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15 July 2020, Volume 41 Issue 13
Basic Research
Preparation, Characterization and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Resveratrol-Loaded Enteric Electrospun Fibers
ZHOU Jun, XIANG Shu, DENG Jiao, LIU Xin, LI Xiangzhou
2020, 41(13):  1-7.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190617-165
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Objective: The electrostatic spinning technique was used to prepare resveratrol (Res)-loaded electrospinning fibers with stable antioxidant activity in order to improve the water solubility, thermal stability, and release of resveratrol in simulated intestinal juice. Methods: The effect of the concentration of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and HB-β-CD in electrospinning precursor solution and the proportion of Res in the total amount of solids on the morphological characteristics of electrostatic spinning fibers was studied, and the formulation was optimized. Then, enteric resveratrol-loaded electrospinning fibers (SA/NFs-Res) were prepared with salicylic acid as a sensitive agent and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Subsequently, the water solubility, antioxidant activity and release behavior of SA/NFs-Res under different pH conditions were also investigated. Results: The optimal formulation was found to contain 2.00 g of PVP, 1.00 g of HB-β-CD and 10.00% of Res. The envelopment rate of Res in the resulting SA/NFs-Res was 96.32%, the loading rate of Res was 9.63%, and water solubility was 18.88 mg/mL, which was nearly 630 times higher than that of pure Res. SA/NFs-Res showed nano-fiber structure with smooth surface, stable thermodynamic properties and antioxidant capacity equivalent to pure Res. SA/NFs-Res had certain pH sensitivity and could release Res slowly in simulated gastric juice but rapidly in simulated intestinal juice. Conclusion: The electrostatic spinning technique can be used to prepare SA/NFs-Res to increase water solubility and stability of Res, maintain its antioxidant capacity and promote its quick release in simulated intestinal juice, which are beneficial for the application of electrospinning fibers in functional foods, health products and drug carriers.
Degradation of Mycotoxins in Corn Germ and Crude Corn Oil by Steaming Corn Germ with Dilute Alkali
ZHENG Tingting, LIU Yulan, WANG Jiandong, PEI Yaxiao
2020, 41(13):  8-13.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190605-049
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Given the fact that moist-heat and alkaline conditions can destroy mycotoxins, corn germ was steamed with superheated steam at 115 ℃ for 30 min after adjusting its moisture content to the suitable value for steaming (14%) with different concentrations of NaOH solution. The contents of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in steamed and unsteamed corn germ as well as crude oil prepared from each of them were tested to explore the effect of dilute alkali steaming of corn germ on the degradation of mycotoxins in corn germ and crude corn oil. The results showed that steaming corn germ with 5.29% NaOH exhibited the highest degradation of ZEN and DON, whose contents decreased by 64.69% (246.25 versus 697.41 μg/kg) and 66.78% (802.83 versus 2 417.07 μg/kg) in steamed corn germ, also decreased (140.02 versus 266.44 μg/kg, and 108.47 versus 150.76 μg/kg) in the resulting corn oil compared with their respective unsteamed counterparts. Steaming corn germ with 6.55% NaOH resulted in the highest degradation of AFB1, whose content decreased by 90.30% (0.77 versus 7.91 μg/kg) in steamed corn germ and also decreased (0.51 versus 2.11 μg/kg) in the resulting corn oil compared with their respective unsteamed counterparts. As the alkali concentration increased, the color of both corn germ and the resulting corn oil became darker, and the acid value and peroxide value of the oil were significantly reduced. The dilute alkali steaming method can effectively reduce the mycotoxin content in corn germ as well as the resulting crude oil and corn germ meal, thereby improving the safety of corn oil and meal for human and animal consumption respectively.
Changes in Water Retention and Moisture State of Normal and Dark, Firm and Dry Beef during Postmortem Aging
SUN Wenbin, LUO Xin, MAO Yanwei, ZHANG Yimin, ZHU Lixian, LIANG Rongrong, ZUO Huixin, MING Dandan, NIU Lebao
2020, 41(13):  14-21.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190529-356
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In order to investigate the change of water state in normal beef and dark, firm and dry (DFD) beef during postmortem aging and its effect on water-holding capacity (WHC), the change of water state in normal beef and DFD beef Longissimus dorsi aged for 3, 7, 14 and 21 days postmortem was explored using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), and the reason for the difference in WHC between normal and DFD beef was analyzed by using histological analyses such as sarcomere length and the percentage of extracellular space. The results showed that water-holding capacity revealed a decreasing trend during postmortem aging in both normal beef and DFD beef, and DFD beef had significantly higher WHC than normal beef (P < 0.05). The freedom degree of bound water, immobilized water and free water was lower in DFD beef, which had a higher content of bound water when compared with normal beef The sarcomere length of DFD beef was significantly lower than that of normal beef (P < 0.05), leading to narrow storage space in sarcomere and consequently reduced degree of freedom of water. Moreover, the muscular cells of DFD beef remained intact and showed reduced water evaporation during aging so that DFD beef could well maintain its water-holding capacity. The results of this study clarified the change of water state in beef during postmortem aging and uncovered the reason for better water-holding capacity in DFD beef during aging by using water state and histological analysis, which will provide a theoretical guidance for improving the water-holding capacity of beef.
Quality Differences of Different Grades of Wuyi Rougui Tea with Different Baking Degrees
XU Xingyan, CHEN Si, YU Xiaomin, ZHAO Xiaoman, LIN Hongzheng, LIU Guoying, SU Feng, GAO Feng, SUN Yun, HAO Zhilong
2020, 41(13):  22-28.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190619-220
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To discern the differences in the quality of different grades (low and high) of Wuyi Rougui tea with different baking degrees (low and medium), we compared the color difference, pH, conductivity, and major taste components of the tea infusions based on physicochemical characterization and ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQS-MS) analysis. The results showed that the pH, conductivity and brightness of high-grade tea infusion were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those of low-grade tea infusion, while the color saturation value (Sab) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) indicating that the brightness of high-grade tea infusion was better than that of low-grade tea infusion. The redness-greenness (a) value, yellowness-blueness (b) value, b/a, hue chroma value, hue angle value and Sab value of tea infusion varied significantly with baking degree (P < 0.01 or 0.05). The pH of high-grade tea infusion with medium baking degree was significantly lower than that of the counterpart with low baking degree (P < 0.01), and the former exhibited a reddish color while the latter was yellowish in color. The contents of seven catechins as taste active components in high-grade tea were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those in low-grade tea. Meanwhile, the contents of gallocatechingallate, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechingallate and (-)-epigallocatechin3-O-(3-O-methyl) varied significantly with baking degree (P < 0.01 or 0.05). The contents of 13 amino acids were significantly higher in high-grade tea than in low-grade tea (P < 0.01 or 0.05), and significantly lower in high-grade tea with medium baking degree than in the counterpart with low baking degree (P < 0.01). The content of tyrosine was significantly lower in high-grade tea than in low-grade tea, and in low-grade tea with medium baking degree than in the counterpart with low baking degree. The content of theaflavin in high-grade tea was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that in low-grade tea, while the contents of caffeine and rutin were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those in low-grade tea. Therefore, high-grade tea contained more contents, which will provide a basis for the quality identification of Wuyi Rougui tea.
