum conditions were in good agreement with the predicted ones.

Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Conditions for Preparing Functional Polypeptide from Peanut Protein
FAN Yuan-jing1,MENG Fan-li1,YI Miao-miao1,GAO Hai-cheng1,CHEN Wei2,ZHANG Hua-chuan2,CHEN Su-xia2
2010, 31(18):  31-36.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018008
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In the present study, alkaline protease hydrolysis was used for the preparation of functional polypeptides from peanut protein. In order to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis of peanut protein, the effects of temperature, pH, substrate concentration, enzyme amount on degree of hydrolysis (DH) and trichloroacetic acid nitrogen solubility index (TCA-NSI) were explored using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for achieving both high DH and TCA-NSI were found to be hydrolysis temperature of 55 ℃, pH 8.4, substrate concentration of 4.31%, protease amount of 3.39% and hydrolysis time of 4 h. Under these optimal conditions, a DH of 23.40 and a TCA-NSI of 74.88% were obtained. The experimental values were consistent with the predicted ones with a relative error within 0.5%, indicating that these optimized hydrolysis conditions are reliable.

Factors Affecting Microwave-assisted Sugar Osmosis of Low-sugar Preserved Apples
WEI Zheng,ZHU Mei-yun*,SHAO Jian-feng
2010, 31(18):  37-40.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018009
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The optimal sugar osmosis of low-sugar preserved apples under microwave assistance for achieving both high sugar content and sensory quality was investigated by analyzing the effects of pretreatment methods, slice thickness and sugar permeation time on sugar content and sensory quality using single factor and orthogonal array design methods. Results indicated that sugar osmosis was obvious under the conditions of freezing pretreatment and slice thickness of 6 mm. Preserved apples obtained after 40 min sugar permeation under 30% microwave power (240 W) exhibited the highest sugar content, good appearance with glossy and glittering transparency and excellent mouthfeel. Therefore, apple slice thickness of 6 mm, soaking time in 2% saline of 2 h and sugar permeation time under 30% microwave power of 40 min were found optimum for achieving both high sugar content and sensory quality.

Preparation of Konjac Fly Powder by Neutral Protease Hydrolysis and Its Properties
TAN Bo-wen,XU Huai-de,MI Lin-feng
2010, 31(18):  41-45.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018010
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Konjac fly powder was prepared by neutral protease hydrolysis from konjac starch and its properties were investigated. Results indicated that the optimal hydrolysis conditions were substrate concentration of 2.5%, alkaline protease concentration of 818.3 U/g, hydrolysis temperature of 44.1 ℃ and hydrolysis time of 120 min. The purity of prepared starch reached up to 90%, which contained 18.20% amylose and 81.80% amylopectin. Konjac starch paste exhibited excellent solubility and transparency. Konjac starch granules were broad bean shape with particle sizes ranging from 1 to 9μm, averaged at 5μm.

Optimizing Hyperin Extraction from Acanthopana sessiliflorus Leaves Using Central Composite Design and Response Surface Methodology
LU Luo,GUAN Jian,CAI En-bo,XU Rui,XU Chun-ling,XU Hai-jin,ZHENG You-lan
2010, 31(18):  46-49.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018011
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Objective: To develop an optimal process for hyperin extraction from Acanthopana sessiliflorus (Rupr.et Maxim.) leaves. Methods: The major factors affecting hyperin extraction yield were ethanol concentration, extraction time and liquid-tosolid ratio. They were optimized using central composite design and response surface methodology. Multiple linear regression and quadratic polynomial fitting of experimental data obtained from central composite design were carried out to set up a mathematical model with hyperin extraction yield as a function of the above factors. Their optimal values were chosen using ridge analysis and verified experimentally. Results: The optimal conditions for the extraction of hyperin were found to be: ethanol concentration 69.80%, liquid-to-solid ratio 23.17:1 and extraction time 86.56 min. Conclusion: Central composite design and response surface methodology are suitable for optimizing the extraction of hyperin from Acanthopana sessiliflorus leaves. This method is simple, convenient and accurate.

Ultrasonic Extraction and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Flavonoids from the Whole Plant of Eupatorium lindleyanum DC
WANG Wei-dong,WANG Nai-xin,LI Jiao-jiao,ZHANG Tong-tian,LI Chao
2010, 31(18):  50-54.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018012
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Ultrasonic extraction (UE) of flavonoids from the whole plant of Eupatorium lindleyanum DC was optimized using Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology on the basis of single factor experimental results. The scavenging effect of the extract against DPPH free radicals was also studied. Results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions of flavonoids from the whole plant of Eupatorium lindleyanum DC were liquid-to-ratio of 11.3:1, ultrasonic extraction temperature of 58 ℃ and ultrasonic treatment time of 29 min. The extraction rate of flavonoids under these optimal extraction conditions was 1.142%. It was calculated that the content of flavonoids in Eupatorium lindleyanum DC ranged from 6.556 to 32.78 μg/mL. The scavenging rate of flavonoids from Eupatorium lindleyanum DC against DPPH free radicals was between 46.90% and 61.06% in a dosedependent manner. Compared with other extraction techniques, UE exhibited higher yield and shorter extraction time.

Production of Kiwifruit Juice by Freezing and Thawing for Cell Wall Disruption and Centrifugation
WU Shu-qing,DONG Ming,WANG Qiang,LIU Yan-juan
2010, 31(18):  55-58.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018013
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According to the principle that slow freezing causes cell wall damage, a process for the production of kiwifruit juice was designed based on freezing and thawing for cell wall disruption and centrifugation. Optimal process conditions for freezing, thawing and centrifugation were investigated using single factor and orthogonal array design methods. Results indicated that the productivity, vitamin C content, transmittance and color of kiwifruit juice produced using this process were obviously superior to the juice from traditional squeezing. Slice thickness of 0.6 cm, freezing time of 10 h at -14 ℃, thawing time of 30 min at room temperature, centrifugation time of 20 min at 3000 r/min and filtration pore size of 100 mesh were found optimum.

Preparation of Solid Resveratrol Liposomes
YUE Wen-hui,HUANG Zao-cheng,XIAO Su-yao,CAO Yong
2010, 31(18):  59-62.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018014
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Resveratrol liposomes were prepared using ethanol injection method and solid resveratrol liposomes were obtained after lyophilization. The effects of core material-to-wall material ratio, emulsifier type and amount, amount of mannitol as a cryoprotectant, oil phase-to-water phase ratio on entrapment efficiency were investigated in single factor experiments. The optimal preparation conditions of resveratrol liposome were as follows: lecithin-to-cholesterol-to-resveratrol ratio 10:2:1, amount of Tween-80 used as emulsifier 0.2%, amount of mannitol 2%, and oil phase-to-water phase ratio 1:10.The entrapment efficiency of solid resveratrol liposomes prepared under these optimum conditions was 84.68%. Therefore, ethanol injection method for preparing resveratrol liposome can provide higher entrapment efficiency and feasibility.

Extraction of Polysaccharides from Patrinia villosa Juss and Polysaccharide Extraction Yields from the Young and Old Leaves and Roots of the Plant
MENG Liang-yu,LAN Tao-fang,LI Xue-fei,PIAO Li
2010, 31(18):  63-66.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018015
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In order to optimized the exaction process of polysaccharides from the whole plant of Patrinia villosa Juss, the effects of extraction time, material/liquid ratio and extraction temperature on polysaccharide extraction yield were investigated using single factor and orthogonal array design methods. Meanwhile, polysaccharide extraction yields from the young and old leaves and roots of Patrinia villosa Juss were determined using the optimized extraction process. The assistance of ultrasonic technique to the optimized extraction process was also explored. Each of the above extraction conditions had notable effect on polysaccharide extraction yield. Material/water ratio of 1:20, extraction temperature of 80 ℃, and extraction time of 2 h were found optimum. The extraction rate of polysaccharides was enhanced with the aid of ultrasonic technique.

Macroporous Resin Adsorption for the Desalination of Glutathione-containing Eluate from Ion-exchange Resin Column
LI Cong-jun,XIE Ai-di
2010, 31(18):  67-69.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018016
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To improve the quality of glutathione purified with 732 type ion-exchange resin column, SP-207 type macroporous adsorption resin was used to desalinate the pooled glutathione-containing eluate. Under optimized conditions, the desalinization ratio was 99.86% and the recovery rate of glutathione was 65.71%. SP-207 type macroporous resin adsorption is a good choice for desalination.

Extraction Optimization of Collagen from Grass Carp Scales
WANG Yan,WANG Hai-bo,GUI Meng,WANG Meng-jin,ZHANG Han-jun,LIU Liang-zhong
2010, 31(18):  70-76.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018017
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Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) were extracted from the scales of grass carp at low temperature, and optimal extraction parameters were explored. The optimal parameters for removing impurity proteins from fish scales with 0.1 mol/L Na2CO3 were material/liquid ratio of 1:40 for mixing 3 times for 6 h each time at room temperature. The optimal parameters for removing mineral impurities with 0.3 mol/L EDTA were material/liquid ratio of 1:60 for mixing 3 times 12 h for each time at room temperature. The optimal parameters for ASC extraction were material/liquid ratio of 1:60 for extraction with 0.8 mol/L acetic acid 3 times for 24 h each time at 25 ℃. The optimal parameters for PSC extraction were amount of pepsin on the basis of the weight of fish scales, 3.0%; acetic acid concentration, 0.8 mol/L; and material/liquid ratio 1:30 for twice extraction at 4 ℃ for 24 h each time.

Optimization of the Preparation Process for High-purity Calcium Acetate from Eggshells
LI Yan-po,MA Mei-hu,LI Feng-zhen,CHEN Ya-quan
2010, 31(18):  77-81.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018018
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To utilize waste resource and protect environment, eggshells were processed into calcium acetate by direct reaction with acetic acid. The preparation process for calcium acetate was optimized using a four-factor quadratic general rotary unitized design and response surface methodology. The interactions between acetic acid concentration and reaction temperature or reaction time had significant effect on calcium acetate yield. Acetic acid concentration of 6 mol/L, reaction temperature of 79.38℃, reaction time of 5.98 h and material/liquid ratio of 1:5 were found optimum. Under these optimum conditions, the maximum calcium acetate yield was 98.48%. Orthogonal array design was used to optimize the process for magnesium removal from the prepared product, and the results showed that the optimal process conditions were as follows: CaO amount 0.5 g, reaction temperature 65 ℃ and reaction time 15 min and the purity of the purified product under these conditions was 99.79%. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the final product is calcium acetate.

Preparation and Characterization of Octenylsuccinate β-Polydextrose Ester and Its Application in Powder Oil Microcapsules
YANG Jing,ZHENG Wei-wan*,GAO Yuan-yuan
2010, 31(18):  82-85.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018019
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2-Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) and β-polydextrose were formed into octenylsuccinate ester by wet method. Substrate concentration of 60%, OSA amount of 3%, pH of 8.5, reaction temperature of 40 ℃ and reaction time of 4 h were proper conditions for the formation of octenylsuccinate ester and the degree of substitution of the product obtained under these conditions was 0.0209. The prepared OSA had excellent water solubility, freeze/thaw stability and emulsifying properties and its aqueous solution was a low-viscosity fluid. Its application in power oil micocapsules was promising and soybean oil micocapsules with OSA added as one of emulsifiers exhibited a lower surface oil content (1.35%) and a higher embedding efficiency (93.5%) and were observed to be spheres without cracks and with smooth surface under scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Development and Validation of a Predictive Model for the Growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta in Chilled Pork
LIU Chao-qun,CHEN Yan-li,WANG Hong-xun,AI You-wei
2010, 31(18):  86-89.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018020
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During storage at 0, 4, 7, 10 or 15 ℃, tray-packaged pork was periodically measured for its total bacteria count and Brochothrix thermosphacta count, sensory quality and total volatile basic nitrogen. The maximum Brochothrix thermosphacta count for keeping pork from spoilage was 5.316 lg(CFU/g). The average of Brochothrix thermosphacta counts in chilled pork at the end of shelf-life at different temperatures was 7.519 lg(CFU/g). SAS9.1 statistical software was used to fit Gompertz type models for the growth dynamics of Brochothrix thermosphacta at different temperatures, and these models were found to be able to do well. Two Belehradek models that describe the relationships between temperature and maximum specific growth rate or lag phase were set up and their determination coefficients were both more than 0.99, which indicates that there is a quiet good relationship between temperature and maximum specific growth rate or lag phase. Based on these investigations, a predictive model for the shelf-life of chilled pork stored at a temperature ranging from 0 to 15 ℃ was set up. Comparison between the observed shelf-life of pork stored at 3 ℃ and its predictive counterpart was carried out, and a relative error was found. This demonstrates that the predictive model is reliable in predicting the shelf-life of chilled pork stored a temperature ranging from 0 to 15 ℃.

