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25 December 2010, Volume 31 Issue 24
Processing Technology
Extraction of Antibacterial Materials from Cashew Apple
MIAO Zi-jian,LI Cong-fa,TANG Yan-ping,XIONG Hai-bo,HOU Yuan-yuan,LIU Si-xin*
2010, 31(24):  1-7.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024001
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Antibacterial materials were extracted from cashew apple and the inhibitory effect of the extract on different test strains was evaluated. Single-factor and central composite experiments were used to explore the optimal extraction processing parameters for antibacterial materials from yellow and red cashew apple using Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans as the indicators. The optimal extraction processing parameters for antibacterial materials from yellow cashew apple were ethanol concentration of 70%, extraction temperature of 85 ℃, material-liquid ratio of 1:13.9 and extraction time of 2.65 h; while the optimal extraction processing parameters for antibacterial materials from red cashew apple were ethanol concentration of 70%, extraction temperature of 85 ℃, material-liquid ratio of 1:14.5 and extraction time of 2.44 h. The extract obtained by optimal extraction processing from cashew apple exhibited an enhanced inhibitory effect on test bacterial strains.

Extraction of Chlorogenic Acid from Fruit of Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity
HU Zhong-qiu,HONG Xiao-di,YUE Tian-li
2010, 31(24):  8-13.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024002
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Chlorogenic acid was extracted from the fruit of Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne using methanol as solvent. Effects of four extraction variables (methanol concentration, extraction temperature, solid/liquid ratio and extraction time) on yield of chlorogenic acid were investigated by conducting single factor test. Subsequently, a L9(34) orthogonal test was employed to optimize the extraction conditions. In the following, the anti-Shigella dysenteriae and Staphylococcus aureus activities were evaluated by using inhibition zone test. Results showed the optimum extractions conditions were as follows: aqueous methanol concentration 85%, the solid/liquid ratio 1:30 (C. sinensis Koehne powder(g)/aqueous methanol (mL)), extraction at 40 ℃ for 14 hours. Under the optimum conditions, the yield of chlorogenic acid were 0.142%. The antibacterial activity of chlorogenic acid samples against S. dysenteriae and S. aureus was significant. It indicated that chlorogenic acid may be a main pharmacological compound of a folk medicine of white spirit soaked with C. sinensis Koehne.

Ozone Treatment Technology of Grass Carp Slices
ZHAO Li-jun,GU Wei-rui,XIONG Shan-bai,ZHAO Si-ming*
2010, 31(24):  14-18.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024003
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In order to achieve the optimal ozone sterilization processing, grass carp was used as the raw material to explore the effects of ozone concentration, ozone treatment temperature and ozone treatment time on the quality of grass carp slices through evaluating water content, water-soluble protein content, free amino acid content, total sugar content, crude fat content, color, sensory evaluation and microorganism lethal rate. Results indicated that the optimal ozone treatment processing conditions were 0.85 mg/L ozone at 10 ℃ for 10 min treatment. Under the optimal ozone treatment processing conditions, the contents of water, water-soluble proteins, free amino acids, total sugar and crude fat, the degree of whiteness, sensory evaluation score and microorganism lethal rate were 79.55%, 155.67 mg/g, 0.63 mg/g, 8.23 mg/g, 6.34%, 48.12, 8.99 and 98.33%, respectively.

Extraction of Collagen from Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) and Wound Healing-Promoting Effect in Mouse
DING Jin-feng,SU Xiu-rong*,ZHANG Chun-dan,LI Yan-yan,XU Jia-jie
2010, 31(24):  19-23.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024004
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The optimum condition of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum Kiahinouye 1891) collagen was studied, and the effect of jellyfish collagen on promoting the wound healing was studied based on the model of mouse skin wounds. Experimental factors and their levels were determined by single-factor tests, and then a three factors and three levels test was designed based on the principle of Box-Benhnken design. The extraction conditions were optimized through response surface method (RSM). In the experiment of wound healing in mouse, cutting-skin injures model in mouse were created and wounds were treated with collagen, at the same time yunnan baiyao was used as positive control. The size of wounds was measured through cross measurement, and the healing rates were calculated. Results showed the optimal conditions of jellyfish collagen extraction were obtained as following: extraction time 62.64 h, the solid/water ratio of 1:23.6, acetic acid concentration of 0.562 mol/L. Animal tests showed that treatment with collagen could significantly accelerate the process of re-epithelialization, and promote wound healing.

Preparation of Maltose Syrup from Rice Starch
YI Cui-ping,CAI Ji-xiang,LIU Rui-xing
2010, 31(24):  24-27.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024005
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In order to reduce the cost of price protein with high purity, rice starch were extracted by alkaline method. Meanwhile, the maltose syrup was prepared by dual-enzyme method from rice starch. Result indicated that 90.58% rice protein isolate could be achieved by co-preparation strategy of rice protein and maltose syrup. The optimal liquefaction conditions of α-amylase were pH5.71, treatment temperature of 102 ℃ and treatment time of 15 min. The optimal saccharification conditions of fungal amylase were pH5.00, treatment temperature of 58 ℃ and treatment time of 10 h. Under these optimal conditions, the maltose in maltose syrup was up to 45.18%, while maltose in maltose syrup was 40.83% under the same condition using rice as the raw material.

Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Tartary Buckwheat Seedling by Response Surface Methodology
GAO Yun-tao,FU Yan-li,WANG Chen,MA Lei,ZHANG Bao-tong
2010, 31(24):  28-32.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024006
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Ultrasound-assisted extraction for the flavonoids-enriched extract from tartary buckwheat seedling was investigated. Response surface methodology, based on the central composite design of three variables with five levels, was employed to study the effect of extraction conditions on the extraction yield of total flavonoids. An experimental extraction yield of 3.64% was achieved under the optimum extraction conditions of 76.2% ethanol volume fraction, liquid/solid ratio of 28.5:1 and extraction time of 25 min. This study confirms the efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction as a simple, inexpensive and effective method to improve the extraction of flavonoids and the great potential of tartary buckwheat seedling as a health food and a resource of flavonoids.

Optimization of Homogenate Extraction for Arctiin from Arctium lappa L. by Response Surface Methodology
XIE Jie,LI Hong-juan,ZHU Xing-yi,YANG Fan,WANG Ping*
2010, 31(24):  33-36.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024007
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Response surface analysis (RSA) methodology was used for optimizing homogenate extraction processing of arctiin from Arctium lappa L. Based on single-factor experiments, the effects of ethanol concentration, extraction time and liquid-material ratio on extraction rate of arctiin were explored by Box-Benhnken central composite design method. The optimal extraction conditions were ethanol concentration of 83%, extraction time of 93 s, liquid-material ratio of 17:1 (mL/g) and particle size of less than 1.0 mm. Under these optimal extraction conditions, the actual yield of total arctiin was 31.62 mg/g, which was consistent with the predicted yield of 31.72 mg/g. Results indicated that homogenate extraction was an effective method to extract arctiin from Arctium lappa L.

Enzymatic Extraction of Inulin from Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) Root
CAO Ze-hong,LU Hai-yan, DONG Yu-wei,SHAO Ying,YANG Jin-yu,DIAO Jin-jin
2010, 31(24):  37-45.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024008
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Inulin was extracted by using enzyme hydrolysis method from burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: neutral protease content 13.5 g/100 mL, pH 7, solid/liquid ratio 1:15, hydrolysis time 6h, temperature 50 ℃. The yield of inulin under the optimum conditions was 14.57%. A 2.5 g/100 mL solution of chitosan in 1% aqueous acetic acid was prepared which contained 7.5 mg/mL of neutral protease, and then it was poured, dropwise, into a suspension medium consisting of 40% formaldehyde and 2 mol/L of NaOH at the volume ratio of 2:3 at 60℃ and pH 7.5. The immobilization time was 8 h. And the recovery of enzyme activity was 39.13%. The optimum extraction conditions using immobilized enzyme were as follows: pH 7, solid/liquid ratio 1:15, hydrolysis temperature 60 ℃, immobilized enzyme 13.5 g/100 mL. Under such conditions ,the yield of inulin was 12.89%. After 10 times continuous reaction, the yield of inulin decreased to 9.42%, which indicated that the stability of the immobilized enzyme was significantly improved.