Proteomic Analysis of the Potential Mechanism for Improving Pork Quality by Preslaughter Mild Driving
ZOU Bo, HE Guangjie, ZHAO Di, YAN Jing, ZHANG Ze, XU Xinglian, ZHOU Guanghong, LI Chunbao
2020, 41(13):  29-37.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190625-318
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Different driving methods before slaughter cause different levels of stress in pigs, thereby affecting pork quality. In this study, 45 six-month-old pigs were randomly equally assigned to mild driving (MD), sound driving (SD) and traditional driving (TD) groups. Stress-related blood parameters, muscle parameters and physiochemical properties were determined after slaughter, and the regulatory proteins affecting muscle energy metabolism and meat quality were identified by proteomics analysis to explore the potential mechanism for the impact of different preslaughter driving methods on pork quality. The activities of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in the MD group were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with TD group. The lowest stress level was observed in the MD group. MD could result in significantly higher a* value and pH at 45 min and 3 h postmortem, but significantly lower cooking loss (P < 0.05) as well as reduced incidence of pale, soft, exudative meat compared with TD treatment. Glycogen and ATP contents in the MD group were higher (P < 0.05) than TD group at 45 min and 3 h postmortem. Similarly, stress level in the SD group was lower than that in the TD group, with intermediate levels being observed for creatine kinase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity, pH at 45 min and 3 h postmortem, and ATP at 45 min and 3 h postmortem. By proteome analysis, 46 proteins that differed among groups were identified including ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase, alpha-1,4-glucan phosphorylase, glycogen debranching enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase 1, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 and mitochondrial creatine kinase 2 and myosin-7. In conclusion, both MD and SD can reduce the rate of energy metabolism in muscles and change the state of muscle contraction, thereby increasing postmortem pH, glycogen and ATP levels and ultimately improving pork quality.
Reconstitution Characteristics and Quality Stability of Egg White Derived Enteral Nutrient Powder
MA Yanqiu, CHI Yuan, SONG Bingjie, MA Zihong, CHI Yujie
2020, 41(13):  38-45.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190624-292
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The nutritional components of egg white-derived enteral nutrient powder (ENP), previously developed by our research group, were analyzed, and the optimal reconstitution conditions of ENP were investigated. Furthermore, the changes in reconstitution characteristics, color and fat oxidation under different storage temperatures (4, 25 ℃ and 37 ℃) and time (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 months) were examined in order to evaluate its quality stability. The results showed that ENP, being nutritiously well-balanced, could meet the basic nutritional needs of human body. Reconstituting ENP in a?10-fold volume excess of hot water at 70 ℃ was found to be the optimal reconstitution conditions. In terms of quality stability, when stored at low temperature (4 ℃), ENP showed no significant changes in reconstitution characteristics or color, and maintained good reconstitution stability and sensory quality compared with the control. After 5 months of storage at high temperature (37 ℃), the solubility, dispersibility, agglomeration rate and stability coefficient of ENP increased by -1.47%, 10.48%, 89.25% and -3.86%, respectively, but the fluidity outside and inside nasal feeding tubes did not change significantly (P > 0.05). The changes in reconstitution characteristics was attributed to the significant increase in the particle diameter (P < 0.05). After storage for more than 3 months, ENP exhibited a decrease in L* value and an increase in b* value, indicating that the color was darkened and became more yellow during high-temperature storage. For each storage temperature, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value increased to different degrees with prolonged storage time, indicating that the fat in ENP was inevitably oxidized, while it increased by less than 15% after 5 months of storage at low temperature. The accelerated storage test showed that ENP had a shelf life of up to 18 months. In summary, low temperature storage is beneficial to reduce the quality loss of ENP. It can maintain good quality stability during storage making it widely applicable.
Structure, Physicochemical Properties and Adsorbability of Red Raspberry Pomace
QI Yunfei, ZHANG Yiyao, TIAN Jingyu, MA Minghong, LI Meixuan, WANG Jinling
2020, 41(13):  46-52.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190602-004
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The differences in the structure, physicochemical properties and adsorbability of red raspberry pomace crushed and sieved through different meshes were studied in this paper. The results showed that the content of dietary fiber in red raspberry pomace was as high as 46%. Under scanning electron microscopy, red raspberry pomace powder passing through 180 mesh began to agglomerate and the highest degree of agglomeration occurred in the powder passing through 260 mesh. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that the structures of crystallization and non-crystallization zones of dietary fiber in the powder passing through 260 mesh changed obviously. The powder passing through 60 mesh had the best fluidity and filling property. The powder passing through 220 mesh had the best swelling ability and water-holding capacity, which were (7.18 ± 0.24) mL/g and (5.45 ± 0.41) g/g, respectively. The powder passing through 260 mesh had the best oil-holding capacity and solubility, which were (2.99 ± 0.17) g/g and (3.75 ± 0.13)%, respectively. The cholesterol adsorption capacity of the powder passing through 220 mesh was the strongest and the adsorption capacity at pH 7 was stronger than that at pH 2, which were (47.60 ± 2.60) mg/g and (37.02 ± 1.81) mg/g respectively. The sodium cholate adsorption capacity of the powder at the mesh powder of 260 was the strongest, which was (23.55 ± 1.66) mg/g. The glucose adsorption capacity of the powder passing through 220 mesh was the strongest, which was (319.75 ± 24.17) mg/g. Red raspberry pomace powder exhibited notable Cr2+ adsorption capacity, which did not significantly vary with particle size. Therefore, the powders passing through 220 and 260 mesh both had ideal physicochemical properties and adsorbability. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of red raspberry pomace.
Establishment and Application of Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Quality of Fresh Passion Fruit
MA Wenxia, NI Yujie, XIE Qian, HE Shumin, YE Qinghua, YE Jun, CHEN Qingxi
2020, 41(13):  53-60.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190625-327
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In order to correctly evaluate the quality of fresh passion fruit, quality indicators of passion fruit from Guangxi and Fujian provinces were determined and the core indicators were identified by variation analysis, correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Subsequently, the weights of these indicators were determined by the analytic hierarchy process to establish a comprehensive evaluation model for the quality of fresh passion fruit by grey relational analysis. The model was validated by comparison with sensory evaluation. The results showed that single fruit mass (X1), the proportion of edible parts (X2), sugar-acid ratio (X3) and total flavonoids content (X4) were the core indexes for quality evaluation of fresh passion fruit. The established model was described as follows: the weighted gray correlation degree of passion fruit varieties (lines) = 0.418 1 X1 + 0.222 6 X2 + 0.249 7 X3 + 0.109 6 X4. A comparison of the sensory evaluation results with the model prediction values showed a correlation coefficient of 0.97, indicating that the model will provide a scientific basis for comprehensive quality evaluation of fresh passion fruit.
Effect of Heating Temperature on Myofibrillar Protein Structure and Gel Properties of Sheldrake Breast Muscle
WANG Zhengwen, TIAN Hongwei, ZHOU Fuyu, ZHANG Zhifang, HE Jun, SUN Yangying, CAO Jinxuan, PAN Daodong
2020, 41(13):  61-68.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20191128-280
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In order to investigate the effect of heating temperature (50–100 ℃) on myofibrillar protein (MP) structure and gel properties of sheldrake breast muscle, water-holding capacity (WHC), texture, surface hydrophobicity, microstructure and secondary structure were determined. Correlation analysis was performed to establish relationships among heating temperature, protein structure and gel properties. Results showed that the lowest WHC was obtained by heating at 50 ℃, heating at 60 ℃ could result in MP denaturation and aggregation, and a compact and exquisite gel structure was formed at 70 ℃. As the heating temperature increased, the pore size of the gel network became larger and the WHC decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The normalized strength of the characteristic absorption peaks at 545, 760 and 1 340 cm-1 in the Raman spectral showed a downward trend with increasing heating temperature, indicating changes in the disulfide stretching vibration together with gradual exposure of buried tryptophan residues and increased surface hydrophobicity. The α-helix content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 66.95% to 19.73% when the heating temperature increased from 50 to 100 ℃, while the contents of β-sheet, β-turn, and random coil increased. In summary, a homogeneous sheldrake MP gel microstructure was formed by heating at 70 ℃ and the formed gel had the maximum WHC .