Boiling Conditions for Noodles
YANG Ming-duo,CHEN Jian,FAN Xiang-fu,HU Wei
2010, 31(18 ):  90-94.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018021
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The effects of pH and ion strength of cooking water on the sensory attributes, productivity and solubility of cooked noodles were examined to determine the optimal amounts of added vinegar and sat to cooking water. Meanwhile, correlation analysis of noodle textural and sensory parameters, productivity and solubility was conducted, along with textural profile analysis of cooked noodles in optimized cooking water and common drinking water. There were significant correlations among noodle textural and sensory parameters, productivity and solubility. Both pH and ion strength of cooking water had obvious effect on noodle quality. Additions of 1.2% vinegar and 0.3% salt could improve the sensory attributes, adhesiveness and springiness of noodles.

Preparation and Chromatographic Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Microspheres for Chloramphenicol
SHI Xi-zhi,YANG Hua,SUN Ai-li,LI De-xiang,CHEN Jiong
2010, 31(18):  95-98.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018022
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A uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres (MIPMs) for chloramphenicol (CAP) has been prepared by a two-step swelling and polymerization method using 2-(Diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DEAEM), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and polystyrene microspheres as the functional monomer, cross-linker and seed particles, respectively. The porous surface of MIPMs could be clearly observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, the MIPMs had a larger pore volume and pore diameter measured using BELSORP-miniII than the non-imprinted polymer microspheres (NIPMs) did. The selectivity of MIPMs was assessed by chromatographic method, and CAP, thiamphenicol (TAP) and florfenicol (FF) could reach a stronger separation on the MIPMs with a MeCN/water/H3PO4 mixture (30:70:0.1,V/V) as the mobile phase.

Formulation Optimization of Yeast Powder Based Paste for Crisp Coating
ZHOU Xiao-yan,TANG Jian-hua,CHEN Jian,WANG Xiao
2010, 31(18 ):  99-103.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018023
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Formulation optimization of yeast powder based paste for crisp coating was carried out using single factor and orthogonal array design methods for achieving maximum weighted average of crispness, crispness-lasting time and surface smoothness. According to the single factor investigations, bread flour was the best choice for preparing the paste, and the optimal starch source was wheat, and instant dry yeast was superior to baking powder and fresh yeast. The optimal formula for the paste was composed of starch 10 g, yeast powder 2.0 g, water 75 g, oil 15 g, and flour 50 g. Amounts of water, flour and yeast powder were selected to be the most important factors affecting the comprehensive sensory evaluation of the paste, and their relationship was modeled using orthogonal regression design.

Microwave-aided Extraction and Antioxidant Activity Assessment of Red Pigments from Lonicera edulis Fruits
ZHANG Yan-nan,LIU Shuo-fang,LI Hao,ZHANG Yan-rong
2010, 31(18):  104-107.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018024
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The microwave-aided extraction of red pigments from the fruits of Lonicera edulis was optimized using orthogonal array design method based on single factor investigations for maximizing the 520 nm absorbance of the extract. Meanwhile, DPPH radical scavenging assay was employed to assess whether the extracted pigments have antioxidant effect. The optimum microwave-aided extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration 65%, solid/liquid ratio 1:10 (g/mL), microwave power 540 W, and extraction time 90 s. The maximum red pigment yield was 105.5 mg/100 g of fruits under such conditions. The red pigments had the ability to scavenge DPPPH free radicals.

Extraction Optimization of Water-soluble Polysaccharides from the Shoot of Lygodium japonicum Using Response Surface Methodology
WU Yun,ZHENG Xiao-jiang,BU Gui-jun,ZENG Zhi
2010, 31(18):  108-111.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018025
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Based on single factor studies, a three-variable, three-level Box-Benhnken experimental design and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the extraction process of water-soluble polysaccharides from the shoot of Lygodium japonicum. Response surface and contour plots with polysaccharide yield as a function were obtained, and process conditions were analyzed for their significance for polysaccharide extraction and significance analysis of their interactions was also done. Extraction temperature of 92 ℃ and solid/liquid ratio of 1:25 for twice extraction for 2.1 h each time were found optimal. Under such conditions, a polysaccharide yield of 16.475% was obtained.

Extraction and Determination of Mineral Elements and Bioactive Components in Chinese Fringe Tree Young Leaf Tea and Flower Tea
HU Xi-lan,JIANG Qin,YIN Fu-jun,LIU Tao
2010, 31(18):  112-115.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018026
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Ultrasonic was applied to the extraction of bioactive components in Chinese fringe tree young leaf tea and flower tea, including polyphenols, flavooids and ploysacchrides. The contents of these components and seven macro-mineral elements including Cu, Fe, Pb and so on in the two tea samples were determined using ferrous tartrate colorimetric, UV/VIS spectrophotometric, phenol-sulfuric acid cololrimetric or atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. Chinese fringe tree young leaf tea and flower tea had polyphenol contents of 301.7 mg/g and 227.0 mg/g, flavonoid contents of 47.925 mg/g and 62.025 mg/g and polysaccharide contents of 64.674 mg/g and 71.341 mg/g, respectively. The two types of tea were both rich in mineral elements, especially Ca and Mg, of which the contents were 4165.7μg/g and 329.75μg/g in the young leaf tea and 6193.50μg/g and 344.50μg/g in the flower tea, respectively. The polyphenol content of the young leaf tea was even higher than that of the flower tea. Therefore, Chinese fringe tree young leaf tea may be a tea that has superior anti-aging benefits for human body.

Optimization of Microwave-assisted Extraction of Total Alkaloids from Semen strychni
ZOU Jian-guo,LIU Fei,XU Xiao-long,LIU Yan-yan,PENG Hai-long,WANG Hai-peng,LUO Ping
2010, 31(18):  116-119.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018027
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Microwave was applied to the extraction of total alkaloids from semen Strychni, the dry ripe seeds of Strychnos nuxvomica L. and the extraction process was optimized in this study. Firstly, single factor studies were conducted to investigate the effects of microwave power and irradiation time, ethanol concentration, liquid/solid ratio and pre-microwave irradiation soaking time on total alkaloids yield. Subsequently, central composition design and multiple nonlinear regression analysis were employed to establish a mathematical model describing total alkaloids yield as a function of the above extraction conditions. Finally, the pairwise interactive effects of these extraction conditions on total alkaloids yield were examined based on response surface and contour plots. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power 240 W, extraction time 6.7 min, liquid/solid ratio 6:1, ethanol concentration 58.8%. An experimental strychnine yield of 18.97 mg/g and an experimental brucine yield of 9.46 mg/g were obtained under such conditions, which were substantially consistent with their respective theoretical counterparts.

Microwave-assisted Extraction Optimization and Antioxidant Activity Studies of Essential Oil from the Stems and Leaves of Fenugreek
WANG Ya,ZHAO Ping,REN Hai-wei,ZHANG Jin-xiu,ZHAO Li-juan
2010, 31(18):  120-123.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018028
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In the present study, we optimized the microwave-assisted diethyl ether extraction process of essential oil from the stems and leaves of fenugreek using single factor and orthogonal array design methods. In addition, reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging and Rancimat assays were used to see whether the extracted oil has antioxidant effect. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be: microwave power, low fire; length of extraction time, 30 s; solid/liquid ratio (g/mL), 1:4; and length of pre-extraction soaking time, 20 min. An oil yield of 3.374% was obtained under such conditions. Solid/liquid ratio had the most important effect on oil yield, followed by length of pre-extraction soaking time, microwave power and length of extraction time in decreasing order. The extracted oil had strong reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity and presented the highest protective effect against lipid peroxidation in lard at a concentration of 200 mg/L, which, however, smaller than that of vitamin C at the same concentration.

Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasonic and Microwave Synergistic Extraction Optimization of Ginger Polysaccharides
LIU Quan-de,TANG Shi-rong,WANG Wei-dong,FENG Cai-xia
2010, 31(18):  124-128.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018029
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Fresh gingers were dried in a far infrared drying oven and powder to provide a starting material for extraction ginger polysaccharides on an ultrasonic and microwave synergistic instrument. The effects of liquid/solid ratio, microwave power, extraction duration, material particle size and added ultrasonic treatment on polysaccharide yield were explored through single factor experiments. Three main affecting factors, namely microwave power, extraction duration and liquid/solid ratio were selected to carry out response surface optimization based on Box-Behnken experimental design. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: drying temperature for fresh gingers, 60 ℃; sieve mesh size for powdered gingers, 40; extraction solvent; pure water; microwave power, 258 W; and extraction duration, 85 s. The polysaccharide yield obtained under these optimal conditions was 23.65%, higher than that obtained after three-time hot water reflux extraction for 2 hour each time (19.53%). Ultrasonic and microwave synergistic extraction has the benefits of simplicity and high efficiency.

Optimization of Chemical Release of Bound Phenolic Acids from Wheat Bran
HAO Jie,CAO Xue-li*
2010, 31(18):  129-133.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018030
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Ultrasonic-assisted alkaline hydrolysis was used to release bound phenolic acids, the major antioxidant components in wheat bran. Some process conditions for the release of these antioxidant substances were optimized through single factor investigations and subsequent response surface analysis based on a three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design. The optimal conditions for releasing bound phenolic acids from wheat bran were found as follows: material particle size, 0.5 mm; temperature, 60 ℃, NaOH concentration, 0.1 mol/L; solid/liquid ratio (g/mL), 2.5:100; and length of extraction time, 1 h. The total phenolic release under these optimal conditions was 3.687 mg/g, 7.23-fold higher than that obtained by the conventional methanol extraction method.

Lipase-catalytic Synthesis of L-Ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters in Mixed Organic Media
ZHANG Yu,LU Feng-xia*,ZHAO Hai-zhen,LIU Jian-wei,BIE Xiao-mei,LU Zhao-xin
2010, 31(18 ):  134-138.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018031
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A novel way for the synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters (AFAE) from low-cost lard and L-ascorbic acid under the catalysis of lipase was developed and the optimal reaction conditions were investigated. It was found that a higher substrate conversion ratio was obtained in single organic solvents than in their pairwise combinations and the optimal solvent system consisted of t-pentanol and isooctane (30:70, V/V). The optimal reaction conditions for maximum substrate conversion ratio were as follows: L-ascorbic acid/lard methyl ester molar ratio 1:10; enzyme amount 10%; and reaction temperature 55 ℃ for a reaction duration of 24 h. The conversion ratio of L-ascorbic acid under these reaction conditions reached up to (52.7±2.8)%.

Preparation and Separation of ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Hydrolyzed Squid Liver Protein
XIE Chao,LIN Lin,QIU Xiao-hua,LIN Ya-ping
2010, 31(18):  139-142.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018032
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Squid liver as a byproduct of squid processing was processed into protein. The protein was enzymatically hydrolyzed and ACE inhibitory peptides were obtained from the hydrolysate after ultrafiltration and Sephadex G-50 fractionation. Pepsin was found optimal for the hydrolysis of squid liver protein. The optimal pepsin hydrolysis conditions for both higher degree of hydrolysis and ACE inhibitory ratio were as follows: substrate concentration 2.5%; enzyme/substrate ratio 2%; and temperature 36 ℃ for a hydrolysis duration of 22 h. The smaller molecular weight fractions after ultrafiltration through a membrane with 20 kD molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) were fractionized on Sephadex G-50 column, resulting in five elution peaks. Among them, fraction (peak) B presented the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with an IC50 of 1.80 mg/mL.

Double-enzyme Method for Polysaccharides Extraction from Gomphidius rutilus Fruitbodies
LI Shu-qian1,2,ZHANG Bo1,XIN Guang1,YU Yang1,LIU Chang-jiang2,*
2010, 31(18):  143-146.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018033
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For polysaccharide extraction, wild Gomphidius rutilus fruit bodies were hydrolyzed with cellulase and papain together. Based on single factor investigations, orthogonal array design was employed to optimize the hydrolysis process, and the optimum hydrolysis conditions were found as follows: hydrolysis temperature 60 ℃; cellulase/papain mass ratio 3:1; pH 5.0; and hydrolysis duration 3 h and the polysaccharide yield obtained under such conditions was 12.0%. This method has many advantages over conventional methods, such as gentle reaction conditions, time saving and less destructive effect on polysaccharide structure.