Ethanol Extraction of Puerarin by Cellulase Hydrolysis
WANG Xing-min1,2,3,YIN Zhong-yi1,3,LI Xin1,ZHANG Yu-wen1
2010, 31(24):  46-49.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024009
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Puerarin was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis with microbe and cellulase from waste pueraria. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine puerarin content for exploring the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis time, enzyme addition amount, pH and material-liquid ratio as well as cross-interaction on extraction rate of puerarin. Results indicated that pueraria amount of 5 g, cellulose concentration of 40% compared with pueraria weight, pueraria-water ratio of 1:10, enzymatic hydrolysis pH of 5, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature of 30 ℃, enzymatic hydrolysis time of 36 h and ethanol extraction time of 3 h. Under the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis and extraction conditions, the yield of puerarin was up to 33.54 mg. These investigations will provide a theoretical reference for the exploration and utilization of pueraria.

Ultrasound-assisted Extraction and Fatty Acid Composition of Biota Orientalis Seed Oil
MA Cheng-jin1,2,WU Zhu-qing2,HUANG Wei2,XIAO Zhuo-bing1,HUANG Qun2
2010, 31(24):  50-55.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024010
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Oil in Biota orientalis seed was extracted using n-hexane with the assistance of ultrasound. Effects of liquid-to-material ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and ultrasound power on the yield of oil were investigated by conducting single factor tests. Subsequently, a central composite design was employed and the results were analyzed by using response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: liquid-to-material ratio 7:1 , extraction time 38 min, extraction temperature 55 ℃,ultrasound power 270 W. Under such conditions, the yield of the oil was 93.47%. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the oil was abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, accounting for 84.37% of the total fatty acids and consisting of 28.4.1% of oleic acid , 11.40% of linoleic acid and 44.56% of linolenic acid.

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Chicken Protein and Antioxidant Activity of Antioxidant Peptide
SUN Yang-ying1,PAN Dao-dong1,2,*,GUO Yu-xing1
2010, 31(24):  56-61.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024011
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The enzymatic hydrolysis parameters for preparing antioxidant peptide from chicken protein were optimized by response surface analysis. Based on the results of single factor experiments, the effects of hydrolysis time, enzyme addition amount, hydrolysis temperature on the hydrolysis degree of chicken protein and antioxidant capability of antioxidant peptide were explored through evaluating the reducing power and scavenging rate on superoxide anion free radicals. Results indicated that the optimal preparation processing conditions of antioxidant peptides from chicken protein by papain hydrolysis were pH 6.0, materialwater ratio of 1:2, hydrolysis time of 6.15 h, papain amount of 1200 U/g and hydrolysis temperature of 51.2 ℃. Under the optimal hydrolysis conditions, reducing power and scavenging rate of antioxidant peptide were 0.802 and 73.9%, respectively.

Effect of Dynamic High-pressure Microfluidization Pretreatment on the Yield of Lentinan
JIANG Ying,TU Zong-cai*,CHEN Yuan,WANG Qiang,LI Zhi,YIN Yue-bin
2010, 31(24):  62-65.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024012
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In order to extend the application of dynamic high-pressure microfluidization technology, this technology was used to the pretreatment of mushroom fruit bodies. The optimal pretreatment conditions were explored by single-factor and orthogonal experiments through evaluating the yield of lentinan. Results indicated that the optimal pretreatment conditions were pretreatment pressure of 140 MPa and material-liquid ratio of 1/60. Under the optimal pretreatment conditions, the yield of polysaccharides was up to 6.755%. Compared with the control group, the extraction rate of polysaccharides was significantly improved.

Extraction and Determination of Total Flavonoids from Helianthus annuus L.
YANG Shu-ping1,HAN Li-jun2,CHEN Xiao-yun1,XU Rui-bo1,JIANG Ying-dao1
2010, 31(24):  66-69.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024013
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In order to investigate the optimal extraction processing conditions of total flavonoids from Helianthus annuus L, orthogonal experiments were used to explore the effects of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time on extraction rate of total flavonoids. The content of total flavonoids was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry method. Results indicated that the optimal extraction processing conditions were ethanol concentration of 50%, extraction temperature of 80 ℃and extraction duration of 2 h. The maximum extraction rate of 33.6436 mg/g was achieved under the optimal extraction conditions.

Preparation Processing of Ultrafine Papain Particle by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Anti-solvent Method
ZHAO Liang-zhong1 ZENG Xiang-yan1 CHEN Jian1 CHEN Ling-juan2 XU Xiao-dong3
2010, 31(24):  70-73.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024014
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Supercritical carbon dioxide anti-solvent crystallization technology was used to prepare ultrafine papain particles to decide the optimal solvent type and solvent volume. Results indicated that the yield of ultrafine papain particles was positively correlated with solvent volume and enzyme activity was negatively correlated with solvent volume at the conditions of DMSO as the solvent. When dimethylformamide was used as the solvent, the yield of papain particles was low, but the high activity of papain particles was observed. The highest activity of papain particles was achieved to be 3484.691 U/mg at the condition of 70% solvent, which is much higher than the original activity of papain (400 U/mg). The ultrafine papain particles could not form when glycerol was used as the solvent. 

Extraction and Determination of Water-soluble Cations in Vegetables
YANG Shu-ke,WANG Hong-bin,YANG Yong-zhu,ZHAO Tian-tian,YANG Min*
2010, 31(24):  74-77.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024015
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Objective: To investigate the optimal extraction processing and determination of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in vegetables. Methods: Orthogonal experiments were used to explore the optimal processing of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in vegetables using ultrasonic extraction. Ion chromatography was used to determine the contents of five cations. Results: Extraction time, ultrasonic power and solvent amount exhibited an effect on extraction rates of five cations from strong to weak. The optimal extraction processing parameters of five cations were extraction time of 20 min, ultrasonic power of 160 W and solvent amount of 25 mL. The recovery rates of Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in spiked samples were 89.2%, 89.9%, 82.7%, 87.3% and 84.2%, respectively. Conclusion: This optimal extraction method is feasible, reasonable, pollution-free and reliable.

Optimization of Androstenedione Bioconversion by Response Surface Methodology
YANG Ying1,2,JIANG Shao-tong2,LIU Mo2
2010, 31(24):  78-82.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024016
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Bioconversion processing of androstenedione (AD) is strongly affected by many factors. Uniform design has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of substrate concentration, plant oil and molasses on bioconversion rate. Through regression analysis, the amounts of sunflower oil and molasses were important factors for bioconversion processing of AD. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the critical factors. Through the analysis of quadratic regression model equation, the optimal processing parameters for bioconversion were 211.63 mL/L sunflower oil, 58.49 mL/L molasses and 6.01g/L phytosterol. The optimal uniform design parameters were 3.2 g/L ammonium nitrate, 0.8 g/L ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, and 0.055 g/L mercury chloride. Under the optimal conditions, the production of AD was 2.55 g/L.