Food Engineering
Comparison of Physicochemical and Biochemical Characteristics of Crude Polysaccharides from Dimocarpus longan Pulp Dried by Different Methods
WANG Shiqi, HUANG Xiaoyun, YI Yang, HUANG Fei, WANG Limei, WANG Hongxun
2020, 41(13):  69-75.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190714-186
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The composition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral characteristics and molecular mass distribution of crude polysaccharides extracted from fresh, hot air, vacuum, infrared and freeze-dried longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) pulp, named as FLP, HDLP, VDLP, IDLP and FDLP, respectively were analyzed, and their antioxidant activity and immune-stimulating activity were evaluated as well as their stability in simulated digestive system. The five crude polysaccharides mainly contained glucans and proteins at different mass fractions, and were distinct in amino acid composition. In addition, they exhibited significant differences in molecular mass distribution with average molecular mass ratio of 51.37:28.33:5.95:7.86:1.00, but not in the polysaccharide and protein (in the amide region) infrared absorption characteristics. Comprehensive comparison showed that FDLP had stronger scavenging capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, while HDLP had a stronger ability to stimulate macrophages to generate NO and tumor necrosis factor-α. Longan polysaccharides were relatively stable in simulated intestinal juice, but degraded in simulated saliva and gastric juice, releasing a small amount of reducing sugar dominated by glucose, while the digestion performance of IDLP was different from the other four polysaccharides. From this study, we conclude that drying methods affect the physicochemical and biochemical properties of polysaccharides extracted from dried longan pulp. Selecting an appropriate drying method is vital for controlling the functional quality of dried longan pulp.
Effect of Ultrasound on Freeze-Thaw Stability of Soy Protein Isolate Gel Induced by Glutamine Transaminase
LIU Jingnan, ZHANG Zhihui, WANG Lin, WANG Yuying, ZHANG Anqi, WANG Xibo, XU Ning
2020, 41(13):  76-82.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190710-145
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The effect of ultrasound on the freeze-thaw stability of soy protein isolate (SPI) gel induced by transglutaminase (TG) was explored. Changes in the water-holding capacity (WHC), texture, microstructure and soluble protein content of SPI gel during freeze-thaw cycles were analyzed. The structure of SPI was measured by particle size, surface hydrophobicity, endogenous fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that as the number of freeze-thaw cycles increased, the WHC and soluble protein content of SPI gel without ultrasound treatment decreased, while the gel hardness and elasticity increased, and a honeycomb-like microstructure appeared. These changes indicated that the quality of the gel was deteriorated. Ultrasonic treatment could increase water retention, hardness and elasticity of SPI gel, and make the gel microstructure more uniform and dense. After freeze-thaw cycles, the changes in WHC, hardness, elasticity and soluble protein content of ultrasonic-treated SPI gel were significantly smaller than those of native SPI gel, indicating that ultrasonic treatment could improve the freeze-thaw stability of the gel. After 5 freeze-thaw cycles, the WHC and soluble protein content of SPI gel ultrasonicated for 40 min decreased by 38.59% and 3.65%, respectively, and the hardness and elasticity increased by 510.23 g and 0.07 mm, respectively as compared to those without freeze-thaw treatment. Accordingly, ultrasonic treatment is an effective way to enhance the freeze-thaw stability of TG-induced SPI gel.
Effect of Hot Air Drying Temperature on Physical and Chemical Properties of Waxy Corn
ZHOU Jingyi, ZHAO Yilin, ZHANG Hao, CAO Yong, LIU Jingsheng
2020, 41(13):  83-88.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190715-206
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In this study, we examined the effect of hot air drying at three different temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of waxy corn (cv. ‘CaiTianNuo 6’). A near infrared grain analyzer and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance were respectively used to analyze changes in the moisture content and migration, and scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and a rapid viscosity analyzer were used to determine concomitant changes in the microstructure, thermal properties and processing characteristics of waxy corn. The results showed that waxy corn had a significant change in T21 and A21 during hot air drying, and T21 was reduced from 1.97 ms to 1.37 ms as the moisture content decreased from 29% to 13% during hot air drying at 30 ℃. Due to water loss, the state of bound water was converted from loose to tight binding to macromolecules. As drying proceeded at 70 ℃, the viscosity characteristics changed significantly (P < 0.05). The peak viscosity of corn starch paste increased firstly and decreased later. Additionally, the gel hardness, adhesiveness, chewiness and resilience of the starch gel progressively decreased (P < 0.05). During hot air drying, the thermal characteristics of waxy corn starch changed, and the gelatinization temperature gradually increased.
Effects of High Energy Ball Milling on Physicochemical Properties and Structure of Rice Starch
HUO Yinqiang, WANG Yao, CHEN Jiangping, LIU Songji, LIU Chuanju, NIE Rongzu, TANG Shangwen
2020, 41(13):  89-95.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190623-277
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Rice starch was milled for 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 or 120 min using a high-energy ball mill and then characterized by rapid viscosity analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry, laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, polarizing microscopy, X-ray differaction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results showed that peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown value, final viscosity, setback value and gelatinization temperature decreased from 6.80, 3.75, 3.06, 5.35, 1.61 Pa·s and 81.00 ℃ to 2.33, 0.49, 1.84, 1.06, 0.57 Pa·s and 68.07 ℃ after 30 min milling, respectively, and then leveled off with increasing milling time. The phase transition peaks G and M1 were both weakened with the increase in milling time, and they completely disappeared when the milling time exceeded 30 min. The structural analysis showed that the crystalline structure of rice starch gradually diminished with ball milling up to 30 min, and was finally almost completely destroyed. Moreover, 5 and 10 min ball milling could cause irreversible expansion of starch granules to some extents, and ball milling for over 20 min broke down the starch granules, causing them to aggregate. The high-energy ball milling treatment changed the structure and conformation of rice starch, but did not lead to the formation of new chemical bonds and groups.
Nutrition & Hygiene
In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Curcuminoids and Their Protective Effects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Damage of Chicken Erythrocytes
ZHANG Jingfei, HAN Hongli, SHEN Mingming, ZHANG Lili, WANG Tian
2020, 41(13):  96-105.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190629-406
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of three curcuminoids in terms of radical scavenging capacity and protective effect against oxidative stress-induced damage in chicken erythrocytes. The scavenging capacity of curcumin (CUR), demethoxycurcumin (DUR) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BUR) against 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical (·OH), and superoxide anion O2-· radical were evaluated as well as their ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were used as reference standards. The results showed that all three curcuminoids exhibited strong ABTS, DPPH, ·OH and O2-· scavenging capacity in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with BHT, the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of DUR was significantly increased, while that of CUR was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The ·OH scavenging capacity of the three curcuminoids was significantly decreased when compared with both BHA and BHT (P < 0.05). BUR and CUR had stronger ·OH scavenging activity than did CUR. Compared with DUR, the O2-· scavenging activity of BUR and CUR was significantly increased (P < 0.05). When used at a concentration of 400 μmol/L, BHA had the highest FRAP value and BUR exhibited the strongest inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Compared with CUR, BUR and DUR were significantly more effective against lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05). Moreover, all the curcuminoids significantly suppressed 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis of chicken erythrocytes, as well as decreased MDA level and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After 5 h incubation, DUR and BUR at 20 μmol/L showed lower hemolysis rate when compared with CUR. Compared with those treated with CUR and DUR, the MDA level and SOD activity in BUR-treated cells were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, DUR and BUR, similar to CUR, have good antioxidant activity. The three curcuminoids can sufficiently scavenge free radicals, have high FRAP values and potent inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, and can protect erythrocytes from AAPH-induced oxidative stress damage. Among these, BUR exhibits the highest antioxidant activity in free radical (including ABTS, ·OH and O2-·) scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays. DUR and BUR are more effective in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative stress damage than CUR.
Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins on Renal Iron Content, Oxidative Stress and Fas and Bax Gene Expression in Rats with Iron Overload
YUN Shaojun, CHU Dongyang, HE Xingshuai, ZHANG Wenfang, FENG Cuiping
2020, 41(13):  106-111.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190702-021
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Objective: The effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPAs) on renal function in iron-overload rats were investigated by observing the iron content, oxidative stress status, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels, pathological sections and expression of Fas and Bax genes. Methods: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (NC), iron overload model group (model, injected with 100 mg/kg mb of iron dextran every other day), GSPAs group (gavaged at 100 mg/kg mb on a daily basis) and GSPA + iron overload group. Red blood cell (RBC) count and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured by an automatic blood biochemical analyzer, and iron content in kidney tissue was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Serum total iron binding capacity (TIBC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), creatinine (CR) and urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were measured by commercial kits. Kidney sections were examined histologically by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of Fas and Bax genes in kidney tissues. Results: Compared with the NC group, the RBC count, Hb level, renal Fe content, MDA content, CR and BUN level, Fas and Bax gene expression in the model group were significantly increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), while TIBC, GSH-Px activity and SOD activity were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in T-AOC between the two groups (P > 0.05). The Hb content and T-AOC in the GSPAs group were increased significantly, while the expression of the Fas gene was downregulated significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the RBC number, Hb content, MDA content, CR and BUN levels, and Fas and Bax gene expression in the GSPA + iron overload group were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), while TIBC, GSH-Px activity, SOD activity and T-AOC were significantly increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Conclusion: Grape seed proanthocyanidins can protect kidney tissues from iron accumulation, oxidative damage, renal physiological dysfunction and apoptosis induced by iron overload in rats.
Alleviating Effect of Nicotinamide Ribose on Depressed-Like Behavior and Intestinal Mucosal Permeability in Alcohol-Exposed Mice
JIANG Yushan, LIU Ying, WANG Zilong, XUE Meilan, CHANG Zhishang, LIANG Hui
2020, 41(13):  112-119.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190630-439
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Objective: To investigate the effect of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a nutritional supplement, on improving depression-like behavior and intestinal mucosal permeability in mice exposed to alcohol. Methods: Thirty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (with 10 mice in each group). The mice from the control and model groups were given on a daily basis 0.2 mL of normal saline intragastrically, while the mice from the NR intervention group were administered with 400 mg/kg mb of NR intragastrically every day. The mice in the model and NR treatment groups were given freshly prepared 15% alcohol solution from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday to Thursday every week, and had free access to tap water from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. the next day, whereas the mice in the control group were given tap water all day long. Every Friday and Saturday, the mice from the three groups were cut off from any water source and every Sunday, the mice from three groups were once again given tap water to drink freely. The mice in all these groups were allowed to eat freely throughout the experiment, which lasted for 10 weeks. The depression-like behavior of the mice was evaluated by open field test, sucrose preference test and forced swimming test. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of mice. The serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ultrastructures of intercellular linkages in jejunum and colon tissues were examined using a transmission electron microscope. The permeability of jejunum and colon tissues was observed by tracer test. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of the tight junction proteins, occludin and ZO-1, in jejunum and colon tissues. Results: In the open field test, the total distance and the time spent in the central area of the model group were decreased compared with the control and NR groups. Similarly, the sucrose preference of the mice in the model group was significantly reduced compared with the control and NR groups). The immobility time in the forced swim test was ((168.6 ± 34.4) s) in the model group, which was significantly longer than the control and NR groups (P < 0.05). The results of HE staining showed that NR intervention improved neuronal damage induced by alcohol exposure to some extent. The level of serum BDNF of mice in the model group was (438.9 ± 46.7) pg/mL, which was significantly reduced compared with the control group ((638.1 ± 77.3) pg/mL) (P < 0.05). After NR intervention, the serum BDNF level was (735.7 ± 55.7) pg/mL, which was significantly higher than that of the model group (P < 0.05). The level of serum LPS in model group was (22.5 ± 1.8) ng/mL, which was significantly higher than that in control group ((13.2 ± 3.0) ng/mL) (P < 0.05). After NR intervention, serum LPS level of mice decreased to (17.5 ± 0.3) ng/mL. Compared with the control group, the intercellular junction of jejunum and colon tissues in the model group was changed abnormally, and the permeability was increased. After NR intervention, the intercellular junction and permeability of jejunum and colon tissues were significantly improved and repaired. Western blot results showed that the expression levels of occludin and ZO-l of the model group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). After NR intervention, the expression levels of occludin and ZO-l increased to varying degrees. Conclusion: Nicotinamide ribose can effectively alleviate depression-like behavior in mice exposed to alcohol, and its underlying mechanism may be related to the protective effect of NR on intestinal mucosal permeability.
Preventive Effect of Proanthocyanidin on Gut Microbiome in Dyslipidemic Mice
YANG Changming, XIAO Ying, WU Qiguo, YIN Zhiting, ZHOU Yiming, ZHOU Xiaoli
2020, 41(13):  120-126.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190703-053
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The intervening effect of dietary supplementation of proanthocyanidin B2 on dysfunctional blood lipid metabolism was evaluated in a mouse model of hyperlipidemia induced by a high-fat diet, and the underlying mechanism was explored from the perspective of intestinal flora. C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: control group (A), high-fat diet (HFD) group (B), and proanthocyanidin B2 treatment group (C). After feeding for 12 weeks, visceral organ indices, blood lipids, hepatic enzyme activities and antioxidant capacity in liver and colon tissues were determined, the intestinal flora was analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology, and changes in short-chain fatty acid contents in the feces of the mice were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that proanthocyanidin B2 significantly reduced the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and atherosclerosis index (P < 0.05), significantly increased lipoprotein lipase activity, hepatic lipase activity, total lipase activity, and antioxidant activity, and inhibited malondialdehyde accumulation as an indicator of oxidative damage (P < 0.05). Taxonomic classification of the mouse intestinal microbiome at the phylum and genus levels demonstrated that proanthocyanidin B2 could increase Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio in the intestinal flora of the HFD-fed mice and result in significant differences in the abundance of 13 species of bacteria, including Escherichia-shigella, Bacteroidales_S24-7_group, Ruminococcaceae, Bifidobacterium and Parabacteroides. The dominant bacterial genera in the proanthocyanidin B2 group were Romboutsia, Lachnospiraceae and Parabacteroides. Proanthocyanidin B2 significantly increased the contents of butyric acid in the feces of the HFD-fed mice (P < 0.05). Therefore, proanthocyanidin B2 can regulate the intestinal flora structure, thus preventing high-fat?diet-induced?dyslipidemia.
Peptide Fractions from Moringa oleifera Ameliorate D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice
GENG Chunyang, LIN Lianzhu, ZHAO Mouming, ZHU Qiyuan
2020, 41(13):  127-132.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190626-351
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In order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of peptide fractions from Moringa oleifera, peptides from Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL-P) and seeds (MOS-P) were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fractional ethanol precipitation. A D-galactose-induced aging mouse model was established to assess the effects of administration with MOL-P and MOS-P at low and high doses (200 and 500 mg/(kg mb·d) by gavaging for 8 weeks on body mass, liver and brain indices, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum, liver and brain of aging mice. The results indicated that MOL-P and MOS-P could restore brain indices close to normal (P > 0.05). Compared with the model group, both of them could significantly improve GSH-Px activity in serum and SOD activity in liver (P < 0.05), and reduce MDA levels in serum, liver and brain. Low-dose MOL-P and high-dose MOS-P had the best effects on improving GSH-Px activity in serum (higher than that of the model group by 35.80% and 36.97%, respectively). MOS-P had the best effect on the improvement of liver SOD activity, at high and low doses increasing liver SOD activity by 26.08% and 34.20% compared with the model group, respectively. MOL-P and MOS-P both at high dose showed the strongest inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation in brain tissue (MDA levels were lower than that of the model group by 41.28% and 44.95%, respectively). In addition, MOL-P was able to reduce MDA levels in serum and liver to the normal level (P > 0.05). Both MOL-P and MOS-P could effectively alleviate oxidative damage in liver caused by D-galactose as evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Therefore, the peptides from Moringa oleifera leaves and seeds can antagonize oxidative stress in vivo and have good anti-aging effects, making them potential functional ingredients in anti-aging foods.