Ultrasonic-aided Extraction of Polyphenols from Seabuckthorn Leaves and Their Fresh-keeping Effect on Apple Juice
JING Si-qun
2010, 31(18):  147-152.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018034
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Three process conditions (namely, ethanol concentration, solid/liquid ratio and length of extraction time) for the ultrasonic-aided extraction of polyphenols from seabuckthorn leaves were optimized using orthogonal array design on the basis of single factor investigations. Along with this, the extracted polyphenols were added to freshly prepared apple juice in order to evaluate their fresh-keeping effect on fruit juice. The optimal ultrasonic-aided extraction conditions were found to be: ethanol concentration 60%, length of extraction time 25 min and solid/liquid ratio 1:16. The polyphenol yield obtained under such conditions was 7.385 mg/g. The extracted polyphenols added at a level of 0.10% had a significant fresh-keeping effect on apple juice.

Enzyme-catalyzed Synthesis and Surface Tension Measurement of Maltitol Fatty Acid Esters
ZHANG Hao1,WANG Zhen-hu1,PENG Dong-mei1,WANG Yi-fan1,HE Bing-fang2
2010, 31(18):  153-156.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018035
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Under the catalysis of Novozym 435 lipase, maltitol was reacted with each of two fatty acids, lauric acid and palmitic acid to synthesize maltitol fatty acid ester. The reaction between maltitol and lauric acid or palmitic acid was investigated with respect to the effects of four reaction conditions including maltitol/fatty acid molar ratio, reaction duration, amount of acetone as the reaction medium and enzyme amount. The optimal levels of these reaction conditions were determined as follows: enzyme amount 0.24 g/mmol fatty acid; acetone amount 10mL/mmol fatty acid; and maltitol/fatty acid molar ratio 2:1for a reaction duration of 80 h at 60 ℃, which gave a conversion ratio of fatty acid ranging from 91% to 95%. The 0.06% aqueous solutions of the two synthesized maltitol fatty acid esters under the above reaction conditions displayed a surface intension varying from 38 to 40 mN/m.

Orthogonal Array Optimization of Extraction of Peanut Polysaccharides Based on the Use of Co-Immobilized Enzymes
MIAO Jing-zhi,LU Xing-jun*,DONG Yu-wei,GAO Ming-xia,CAO Ze-hong
2010, 31(18):  157-160.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018036
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Eight common proteases of the same concentrations were co-immobilized pairwise into sodium alginate beads at a volume ratio of 1:1 in order to provide co-immobilized enzymes for hydrolyzing peanut meal to obtain polysaccharides. The hydrolysis process of peanut meal based on the use of co-immobilized enzymes was optimized. Combination of acidic protease and papain gave a maximum polysaccharide yield among six combinations and the optimal conditions for hydrolyzing peanut meal with this combination were as follows: enzyme concentration for immobilization 10%; solid/liquid ratio 1:20; pH 5.0; and hydrolysis duration 5 h. A polysaccharide yield of 10.88% was achieved under these conditions. After repeated use for 7 times, the co-immobilized enzymes still had an activity exceeding 50% of the original activity.

Double Modification of Waxy Maize Starch and Its Application in Powder Oil Microcapsules
KONG Ling-wei1,ZHENG Wei-wan1,*,ZHANG Xue-chun1,LIAO He-jing1,ZHANG Hai-ling1,
2010, 31(18):  161-164.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018037
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Oxidized waxy maize starch esters were prepared from waxy maize starch after oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and esterification with octenyl succinic anhydride, which presented a carboxyl content of 0.073% and a degree of substitution of 0.019. The synthesized starch esters were applied to soybean oil microencapsulation as an emulsifier, and power soybean oil microcapsules with an embedding ratio of 91.99% were obtained.

Microwave-assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Anthocyanins from Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruits
LI Ju-xiu,WANG Shi-yu,FANG Hong-juan,ZHANG Xiao-ning
2010, 31(18):  165-169.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018038
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Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit is rich in anthocyanins, which has attracted great attention for its health benefits. The aim of this study was to optimize five parameters for the microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from sweet pomegranate fruits from Lintong region, Shaanxi province and to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of the extracted anthocyanins by DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+) and ferrous ion chelating assays. The optimal extraction parameters of anthocyanins were as follows: pH value 1; solid/liquid ratio 1:13; length of extraction time 210 s; microwave power 360 W; and ethanol concentration 70%. An anthocyanin yield of 184.81μg/g was achieved under these conditions. Microwave power had a significant effect on anthocyanin yield (P < 0.05). The extracted anthocyanins had the ability to scavenge DPPH and ABTS+ radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power and ferrous ion chelating capacity in a linear concentration-dependent manner, with corresponding correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9928, 0.9925, 0.9913 and 0.9945, and the IC50 values were 2.44, 1.14, 4.08 mg/L and 101.05 mg/L, respectively.

Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Water Extraction Conditions of Antioxidant Compounds from Camellia sinensis Seeds
LI Qi-hong,ZHENG Tie-song*,WANG Hua-qing
2010, 31(18):  170-174.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018039
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Camellia sinensis seed powder was extracted with hot water to obtain bioactive compounds with reducing power and three extraction parameters including liquid/material ratio, length of extraction time and extraction temperature were optimized using central composite design and response surface methodology based on single factor investigations for achieving maximum reducing power (reflected by 700 nm absorbance of the reaction system). A mathematical quadratic polynomial regression equation reflecting the relationship between extract reducing power and the above extraction parameters was set up. The optimal extraction parameters were found as follows: liquid/material ratio (mL/g) 16:1; extraction temperature 81 ℃; and length of extraction time 1.6 h. Under the optimized conditions, the actual 700 nm absorbance of reducing power was 0.616 ± 0.005, close to the predicted value of 0.610.

Inhibitory Effect of Juice of Nine Different Fruit Plant Species on Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potato Strips
HE Fang-yi,DIAO Quan-ping,SUN Qiao-yin,HUI Rui-hua
2010, 31(18):  175-177.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018040
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In an effort to find a novel way for inhibiting acrylamide formation during frying, juices of nine different fruit plant species of different concentrations were used to soak potato strips before frying. For the quantitative and qualitative analysis of acrylamide in fried potato strips, a HPLC system equipped with a C18 column (15 cm × 4.6 mm, 5μm) using a methanol/water mixture (5:95, V/V) as the mobile phase and with a diode array detector set at 197.1 nm wavelength was used. Before injection onto the HPLC system, the extract from fried potato strips was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction. The developed standard curve of acrylamide displayed a good linear relationship over the concentration range from 0.02 to 0.1 mg/L (r = 0.9998). The recoveries for acrylamide spiked at three levels were between 90.2% and 94.7%. In 6 replicate precision experiments, a relative standard deviation range from 0.8% to 2.0% was obtained.

Extraction and Indirect Measurement of Chlorophyll in Kelp
LIU Hui,HE Ju-ping,QIN Jie,TANG Shi-rong,ZHU Yin-yin
2010, 31(18):  178-181.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018041
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Five technological conditions for the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of chlorophyll from kelp were investigated, and the back extraction of the extract with chlorohydric acid for the displacement of magnesium ions by hydrogen ions was optimized using single factor and orthogonal array design methods. Displaced magnesium ions were assayed by atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) method. Therefore, the content of chlorophyll in kelp could be calculated from obtained magnesium concentration data. Based on these studies, an indirect method for quantifying chlorophyll in kelp has been set up. The optimal conditions for extracting chlorophyll based on the use of an absolute ethanol/acetone mixture as the extraction solvent were found to be: solid/ liquid ratio (g/mL) 2:15 and ultrasonic power 200 W for twice extraction for 20 min each time. Chlorohydric acid concentration of 0.9 mol/L, chlorohydric acid amount of 15 mL and back extraction duration of 15 min were found optimal for the displacement of magnesium ions. The limit of detection of AAS method was 0.008 μg/mL. The average content of chlorophyll in kelp (n = 5) was 5.486 mg/g, with a relative standard deviation of 0.675% and the average spike recovery for chlorophyll was 97.7%. The developed method for chlorophyll determination has the advantages of little disturbance and high precision, sensitivity and accuracy.

Ultrasonic Treatment Coupled with Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Preparing Purple Sweet Potato Based Nutrient Solution
TU Xue-ling,LU Fen,DENG Mian,LU Xiao-li*
2010, 31(18):  182-187.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018042
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A process route based on ultrasonic treatment and double-enzyme (cellulase and acidic protease) hydrolysis was designed for the preparation of a nutrient solution with purple sweet potato Fushu 13 as the raw material. To maximize the comprehensive preservation rate of nutrients, which was designated following analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and weighted average methods, orthogonal array design and Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface methodology were employed to optimize key process parameters for ultrasonic treatment and double-enzyme hydrolysis, respectively. The optimal ultrasonic treatment parameters were found as follows: ultrasonic power 65 W; extraction temperature 50 ℃; length of extraction time 25 min; and solid/liquid ratio 1:70. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the centrifugal precipitate of purple sweet potato after ultrasonic treatment were as follows: acidic protease amount 1.5%; cellulase amount 1.5%; pH 4.3; hydrolysis temperature 48 ℃; hydrolysis duration 65 min; and solid/liquid ratio (g/mL) 1:16. The resultant hydrolysate was centrifugated and the supernntant was then harvested and pooled with the centrifugal supernatant of purple sweet potato after ultrasonic treatment. Finally, a purple sweet potato based nutrient solution was obtained. Its comprehensive preservation rate of nutrients was measured to be 82.26%, namely 82.26% of the main nutrients in fresh purple sweet potato are preserved.

Preparation Optimization of High Fructose Syrup from Broken Rice
ZHANG Qiu-zi,WANG Ze-nan*,CHEN Cong,WU Hong-yin,LI Ying,LIU Peng
2010, 31(18):  188-191.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018043
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The preparation of high fructose syrup from broken rice based on glucose isomerization to fructose and calcium type ion exchange resin separation between fructose and glucose was optimized using single factor and orthogonal array design methods. The optimal isomerization conditions were found to be: glucose isomerase amount 9 mg/g broken rice; reaction temperature 70 ℃; pH 6.5; and reaction duration 35 h, and the optimal conditions for the separation between fructose and glucose were as follows: separation temperature 70 ℃; sample concentration 20%; elution solvent flow rate 4 mL/min; and sample loading amount 40 mL. The content of fructose of the syrup obtained under the above conditions was 89.64%.

Microwave-assisted Extraction of Total Anthocyanins from Mulberry Fruit
ZHANG Chao-hong,GU Yue-hua,FANG Hong-juan,FAN Ming-tao,LI Ju-xiu*
2010, 31(18):  192-195.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018044
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Mulberry fruit (Morus Lhou Koidz.) is rich in anthocyanins, which are associated with many health benefits. In this work, we optimized the microwave-assisted extraction process of total anthocyanins from mulberry fruit. The effects of material/liquid ratio (g/mL), ethanol concentration, pH, microwave power and length of extraction time on the extraction of anthocyanins were examined. The quantification of total anthocyanins was carried out using pH differential method. Material/liquid ratio of 1:20, pH of 1, microwave power of 540 W and extraction duration of 100 s were found optimal, and the resultant yield of anthocyanins was 2.89 mg/g. Material/liquid ratio had the most important effect on the yield of anthocyanins, followed by microwave power, extraction duration and ethanol concentration, and all these four factors had significant effect on the yield of anthocyanins. This study reveals that microwave-assisted extraction is a simple, feasible and highly efficient method for extracting anthocyanins from mulberry fruit.

Optimization of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Oil from Sloanea hemsleyana Seeds Using Response Surface Methodology
MA Cheng-jin1,2,WU Zhu-qing2,FU Wei-chang1,2,HUANG Qun1,2,CHEN Gong-xi1
2010, 31(18):  196-202.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018045
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Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction conditions of oil from Sloanea hemsleyana seeds. According to single factor investigations, extraction pressure, temperature and duration and separation temperature were the most important factors affecting oil yield, and carbon dioxide flow rate of 25 kg/h and material particle size of 40 mesh were optimal for oil extraction from Sloanea hemsleyana seeds. A mathematical model with oil yield as a response to extraction pressure, temperature and duration and separation temperature was established using Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. This was followed by response surface analysis. It was found that the optimal process conditions for oil extraction from Sloanea hemsleyana seeds were as follows: extraction pressure 31 MPa; extraction temperature 47 ℃; separation temperature 34 ℃; and extraction duration 72 min and that the resultant oil yield was 48.57%. Meanwhile, GC-MS analysis of fatty acid composition of the extracted oil was conducted, and the results showed that the oil was abundant in unsaturated fatty acids contained 35.17% of oleic acid and 19.76% of linoleic acid.