Extraction of Flavonoids from Sweet Potato Leaves by Dynamic High-pressure Microfluidization Technology
LI Zhi,TU Zong-cai*,MAO Yuan-wen,JIANG Ying,LUO Xiao-hui,ZHANG Lu
2010, 31(24):  83-86.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024017
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In order to optimize the extraction processing parameters of flavonoids from sweet potato leaves, single-factor and orthogonal experiments were used to investigate the effects of dynamic high-pressure microfluidization pretreatment pressure, ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time on extraction rate of flavonoids. Results indicated that the optimal extraction processing parameters microfluidization pressure of 100 MPa, aqueous ethanol concentration of 70%, extraction temperature of 75 ℃ and extraction time of 120 min. Under these optimal extraction conditions, the yield of flavonoids was 5.75%.

Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extraction of Oleoresin from Ginger Residues and Its Antioxidant Activity
MA Chao,ZHU Feng-tao,WU Mao-yu,ZHAO Yan,HE Fa-tao,GE Bang-guo,SONG Ye
2010, 31(24):  87-89.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024018
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In order to make full use of the ginger residues after making ginger juice, oleoresin was extracted from ginger residues by using supercritical fluid CO2 (SF-CO2) technology. The optimal extraction processing was explored by orthogonal experiments to be particle size for ginger residues of 50 mesh, extraction pressure of 25 MPa, extraction temperature of 45 ℃ and extraction time of 90 min. Meanwhile, an obvious effect of oleoresin from ginger residues on the peroxidation of lard oil and scavenging activity of DPPH free radicals was observed. Therefore, the oleoresin from ginger residues has strong antioxidant activity.

Optimization of Microwave Extraction Conditions for Antioxidant Materials from Chrysanthemum indicum L. by Response Surface Methodology
CHU Fu-hong1,2,LU Ning1,YU Xin2,*,JIANG Yu3
2010, 31(24):  90-94.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024019
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Chrysanthemum indicum L. was used as the raw material to extract antioxidant materials by microwave technology. On the basis of single-factor experimental results and central composite design principle, the optimal extraction processing parameters were explored by response surface experiments through evaluating the effects of ethanol concentration, extraction time, material-liquid ratio and their cross-interactions on antioxidant activity of the extract. Results indicated that the optimal extraction processing parameters were ethanol concentration of 50% (V/V), microwave treatment time of 51 s and material-liquid ratio of 1:27 (g/mL). Under these optimal extraction conditions, the scavenging rate of the extract from Chrysanthemum indicum L. at the concentration of 0.6 mg/mL on DPPH free radicals was up to 83.10%, which was close to the predicted value of 83.23% with an absolute error of 0.13%.

Extraction and Saponification of Trans-lutein from Marigold Flowers
WANG Chuang1,LI Da-jing1,2,3,*,SONG Jiang-feng2,3,LIU Chun-quan2,3
2010, 31(24):  95-101.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024020
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Marigold (Tagetes erecta) flowers were used as raw materials to investigate the extraction and saponification of translutenin from marigold flowers. The effects of organic solvent amount, KOH-ethanol concentration and amount, extraction and saponification temperature and time on extraction and saponification rate of trans-lutenin from marigold flowers was explored. Based on the single factor experimental results, response surface experiments were used to optimize the extraction and saponification efficiency of trans-lutein and a mathematic model between the factors and extraction rate of trans-lutenin from marigold flowers was established. Meanwhile, crude trans-lutein was further purified. Results indicated that the optimal extraction parameters were raw material amount of 1.00 g, petroleum ether amount of 42.6 mL/g, KOH-ethanol concentration of 0.099 g/mL and extraction temperature of 58.8 ℃. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of trans-lutein was up to 1.499%. After the purification of trans-lutein, the content of trans-lutein crystal was up to 90.42%.

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Properties of Bagasse Xylan by Xylanase Shearzyme 500L
SHI Guo-liang1,2,ZHOU Yu-heng1,ZHANG Hou-rui1,*,CAI Ai-hua1,CHEN Hai-shan1
2010, 31(24):  102-106.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024021
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Xylanase Shearzyme 500L was used to hydrolyze bagasse xylan for preparing xylooligosaccharide. DNS was used to determine the contents of total sugar and reducing sugar in hydrolysates and HPLC was used to determine the compositions of hydrolysates. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were substrate concentration of 3 g/100 mL, hydrolysis pH of 5.0, hydrolysis temperature of 60 ℃, enzyme addition amount of 50 U/g and hydrolysis time of 24 h. Under the optimal hydrolysis conditions, the hydrolysis rate of bagasse xylan was approximately 63.1%, and the xylooligosaccharide in hydrolysates was up to 81.5%, which included 54.8% xylobiose and 26.7% xylotriose. Xylotriose could be hydrolyzed to xylobiose and xylose by xylanase shearzyme 500 L, but xylobiose could not be hydrolyzed to xyloses. The by-product xylose could also obviously suppress the activity of xylanase shearzyme 500 L and reduce the hydrolysis rate of bagasse xylan.

Ultrasound-assisted Extraction and Fatty Acid Compositions of Pumpkin Seed Oil
FAN San-hong,YUAN Chao,LIU Yan-rong,FENG Yu-wei,MAO Qiang-qiang
2010, 31(24):  107-110.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024022
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Pumpkin seed oil was extracted by ultrasound method. The optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction processing conditions were explored by single-factor and orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that the optimal extraction processing parameters were material-liquid ratio of 1:8 (g/mL), extraction time of 20 min, ultrasonic power of 90 W and extraction temperature of 30 ℃. Under these optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of pumpkin seed oil was up to 94.22%. The factor order for influencing extraction rate of pumpkin seed oil from strong to weak was material-liquid ratio, ultrasonic time, ultrasonic power and extraction temperature. The analysis of gas chromatography revealed that pumpkin oil mainly contained palmitic, oleic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic acids.

Extraction Processing of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharides
WANG Li-feng1,2,JU Xing-rong1,HE Rong1,2,LIU Ying1,GENG Jing1,YUAN Jian1
2010, 31(24):  111-114.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024023
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Soybean meal was used as the experimental subject to explore the extraction and purification of soluble soybean polysaccharides (SSPS). During the choice of enzyme, alkali protease exhibited the best enzymatic extraction efficiency among papain, alkali protease and complex protease. The optimal extraction conditions of SSPS were explored by evaluating the effects of extraction pH, extraction time, material-liquid ratio, enzyme addition amount and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions were extraction pH of 6.0, extraction temperature of 50 ℃, extraction time of 1.5 h and material-liquid ratio of 1:20. Under these optimal extraction conditions, extraction rate of SSPS was up to 17.92 % and the purity of SSPS was 86.32%.

Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Pyracantha fortuneana Seed Oil and Determination of Fatty Acid Compositions
TANG Ke-hua1,XUN Yong2
2010, 31(24):  115-119.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024024
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Pyracantha fortuneana seed oil was extracted by supercritical CO2. The effects of extraction pressure, extraction temperature and extraction time on the yield of oil were explored by orthogonal experiments. The optimal extraction conditions of seed oil using supercritical CO2 were extraction pressure of 40 MPa, extraction temperature of 38 - 46 ℃, pressure and temperature in separator Ⅰof 10 MPa and 35 ℃, pressure and temperature in separator Ⅱ of 5 MPa and 31 ℃, and total extraction time of 180 min. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the yield of seed oil extracted by supercritical CO2 was 88.96%. The extracted seed oil contained a plenty of natural vitamin E, linoleic acid and oleic acid. However, no linolenic acid was detected in extracted seed oil.