Effects of Blueberry Anthocyanins on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in RAW 264.7 Cells and HCT-116 Cells Proliferation and Apoptosis
LIN Yang, YANG Ping, ZHANG Qi, LANG Yuxi, DENG Haotian, MENG Xianjun
2020, 41(13):  133-140.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190617-176
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the anthocyanin composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of blueberry extract (BE) and to unravel the possible underlying mechanism. Methods: The anthocyanin composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukin-6 (IL-6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined to explore the anti-inflammatory effect. The 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-yl)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide and Western blot analyses were used to determine the inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis of BE at different concentrations. Results: Fourteen anthocyanins were identified in BE with strong antioxidant activity. BE remarkably reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory mediators such as NO, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α, and the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. BE could significantly inhibit the proliferation of HCT-116 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, BE treatment could result in a decrease in cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) and an increase in p53. Conclusion: BE has the potential to inhibit inflammation and colon cancer.
Repairing Effect of Lactoferrin on Triadimefon-Induced Damage of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells
XIE Yindan, ZHAO Tianyu, XU Yan, REN Haowei, AN Jingjing, LIU Ning
2020, 41(13):  141-147.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190719-240
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The present study was designed to investigate the repairing effect of lactoferrin (Lf) on triadimefon (TDF)-induced damage of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferation of BMSCs. After being treated with TDF and Lf, the cells were collected for determining the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN), and the changes in osteogenic and adipogenic gene expression. The osteogenic differentiation capacity was evaluated using alizarin red staining and adipogenic differentiation using oil red O staining. The expression of adipogenic and osteogenic genes was analyzed by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Compared with the blank control group, Lf at all concentrations tested promoted cell proliferation (P < 0.05). Lf increased cell survival rate, elevated ALP activity and OCN content in the damaged cells, increased the formation of mineralized nodules, reduced the formation of lipid droplets, increased the relative expression of osteogenic differentiation-related genes, and decreased the relative expression of genes involved in adipogenic differentiation. According to our results, Lf can promote the proliferation of BMSCs damaged by TDF, and the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteogenic direction, thereby promoting the formation of new bone and consequently repairing of cell damage.
Thrombolytic Activity of Nattokinase Produced by Bacillus subtilis natto LNUB236
ZHU Junfeng, LIU Shuai, ZHAO Pengyan, ZHAO Jian, LI Jiazeng, WANG Tianqi, WANG Li, LIU Hongsheng
2020, 41(13):  148-159.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190528-339
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Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the thrombolytic effects of nattokinase (NK) produced by Bacillus subtilis natto LNUB236 in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The thrombolytic effect of NK in vitro was determined by the dissolution rate of blood clots. Meanwhile, the in vivo effect was assessed by using a carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model and a ferric chloride-induced carotid arterial thrombosis model as well as measuring mouse tail bleeding time. The toxicity of NK was measured by acute toxicity test (14 days) and chronic toxicity test (28 and 90 days) in rats. Results: NK significantly increased the dissolution rate of blood clots, while it significantly reduced the length of carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombus and the mass of ferric chloride-induced-carotid thrombus (P < 0.05). In addition, NK significantly prolonged the tail bleeding time of mice. In the acute and chronic toxicity tests, the tissues of the mice in the NK group had no pathological damage, and blood biochemical indexes were in the normal range. Conclusion: The NK produced by Bacillus subtilis natto LNUB236 exerts a thrombolytic activity both in vitro and in vivo, without any toxicity for the body. This study can lay the foundation for the development of functional foods containing NK produced by Bacillus subtilis natto LNUB236.
Protective Effect of Polysaccharide from Mesona blumes on Oxidative Damage of Cells
HE Chuanbo, DENG Ting, WEI Haocheng, WU Guohong, SHANGGUAN Yuchen, XIONG Hejian
2020, 41(13):  160-168.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190714-183
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The crude polysaccharide JMBP-C was extracted from Mesona blumes with an alkaline solution. The neutral polysaccharide JMBP-N and the two acidic polysaccharides JMBP-A1 and JMBP-A2 were obtained by fractionating JMBP-C through ultrafiltration, ion exchange and gel column chromatography. Hydrogen peroxide was used to induce oxidative damage to human liver LO2 cells. The protective effects of JMBP-C, JMBP-A1 and JMBP-A2 on oxidative damage in cells were investigated by cell viability, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that all three polysaccharides could significantly increase the survival rate of oxidatively damaged cells and effectively reduce the release of LDH. The LDH activity of damaged cells was significantly decreased by each of the polysaccharides at 2 mg/mL (P < 0.01). JMBP-A1 at 500 μg/mL increased the cell survival rate 49.47% compared with the model group. The three polysaccharides could improve the activities of GSH-Px, SOD and CAT in a dose-dependent manner. JMBP-A2 at 0.125 mg/mL increased GSH-Px activity to 69.20% of the normal level, which was higher than that of the positive control. JMBP-A1 at 2 mg/mL could restore the activity of SOD and CAT to 80.32% and 88.14% of the normal group respectively, which was significantly higher than those of the model group (P < 0.01), and the effect was close to that of the positive control group. Moreover, all three polysaccharides could effectively reduce MDA production. JMBP-A1 at 0.5 mg/mL reduced MDA content in damaged cells by 31.50%, and this effect was comparable to that of the positive control. In summary, the polysaccharides from Mesona blumes can increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decrease the production of lipid peroxides, suggesting a significant protective effect against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage.
Hypoglycemic Effect of Sweet Corn Cob Polysaccharide on Diabetic Rats
MA Yongqiang, ZHANG Kai, WANG Xin, LU Xuechun, LIN Congyu
2020, 41(13):  169-173.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190702-030
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We have previously prepared a polysaccharide from sweet corn cobs named SCP-80-1 and have demonstrated it to have a good hypoglycemic effect in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of SCP-80-1 on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The diabetic animals were administered intragastrically with SCP at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg mb or metformin at 200 mg/kg mb for 28 days. The fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, insulin content, blood lipids, visceral organ indices and pancreatic tissue sections were measured. The results showed that SCP-80-1 could decrease the fasting blood glucose level and postmeal blood glucose level, and improve the glucose tolerance of diabetic rats. It was also found that SCP-80-1 could improve blood lipid levels by reducing the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increasing the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, SCP-80-1 could reduce organ swelling to a certain extent, repair the damaged islet tissue, and increase the number of islet B cells. Therefore, SCP-80-1 can effectively regulate the blood glucose level of diabetic rats, improve glucose tolerance and repair the injured islet tissue, indicating that this polysaccharide is a natural hypoglycemic agent that is promising for application in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Extraction and Purification of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides and Mechanistic Study of Their Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress Injury in Human Skin Fibroblast Cells
ZHANG Jiachan, SHAO Qing, WANG Qian, WANG Changtao, ZHAO Dan, LI Meng, SUN Baoguo, LIU Jitao
2020, 41(13):  174-183.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190710-134
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Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs), one of the most important bioactive substances in Ganoderma lucidum, have excellent health benefits and therefore attract great research interest. The purpose of this study was to explore the extraction and purification of GLPs derived from Ganoderma lucidum strain G055 and to evaluate the mechanism underlying the protective effect of GLPs against oxidative stress injury in human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells. The crude polysaccharides were deproteinated by the Sevag method and separated into two fractions named GLP I and GLP II by DEAE-52 ion exchange chromatography. Using an orthogonal array design, the optimal extraction conditions were determined as 1:35 (m/V), 65 ℃ and 1.5 h for solid-to-solvent ratio, extraction temperature and time, respectively. Experiments performed under these conditions gave GLP extraction yield of (47.70 ± 0.50)% with good reproducibility. The protective effect of the crude GLPs as well as GLP I and GLP II on H2O2-induced oxidative stress injury in HSF cells was evaluated and the underlying mechanism was studied from the perspective of the antioxidant enzyme system and the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1)-Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2)/ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling pathway. In the experiments evaluating their effects on preventing and repairing oxidative stress injury in HSF cells, we found that all three polysaccharides could significantly improve the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P < 0.05), and decrease the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, in cells. Furthermore, they could activate the key regulatory factor Nrf2 in the Keap1-Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and inhibit the negative regulatory factor Keap1 thereby promoting the expression of downstream antioxidant enzyme genes (NQO1 and HO-1). Therefore, the protective and repairing effect of GLPs may be closely related to regulating the levels of antioxidant enzymes and activating the Keap1-Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.