Microwave-assisted Enzymatic Preparation of Broken Rice Resistant Starch
WU Hong-yin,WANG Ze-nan*,ZHANG Xiao-rong,ZHANG Qiu-zi,LI Ying,LIU Peng
2010, 31(18):  203-205.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018046
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Ultrasonic treatment followed by pullulanase hydrolysis was employed to prepare resistant starch from broken rice in the present study. The preparation process was optimized using single factor and orthogonal array design methods, the results showed that the optimal conditions for resistant starch preparation were as follows: amount of added starch paste 25 g/mL; length of microwave treatment time 90 s; enzyme loading 4.0 U/g dry starch; hydrolysis duration 2 h; and aging duration 20 h and that the yield of resistant starch was 21.81% under these conditions.

Analysis & Detection
Determination of Lutein in Enteromorpha prolifera by Reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
CHENG Hong-yan1,CHEN Jun-hui1,*,ZHAO Heng-qiang1,SHI Qian1,WANG Xiao-ru1,2,ZANG Jia-ye1
2010, 31(18):  206-211.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018047
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A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) method was established for qualitative identification and quantitative determination of lutein in Enteromorpha prolifera. Lutein was extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera through ultrasound-assisted extraction, and then analyzed by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. HPLC was carried out at the conditions of Eclipse XDB-C18 (4.6 mm × 150mm) column, MeOH-0.2% acetic acid-water (V/V) as the mobile phase with linear gradient elution and detection wavelength of 450 nm. Results indicated that the developed method could be used for the determination of lutein in Enteromorpha prolifera with a good resolution and linear relationship in the range from 0.10 to 20.0 mg/L (R2 = 0.9994). Molecular weight of lutein was rapidly evaluated by ESI-MS detection. Combined with literature information, lutein in Enteromorpha prolifera could be rapidly identified. This developed method is specific, simple, fast, sensitive and feasible for rapid identification and quantification of lutein, which can eliminate the interference of other pigments and derivatives from Enteromorpha prolifera.

Development of Ion-exchange Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of 5-Hydroxymethyl-furfural in Food
ZHANG Yan,GUO Tian-xin,YU Jiao,FENG Fan,WANG Shuo*
2010, 31(18):  212-215.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018048
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An ion exchange solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatographic method was presented and optimized in order to improve its sensitivity and accuracy. In this method, ion exchange solid-phase extraction column was used for pretreatment instead of conventionally used C18 solid-phase extraction column so that method recovery and accuracy could be both improved. This method exhibited a good linear relationship over the 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (5-HMF) concentration range of 0.01 to 12 mg/L (R2 =0.9998). The detection limit of this method was 3.42 μg/L. The recovery rates for 5-HMF spiked at levels of 0.1, 0.5 mg/L and 1 mg/L were between 85% and 103% with a relative standard deviation varying from 0.31% to 3.83%. Determination of 5-HMF in 13 real samples was performed using this method, and the results demonstrate that this method is applicable to determine 5-HMF in food.

Determination of Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate, Total Phosphorus and Total Nitrogen in Vegetables Using Ion Chromatography
YANG Min,YANG Shu-ke,WANG Jiong,YANG Wei,WANG Hong-bin*
2010, 31(18):  216-219.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018049
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Chinese cabbage was used as the sample to establish a method for determining nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) through ultrasound-assisted extraction and ion chromatography (UAE-IC). The distribution of these compounds in different parts of Chinese cabbage was also investigated. The detection limits for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, TP and TN were 0.015, 0.014, 0.030, 0.014 mg/L and 0.061 mg/L, respectively, at a sample injection volume of 20 μL using an elution system composed of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3. The determination coefficients of the developed linear equations of these analytes and the precision relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 0.9990 to 0.9999 and 0.22% to 0.94%. The spike recovery rates of these analytes were between 80.0% and 110.0%. This method is characteristic of simple operation, fast detection, and accurate and reliable results.

Allergen Detection of Almond and Peach Seeds in Food
ZHANG Xia,ZHANG Hai-ying,GAO Qi-li,LIU Pei,ZHONG Hong-wei,ZHENG Wen-jie
2010, 31(18):  220-223.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018050
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Objectives: To establish a real-time PCR method for the detection of allergenic almond and peach seeds in food and compare with quantitative test kits for allergenic almond. Methods: On the basis of sequence analysis of the Pru du1 region, specific primers and probes were designed to develop a real-time PCR method using TaqMan probe for the identification of allergenic almond or peach seed residues in food. In order to compare with the test kits, recovery rates and detection limit of established real-time PCR were determined using the reference material of allergenic almond. Results: The established real-time PCR method was highly specific for the detection of allergenic almond. Its sensitivity was less than 10 mg/kg. Conclusion: The real-time PCR method is highly sensitive and specific, thereby providing an applicable method for the detection of allergenic almond and peach seeds in food.

Preparation and Fatty Acid Analysis of Phosphatidylcholine with High Purity
LOU Qiao-ming,XU Jie,SUN Zhao-min,XUE Chang-hu*
2010, 31(18):  224-226.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018051
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Due to the difference in solubility of concentrated soybean phospholipids in different solvents, a solvent method to prepare phosphatidylcholine with high purity was established. Concentrated soybean phospholipids were subjected to oilremoval by acetone, isolation by ethanol, decoloration by active carbon, and extraction by acetonitrile. The purity of prepared phosphatidylcholine was up to 95%. Fatty acid compositions of soybean phosphatidylcholine were mainly composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the contents of linoleic acid and linolenic acid were 70.71% and 11.04%, respectively.

Determination of Organophosphorous Pesticide Residues by Matrix Solid-phase Dispersion-Gas Chromatography
XUE Ping1,SHI Hui-juan2,DU Li-jun1,LIN Qin-bao2,*
2010, 31(18):  227-231.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018052
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Matrix solid-phase dispersion technique was used to extract and purify nineteen kinds of organophosphorous pesticide residues from five matrixes such as cabbage, pear, chicken, corn and purple broccoli. The contents of organophoshorous pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with a flame photometric detector (FPD). Through the optimization of absorbent, eluent and elution volume, a preparation method for determining organophosphorous pesticide residues was established. The recovery rates of monocrophos, cyanophos, isocarvophos, cadusafos and triazophos in spiked samples at concentrations of 0.02 mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg, were between 75.0% and 109.2% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of lower than 16%. Therefore, this method is suitable for pesticide residue analysis.

Quantitative Correlation between Topological Index and Retention Index of Aromatic Components in Feizixiao Litchi
DU Xi-hua
2010, 31(18):  232-235.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018053
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In order to explore the effect of aromatic components on the quality of litchi juice and investigate nutritional and healthy function of litchi, molecular shape index and electrotopological state index were used to characterize the structures of 40 aromatic components in Feizixiao litchi and a quantitative structure-retention relationship model had been established to estimate and predict the gas chromatography retention index (RI) of volatile components in litchi through topological index. The correlation coefficient in multiple linear regressions was 0.978 with a relative average error of 4.37%. The estimated values using this model were in good agreement with the experimental values. Molecular shape index and electrotopological state index had an excellent linear relationship with retention index. In order to test the stability and prediction capability of this model, good results were observed in Jackknifed cross validation (R>0.977).

Volatile Composition Analysis of the Fresh Flowers of Plumeria rubra Linn. cv. Acutifolia by Automatic Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
ZHANG Wen-wen,ZHENG Hua*,ZHANG Hong,LI Kun
2010, 31(18):  236-238.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018054
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An automatic thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (ATD-GC-MS) system was applied to analyze the volatile composition of the fresh flowers of Plumeria rubra Linn. cv. Acutifolia based on dynamic head-space closed cyclic adsorption sampling. The quantification of volatile compounds was carried out using area normalization method. The sum of the relative contents of identified volatile compounds in the fresh flowers of Plumeria rubra Linn. cv. Acutifolia was 77.31%, and among them, aldehydes were the most predominant group of compounds, with a relative content of 29.5%, followed by oximes (24.99%), derivatives of aldehydes, and nitriles (5.34%), alkanes (3.68%), aromatic hydrocarbons (1.42%), ethers (4.64%), terpenes (6.67%) and alcohols (1.67%) were also included. Besides some of the identified aldehydes, the compounds responsible for the characteristic aroma of Plumeria rubra Linn. cv. Acutifolia flowers also consist of limonene belonging to the group of terpenes and phenyl ethanol belonging to the group of alcohols.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Aroma Components in Mulberry from Different Varieties
CHEN Juan1,KAN Jian-quan2,*,YANG Rong-sheng1
2010, 31(18):  239-243.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018055
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Agricultural mulberry, Dashi mulberry, Hongguo 2 mulberry and Hongguo 1 mulberry were used as raw materials. The aroma components in mulberries from different varieties were extracted by solvent extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicated that 42, 51, 44 and 46 volatile components from agricultural mulberry, Dashi mulberry, Hongguo 2 mulberry and Hongguo 1 mulberry were identified, respectively. Long chain fatty acid, fatty acid-ester, fatty alcohol, aromatic alcohol, fatty aldehyde and fatty ketone were the major aromatic components. The relative content of long chain fatty acid in mulberries were quite high and the long chain fatty acid was the most important aromatic precursor. The principal aroma components in mulberries were composed of hexaldehyde, nonanal, hexanol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-2,3-butanediol, phenylethanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. In addition, each variety of mulberries also has its own unique aroma components.

Determination of Six Acaricide Residues in Beeswax by Gas Chromatography Coupled with a Micro-electron Capture Detector
CHEN Fang1,LI Dan2,ZHANG Jin-zhen1,HUANG Jing-ping1,ZHAO Jing1,WU Li-ming1,*
2010, 31(18):  244-247.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018056
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An accurate, fast and convenient method for simultaneous determination of 6 acaricide residues in beeswax by gas chromatography coupled with a micro-electron capture detector (GC-MECD) was established. The sample was saturated with hexane and acetonitrile in water bath with constant temperature. After frozen and centrifugation at 10000 r/min, the extract was analyzed by GC-MECD. Effects of extraction solvent, solvent volume and extraction times on extraction efficiency were explored. The best extraction solvent was 30.0 mL of acetonitrile-hexane (V:V, 2:1). Twice freezing and high speed centrifugation could remove the interference of lipid matrix. This method exhibited an excellent linear relationship over the range of 0.01 to 4.0 mg/L with a correlation coefficient of larger than 0.9878. The limits of detection (LOD) for the 6 acaricides varied from 0.96 to 4.69 μg/kg. The average recovery rates of these analytes spiked at three different levels ranged from 83.8% to110.4%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) from 1.70% to 6.60%.

QSRR Study on Same Components in Volatile Oil from Perilla frutescens Seeds and Leaves
WANG Xiao-hui,DU Xi-hua*,CHEN Yan
2010, 31(18):  248-251.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018057
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The structure-activity relationship between the common components in volatile oil from seeds and leaves of Perilla frutescens and their retention values in gas chromatography was investigated by quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) method. Molecular shape index and molecular connection index of forty-five components in volatile oil were calculated to explore the status of molecular bonding valence and topological environment. The relationship between the retention index (RI) of these volatile oil components in gas chromatography and molecular shape index or molecular connection index was analyzed by multiple regression method. A model of quantitative relationship between molecular structure and retention characteristics of common components in volatile oil was established. Correlation coefficient from corresponding equations was 0.985, which exhibited a significant correlation. Moreover, average relative error between calculated data and experimental data was 3.40%. Therefore, QSRR method is suitable for the property investigation of foodstuffs.

Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Total Flavonoids in Capparis spinosa L. Buds
JIANG Xiu-juan1,2,TANG Jin-cheng2,BAI Hong-jin1,2,*
2010, 31(18):  252-254.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018058
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Different extraction methods were coupled with visible spectrophotometry to develop a simple and accurate method for quantifying total flavonoids in Capparis spinosa L. buds. The detection wavelength was set at 500 nm. Rutin was used as the standard sample and NaNO3, Al(NO3)3 and NaOH was used to compose the coloration system. Results indicated that the methanol reflux method exhibited the highest extraction rate for total flavonoids. A good linear relationship was observed in the range of 0 to 32 mg/L (r = 0.9997) and average recovery rate was 100.3% with a relative standard deviation of 0.98% (n=6). The average content of total flavonoids in the samples from Kuche county, Xinjiang autonomous region was 1.13%.