Effect of Food Additive on Properties of Instant Rice
ZHENG Zhi,ZHANG Yuan-ji, LUO Shui-zhong,JIANG Shao-tong,MENG Ling-ling,ZHOU Hui-xi
2010, 31(24):  120-123.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024025
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The effects of β-cyclodextrin, sucrose fatty acid ester, citric acid and α-amylase on the final qualities of α-based instant rice were investigated. Results indicated that β-cyclodextrin, sucrose ester of fatty acid and citric acid were suitable food additives for the production of instant rice. The optimal formula of composite food additives for producing instant rice was 0.2% β-cyclodextrin, 0.2% sucrose fatty acid ester and 0.4% citric acid. The hardness of instant rice decreased from 1490.152 to 1128.125 g and the adhesiveness increased from - 1.515 g·s to - 20.336 g·s.

Extraction and Content Determination of Polysaccharides and Flavonoids from Wild Pteridium aquilinum
XIA Hai-tao,LIU Yu-fen,WANG Rong,LI Xiao-ya
2010, 31(24):  124-127.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024026
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The optimal extraction processing of polysaccharides and total flavonoids from wild Pteridium aquilinum powder collected from Huaguo Mountain of Lianyungang were explored by orthogonal experiments. The contents of total flavonoids and polysaccharides were determined by spectrophotometry. The optimal extraction conditions for polysaccharides were materialliquid ratio of 1:20, extraction temperature of 90 ℃, extraction repeat number of 2 and extraction time of 1.5 h each time. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the contents of polysaccharides in fresh Pteridium aquilinum and dry Pteridium aquilinum were 1.39% and 7.08%, respectively. The optimal extraction conditions for total flavonoids were material-70% ethanol ratio of 1:10, extraction temperature of 90 ℃, extraction repeat number of 2 and extraction time of 2 h each time. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the contents of total flavonoids in fresh Pteridium aquilinum and dry Pteridium aquilinum were 4.90% and 3.11%, respectively.

Preparation of Capsaicin by Condensation and Crystallization
ZHANG Sui-shuan1,CAI Hua-zhen1,*,ZHANG Gen-ming1,CAO De-yu2
2010, 31(24):  128-133.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024027
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Capsicum oleoresin was used as the raw material to explore the effect of condensation, saponification and crystallization on the purity and extraction rate of capsaicinoids. The optimal extraction processing conditions of capsaicin were investigated by single-factor and orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that four factors for affecting condensation efficiency according to the order from strong to weak were methanol concentration, extraction temperature, material-liquid ratio and extraction time. Similarly, four factors for affecting extraction rate of capsaicin according to the order from strong to weak were saponification time, pH, crystallization temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration during crystallization process. Therefore, the optimal processing parameters were 80% methanol using for the extract condensation, 10% sodium hydroxide using for saponification for 4 h at 50 ℃, pH adjustment to 7.0 using hydrochloric acid at 5 ℃, and then settle down and crystallization. The yield of capsaicin was up to 86.67% under the optimal processing conditions. The purity of capsaicin was 97.87% determined by HPLC.

Effect of Compound Anti-browning Agents on Enzymatic Browning of Helianthus tuberosus L.
WANG Wei-dong1,SUN Yue-e1,LI Chao1,WANG Chun-yan1,ZHOU Ji-bo2
2010, 31(24):  134-138.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024028
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Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extract from Helianthus tuberosus L. using sodium phosphate buffer and its enzymatic properties of PPO were characterized. Results indicated PPO from Helianthus tuberosus L. has an optimal reaction temperature of 50 ℃ and optimal pH of 4.0 or 8.0. The enzymatic kinetic parameters including Km and Vmax were 39.27 mmol/L and 1.369 U/min, respectively. Response surface methodology was used to explore the best anti-browning formula, which were 0.02% EDTA (m/V), 0.02% distannous citrate (m/V) and 0.04% ascorbic acid (m/V) for 30 min during treatment process.

Extraction of Dietary Fiber from Big Yam and its Scavenging Capability on Free Radicals
ZHONG Xi-qiong
2010, 31(24):  139-141.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024029
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Big yam was used as the raw material to explore the optimal enzymatic extraction processing for dietary fiber through orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that the optimal extraction processing conditions of dietary fiber from big yam were 0.6% compound enzyme composed of α-amylase and glucoamylase at a ratio of 6:1, hydrolysis temperature of 80 ℃ and hydrolysis time of 80 min. The carbohydrate and protein in big yam could be completely cleared out if big yam was treated with 0.6% compound enzyme at 60 ℃ for 60 min. The scavenging effects of dietary fiber from big yam with various concentrations (5-35 mg/mL) on DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals were also investigated in vitro. Results exhibited that the dietary fiber from big yam had strong scavenging capability on 3 kinds of free radicals. The scavenging rates of dietary fiber from big yam on DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals were 24.30%, 51.08% and 46.07%, respectively. In addition, the dietary fiber at the concentration of 15 mg/mL exhibited the strongest scavenging activity with the scavenging rates of 27.52%, 60.0% and 48.43%, respectively.

Preparation and Properties of Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin-Polylactic Acid Composite Film
FU Tian-xia,ZHAN Meng-jiao,WANG Xin-xian
2010, 31(24):  142-146.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024030
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A kind of ApSF-PLA composite film was prepared by adding Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ApSF) to polylactic acid (PLA) matrix through solution blending method. The effect of ApSF on the properties of PLA plastics was investigated. The results showed that the characteristics of ApSF-PLA composite film were affected by phosphoric acid hydrolysis time of ApSF, ApSF-water ratio, drying temperature, and plasticizer PEG-400 addition amount. The optimal preparation conditions were phosphoric acid hydrolysis time for ApSF of 3 h, ApSF-water ratio of 2%. Under the optimal conditions, the ApSF-PLA composite film exhibited better comprehensive properties with tensile strength of 19.75-23.89 MPa, and tensile strain of 37.42%-48.20%. The film also revealed better waterproof and anti-oil performance. Moreover, the ApSF-PLA film exhibited the best UV-shielding effect in UV-B range when ApSF-water ratio of 45 and phosphoric acid hydrolysis time of 1 h. UV transmittance of the prepared composite film at the optimal conditions was 9.4%-12.7%. An excellent composite effect of the ApSF-PLA film was achieved through IR analysis.

Vacuum Freeze-drying Processing of Instant Rice
ZHOU Guo-yan,WANG Ai-min,HU Qi-wei,CAO Bin-hong,SANG Ying-ying
2010, 31(24):  147-150.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024031
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In this study, the processing parameters of vacuum freeze-drying for instant rice were explored. The slow frozen and the rapid frozen rates were analyzed and compared. Results indicated that the optimal processing parameters for vacuum freeze-drying of instant rice were primary stage freezing temperature of -50 ℃, freezing time of 1.5 h; drying temperature of -20 ℃, frozen time of 8 h; second stage drying temperature of 50 ℃, frozen time of 5.5 h; final stage frozen temperature of -50 ℃, frozen time of 1.5 h; the vacuum pressure of 10 Pa. Results indicated that rapid frozen could provide higher product quality based on the analysis of comprehensive quality and nutritional components.

Supercritical Fluid CO2 Extraction and Fatty Acid Composition Analysis of Betel Nut Oil
ZHU Li1,LUO Shi-shu2,ZHANG Hai-de2,*,LI Yuan-song3
2010, 31(24):  151-154.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024032
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Objective: To extract betel nut oil from betel nut seed and determine its compositions. Methods: The betel nut oil was extracted by supercritical fluid CO2 extraction technology. The extraction processing parameters were optimized by orthogonal experiments and the fatty acid compositions of betel nut oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: The optimal extraction processing conditions were extraction temperature of 45 ℃, extraction pressure of 20 MPa and carbon dioxide flow rate of 20 L/h. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of betel nut oil was 17.81%. Conclusion: The major fatty acids are palmitic acid(9.10%), linoleic acid(15.46%) and oleic acid(11.26%).