Packaging & Storage
Effect of Vacuum Combined with Light-Proof Packaging on Quality of Fresh-Cut Potatoes
XU Dongying, ZHOU Fuhui, JIANG Haifeng, JIANG Aili, WEI Sheng, GAO Xueqing, CHEN Chen, HU Wenzhong
2020, 41(13):  184-192.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190704-059
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In order to explore the effect of vacuum packaging combined with dark storage on the quality of fresh-cut potatoes, fresh-cut potatoes were vacuum-packaged in polyethylene (PE) + polyamide (PA) bags, and tray + cling film packaging was used as the control. Changes in sensory quality, nutrient contents and browning-related enzyme activities were investigated during storage in light or darkness at (20 ± 1) ℃ for 4 days. The results showed that vacuum packaging combined with light avoidance could effectively inhibit the increase of browning index, hardness and mass loss rate (P < 0.05), decrease the count of molds and yeasts, the contents of total phenols and flavonoids as well as hydrogen peroxide and the activity of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonialyase (P < 0.05), effectively maintain the contents of ascorbic acid and soluble proteins, and induce an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) (P < 0.05). Therefore, vacuum combined with light-free packaging can significantly reduce the metabolism and the degree of browning of fresh-cut potatoes and inhibit the formation of callus, thereby maintaining the sensory and nutritional quality, and extending the shelf-life.
Effect of Black Pepper Essential Oil Containing Composite Coating on Physicochemical Properties, Quality and Safety of Jinhua Ham
CHANG Hong, BI Yao, WANG Ying, PAN Daodong, DANG Yali, HE Jun, CAO Jinxuan
2020, 41(13):  193-198.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190626-353
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In order to ensure the quality and safety of Jinhua ham during storage, the effect of black pepper essential oil containing composite coating on the moisture content, color, pH, aerobic plate count and biogenic amine content of Jinhua ham was studied. The results showed that compared with the control group (without coating), the base formula coating (BC) increased the moisture content, pH, L* and a* value, and decreased the b* value, aerobic plate count, and total biogenic amine content of the ham. The composite coatings containing black pepper essential oil at low (LBPEOC) and high (HBPEOC) doses further improved the color of the ham and reduced microbial growth, resulting in lower biogenic amine production and higher safety for consumption than BC. In addition, the effect of black pepper essential oil composite coating was dose-dependent. In summary, black pepper essential oil containing composite coating treatment is an effective method to improve the quality and safety of Jinhua ham during storage.
Stability of Antifungal Peptide Jelleine-I and Effect of Jelleine-I Lipopeptides on Controlling Citrus Postharvest Green Mold
LI Xindan, MA Jiahong, WANG Wenjun, ZENG Kaifang
2020, 41(13):  199-205.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190918-233
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In order to evaluate the antifungal stability of peptide Jelleine-I against Penicillium digitatum and the effect of lipopeptides derived from Jelleine-I (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6) on controlling citrus postharvest green mold, the effects of temperature, pH, cation and protease on the antifungal activity of Jelleine-I and the disease control effect of Jelleine-I lipolypeptides in vitro and in vivo was tested. The results showed that the antifungal activity of Jelleine-I against P. digitatum was thermostable and insensitive to pH, and remained stable at temperatures of 40–80 ℃ and pH 3–10. Different cations had different effects on the antibacterial activity of Jelleine-I, which was maintained after being treated with Na+ (expect for high concentration of 200 mmol/L) and K+, but decreased after being treated with Ca2+. The antifungal activity of Jelleine-I was maintained in the presence of one of three proteases at low concentration, but decreased gradually with increasing protease concentration. The lipopeptides formed by linking one of six different natural bacteriostatic substances to Jelleine-I were able to effectively control citrus postharvest green mold. The effect of lipopeptides P1 and P2 showed no significant difference from that of Jelleine-I, which was stronger than that of four other lipopeptides, possibly due to their excessive hydrophobicity. These results showed that the antifungal activity of Jelleine-I against P. digitatum was thermostable, resistant to acid and base, and insensitive to K+, Na+ and low concentrations of protease. In conclusion, Jelleine-I and lipopeptides P1 and P2 hold great promise for application in the field of citrus postharvest preservation.
Inhibitory Effects of Different Bacteriostatic Agents on Bacillus cereus Inoculated in Fresh Wet Noodles Made from Wheat Flour Blended with Highland Barley Flour
WANG Shu’ai, WANG Ziyuan, ZHANG Min
2020, 41(13):  206-211.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190623-271
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This study analyzed the antibacterial effect of cinnamaldehyde, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and Nisin against Bacillus cereus inoculated in fresh wet noodles incorporated with highland barley flour were analyzed, and changes in the quantity of Bacillus cereus during 36 h of storage at 25 ℃ were also explored. Meanwhile, the texture profile analysis and color of the uninoculated noodles added with each of the three bacteriostatic agents were measured. The results showed that all these bacteriostatic agents had inhibitory effects on Bacillus cereus. At the end of storage, addition of cinnamaldehyde and EGCG at 0.05% each could significantly reduce the quantity of Bacillus cereus inoculated in the noodles by 2.49 and 2.07 (lg(CFU/g)) compared with the control group (average between the ethanol control and blank control groups).The two bacteriostatic agents significantly increased the hardness of noodles from 12 to 24 h of storage and chewiness at the storage of 12 h, and 0.05% cinnamaldehyde increased the L* and b* values by 5.29 and 2.44, respectively at the end of storage, indicating its ability to preserve the color of noodles. Therefore, cinnamaldehyde could be potentially used as an antimicrobial agent in the storage and preservation of fresh wet noodles incorporated with highland barley flour.
Biocontrol Effect of Volatile Monomer Trans-cinnamaldehyde with Antagonistic Capacity to Yeast on Gray Mold Disease of Postharvest Strawberry Fruit
GUO Hongna, LIU Jia, XI Yuting, ZHOU Jiao, JIANG Yi, WANG Jiangqi, ZHANG Yanfen, XIAO Hongmei
2020, 41(13):  212-220.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190711-155
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of volatile organic compounds produced by Hanseniaspora uvarum (H. uvarum), which we have demonstrated previously to have antagonistic activity against yeast, on postharvest gray mold of strawberry fruit and the possible underlying mechanism. Results showed that fumigation treatment with 62.5 μL/L trans-cinnamaldehyde for 3 days had the best effect on controlling gray mold, significantly inhibiting the expansion of the lesion diameter (P < 0.05). In addition, trans-cinnamaldehyde at all concentrations could maintain the color, content of total soluble solid and titratable acidity of strawberry fruit and delay quality deterioration. Fumigation with 62.5 μL/L trans-cinnamaldehyde had the potential to significantly increase the activity of catalase, polyphenoloxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and β-1,3-glucanase, increase the relative expression levels of FaCAT, FaPPO, and FaAPX and delay the decrease in superoxide dismutase activity as compared with the control group. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase first increased and then decreased with increasing treatment time. The relative expression level of FaPAL decreased gradually during the 3-day treatment period, while the relative expression level of FaGLU increased during the later part of this period. Overall, these results indicated that trans-cinnamaldehyde could enhance the defense-related enzymes and genes, thereby maintaining the quality and effectively inhibiting postharvest gray mold in strawberry fruit.