Rapid PCR Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Food
SHI Yan-yu1,LIU Jin-hua2,AN Wei1,LI Yuan-yuan1,WANG Ying1,ZHU Ying1,WANG Wei1,LIU Jun-hui1
2010, 31(18):  255-257.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018059
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The contamination of Helicobacter pylori is considered as a serious problem to impair public health in both developed and developing countries. In order to establish a fast, specific and sensitive method to detect the contamination of Helicobacter pylori in food, PCR method was used to detect the DNA of Helicobacter pylori based on urease gene. Results indicated that this method was highly specific to Helicobacter pylori and sensitive and presented a limit detection of 8 CFU/mL for Helicobacter pylori. Therefore, this method is applicable to clinical practice, environment control and inspection of exported food.

Monoclonal Antibodies against Sudan I: Preparation of and Application in Indirect Competitive ELISA Detection
QIU Xue-mei,LIU Ren-rong*,XU Ling,MENG Wei,TU Shun,XIE Shao-xia
2010, 31(18):  258-261.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018060
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A SudanⅠanalog was synthesized by diazotization and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BAS) or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) by active ester method and a BAS based detection antigen and a KLH based immune antigen were obtained. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established to detect the immunogenity of the immune antigen. BALB/c mice were immunized with the immune antigen for antibody generation. For the preparation of anti-SudanⅠ monoclonal antibodies, cell fusion was used. An indirect competitive ELISA assay was developed. A linear relationship was observed over the concentration range of 0.5 to 10 ng/mL and the detection limit was 0.1 ng/mL. The average recovery rates of SudanⅠin red hot chili pepper powder spiked at 6 different levels were between 52.3% and 110% with variation coefficients varying from 3.2% to 8.9%.

Analysis of Aromatic Components in Different Tissue Parts of Granny Smith Apple
DUAN Liang-liang1,GUO Yu-rong1,*,CHI Xia-wei1,DENG Hong1,KONG Xiang-hong2
2010, 31(18):  262-267.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018061
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Aromatic components in different tissue parts such as peel, pulp and core of Granny Smith apple were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). A total of 80 aromatic components were identified in extracted samples. Aldehydes, alcohols, esters and olefins were the major constituents in Granny Smith apple. In addition, a significant difference in aromatic components was observed in peel, pulp and core of apple. The aromatic components were rich in peel and 55 kinds of aromatic components were identified in this tissue. A total of 23 esters with relative content of 14.240% were identified and esters were the most predominant group of compounds in Granny Smith apple. The highest content of C6 aldehydes was observed in this tissue part, which exhibited a relative content of 39.515%. Hexyl acetate, cyclobutanol, (E)-hexa-1,4-diene, (3E,5E)-hepta-1,3,5-triene, 3,6-diethyl-3,6-dimethylcyclohexa-1, 4-diene exhibited higher content. Meanwhile, 18 compounds were detected in apple pulp. Totally 4 kinds of alcohols exhibited a relative content of 31.391% and 2-methylbutan-1-ol was up to 94.814%. Propyl propionate and hexyl formate had higher relative content and were characteristic aromatic components of the pulp. Moreover, 30 components including 2 kinds of C6 aldehydes were identified in the core. Totally 4 kinds of alcohols with a relative content of 42.455% were also identified and 2- methylbutan-1-ol and hexan-1-ol were up to 96.639%. Among these aromatic components from different tissue parts of Granny Smith apple, propyl propionate and hexyl formate were mainly distributed in apple pulp; 2-methylbutan-1-ol was mainly generated in the core and the pulp; hexan-1-ol was rich in the core and the peel; alpha-farnesene was mainly located in the peel and the core; hexanal and (E)-hex-2-onal had high content in the peel, the pulp and the core.

Rapid and Micro-Determination of Total Polyphenol in Grape and Grape Wine
XU Guo-qian1,ZHANG Zhen-wen1,2,*,GUO An-que1,2,FANG Yu-lin1,2,LUAN Li-ying1
2010, 31(18):  268-270.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018062
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Based on the principle of Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay for determining total polyphenol in grape and grape wine, a new method was developed by optimizing reactive conditions with the aid of micropipette and microwave irradiation. The optimalconditions were 0.1 mL of sample, 0.1 mL of 1 mol/L F-C reagent and 0.8 mL of 60 g/L Na2CO3, microwave treatment for 20 s at the middle power level, determination wavelength of 765 nm. The standard curve exhibited a good linear relationship between absorbance and gallic acid concentration from 1 to 50 mg/L (R2 = 0.9996). When several gallic acid solutions were added to grape and grape wine samples, the average recovery rates of spiked gallic acid in grape and grape wine samples were 98.1% and 97.2%, respectively, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ranging from 1.40% to 1.01%. This new method is characteristic of simple operation, fast determination, excellent precision, prefect reproducibility and significant reduction in the consumption of samples, reagents as well as time. Therefore, this new method is a promising method for determining total polyphenol in grape and grape wine.

Change of Ferulic Acid Content in Wheat Seedling
ZHANG Zhi-qing,MENG Zhao,YAO Yan-yan,ZHOU Li-ming
2010, 31(18):  271-274.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018063
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In order to explore the change trend of ferulic acid (FA) and identify the suitable harvest period of wheat seedling, the contents of ferulic acid in wheat seedling from 7 cultivation variants were determined by HPLC method. Results indicated that the average contents of ferulic acid from 7 cultivation variants in the first through the fourth weeks were 0.2575, 0.2865, 0.3364 mg/g and 0.5193 mg/g, respectively. An increase trend of FA content was observed and an obvious increase of FA content in each variant was exhibited from the third to the fourth week. A significant increase was confirmed by variance analysis. No obvious significant level was observed in partial regression coefficients among plant height and FA content or net weight. In addition, the best harvest season for wheat seedling was not affected by plant height and dry weight. Therefore, the optimal harvest time of wheat seedling was the 4th week of growth based on ferulic acid as an efficient component index.

Determination of Trace Elements in Ginkgo Leaves by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Coupled with Suspension Injection and Ultrasound-assisted Extraction
LIN Jian-yuan,HU Kan-kan,GU Long-fei
2010, 31(18):  275-277.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018064
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Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) coupled with ultrasound-assisted extraction and suspension sample injection was used to determine the contents of trace elements in ginkgo leaves. FAAS working parameters, suspension medium and length of ultrasonic treatment time were optimized and the eliminating effect of SrCl2 addition on the disturbance from Al, Si and P was evaluated. Meanwhile, two analytical figures of merit, namely limit of detection and spike recovery, were characterized. The relative standard deviation of each element was less than 2.2% and recovery rate of each sample was in the range of 97.8% to 104%. The method is simple, rapid and accurate and consequently, provides a promising method for the determination of trace elements in ginkgo leaves.

Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Yak s Milk Soft Cheese during Ripening
NIU Jie1,GAN Bo-zhong1,*,QIAO Hai-jun2,LIU Xing-long3
2010, 31(18):  278-282.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018065
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The flavor components in different ripening periods (30, 60 d and 90 d) in yak s milk soft cheese were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 45 compounds were detected and relative contents of these compounds were determined by peak area normalization method. The conditions of SPME were optimized to be 75μm CAR/PDMS and temperature of 50 ℃. The major volatile flavor compounds in yak s milk soft cheese were acids, alcohols and ketones. Esters and aldehydes were also detected as the volatile flavor components. Acidic compounds were the major flavor components of yak s milk soft cheese, among which, acetic acid, butyric acid, caproic acid and 2-heptanone were the most predominant compounds.

HPLC Fingerprints of Siraitia grosvenorii at Different Growth Stages
LU Feng-lai,LIU Jin-lei,HUANG Yong-lin,LI Dian-peng*
2010, 31(18):  283-287.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018066
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In order to explore quality change of Siraitia grosvenorii, confirm the crucial growth stage and the best harvesting season, guide the production of Siraitia grosvenorii according to GAP, and establish a method of quality control, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the fingerprints of characteristic chemical components in Siraitia grosvenorii at different growth stages. Meanwhile, quality change of Siraitia grosvenorii at different growth stages was investigated through hierarchical cluster analysis and identification of characteristic peaks. Results showed that characteristic chemical components in Siraitia grosvenorii exhibited an obvious difference at various growth stages and different cultivated varieties. Therefore, fingerprinting of characteristic chemical components was an effective and all-directional quality control strategy for traditional Chinese herbal materials and promising application values for the guidance of herbal cultivation.

Development of a Quick Analytical Method for Determining Beer Turbidity
WANG Hong-lei,LIU Xu*
2010, 31(18):  288-291.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018067
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No legal detection wavelength has been published in the current national standard involving the measurement of beer turbidity. Different measurement results for the same beer samples are always given. This not only brings trouble to beer manufacturers, but also makes it difficult to ensure beer quality. In the present study, a quick method for directly determining the turbidity of bottle contained beer without opening was presented. Turbidity was measured with Haffmans VOS Rota 90/25  type double-filter beer turbidity analyzer at both 90°and 25°, and the measurements results were compared with those obtained by the conventional method. There was no significant difference between both methods at the same wavelengths (P>0.05) and different results, however, were obtained at different wavelengths. The use of red filter could only eliminate the intervention from brown color of bottles, but made the determination of green bottles inaccurate. When green filter or no filter was used, the results of determining different size bottles were not significantly different. As a conclusion, the presented analytical method is valid. Nevertheless, the selection of detection wavelength influences determination accuracy.

Determination of Iodine in Food by Ion Chromatography with Amperometric Detection
CHEN Guang,KOU Lin-na,ZHOU An-fei,YANG Yan-li,LIN Li
2010, 31(18):  292-294.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018068
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An analytical method for determining iodine in food was developed using ion chromatography with amperometric detection. Before ion chromatographic separation, samples were suspended in potassium hydroxide solution with the presence of subsequently added sodium thiosulfate solution, vacuum dried and ashed. Some key sample pretreatment conditions were optimized. The limit of detection for iodine was 5μg/kg. The average spike recoveries of iodine in dried small shrimps and milk power were between 85.9% and 112.3%, and the determination precision varied from 1.26% to 4.54%. The results of determining four national standard reference materials, namely cabbage (GBW10014), spinach (GBW10015), milk powder (GBW10017) and chicken (GBW10018) by the developed method were consistent with the standard values.

Determination of Methaqualone Residues in Pork by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
LU Fei,ZHU Shi-kang,HUANG Gang,CAO Wei-qiang,WU Yun-pu
2010, 31(18):  295-297.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018069
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A high performance liquid chromatographic method was established to determine the content of methaqualone residues in pork. Sample extraction was carried out using dichloromethane as the extraction solvent, followed by clean-up on a solid-phase extraction column and dillution to a certain volum with the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 25 mmol/L ammonium acetate before injection onto HPLC system. The detection wavelength was 226 nm and the mobile phase flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The calibration curve of the developed method was as follows: Y = 6.90 × 104X +3.71 × 103, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, which exhibited good linearity over the concentration range from 0.020 to 0.20 mg/kg. The detection limit was 0.020 mg/kg, and the inter- and intra-laboratory average spike recovery rates of methaqualone at three levels were between 70% and 110%. This method has the benefits of simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, convenience and good feasibility and most suitable for the determination of methaqualone residues in pork.

Quantification of Sodium Sulfocyanate in Raw Milk by Ferric Salt Method
WANG Dan-hui1,ZHANG Feng-mei2,LI Mei1,LIU Wei-xing1
2010, 31(18):  298-300.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018070
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For the examination of thiocyanate adulteration, raw milk samples were subjected to protein precipitation and filtration and the filtrate was then added with ferric salt solution and the calculation of thiocyanate content based on absorbance determination due to color change caused by the reaction between thiocyanate and ferric salt was performed. This method was successfully used to thiocyanate determination in raw milk with excellent linearity, high recovery rate and good repeatability at sulfocyanate concentrations of less than 30 mg/L. In general, this method is suitable for the quality test of diary products due to its simple operation and accurate results.

Determination of Plant Hormone Residues in Vegetables and Fruits by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
ZHOU Yan-ming,XIN Xue
2010, 31(18):  301-304.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018071
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A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determining plant hormone residues in vegetables and fruits was established. Sample preparation was accomplished after extraction with 80% methanol and clean-up on a C18 column prior to analysis using a HPLC system equipped with a UV detector and subsequent quantification by external standard method. The average spike recoveries for 10 species of vegetables or fruits such as tomato, cucumber, capsicum, etc were between 70.23% and 98.10%, with a variation coefficient ranging from 3.34% to 10.12%. The limit of detection of this method was between 0.004 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg, and the limit of quantification between 0.01 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg. This method meets the national requirements for pesticide determination and is applicable to food quality supervision and control.

Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Phytosterol Composition of Supercritical Fluid Extract from Rice Bran
LIU Ting-ting,LI Yi-li,LIU Xiang-yang,WANG Da-wei*
2010, 31(18):  305-307.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018072
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The phytosterols and their contents in the supercritical fluid extract from rice bran were analyzed by gas chromatography. Totally 3 phytosterol compounds were identified in the extract, including campesterol, stigmasterol and β- sitosterol and among them, β-sitosterol had the highest content (8.47 mg/g), followed by campesterol (1.97 mg/g) and stigmasterol (1.23 mg/g).

Aroma Component Analysis of Three Kinds of Fruit-flavored Chives Flower Sauces
XIN Guang1,2,ZHANG Bo1,LI Shu-qian1,2,FENG Fan2,WANG Nan-nan1,LIANG Pan2,LI Tie-chun1
2010, 31(18):  308-311.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018073
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Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GCMS) were employed to analyze the aroma composition of Laocaichen brand of chives flower sauce and its improved products with different fruit flavors (mixing it with the slurry of apple, pear or pineapple at a mass ratio of 1:1). HS-SPME was performed at 20 ℃ and the holding time was 30 min. A total of 7, 7 and 11 aroma compounds were identified in apple, pear and pineappleflavored chives flower sauces, respectively. Methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, diallyl sulfide and dimethyl trisulfide existed in all the four kinds of chives flower sauces. The unique components of apple-flavored chives flower sauce were 1-propene- 1- (methylthio)-(E)-, and butanoic acid methyl ester, butanoic acid 2-methyl-methyl ester2-, hexanoic acid methyl ester, disulfide methyl propyl and 1,3-dithiane were unique to pineapple-flavored chives flower sauce.

Quantitative Structure-Chromatographic Retention Time Relationship Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Sudachi Peel Oil
CHEN Yan,DU Xi-hua
2010, 31(18):  312-316.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018074
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Based on the chemical topological theory, Kier s molecular connectivity indexes (Xi ), molecular shape indexes (Km) and Hall’s electrotopological state indexes (En) of 68 volatile compounds found in sudachi peel oil were calculated. A model corresponding to the quantitative structure-retention index (RI) relationship (QSRR) of these volatile compounds was deduced by leaps-and-bounds regression, with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.977. An average relative error of 3.13% for estimation with the model was observed. This model exhibited excellent stability and predictability evaluated by Jackknife method, leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation and external validation procedure. The regression results indicate that the multi-kinds of topolagical index can characterize molecular structure and demonstrate the essential affecting factors of compound retention index.

Sterol Composition Analysis of Royal Jelly by Gas Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry
XU Xiang1,2,SUN Li-ping1,2,*,DONG Jie1,2,LI Tian-jiao1,MU Xue-feng1,SHEN Xin-feng1
2010, 31(18):  317-320.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018075
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To figure out the sterol composition of royal jelly, royal jelly samples were lyophilized and extracted and the extracted lipid substances were then saponified, derivatized and separated on a HP-5MS column prior to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID ) coupled with mass spectrometric identification of sterols, and quantitative analysis was finally conducted by internal standard method. A small amount of cholesterols was contained in royal jelly, and the main sterols were 25-hydroxy-24-methylcholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol and Δ7-avenasterol. The total content of sterols in 100 g of fresh royal jelly was higher than 51 mg. Among these sterols, the most predominant components were 25-hydroxy-24-methylcholesterol, campesterol, β-sitosterol and Δ5-avenasterol, accounting for 36.79%, 6.30%, 19.75% and 27.99%, respectively.

Comparison of the Flavor of Green Soybean with Microwave and Hot Water Blanching
ZHUO Cheng-long1,2,3,LI Da-jing2,3,SONG Jiang-feng2,3,JIN Bang-quan1,LIU Chun-quan2,3,*
2010, 31(18):  321-324.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018076
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In order to investigate the effect of microwave blanching on the volatile components of soybean, green soybean samples from the varieties of Su ZY01 and Su ZY02 were treated by optimized microwave blanching and hot water blanching. The results showed that the important volatile components of soybean, including 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methyl-butanal, 2-decenal, 2-heptenal, pentanal, 1-octen-3-one, 1-hexanol and hexanal were maintained better in microwave blanching than in hot water blanching. Thus, microwave blanching makes great contributions to the formation of green soybean flavor, which can provide a theoretical reference for the improvement of green soybean blanching process.

HPLC Determination of Synthetic Food Pigments in Dried Noodles
FU Feng1,FAN Hui-ping2,*,QIN Xue-lei1
2010, 31(18):  325-328.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018077
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A HPLC method was established to determine synthetic food pigments in dried noodles. Papain hydrolysis for protein removal and α-amylase for starch removal from dried noodles were done in case of their adsorption to pigments during extraction. Pigment recovery was significantly improved due to the use of enzymatic hydrolysis. Both enzyme kind and amount made a difference to pigment recovery. Combined treatment with papain and α-amylase was more efficient than single treatment with either of them. When 2% α-amylase and 2.5% papain were used together, the recoveries of five pigments, i.e., lemon yellow, amaranth red, carmine, sunset yellow and bright blue, were all above 80%, which were significantly higher than that of control.

Rapid Determination of Feruloylated Oligosaccharides during Production
ZHAO Yang-yang1,OU Shi-yi1,*,LIN Qi-ling1,2,LIN Hai-wei1
2010, 31(18):  329-332.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018078
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In this work, feruloylated oligosaccharides were prepared from each of three raw materials, namely, wheat bran, corn cob and corn bran, by enzymatic hydrolysis. A rapid method for determining feruloylated oligosaccharides was developed and verified by high performance liquid chromatography. Non-feruloylated oligosaccharides were removed by Amberlite resin chromatography, and the purified feruloylated oligosaccharide could be determined by using dual wavelength (DW) spectrophotometry (345 nm and 375 nm) coupled with the determination of reducing sugars after acidolysis.

Determination of Antioxidant Capacity of Healthcare Foods by Phenanthroline-Fe2+ Method
LIU Wei,WANG Hong-jun,ZHAO Jian,WEN Yue,WEN Jing*
2010, 31(18):  333-337.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018079
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Purpose: To develop a phenanthroline-Fe2+ method for determining the antioxidant capacity of healthcare foods. Methods: Trolox was used as the reference substance for antioxidant capacity assessment. Some key determination conditions such as hydrogen peroxide amount, color development time, solvent type, etc were optimized. Method figures of merits including linearity, limit of detection, precision, repeatability and spike recovery were investigated. Results: The developed method presented good linearity when trolox concentration varied from 0.01 to 0.15g/L, with a limit of detection of 0.0050 g/L, a parallel precision (375 ± 12) μmol/g (3.2% variation coefficient), a repeated precision of (365 ± 16) μmol/g (4.4% variation coefficient), and an average spike recovery of (98.0 ± 2.4)% (n = 5). Conclusions: This method is applicable to the determination of antioxidant capacity of healthcare foods.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted from Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) Flower by Supercritical Fluid Extraction
LI Da-jing1,2,3,SONG Jiang-feng1,3,LIU Chun-quan1,3,*
2010, 31(18):  338-341.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018080
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Marigold flower was extracted by supercritical fluid extraction and the extracted volatile components (mainly luteinfatty acid esters with a content of 20%) were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 17 compounds were found in the extract and the major compounds were amyrin and its isomer (21.00%), phytosterols (10.79%), and tocopherol (4.36%).

Analysis of Volatile Components in Tilapia (Oreochromus niloticus) Enzymatic Hydrolysates
ZENG Shao-dong,WU Jian-zhong,OU Shi-yi*,JIN Jun
2010, 31(18):  342-346.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018081
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Headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to analyze the volatile compounds in alcalase hydrolyzed tilapia meat. The optimization of HS-SPME conditions was conducted. The optimal HS-SPME extraction conditions were addition of sodium chloride to samples at a levels of 30 g/100 mL and subsequent extraction using a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) coated fiber at 60 ℃ for 40 min with stirring. Totally 69 volatile compounds were identified and the predominant flavor compounds were C6 to C9 volatile carbonyl compounds, alcohols or nitrogen-containing substances, whose molecular weights distribution were in the range of 80 to 200. All of these compounds showed synergistic effect on the formation of special flavor in tilapia enzymatic hydrolysates.

Usability Evaluation of Solvent-assisted Flavor Evaporation as a Sample Pretreatment Method for Quantitative Analysis of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Liquid Dairy Flavors
LI Ning1,2,ZHENG Fu-ping2,YANG Meng-yun2,GU Chen2,SUN Bao-guo2,1,*
2010, 31(18):  347-349.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018082
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In order to determine the difference between quantitative results and actual composition, a mimic diary flavor system containing 19 kinds of diary-flavor compounds was used as the research subject to determine the volatile aroma compostion in the mimic diary flavor system by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) combined with GC- MS and compare the quantitative results and the actual composition. Results indicated that the highest evaporation rate was observed in esters, followed by ketones and sulfur-containing compounds among the mimic dairy flavor compounds isolated by SAFE. The evaporation rates of lactones and other kinds of compounds was the lowest. Therefore, their quantitative results of compounds identified by SAFE methods need to be corrected.

Development of an ELISA Method for Determining Fumonisin B1 in Cereals
LIU Shi-wen,HE Qing-hua,ZOU Long,XU Yang*
2010, 31(18):  350-354.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018083
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Polyclonal antibodies against fumonisin B1 were produced in rabbits with FB1/keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate. A sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determining FB1 was developed. The concentration of FB1 causing 50% inhibition of binding enzyme marker (IC50) was 11.7μg/L and the detection limit was 1.1μg/L. The average variation coefficients in intragroup and intergroup were 5.8% and 10.2%, respectively. PBS was selected as the best extract solvent through extensive investigations. The recovery rates from corn, wheat, rice and sorghum samples spiked at a level varying from 50 to 500μg/kg ranged from 70.5% to105.6%. The contents of FB1 in 40 cereal samples were screened by the developed ELISA method and the results exhibited a positive correlation with the results from HPLC (R2 = 0.9547). This method is sensitive, fast and accurate and therefore is suitable for screening the presence of FB1 in cereals.

Determination of Carminic Acid Content in Cochineal Extract by High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis
LI Kun,ZHANG Hong*,ZHENG Hua,MA Li-yi,ZHAO Hong,GUO Yuan-heng
2010, 31(18):  355-358.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018084
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A method for determining the content of carminic acid in cochineal extract was established using high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE). All experiments were carried out on an uncoated capillary column (60 cm × 75 μm, i.d.) under 20 kV and 0.5 psi × 10 s injection pressure at 25 ℃. The detection wavelength was set at 239 nm. Internal calibration method was used for quantification. Under all selected conditions, a good linear relationship of carminic acid was observed over the range of 50 to 500 mg/L, with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.9958. The average recovery rate of carminic acid in 7 parallel cochineal extracts spiked at a level was 100.86% and the detection limit was 5.00 μg/mL. This method is simple, rapid, accurate and can provide a reference for actual production.

Extraction and Chemical Composition Analysis of Essential Oil from African Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) Leaves
LI Jian,SONG Shuai-di,LIU Ning,CHEN Shu-juan
2010, 31(18):  359-362.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018085
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The steam distillation extraction of essential oil from African marigold leaves was optimized for achieving maximum oil yield using single factor and orthogonal array design methods, and chemical composition analysis of the extracted oil was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The optimal conditions for oil extraction were found as follows: material-liquid ratio 1:6; distillation duration 5 h; and heating temperature 110 ℃, and the resultant oil yield was up to 0.0944%. The GC-MS analysis showed that 31 peaks were separated, and 29 of them were identified, accounting for 93.55% of the total peak area, and the main components were cyclohexene (37.02%), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-one (14.08%), limonene (13.08%), 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene (8.785%) and caryophyllene (4.18%).

Analysis of Volatile Components of Seed and Pericarp of Kalimeris indica by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
JIANG Xian-guang,HOU Dong-yan,HUI Rui-hua,LI Tie-chun,DIAO Quan-ping,ZENG Cheng
2010, 31(18):  363-364.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018086
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Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based on steam distillation was employed to analyze and compare the volatile composition of the seed and pericarp of Kalimeris indica. A total of 9 and 5 volatile components were identified in the seed and pericarp of Kalimeris indica, representing 68.54% and 99.99% of the total volatile component amount, respectively.