Optimization of Extraction Processing of Polysaccharide from Waste Materials of Pleurotus eryngii by Response Surface Methodology
HOU Jun,LIN Xiao-min*,LI Ying,BAI Li-juan,ZHANG Jia-jin, GENG Cui-min,ZHANG Hong,LI Dong-lin
2010, 31(24):  155-158.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024033
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Objective: To optimize the extraction processing of polysaccharide from waste materials Pleurotus eryngii. Method: On the basis of single-factor experiments and the principles of Box-Behnken central composite experimental design, response surface methodology (RSM) with 3 factors and 3 levels was used to explore the effect of each factor on extraction rate of polysaccharide. Results: The optimal extraction processing conditions of polysaccharide were extraction temperature of 88 ℃, extraction time of 8.5 h and water-material ratio of 57:1 (mL/g). Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of polysaccharide was up to 6.43%. Conclusion: RSM can improve extraction rate of polysaccharide from P. eryngii.

Extraction Processing of Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L.
ZULFIYA Yunus
2010, 31(24):  159-162.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024034
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The influence order of the factors on extraction efficiency was material-liquid ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration. The optimal extraction processing parameters of total flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L. were explored by single-factor and orthogonal experiments to be extraction temperature of 80℃, ethanol concentration of 60%, extraction time of 120 min and material-liquid ratio of 1:30 (g/mL).

Synthesis of Flavors 2,4,5-Trimethyloxazole and 2,5-Dimethyl-4-ethyloxazole
WANG Shi,XIE Jian-chun*,SUN Bao-guo,HOU Dan-dan
2010, 31(24):  163-167.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024035
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Flavoring compounds such as 2,4,5-trimethyloxazole and 2,5-dimethyl-4-ethyloxazole were synthesized by Dakin- West and Robinson-Gabriel reactions using alanine and 2-aminobutyric acid as the starting materials. The optimal synthesis processing of 2,4,5-trimethyloxazole was explored through evaluating the effects of catalysts, reaction temperature, reaction time and reactant mole ratio on the yield of 2,4,5-trimethyloxazole. During Dakin-West reaction for synthesizing product Ⅰ (α-acylaminoketone), the optimal reaction conditions were alanine-acetic anhydride ratio of 1:11 (mole/mole), dimethylamino pyridine and anhydrous sodium acetate as the catalysts, dimethylamino pyridine-alanine ratio of 1:10, anhydrous sodium acetate-alanine ratio of 2.5:1, reaction temperature of 130 ℃ and reaction time of 5 h. During Robinson-Gabriel reaction for synthesizing product Ⅱ (2,4,5-trimethyloxazole), the optimal reaction conditions were polyphosphoric acid as cyclic dehydration agent, product Ⅰ -PPA ratio of 1:4, reaction temperature of 150 ℃ and reaction time of 2 h. The product Ⅱ(2,4,5- trimethyloxazole) was purified by vacuum distillation. The total yield of 2,4,5-trimethyloxazole was 30.5%. Similarly, according to above synthesis conditions, the total yield of 2,5-dimethyl-4-ethyloxazole was 28.8%. The 2,4,5-trimethyloxazole and 2,5-dimethyl-4-ethyloxazole had the characteristics of roasted and fragrant aroma. Both product structures were elucidated by IR, MS and 1H NMR. This synthesis processing has the advantages of easily available raw materials, simple operation and purely aromatic products, which will have widely prospects for industrial development.

Combinatorial Extraction and Structure Analysis of Rice Bran Polysaccharide
CHI Hai-xia,TU Zong-cai*,CHEN Gang,ZHANG Lu,WANG Hui
2010, 31(24):  168-171.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024036
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Objective: To improve the yield of polysaccharide from rice bran. Methods: On the basis of single factor experimental results, the optimal processing conditions of ultrasound-assisted cellulase-critic acid extraction for rice bran polysaccharide were explored by orthogonal experiments through the evaluation of the yield of rice bran polysaccharide. Infrared spectrometry was used to scan and analyze the group types in rice bran polysaccharide according to absorption peaks in the wavelength range of 4000-500 cm-1. Results: The optimal extraction processing conditions were ultrasonic treatment time of 1 h, ultrasonic treatment temperature of 50 ℃, ultrasonic treatment power of 100 W and pH 5.0. The yield of rice bran polysaccharide was up to 6.69% under the optimal extraction processing conditions. Infrared spectroscopy exhibited that the major functional groups in rice bran polysaccharide achieved by combinatorial extraction method were consistent with those in rice bran polysaccharide extracted by hot water. Conclusion: The structure of the polysaccharide can not be damaged by combinatorial treatments of ultrasonic wave, enzymolysis and critic acid.

Extraction Processing of Polyphenols from Malus micromalus Makino
CHENG Zheng-tao1,DING Qing-bo2,ZHANG Hao1,REN Fa-zheng1,*
2010, 31(24):  172-176.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024037
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Objective: To optimize the extraction processing of polyphenols from Malus micromalus Makino. Methods: Based on the single factor experimental analysis, the effects of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time on extraction rate of polyphenols from Malus micromalus Makino were evaluated by response surface methodology. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to explore the optimal extraction processing parameters on the basis of the effects of factors and their cross-interaction on the extraction rate of polyphenols. A regression equation prediction model was established by SAS software for the analysis of response surface values. Results: The optimal extraction conditions of polyphenols from Malus micromalus Makino were ethanol concentration of 52.4%, extraction temperature of 79 ℃ and extraction time of 3.2 h. Under these optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of polyphenols was up to 9.25 mg/g. The relative error between the actual extraction rate and predicted extraction rate was 0.22%. Conclusion: The achieved optimal processing conditions suitable for the extraction of polyphenols from Malus micromalus Makino.

Optimization of Two-phase Solvent System Extraction Processing for Isoflavone from Flos puerariae by Response Surface Methodology
FENG Wei-xi1,ZHANG Yong-dan2,HAN Ting2,LIU Ying2,CHENG Gang3,HUANG Wen2,*
2010, 31(24):  177-181.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024038
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Flos puerariae was used as raw material to extract isoflavone using n-buatnol/water two-phase system as solvents. Based on single factor experiments, the optimal extraction processing was explored by central design composite experiments combined with response surface methodology. Results showed that the optimal extraction processing parameters were extraction time of 1.3 h, extraction temperature of 70 ℃, n-buatnol-water ratio of 1:1 (V/V) and material-liquid ratio of 1:55 (g/mL). Under these optimal conditions, the extraction rate of isoflavone was 96.24%, which was very close to predicted value. Therefore, it is feasible to optimize the extraction processing of isoflavone from Flos puerariae by response surface methodology.

Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Ostrich Oil
LI Xiao-ping,LUO Hai-li,CHEN Jin-ping
2010, 31(24):  182-185.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024039
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The optimal processing conditions of ultrasound-assisted extraction for ostrich oil were explored by single-factor experiments and rotation composite design to investigate the effects of extraction temperature, extraction time, ultrasonic power, and material-liquid ratio on extraction rate of ostrich oil. Results indicated that the optimal processing parameters of ultrasoundassisted extraction for ostrich oil were extraction temperature of 65 ℃, extraction time of 25 min, ultrasound power of 140 W and material-liquid ratio of 1:8. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of ostrich oil was up to 93.9%.