Effect of Preharvest Bagging Treatment on Postharvest Degreening Behavior and Storage Characteristics of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Fruit
RAN Haojie, FAN Shiyu, ZENG Kaifang, DENG Lili
2020, 41(13):  221-226.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190625-317
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Effects of six preharvest bagging treatments on postharvest degreening behavior and storage characteristics of Satsuma mandarin fruit were investigated in this study. Early ripening Satsuma mandarin fruit from Beibei, Chongqing were bagged with six different kinds of fruit bags one month before harvesting. After harvesting, the bagged fruit were degreened with ethephon. The results indicated that these bagging treatments increased single fruit mass at harvest to different degrees, by 10% to 30% compared with the control group. Treatments 3#, 6# and 7# significantly increased the content of total phenols in harvested fruit, and resulted in good color development on the fruit, shortening the time required for degreening. On Day 40 of storage, there was no overall significant difference in the color parameters L*, a* or b* among the six bagging groups (P > 0.05). All bagging treatments increased decay incidence during postharvest storage to different extents, of which treatments 3# and 6# caused the highest decay incidence. Besides, compared with those determined immediately after harvest, the contents of total soluble solids, titratable acid, reducing ascorbic acid and total phenols in the fruit treated with bag 7# did not significantly change during 40 days of storage. Based on the results mentioned above, bagging treatment 7# (single-layer yellow bag) has application potential in improving the degreening behavior of Satsuma mandarin fruit.
Reviews
Recent Advances in Understanding the Role of Quorum Sensing System and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Regulating Bacterial Biofilm Formation
XIAO Mengyuan, WU Ruiyun, TAN Chunming, LI Pinglan
2020, 41(13):  227-234.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200109-115
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Bacterial biofilm is a multicellular community formed by bacteria attached to the surface of living or non-living objects. It has strong resistance to mechanical interference, host defense and antibiotics, and is the main cause of chronic infections. Quorum sensing (QS) is a phenomenon in which the expression of specific bacterial genes is regulated by signal molecules related to population density. It plays a vital role in regulating the formation of bacterial biofilms. QS inhibitors (QSI) interfere with quorum sensing, thereby providing a method for controlling the harm of bacterial biofilms. In this article, we take Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli) as examples to review the important role of QS in regulating the formation of bacterial biofilms, and we demonstrate that QSI can interfere with the formation of bacterial biofilms by inhibiting the synthesis of signal molecules, enzymatically hydrolyzing signal molecules and interfering with signal molecules binding to receptors, aiming to open up a new path for the prevention and treatment of chronic infections caused by bacterial biofilms.
Advances in Understanding the Biological Activity of Lupinane-Type Pentacyclic Triterpenoids
QIAO Wenshu, ZHAO Haitian, YAO Lei
2020, 41(13):  235-241.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190715-194
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Lupinane-type pentacyclic triterpenoids are important secondary metabolites in plants and widely distributed in a variety of plants. Because of its extensive and significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, liver-protecting, immune-regulating and hypoglycemic activities, this compound class is attracting an increasing research interest in the food industry and medicinal field. Currently, most studies on lupine-type pentacyclic triterpenoids mainly focus on betulinic acid, betulinol, lupinol and betulinic acid. In this paper, the biological activities of these compounds, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, liver-protecting and anti-diabetic functions, are summarized, and their distinct mechanisms of action are summarized in order to provide a theoretical basis for further research and application of lupinane-type pentacyclic triterpenoids in the food, healthcare products and medicinal industries.
Recent Progress in the Regulation of Glycolipid Metabolism by Flaxseeds
SHI Xiangling, SUN Guiju
2020, 41(13):  242-248.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190423-309
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Flax, a crop of great economic importance, is widely utilized as the most abundant source of alpha-linolenic acid and lignans. Many studies have reported that flaxseeds have many functions such as lowering blood lipid and blood glucose and improving insulin resistance and therefore have been of great interest to researchers. In this paper, the biological effects of flaxseeds on glucose and lipid metabolism are reviewed and the possible molecular mechanisms are analyzed so as to provide a reliable basis for applying flaxseeds in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus.
Chromatography Alone and Coupled with Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Trace Gibberellins in Complex Matrices: A Review
JIANG Changling, DAI Jinxia, LIU Xin, LU Chengyin, CHEN Hongping
2020, 41(13):  249-259.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190528-348
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Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones that are widely found in plants, which play a crucial role in plant growth, development, and response to environmental stress. GAs are a class of tetracyclic diterpenic acids whose basic structure is 20-carbon gibberellin. So far, 136 GAs have been found. As GAs have been extensively applied in agricultural products and intensive research efforts have been made on their toxicity in recent years, their potential to cause food safety issues has become a subject of growing concern. Accurate analysis of GAs are helpful for better understanding their metabolism, physiological activity and toxicity. Due to their instability and extremely low content (generally ng/g, even pg/g levels), the pretreatment techniques and analytical methods for the detection of GAs in complex matrices are being continuously updating. This article reviews the development and breakthroughs of pretreatment techniques and analytical methods for trace analysis of GAs over the past 10 years, and future development trends are discussed.
Present and Future Application of Microbial Metabolic Engineering in Anthocyanin Production
LI Yue, LI Guorui, CHEN Yongsheng
2020, 41(13):  260-266.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190618-202
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Microbial metabolic engineering has seen wide application in synthetic biology and the extraction of naturally occurring phytochemicals. Anthocyanins, a class of water-soluble natural pigments, are primarily responsible for the coloration of terrestrial plants and fruits, and are widely used in the food and cosmetic industries. At present, anthocyanins are mainly extracted from plant materials, being characterized by low product purity and unstable nature. Therefore, microbial metabolic engineering is a significant alternative to the traditional extraction method to produce anthocyanins. Here, we review recent progress in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins using engineered bacteria with respect to enzyme selection, transportation regulation, regulation of uridine-5’-diphosphate glucose supply, and process optimization. Understanding of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway will provide important information for the industrialization of microbial anthocyanin production.
Recent Advances in Molecular Structures of Amylose and Amylopectin
HAN Wenfang, LIN Qinlu, ZHAO Siming, LI Jiangtao, NIU Guihong
2020, 41(13):  267-275.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190626-330
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Starch is the principal energy reserve in plants and the macroscopic component of many foods, and functions as an important raw material for the food industry. It is generally accepted that starch comprises highly branched amylopectins (AP) and linear amyloses (AM). The molecular structures of AM and AP in starch granules are of crucial importance for understanding the relationship among starch biosynthesis, structure and functional properties. In this paper, the content, structure and its contribution to the structure of starch granules of AM are elucidated along with the cluster structure model, the building block backbone model and structural hierarchy of amylopectin branched chain structure. We hope that this review will provide useful information for future research on the molecular structures of amylose and amylopectin in starch.
Application of Surface Plasma Resonance Sensor in Food Safety Inspection: A Review
HUANG Zhao, CAO Yanan, LI Pao, ZHAO Zhen, LIU Xia
2020, 41(13):  276-282.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190630-418
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The surface plasma resonance (SPR) sensor is an ultra-sensitive instrument that rapidly detects target objects by means of physical optics. Due to their advantages of being label-free, high sensitivity, rapidity, low reagent consumption and real-time monitoring, SPR sensors have aroused wide concern in the field of food safety detection. This review outlines the principle of SPR sensors and the current status of their application in food safety inspection with focuse on the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues, pathogenic bacteria, heavy metals and biotoxins. Moreover, the advantages of SPR sensors are described and future development trends are discussed.