Molecular Distillation Purification and Analysis of Volatile Components of Garlic Oil Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction
TAO Ning-ping,WANG Sai-sai,CHEN Bi-wen
2010, 31(18):  365-369.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018087
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Molecular distillation (MD) purification the garlic oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCDE) was studied, followed by volatile composition analysis of the purified garlic oil using headspace solid-phase microwextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The optimal MD conditions were determined as follows: sample loading speed 1 drop/s; distillation temperature 60 ℃; and film wiping speed 250 r/min. Only 4 compounds were found in MD-purified garlic oil, namely, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, 2-vinyl-1,3-dithiacyclohex-4-ene and 3-vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-5-ene. From comparison of volatile composition between steam distillation-extracted and SCDE-extracted garlic oils, SCDE is a better method for garlic oil extraction. Moreover, after 30-day storage of steam distillation-extracted garlic oil, the contents of the efficient components in it decreased, resulting in quality deterioration.

Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Yueshengzhai Spiced Beef by Simultaneous Distillation Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
QI Yan-mei,SUN Bao-guo,HUANG Ming-quan,LIU Yu-ping,CHEN Hai-tao*
2010, 31(18):  370-374.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018088
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The volatile compounds in Yueshengzhai spiced beef was extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS).Totally 82 volatile flavor compounds were identified and they were 17 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 23 aldehydes, 7 ketones, 1 ester, 2 ethers 4 acids, 2 phenols and 14 nitrogen- or sulfurcontaining or heterocyclic compounds, accounting for 4.365%, 2.663%, 21.717%, 0.912%, 0.279%, 15.263%, 2.601%, 0.889% and 2.085% of the total amount of volatile compounds, respectively. Among these compounds, aldehyde, ether, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing and heterocyclic compounds were the important flavor compounds in Yueshengzhai spiced beef.

Analysis of Amino Acids in Mucus, Skin and Flesh of Giant Salamander
CHEN De-jing
2010, 31(18):  375-376.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018089
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In order to provide theoretical references for the exploitation of giant salamander, amino acid analysis of the mucus, skin and flesh of giant salamander was performed using an automatic amino acid analyzer. Total amino acid contents in the mucus, skin and flesh of giant salamander were 77.30%, 70.96% and 70.76%, respectively. Although the same types of amino acids were found in the three materials, the contents of each amino acid were different.

Determination of Eight Food Additives in Different Matrices by Capillary Electrophoresis
YANG Gui-jun,GAO Wen-hui*
2010, 31(18):  377-380.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018090
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A method using high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) with ultraviolet detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight food additives, i.e. food blue 2, vanillin, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, food yellow 3, food red 10, amaranth and tartrazine. The running buffer system used was composed of phosphoric acid and borax, and the detection wavelength was set as 240 nm. Different sample preparation methods were used for the determination of three chosen matrices, including Smart orange-flavored beverage, fruit-flavored jelly and preserved date. Once-off injection was accomplished in 8 min. The linear range of the developed method was between 2.5μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL, with a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9986 to 0.9998. The average spike recoveries (n = 5) for these eight analytes varied from 85.2% to 100.3%, with a relative standard deviation of less than 6.98%. The limits of detection for them were between 0.25μg/mL and 10 μg/mL. Satisfactory results were obtained in determining the above matrices. This method has the benefits of convenient operation and rapidity.

Packaging & Storage
Preservative Effect of Citric Acid Treatment on Storage of Mango Fruits at Room Temperature
ZHENG Xiao-lin1,2,WU Xiao-ye2
2010, 31(18):  381-384.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018091
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In order to investigate a new method for the preservation of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.), harvested mango fruits were subjected to treatments of citric acid at the concentrations of 0 (as control), 5 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L for 10 min. The changes in nutritional quality, ripening process and decay rate of fruits were investigated at fixed intervals during storage at room temperature (25 ℃ ± 0.5 ℃). Results showed that citric acid treatments could accelerate the softening of fruits, attenuate the increase of soluble solid and the decrease of titratable acid, as well as the reduction of yellowing index, which suggested that citric acid treatment delayed the ripening process of fruits and effectively inhibited the decay of mango fruits during storage. Therefore, citric acid treatments will be a promising method to extend the storage life of mango fruits.

Effect of Oxygen Pressure on Fresh-keeping of Needle Mushroom
WANG Cheng-tao,WANG Chang-tao,LIU Liu,WANG Jing,CAO Yan-ping,SUN Bao-guo*
2010, 31(18):  385-389.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018092
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The effect of oxygen pressure on fresh keeping of needle mushroom was studied. A total of 100 g needle mushroom was placed in polyethylene (PE) bags with adjusted oxygen amount of 0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% and stored at 0-3℃. Water loss, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, free amino acids, reducing sugar, malondialdehyde (MDA) and sensory index were determined in an interval of 3-7 days. Needle mushroom samples at room temperature and in air-package at 0-3 ℃ were used as the control. Results indicated that the activity of PPO, the amount of free amino acids, water loss, reduction of reducing sugar, and sensory change were the lowest in package with 80% oxygen.

Processing Technology
Changes of Carbohydrate Metabolism and Related Enzyme Activities in Postharvest Huangguan Pears
WANG Jun,LI Lei,XIE Bing,ZUO Qi,LU Ya-nan,KOU Xiao-hong*
2010, 31(18):  390-393.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018093
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Huangguan pears were used as materials to investigate the changes of carbohydrate metabolism and related enzyme activities of postharvest fruits. Huangguan pears were stored at 0 ℃ and relative humidity of 85%-95%. The contents of glucose, sucrose, total soluble solid and titratable acid, and the activities of acidic invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) were measured. Results showed that the content of glucose and activities of AI and NI exhibited an initial increase and a following decrease. An obvious high peak of AI was observed. However, the content of sucrose and activities of SS and SPS exhibited a decrease during storage. As the important index of fruit flavor, the content of TA exhibited a decrease trend, while the content of TSS exhibited an up-down-up trend during storage. Net synthesis activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were closely related to the content of sucrose during storage.

Packaging & Storage
Preservation of Myrica rubra Using Compound Coating Agent of Grateloupia filicina Polysaccharide and Carrageenan at Room Temperature
GUO Shou-jun1,YE Wen-bin2,YANG Yong-li1,*,PAN Xian-hui2,WANG Jun-xi2,WU Hao-qin1
2010, 31(18):  394-400.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018094
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Grateloupia filicina polysaccharide and carrageenan were used for preparing compound coating agent on the basis of glycerin and CaCl2 as the film-forming additives. The preservative effect of compound coating agent on post-harvested Myrica rubra at ambient temperature (28-32 ℃) and relative humidity (68%-86%) was explored. Results showed that rotten fruit rate, cracking fruit rate and weight loss rate of Myrica rubra coated with edible compound film exhibited an obvious decrease. Meanwhile, respiration rate and conversion rates of total vitamin C, organic acids and other nutrients were inhibited, which resulted in an inhibition of MDA generation and reduction of anthocyanin content and relative conductivity. Activities of PPO, POD and PAL from fruits coated with edible compound film remained at a relatively low level, and the senescence process was delayed. The quality of Myrica rubra coated with film containing Grateloupia filicina polysaccharide was superior to that of fruits coated with compound film of Grateloupia filicina polysaccharide and carrageenan during storage.

Effect of Ozone Treatment on Browning of Huanghua Pear
YANG Zhen-feng1,ZHU Ke-hua2,CHEN Wei1,LU Sheng-min1,3,*
2010, 31(18):  401-404.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018095
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Huanghua pear fruits were used to investigate the effect of ozone treatment at the concentrations of 5.0 mg/L and 2.5 mg/L for 5 min on browning of whole fruit stored at 20 ℃ and fresh-cut fruit at 5 ℃. Browning index, total phenol content, and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were monitored during storage. Results showed that all parameters determined in whole and fresh-cut fruits with ozone treatment were better than those in the control. The browning index was significantly reduced after storage for 5 days in whole fruit and fresh-cut fruit during storage period. The ozone treatment could maintain higher content of total phenols, inhibit the activities of PPO and POD, increase PAL activity in whole fruit and inhibit PAL activity in fresh-cut fruit. The inhibitory effect on browning in Huanghua pear fruits treated with 5.0 mg/L of ozone solution was better than pear fruits treated with 2.5 mg/L of ozone solution.

Effect of 1-MCP and Vacuum Precooling on Fruit Quality and Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism of Blackberry During Postharvest Periods
ZHAO Qian1,2,WANG You-sheng1,2,*,WANG Zhi-yuan1,2,WANG Gui-xi3,LI Li-ping1,2
2010, 31(18):  405-410.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018096
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Triple Crown blackberry fruit was treated with 5μg/L 1-MCP and vacuum pre-cooling (10 ℃), respectively, and stored at 0 ℃ for 21 d, and their effect on fruit quality and reactive oxygen species metabolism in blackberry fruit were investigated. Both 1-MCP and vacuum pre-cooling treatments lightened the incline of soluble solids and color L*, a*, b* value of blackberry, and vacuum precooling showed more efficiency than 1-MCP. Both 1-MCP and vacuum pre-cooling treatments could delay the increase of LOX activity and anthocyanin content. However, the 1-MCP reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), the lipid peroxidation product, and delayed the increase of the total reducing power, whereas vacuum pre-cooling could induce the total reducing power and MDA content of blackberry fruit. The results indicated that both 1-MCP and vacuum precooling may be useful to maintain postharvest quality of blackberry fruit and provide longer storage life, whereas the influence on reactive oxygen species metabolism was obviously different.

Non-enzymatic Browning of Banana Whole Fruit Juice during Storage
LIU Xiao-ling,ZHANG Wen-can,JIANG Yuan-xin,LIN Ying
2010, 31(18):  411-415.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018097
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The non-enzymatic browning of banana whole fruit juice (WBJ) during storage was studied. Browning index (BI) of WBJ increased with higher storage temperature and longer storage periods. The BI change of WBJ was fit to zero order kinetic models. The browning activation energy of WBJ was 75.752 kJ/mol, and was lower than that of banana juice (BJ), which suggest that WBJ was easier to browning than BJ. The components of WBJ were determined and the correlation of each component and BI was analyzed with path analysis methods. It was concluded that phenol was the most important factor causing the nonenzymatic browning of WBJ stored at 20 ℃ and 35 ℃.

Principal Components Analysis of the Influence of 1-MCP and Salicylic Acid Treatment on Fruit Quality of Angeleno Plum
GUO Xiao-min1,2,AN Lin1,2,WANG You-sheng1,2,*,LI Li-ping1,2,WANG Gui-xi3,CHEN Xiao-yan1,2
2010, 31(18):  416-422.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018098
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The potential of post-harvest treatment of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and salicylic acid (SA) on fruit quality of plum at 0 ℃ or 20 ℃ was investigated. The results indicated that both 1-MCP and 1-MCP+SA treatments delayed the softening of plum fruits stored at 20 ℃ and 0 ℃, as well as during shelf life. Meanwhile, the effects of 1-MCP and/or SA treatments on skin colour, SSC, pH value as well as protein content of plum was significantly affected by temperature and storage time. Principal components analysis (PCA) indicated that the changes of firmness and colour could be adopted to distinguish plum quality at different storage temperatures and subsequent shelf life. 1-MCP and/or SA treatments mainly increased SSC of plum at 20 ℃,which was also significant after 104 d at 0 ℃. Furthermore, significant difference was also observed in terms of color ratio (h) between treatments and control plum after 18 d at 20 ℃. Comprehensive model based on PCA showed that 1-MCP application could improve comprehensive quality of plum during storage at 0 ℃ and subsequent shelf life, whereas the treatment of 1-MCP+SA delay the quality deterioration of plum when stored at 20 ℃ as well as post-storage shelf-life.