Optimization of Preparation Processing for Chromium Amino Acid Chelated by Response Surface Analysis
GUO Teng,WANG Shi-ping*,CAO Jia-lu
2010, 31(24):  186-191.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024040
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In order to optimize the preparation processing of chromium amino acid chelated, response surface methodology was employed to analyze the effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, pH, protein hydrolysate-chromium ratio and the cross-interaction among factors on chelating reaction. On the basis of single-factor experimental results, a mathematical regression model was established, and the optimal preparation processing conditions were reaction temperature of 48.9 ℃, reaction time of 85.57 min, pH 7.15, protein hydrolysate-chromium ratio of 3.76:1. Under these optimal processing conditions, the chelating rate was 0.6013, which was close to theoretical chelating rate of 0.6135 with a relative error of 1.99%. Therefore, this investigation provided a theoretical reference for the chromium supplementary products.

Extraction Processing of Water-soluble Dietary Fiber from Allium chinense Leaves
SU Wei,ZHAO Li,YUAN Mei-lan,LIU Hua,FU Ting
2010, 31(24 ):  192-194.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024041
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Allium chinense leaves were used as the raw materials to conduct acid hydrolysis for extracting water-soluble dietary fiber. The optimal extraction processing parameters were explored by single-factor and orthogonal experiments through evaluating the effects of material-liquid ratio, extraction pH, extraction temperature and extraction time on extraction rate of watersoluble dietary fiber. Results indicated that the optimal extraction processing parameters for water-soluble dietary fiber were material-liquid ratio of 1:15 (g/mL), pH 3.0, extraction temperature of 90 ℃and extraction time of 90 min. The extraction rate of water-soluble dietary fiber from Allium chinense leaves was up to 9.85%. The water-holding capacity and swelling power of the water-soluble dietary fiber were 5.5 g/g and 4.8 mL/g, respectively.

Ultrasound-assisted Extraction and Biological Activity of Total Flavonoids from Phellinus igniarius
HUI Jing1,LI Qi-jiu1,BIAN Yuan-yuan1,YOU Tian2,PANG Chong1,WU Na1,HU Feng-qing1
2010, 31(24):  195-198.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024042
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Objective: To optimize the extraction conditions of total flavonoids from Phellinus igniarius and determine its antioxidant activity and inhibition effect on the growth cancer cells. Methods: The ultrasound-assisted extraction processing parameters for total flavonoids from Phellinus igniarius were optimized by orthogonal experiments through evaluating the extraction rate of total flavonoids. The antioxidant activity of total flavonoids was explored by evaluating the scavenging capability on hydroxyl and superoxide anion free radicals. The anti-tumor activity of total flavonoids was evaluated by MTT assays through determining the inhibition effect on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer CX-1 cells in vitro. Results: The optimal extraction processing parameters were ethanol concentration of 55%, extraction temperature of 70 ℃, material-liquid ratio of 1:20 (g/mL) and extraction time of 1.5 h. The total flavonoids from Phellinus igniarius exhibited strong scavenging capability on hydroxyl and superoxide anion free radicals. Meanwhile, the total flavonoids could effectively inhibit the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, the total flavonoids had strong inhibitory effect on the growth of human colorectal cancer CX-1 cells. Conclusion: This extraction processing for total flavonoids is sample and convenient. The total flavonoids from Phellinus igniarius have strong antioxidant activity and strong inhibitory effect on the growth of cancer cells. Therefore, The total flavonoids from Phellinus igniarius have a promising potential as the effective natural antioxidant and anticancer components.

Preparation Processing of Shrimp Flavorings by Microwave-heating Maillard Reaction Method and Determination of Volatile Aroma Compounds
XIE Wan-cui,YANG Xi-hong*,CHEN Hao-lin,ZHANG Chao-hua,JI Hong-wu
2010, 31(24):  199-205.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024043
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In order to improve the depth development and utilization of shrimp by-products, the hydrolysate powder of Penaeus vanamei shrimphead was used as raw material to conduct microwave-heating treatments. Based on the single factor experimental results, the optimal preparation processing was explored by response surface experiments using sensory evaluation as the index. Results indicated that the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis processing were enzymatic hydrolysis pH of 6.9, reducing sugar of 5%, amino acids of 2% and taurine of 0.3%. Meanwhile, the optimal microwave-heating processing parameters were reaction time of 2 min and initial water content of 30%. Under these optimal processing conditions, prepared shrimp flavorings exhibited strong aromatic flavor. A total of 69 volatile flavor components were detected in prepared products by SPME-GC-MS, which included pyrazines, ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids. Moreover, the pyrazines was accounted for 49.86% of total volatile components and exhibited a significant contribution to product aroma. These investigations not only improve the depth exploitation and utilization of shrimp by-products, but also provide a new area for the development of compound seasonings.

Optimal Extraction Processing of Corn Germ Oil through Water-Enzymolysis Method
ZHAO Wei,WANG Da-wei*,LI Qian
2010, 31(24):  206-209.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024044
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Water-enzymolysis method was used to extract corn germ oil. The optimal extraction processing parameters were explored by single-factor and orthogonal experiments to be material-liquid ratio of 1:5 (g/mL), compound enzyme addition amount of 2.5%, enzymatic hydrolysis time of 7 h and hydrolysis pH of 6.0. The compound enzyme was composed of cellulase and α-amylase with a mass ratio of 4:3. Under the optimal extraction processing conditions, the extraction rate of corn germ oil was up to 89%. Gas chromatography analysis indicated that the contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid in corn germ oil were 43.46% and 40.22%, respectively.

Microwave-assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Auricularia auricula
CHEN Gang1,JI Bao-ping2,HUANG Li-shan1,WANG Liu-yang1,LIN Xiao-hua1
2010, 31(24 ):  210-213.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024045
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The optimal microwave-assisted extraction processing of total polyphenols from Auricularia auricula was investigated by orthogonal experiments to explore the effects of microwave power, microwave treatment time, material-liquid ratio and ethanol concentration on extraction rate of total polyphenols. Results indicated that the optimal extraction processing parameters for total polyphenols from Auricularia auricula were microwave irradiation power of 450 W, microwave treatment time of 120 s, material-liquid ratio of 1:25 and ethanol concentration of 75%. The extraction rate of total polyphenols was up to 0.72% under the optimal extraction processing conditions.

Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Total Flavoniods from Patrinia
MENG Liang-yu,LAN Tao-fang,LU Jia-kun,LI Xue-fei,LIU Xin-jia,PIAO Li
2010, 31(24):  214-217.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024046
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Objective: To develop an optimal extraction processing for total flavonoids from Patrinia and determine the antioxidant activity of total flavonoids. Methods: The effects of factors including ethanol concentration, extraction time, material-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were explored by orthogonal experiments to optimize the extraction processing of total flavonoids on the basis of the evaluation of total flavonoids content. The antioxidant activity of total flavonoids was evaluated by scavenging rates on hydroxyl and superoxide anion free radicals as well as nitrite, and antioxidant effect on lard and colleseed oil. Results: The optimal extraction conditions for total flavonoids were ethanol concentration of 60%, material-liquid ratio of 1:20(g/mL), extraction time of 2 h and extraction temperature of 70 ℃. The extract from Patrinia exhibited strong scavenging capability on hydroxyl and superoxide anion free radicals and nitrite. Meanwhile, the total flavonoids from Patrinia had strong antioxidant effect on both edible oils. The antioxidant activity of total flavonoids from Patrinia was stronger than vitamin C. Conclusion: Patrinia has bioactive components with high antioxidant activity.