Electrospinning: Application in Food Industry
DENG Lingli, ZHANG Hui
2020, 41(13):  283-290.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190614-153
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Electrospinning is a fiber production method using electric force to draw charged threads of polymer solutions to generate fiber diameters in the micro- or nanoscale. Electrospinning has attracted more and more attention in the food industry due to its continuous development. This review first briefly outlines the mechanism of nanofiber formation and the solution parameters and processing parameters affecting electrospinning. Then it summarizes the application of electrospinning in antimicrobial and antioxidant packages, the protection of bioactive materials, lipids, and probiotics. Finally, future directions for the development of electrospinning in the food industry are discussed.
Scientometric Analysis of Cross-Disciplinary Studies on Food Safety and Data Science in China
SHAO Hang, SONG Yinghua, LI Moxiao, SHAO Wei, LEI Shengjiao, KU Renjun, XIA Yaqiong
2020, 41(13):  291-301.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190608-078
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China’s 13th Five-Year Plan for National Food Safety proposes to enhance the capacity of technical support for food safety. The collection, storage and mining of food safety data are a crucial part of food safety technology. Analyzing the achievements that have been made in cross-disciplinary studies on food safety and data science and exploring future trends in this area in China are of great practical significance for promoting the application of data-driven food safety technology. In this study, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database was retrieved for “topic containing food safety AND data”, and totally 3 375 pieces of literature information published in 1996–2019 were collected and used as dataset for mining scientific and technological texts by scientometric method and Citespace software. Moreover, data visualization was carried out by using keywords clustering map, time line map and burstness map. It was found that the number of published papers in this field was increased exponentially in the past 23 years. Totally, 3 categories and 11 sub-categories of subject clustering were formed, and the development process involved 3 stages by time line clustering: 1996–2006, 2007–2014 and 2015–2019. Those studies showed that the cross-disciplinary study on food safety and data science in China has reached a certain scale in terms of output, cooperation and research topics, and is currently developing rapidly under the guidance of new disciplinary growth points.
On Legislative Improvement in Joint Responsibility for Food Safety in China
XIAO Feng, SUN Liang
2020, 41(13):  302-309.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190626-344
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Since the introduction of joint responsibility into the Food Safety Law, there have been many disputes in judicial practice including the subject of joint responsibility, the orientation of responsibility, and especially the applicability of punitive compensation. The reason may be ascribed to the three disadvantages of China’s current legislative system. First, the civil responsibility criteria are inappropriately adopted in the Food Safety Law, and do not provide clear definitions for several special stipulations such as “knowing perfectly well”. Second, responsibility sharing rules are lacking for all compensations including actual loss and punitive compensation as far as the external compensatory relationship of operators to consumers and the internal contribution of joint operators against operators with major responsibility are concerned. Third, the value of legislation attaches too much importance to compensation to consumers after the fact, and mutual supervision among operators along the supply chain cannot meet the requirement for risk prevention. Therefore, it is highly necessary to eliminate the deficiency of civil legislation with joint responsibility, and clearly define the standards for joint responsibility in the fields of both legislation and justice. Moreover, a comprehensive system for joint responsibility and rules to pursue compensation needs to be established according to the responsibility for faults. At the same time, the existing recoupment system should be modified to some extents, and a system involving joint shouldering of responsibility and joint prevention of risks for food safety should be constructed based on joint responsibility.
Advances in Our Understanding of the Composition and Biofunctional Characteristics of Milk-Derived Exosomes
TONG Lingjun, HAO Haining, ZHANG Lanwei, YI Huaxi
2020, 41(13):  310-317.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190617-175
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Exosomes, a nanoscale extracellular vesicles secreted by cells, contain various bioactive substances such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. As signaling molecules, exosomes can transmit contents carrying biological information to target cells, thereby exerting its specific action. There are some differences in the compositions and functions of exosomes from different sources. The physiological functions of milk-derived exosomes in human growth and development have recently become a research hotspot. Exosomes have been documented to have prebiotic effects on infant intestinal development, innate immunity, and the prevention of inflammation. In China, the study on exosomes is still in its infancy. In this article, the formation pathways, composition and functional characteristics of milk-derived exosomes are reviewed. It is expected to provide a reference for the research and development of milk-derived exosomes as a novel prebiotic agent.
Construction of Big Data Standard System for Food Safety
ZHANG Fei, JING Yaping, ZHU Ping, WANG Daxia, GUO Xiaoyan, TAO Guangcan
2020, 41(13):  318-325.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20200223-253
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By analyzing the characteristics of food safety big data and referring to the social co-governance system of food safety, an investigation into the construction of a big data standard system for food safety was conducted based on five kinds of data including government supervision, enterprise information, testing, quality monitoring and internet data (covering all steps in the whole industry chain including the farming and processing of agricultural products, as well as food production, storage, transportation, sale and consumption) generated and used by six kinds of entities including governments, enterprises, inspection and testing institutions, industry associations, media and consumers. Based on the big data reference model, an innovative food safety big data technology reference framework and a three-dimensional spatial model for the standard system were constructed, and the standards to be developed for the standard system were elaborated. In order to further accelerate its implementation and application, an evaluation model for the standard system was established, and some suggestions concerning the development of food safety big data standard system and 20 priority standards to be developed were put forward to promote the development of the food safety big data industry.
Progress in the Effect of Resistant Starch on Improving Intestinal Function and Glycolipid Metabolism
LI Ying, ZHANG Xin, YANG Jiajie, MA Xiangyang, HOU Juncai, LI Aili
2020, 41(13):  326-335.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190719-241
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Resistant starch, a new type of high quality dietary fiber, is not digested and absorbed in the small intestine but fermented by the microflora in the large intestine. In recent years, studies have shown that resistant starch is involved in regulating intestinal microfloral balance and promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids, thereby helping improve intestinal permeability and reduce inflammatory responses and consequently promoting host intestinal health to some extent. In addition, resistant starch also plays an important role in stabilizing blood glucose and lipid, improving insulin sensitivity, and regulating the expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism. The present paper gives a summary of recent studies evaluating the effects of resistant starch on intestinal health and glucose and lipid metabolism as well as its underlying mechanism. Further, it discusses future prospects for the application of resistant starch in the prevention and treatment of diabetes, colorectal cancer and other related diseases or dietary intervention.
Recent Progress in Identification Techniques for Wine Geographical Origin
SU Yingyue, WANG Fei, WEN Haosong, ZHANG Jinjie, ZHANG Ang, YUAN Chunlong
2020, 41(13):  336-345.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190613-142
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At present, the wine market in China is booming day by day, and geographical origin traceability has been used as an important criterion for evaluating high-quality wine. Therefore, the development of technologies for tracing the geographical origin of wine will help strengthen market supervision and protect consumer interests. This paper summarizes recent progress in the development of technologies for identifying the geographical origin of wine, with focus on future trends in the development of wine geographical origin identification technologies based on mineral element fingerprint, stable isotope labeling and secondary metabolites. At the same time, the problems existing in wine geographical origin identification are discussed, aiming at promoting the establishment of an improved identification technology for wine geographical origin and the prosperity and development of the wine market in China.
Recent Progress in Research on Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq.
XU Haiyan, FENG Xinhong, ZHANG Jinyu, MA Chaomei
2020, 41(13):  346-354.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-20190719-244
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Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq. is an annual herbaceous plant of the Chenopdiaceae family that is mainly distributed in the desert area of northwest China. It is of important ecological significance and is reputed as “the sand-fixing pioneer”. The aboveground part of A. squarrosum is a traditional Mongolian medicine with heat-clearing and detoxifying effects. Its seeds, called “Shami” in Chinese, are a natural foodstuff rich in nutrients and with anti-obesity activity. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that A. squarrosum contains secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, sterols and alkaloids, and possesses pharmacological activities, such as anti-diabetic, antioxidant and blood lipid-lowering activities. This article mainly reviews recent progress in understanding the chemical components, pharmacological activities and nutritional components of A. squarrosum, in order to provide a reference for the development and utilization of A. squarrosum.