Processing Technology
Fresh-preserving Effect of Leucaena leucocephala Seed Gum Based Film Coating on Chinese Bayberry
YANG Yong-li1,YE Wen-bin2,GUO Shou-jun1,*,PAN Xian-hui2,ZHANG Jie-mei1,WANG Wu-zhong1
2010, 31(18):  423-427.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018099
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A compound film coating agent was prepared from Leucaena leucocephala seed gum as the basis material and glycerin as the humectant, and its fresh-preserving effect on Chinese bayberry was evaluated by measuring changes of sensory attributes and physiological and biochemical parameters of Chinese bayberry treated with it in advance during storage at room temperature (ranging from 28 to 32 ℃) and relative humidity (ranging from 68% to 86%). Compared with the control (untreated with the coating agent), treated Chinese bayberry fruits showed decreases in percentage of cracked fruits and weight loss percentage, significant increases in percentage of good fruits and firmness and suppressed respiratory intensity, slower changes of some nutrients, such as organic acids, vitamin C and so on, substantial reductions in MDA and anthocyanin contents, and lower PAL activity. Therefore, fruit senescence was retarded.

Packaging & Storage
Processing Optimization of Effervescent Tablets with Puerh Tea
CHAI Jun-hong1,YANG Chun-wen1,MA Huai-liang1,CHAI Xiao-jun2,GONG Zhen-jie1
2010, 31(18):  428-432.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018100
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Puerh tea from Yunnan was used as the major raw material to extract its bioactive components through ultrasound and microwave-assisted method. β-cyclodextrin technology was exploited to reduce the loss of volatile components and resolve the difficulties in synchronized granulation due to acid-base compositions. Results: The optimal extraction conditions for bioactive components from tea were material-liquid ratio of 1:80, pH 5.5, ultrasonic power of 30 kW, ultrasonic treatment time of 10 min, microwave power of 400 W and microwave treatment time of 5 min. Meanwhile, the optimal formula for effervescent tablets of puerh tea was 35% purified powder of puerh tea, 45% acid-base amount, 1% adhesive agents, 5% lubricants and 14% glucose. Conclusion: The products obtained at the optimal processing meet the requirements of Pharmacopoeia and technological processing is feasible and stability.

Technology Application
Preparation of Compound Seafood Condiments from Shellfish-processed Wastes
CHEN Chao1,2,WEI Yu-xi1,LIU Hui-hui1,YIN Bang-zhong2,*,ZHAO Ling1,LIU Qi2
2010, 31(18):  433-436.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018101
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Based on the determination of protein content in juice of oysters and crams, and the optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for protein, enzymatic hydrolysis product of EHL1 was obtained. EHL1 was mixed with enzymatic hydrolysis liquid from scallop mantle (EHL2) to prepare compound seafood condiments. Results indicated that the juice of oysters and crams exhibited higher contents of polypeptides and proteins so that it was necessary for hydrolyzing them to obtain free amino acids as the most important components for sauce with delicious taste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were hydrolysis at pH 3 and 60 ℃ for 5 h by acidic protease. The degree of hydrolysis was up to 0.929 at this optimal condition. The compound condiment was very delicious due to higher content of free amino acid nitrogen (15.6 mg/mL), which was higher than similar commodity (13.0 mg/mL) in market. Moreover, seven flavor amino acids including Gly, Asp, Ala, Glu, Thr, Ser and Pro were up to 50% of total free amino acids. Therefore, this investigation provided a new idea and method for comprehensive utilization of marine shellfish processing wastes.

Fast Maturation Technology of Salted Duck Eggs
SUN Han-ju,DING Qi,ZHOU Xian-yan
2010, 31(18):  437-440.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018102
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In order to increase the permeability of eggs, 5% acetic acid (V/V) was used to dissolve outer membrane of eggshell. A stepwise processing technology was applied, which included the immersion of duck eggs in saturated salt water, 10 g/100 mL and 15 g/100 mL salt water, respectively. The changes of oil content, salt content and yolk index during the salting process were also studied. Results indicated that the processing of salting in saturated salt water for 11 days and then in 10 g/100 mL and 15g/100 mL salt water for 7 days could result in good quality of salted duck eggs and short salting period.

Preparation and Application of Slow-released Solid Chlorine Dioxide Preservatives
GUO Qin1,WU Bin1,XIAO Wen-long2,WANG Ji-de1,*
2010, 31(18):  441-444.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018103
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Chlorine dioxide is a highly efficient and safe preservative and has strong antibacterial function. Through the screening of sorbent, passivator and absorbent, seven reaction-type and five absorption-type solid chlorine dioxide antiseptic agents were prepared. Each type of chlorine dioxide antiseptic agent exhibited an excellent antiseptic effect on melon black spot and high stability. The change of additives could effectively control the release rate of chlorine dioxide, which could overcome the disadvantages of short release period, bigger release quantity and uncontrolled release rate of traditional solid chloride dioxide antiseptic agents. The newly developed slow-released solid chloride dioxide preservative will accelerate the application of chlorine dioxide preservatives.

Preparation of Fermented Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) Beverage using Bifidobacterium Strains from Centenarians Faeces
WANG Yang,LIU Ning-jing,ZHENG Hai-tao,WANG Rui,LIU Li-sha,LU Ming-yang,LI Ping-lan*
2010, 31(18 ):  445-449.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018104
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The yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) juice was fermented with Bifidobacterium strains derived from centenarians faeces (Bifidobacterium animalis 01) to prepare a functional beverage. The effects of volume ratio of yacon juice, concentration of lysine and ascorbic acid on the viable bifidobacteria numbers in the fermentation broth were studied by conducting single factor tests. Subsequently, a central composite design involving the above 3 factors at 5 levels was employed and analyzed by response surface method to optimize the fermentation processing. Results showed that the optimum volume ratio of juice was 50%, and optimum concentration of lysine and ascorbic acid was 0.22%, 0.21% respectively. The viable cell numbers of Bifidobacterium animalis 01 at optimal formula could reach up to (8.23±0.03) lg (CFU/mL), and maintained above 106 CFU/ mL within 12 days storage at 4 ℃.

Processing of Instant Powder of Momordica grosvenori Swingle Fruit
ZHENG Yuan-bin,YU Jun,CHEN Tian-shun,CHENG Qi-chun
2010, 31(18 ):  450-452.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018105
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Objective: To study the preparation parameters of instant powder of Momordica grosvenori Swingle Fruit. Methods: Multi-stage countercurrent extraction technology, ultrafiltration technology and reverse osmosis technology was adopted in the preparation. Results: The optimum conditions for multi-stage countercurrent extraction technology were as follows: temperature 80 ℃,the ratio of material to water 1:10, time 30 min. The extraction ratio was more than 99% under such conditions. The optimum pore size of ultrafiltration membrane was 20000 D. The maximum admissible concentration of reverse osmosis technology was 8%, and under this condition, the loss of mogroside Ⅴ was less than 0.01%. Conclusion: The proposed method is efficient, energy-saving technology, and the effective components and flavor components were reserved.

Preparation of Bread with Ultrafine Defatted Rice Bran
ZHENG Zhi,MENG Ling-ling,LUO Shui-zhong,WANG Bin,PAN Li-jun,JIANG Shao-tong*
2010, 31(18):  453-456.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018106
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The processing parameters for preparing bread with ultrafine defatted rice bran were optimized in this paper. Results indicated that the storage stability was enhanced due to the defatting of bran. The ultrafine treatment could decrease the content of coarse fiber and increase the contents of VB1 and VB2. The optimal processing parameters for the production of bread were 8% ultra refinement defatted rice bran, 1.5 g yeast, 0.4 g sodium bicarbonate, and 6 g cream on the basis of single factor and orthogonal experiments. The bread prepared at the optimal conditions exhibited the hardness of 374.9 g and specific volume of 3.91 mL/g. The bread with light fragrance of rice bran is soft, golden color and extremely good taste.

Technological Processing of Health Jelly Using Kudzu Powder
GU Ren-yong1,LUO Li-ping2,LI Hang1
2010, 31(18):  457-460.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018107
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Kudzu powder was the major raw material, and carrageenan, konjac flour and xanthan gum were used as the gelling agents to investigate processing technology of kudzu health jelly. A simplex-lattice mixture design was used to determine the optimal ratio of compound gelling agents and the optimal formula of kudzu powder health jelly through single factor and orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that the optimal ratio of compound gelling agents was 50.1%: 23.7%: 26.2% of konjac gum, carrageenan, and xanthan gum. A homogeneous, tasty jelly product with the largest gel strength was produced from kudzu powder-water at a ratio of 1/15 and the addition of 0.5 g/100 mL compound gelling agent, 7.0 g/100 mL sucrose and 0.3 g/100 mL citric acid.

Preparation Processing of Jerusalem Artichoke Chips by Microwave Puffing
CHEN An-hui1,SUN Yue-e1,2,WANG Wei-dong1,2
2010, 31(18):  461-464.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018108
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Jerusalem artichoke chips were puffed by microwave oven after different pre-treatments. Effects of chip thickness, pre-treatment style, water content, water equilibrium time, microwave power and time, and solidification method were investigated to improve the puffing efficiency of products. Results indicated that jerusalem artichoke chip thickness of 6 mm, suitable drying temperature and time of 90 ℃ and 3.5 h, water content of 20% after pre-drying fresh chips by hot air, water equilibrium for 4 h and then puffing for 150 s could result in jerusalem artichoke chips with high quality such as crispness, color and morphology and the maximum expansion ratio of 2.18. The jerusalem artichoke chips were treated with dextrin, NaCl and CaCl2 at various concentrations. Effects of NaCl, dextrin and CaCl2 on microwave puffing were also investigated. Results showed that crispness, expansion rate and color of jerusalem artichoke chips were improved after the treatment at optimal combination conditions such as 1.5% NaCl, 1% dextrin and 0.4% CaCl2. These investigations will provided a reference for the research and development of chips and will accelerate the development of jerusalem artichoke chips.

Preparation of Fermentation Beverage with Winged Bean
XIAO Zhuo-bing1,CHEN Shang2
2010, 31(18):  465-470.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018109
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Winged bean was used as the major raw material to prepare fermentation beverage through Lactobacillus fermentation. Results indicated that optimal preparation processing conditions were bean-water ratio of 1:10 for milling, sterilization for 20 min at 85 ℃ after the addition of sucrose 8% (m/m), 3% (V/V) inoculation amount of Lactobacilli in cooling milk, fermentation at 42-44 ℃ for 3.5 h, and mature at 4-6 ℃ 6 h in refrigerator. A nutritious fermentation beverage of winged bean with mild sour and sweet taste was obtained.

Preparation Processing of Microencapsulation with Porcine Bone Soup Powder
ZHANG Gen-sheng1,LIU Guang1,YUE Xiao-xia1,LI Ci-li1,YANG Chun-yan2,LI Zhi1
2010, 31(18):  471-475.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018110
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In this paper, the preparation processing of microencapsulation with porcine bone soup powder was explored. Singlefactor and simplex centroid design experiments were applied to determine the optimal amount of wall material. The ratio of malt dextrin, whey powder and carrageenan was 55:35:10. The optimal preparation processing of microencapsulation with soup powder was determined to be emulsifying temperature at 55 ℃, emulsifying time for 16 min, wall material of 25%, core material of 17%. The microencapsulated porcine bone soup powder showed white color, the density of 0.55 g/cm3, water content of 2.26% and solubility of 92.0%.

Preparation of Compound Beverage from Germinated Brown Rice and Black Bean
SUN Yue-e1,2,WANG Wei-dong1,2,LI Man-man1,LI Chun-yang3
2010, 31(18):  476-479.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018111
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The preparation processing and formula of a compound healthy beverage were investigated using germinated brown rice and black bean. The optimal formula and processing parameters were determined through single factor experiments, orthogonal experiments and sensory evaluation. The brown rice was soaked at 35 ℃ for 14 h and germinated at 30 ℃ for 24 h. The germinated brown rice was baked at 200 ℃ for 10 h and the paste was gelatinized after the addition of water. The optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were 80 ℃ for 40 min and 0.4 g/mL enzyme. The compound beverage prepared in this optimal condition exhibited a unique taste, plentiful nutrition components and excellent flavor.

Optimizing the Production Process of Bacillus natto-fermented Corn Steep Liquor Beverage
WANG Ji-wei1,JI Ya-li2,GE Ying-liang1,LIU Jing3
2010, 31(18):  480-482.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201018112
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To develop a Bacillus natto-fermented corn steep liquor beverage, sweet corn from the northeast of China was processed into corn steep liquor, followed by Bacillus natto fermentation and blending. Orthogonal array optimization showed that the optimal conditions for fermenting corn steep liquor were as follows: material concentration 30%; fermentation temperature 31 ℃; and fermentation duration 24 h and that the fermentation product with additions of 3% sucrose, 0.03% β- cyclodextrin and 0.05% citric acid had the best mouthfeel. Moreover, the developed beverage should be stored at 4 ℃ for less than 7 days.