Hydrogenation of Soybean Lecithin Power in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
SONG Yu-qing1,2,WANG Teng-yu1,ZHOU Xiao-dan1,CHANG Yun-he1,YU Dian-yu1,*
2010, 31(24):  218-221.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024047
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In order to improve the storage stability of soybean lecithin, the hydrogenation of soybean lecithin powder at the condition of supercritical carbon dioxide was performed. The hydrogenation reaction was conducted by using Pd/C as the catalyst, aqueous ethanol and dichloromethane (1:3, V/V) as the reaction solvent. The optimal hydrogenation processing conditions were explored to be catalyst amount of 4%, reaction temperature of 70 ℃, reaction time of 60 min, stirring speed of 250 r/min and reaction pressure of 10.5 MPa. The hydrogenated lecithin was light yellow, and its iodine value was 27.81 g I2/100 g. Meanwhile, the hydrogenated lecithin had better storage stability.

Separation, Purification and Activity of ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Oat
WANG Shuang1,2,WANG Chang-tao1,*,HAN Yang1
2010, 31(24):  222-229.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024048
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Through comparing three kinds of macroporous resins, DA201-C resin was selected to purify ACE inhibitory peptides from oat. The ACE inhibition rate of purified peptide from oat was 92.86%. The molecular mass of HPLC-purified oat ACE inhibitory peptides was the range of 240.10-1292.11 D. SephadexG-15 gel was used to purify ACE inhibitory peptides to obtain a fraction D with IC50 of 0.103 mg/mL and molecular weight of 545 D. Results indicated that macroporous resin and gel filtration chromatography could better purify ACE inhibitory peptides from oat.

Optimization of Extraction Processing for Water-soluble Polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes
KONG Xiao-xue,AN Xin-xin*,ZHAO Li-yan,HU Qiu-hui
2010, 31(24 ):  230-235.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024049
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Wet ultra-fine pulverization extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction were used to explore the optimal extraction conditions of water-soluble polysaccharides from Flammulina velutipes. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the conditions of wet ultra-fine pulverization extraction for water-soluble polysaccharides. Results indicated that the optimal extraction processing parameters were the gap of colloid mill at 42μm, extraction temperature of 87 ℃ and extraction time of 170 min. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction rate of polysaccharides was 3.63%. The concentration of water-soluble polysaccharides based on predictive model was 417.6μg/mL, and the actually determined concentration of water-soluble polysaccharides was (418 ± 3.21 )μg/mL.

Extraction of Garlic Oil by Molecular Distillation Method
CUI Gang
2010, 31(24):  236-240.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024050
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Effects of different factors on extraction and separation efficiency of garlic oil were explored by using modern molecular distillation technology on the basis of Box-Behnken design principle and response surface analysis. The optimal extraction processing parameters were system pressure of 105 Pa, material-feeding rate of 1.2 g/min, material-feeding temperature of 40-55 ℃ and distillation temperature of 45.1 ℃. Under the optimal processing conditions, the quality of garlic oil was markedly improved, and the average yield of garlic oil was 0.476%. The content of water in garlic oil was 0.15% and the purity of garlic oil was up to 99.85%.

Analysis & Detection
Detection and Evaluation of Biological Amine Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria for Vegetable Fermentation
TIAN Feng-wei,MENG Tian,DING Jun-rong,LIU Xiao-ming,ZHANG Hao,CHEN Wei*
2010, 31(24):  241-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024051
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PCR and HPLC methods were used to detect and evaluate the capability of biological amine formation by more than 60 lactic acid bacterial strains. PCR detection of amino acid decarboxylase genes exhibited that 3 and 22 genes from tested strains were positive in histidine decarboxylase and tyrosine decarboxylase, respectively. At the same time, biological amine formation in tested strains was evaluated in MRS liquid media and vegetable fermentation model was determined by HPLC method. The production levels of histamine and tyramine produced by tested lactic acid bacteria in MRS media were 4.32-32.15 mg/L and 9.22-114.02 mg/L, respectively. In fermented cabbage system, production levels of both histamine and tyramine were less than 40 mg/L.

Use of Gas Chromatography with Flame Photometric Detection for Determination of Tributyltin and Triphenyltin in White Spirit
LI Juan1,SHENG Ming-yue1,YAN Ai-ping1,GUO Lan1,WAN Yi-qun1,2,*
2010, 31(24):  246-249.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024052
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A method was developed for simultaneous determination of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin(TPhT) in white spirit by using gas chromatography-flame photometry detection (GC-FPD). The sample was extracted by hexane, and derivatived by NaBEt4. The various factors influencing analysis results were investigated. The results present the good linearities between analytical signal and analyte concentration in the range of 0.1-10.0 mg/L with the correlation coefficients of 0.9990, 0.9995. For TBT and TPhT, limits of detection are 0.0375, 0.0489 mg/L, respectively. The average recoveries of TBT and TPhT at the spike levels of 0.5, 5.0 mg/L and 10.0 mg/L are in the range of 89.8%-100.9%, with the relative standard derivation of 4.15%-9.04%. A satisfactory result was obtained in the determination of organotin compounds in white spirit.

Simultaneous Determination of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A in Cereal Grains by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
2010, 31(24):  250-254. 
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A HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 and ochratoxin A in cereal grains. Cereal grain samples were subject to extraction using methano1-water (80:20, V/V), liquid-liquid purification, enrichment and derivation using trifluoroacetic acid. The purification was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm) with a linear gradient elution of acetonitrile-2% glacial acetic acid. The detection limits of developed HPLC method for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and OTA were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.05μg/kg and 0.51μg/kg, respectively. The linear detection ranges of developed HPLC method for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and OTA was 0.05-100, 0.125-25.00, 0.05-100, 0.125 - 25.00μg/L and 0.05 - 50.00μg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9998, 0.9998, 0.9998, 0.9996 and 0.9998, respectively. Recovery rates in cereal grains (corn, rice, wheat) spiked with mycotoxins were in the range of 71.73%-115.37% with the relative standard deviation of 3.00% - 9.88%. This HPLC method exhibited the capability to simultaneously determinate mycotoxins. Moreover, no significant difference was observed between the determination results and current national standard (P> 0.05).
Determination of Ampicillin Residues in Milk by Receptor-binding Assay
SUN Yong-hai1,ZHANG Jie2,HAN Yong3,LI Zhuo-lin2,LI Tie-zhu2,*
2010, 31(24):  255-258.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024054
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The receptor has been utilized to develop a novel microplate assay for the determination of ampicillin with intact beta-lactam structure in milk. The receptor with high affinity to penicillin is produced by biotechnology. Then the receptor is employed as an identification unit to develop an indirect competitive receptor-binding assay. The detection limit of ampicillin was 2 μg/kg in milk. The assay has been developed as screening test with the option for a quantitative assay, when the identity of the residual beta-lactam is known.

SPME-GC-MS Analysis of Aromatic Compositions in Valencia Orange Juice During Processing Units
GUO Li,WU Hou-jiu,WANG Hua*,SUN Zhi-gao
2010, 31(24):  259-263.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024055
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The aromatic components in Valencia orange juice from five processing control points were analyzed and identified by solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Totally 50 aromatic components were found, and main components were as follows: limonene (84.79%-86.92%), β -myrcene (3.87%- 5.83%), α - pinene (1.03%-2.05%), linalool (0.02%-1.72%), decanal (0.15%-0.28%), nonanal (0.03%-0.52%) and ethyl butyrate (0.12%-0.44%). Processing had important influence on the varieties and contents of aromatic components, and the varieties in 5 samples were 38, 36, 31, 30 and 20, respectively. After the refining filtration, the contents of hydrocarbons increased 2.01%, and the contents of alcohols decreased by 2.00%. After deaeration, the contents of hydrocarbons and alcohols decreased by 0.95% and 0.15%, respectively. After pasteurization, the juice had the similar aromatic constituents with those of the deaerated juice. The contents of hydrocarbons and alcohols decreased by 3.85% and 1.16% respectively after reconstituting from concentrate.

AFLP Fingerprinting for Identifying Geographical Origins of 31 Sun-dried Tea (Maocha) Samples
JI Peng-zhang1,2,LU Cai-you3,LIANG Ming-zhi1,ZHANG Jun1,HUANG Xing-qi2
2010, 31(24):  264-267.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024056
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Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) markers were employed to identify the geographical origins of 31 sundried tea samples, which was a material for Pu erh tea processing. A total of 420 polymorphic bands out of 426 reproducible products were amplified. Percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 94.6%. Dendrogram generated after UPGMA clustering by NTSYS software indicated that 31 samples could be divided into conventional and ancient tea type. There were three methods to identify ancient tea and conventional tea, and to discriminate ancient tea from other geographical origins using AFLP marker: (1) based on the main peak value and the highest and second highest value of dye signal of tea samples. (2) based on the whole AFLP diagram of different samples. (3) cmpare target tea AFLP diagram with control tea group AFLP diagram. The result showed that AFLP marker was an effective tool and a robust method in discrimination of sun-dried tea (Maocha).

Free and Glycosidically Bound Volatile Flavor Compounds in Fruit of Litchi chinensis Huaizhi
LI Chun-mei1,HAO Ju-fang1,ZHONG Hui-zhen1,XU Yu-juan2
2010, 31(24):  268-271.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024057
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Free and glycosidically-bound volatile compounds were isolated and identified from Huaizhi litchi juice using an Amberlite XAD-2 column and GC-MS. The volatile compounds from the bound fraction were released by hydrolysis with almond β-glucosidase. The results indicated that the differences of aromatic constituents in composition and content between free and bound fraction were significant. Totally 41 and 33 compounds were identified in free and bound fraction, respectively. In the free fraction, the major volatile compounds found were benzenecarboxylic acid, geraniol, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester, phenylethyl alcohol, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, (E)-2-butenedioic acid dimethyl ester , benzyl alcohol, etc. However, in the bound fraction, the latent major volatile compounds found were benzenecarboxylic acid, geraniol, sorbic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, penzyl alcohol, dibutyl phthalate, farnesol, citronellol, etc. In addition, there were 15 compounds that just existed as glycosides, such as 1-undecanol, 1-hexanol, 2-heptanol, 3-octanol, beta-myrcene, benzaldehyde, etc. Especially the contents of typical aroma in litchi such as geraniol, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol and citronellol were higher than those in free fraction.

Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in Food by Sandwich ELISA
DUAN Xia1,HUANG Xin2,HUANG Ling-fang1,WEI Hua1,LAI Wei-hua1,*
2010, 31(24):  272-276.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024058
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A rapid, specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect L. monocytogenes in food samples, which using polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and anti-Internalin monoclonal antibody as the detection antibody. Anti-Listeria monocytogenes polyclonal antibody was prepared by using 0.5% formalin inactivated L. monocytogenes as antigen and Japanese rabbits as the host animal. The detection limit was 1.7×105 CFU/mL in pure culture. Results showed that food samples had limited interference to the detection, while pre-enrichment using selective enrichment broth could significantly increase the detection limit and sensitivity.

Determination of 3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol in Vegetables by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
XIE Juan1,2,WANG Yan-hong1,*,WANG Shi-cheng1,ZHANG Hong1,WANG Ying1,WANG Shan-shan1
2010, 31(24):  277-280.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024059
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A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was established for the determination of 3,5,6- trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), a kind of metabolite of chlorpyrifos in vegetables. The sample was extracted by acetone, and the extract was purified using hexane and DCM. The water was removed with anhydrous sodium sulfate. After condensation, the extract was dissolved into 1 mL of ethyl acetate and then derivatized with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), and finally the volume was adjusted to 1 mL using hexane. The analyte was detected by GC-MS, and an external standard method was used for quantifying TCP. The limit of detection was 8.3μg/kg, and the recovery rates of spiked sample were in the range of 70.4% - 107.6% with relative standard deviation of 4.3% - 8.7%. An excellent linear relationship was achieved in the range of 5-500μg/L with correlation coefficients over 0.99. This method is characteristics of accuracy, easy operation and can be applied for determining TCP in vegetables.

Determination of Hyperin in Rosa davurica Pall. by HPLC
ZHONG Fang-li,WANG Xiao-lin*,JING Cai-yue
2010, 31(24):  281-284.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024060
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Objective: To establish a determination method for hyperin in Rosa davurica Pall.. Methods: A HPLC method was developed using Shim-pack VP-ODS C18 (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm) column as the stationary phase and CH3OH-0.2% H3PO4 as the mobile phase. The flow rate of mobile phase, injection volume of the sample and the column temperature were 1.0 mL/min, 20 μL and 40 ℃, respectively. The UV detection wavelength was 360 nm. Results: A good linear relationship between integral value of peak area and hyperin concentration in the range of 4.76-76.16 μg/mL (r = 0.9993) was observed. The average recovery rate of hyperin was 98.06% with the RSD of 1.72%. Conclusion: The HPLC determination of hyperin in Rosa davurica Pall. was characteristics of convenience and accuracy, which can be used for the quality control of Rosa davurica Pall.

Processing Technology
Use of Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography for Determination of Para Red and SudanⅠ-Ⅳ in Egg Yolk
HOU Xiao-lin1,SUN Ying-jian1,WU Guo-juan1,MIAO Hong2,WU Yong-ning2
2010, 31(24):  285-288.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024061
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An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method combined with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was established for determination of para red and sudanⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ in egg yolk. A total of 0.5 g egg yolk was mixed with 2 g of neutral alumina, then rinsed with 35 mL of hexane-acetone (0.5:99.5, V/V) through a 5 mL syringe. The eluent was heated to about 45℃ with nitrogen blowing to dryness and redissolved for UPLC analysis. Mean recovery for the five dyes ranged from 63.8% to 96.2%, with coefficient variation at 0.52%-10.07%. One sample was found containing sudan Ⅳ among the 100 samples.

Analysis & Detection
Determination of Olaquindox Marker Residue in Animal Tissues by HPLC
ZHANG Xiao-jun1,2,ZHENG Bin3,*,CHEN Xue-chang1,YU Hai-xia4,MEI Guang-ming1
2010, 31(24):  289-292.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024062
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A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to determine olaquindox marker, methyl- 3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) residue in animal tissues. MQCA in muscle tissues were extracted by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, purified by MAX SPE, and then quantitatively determined by HPLC. The recovery rate of spiked MQCA at the addition range of 4.0-200μg/kg was 82.1%-90.3% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0μg/kg.

SPME-GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Compounds from Four XinJiang Monofloral Honey
SU You-zhi1,XIE Li-qiong1,WANG Qiang2,ABDULLA Abbas1,LI Guan1,*
2010, 31(24):  293-299.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024063
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Volatile components in 4 kinds of monofloral hoeny from oleaster, sunflower, rape and cotton were analyzed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spetrometry (GC-MS). A total of 144 volatile compounds were identified in 39 kinds of honey. Linalool, 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-cyclohexanol and diphene were the characteristic compounds in oleaster honey; cedrol was the characteristic compound in rape honey; 4-terpineol, 9-(3,3-dimethylepoxyethyl- 2-alkyl)-2,7-dimethyl-nona-2,6-enol, 2-camphene, 1-methyl-4-isopropenyl benzene, myrtenol, α,α,4-trimethyl- 2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-methanol andα-terpineol were the characteristic compounds in sunflower honey; 3-phenyl acrolein and 3-phenyl-2-allyl alcohol were the characteristic compounds in cotton honey.

Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship Analysis on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Nanjing Water Boiled Salted Duck
DU Xi-hua,CHEN Yan,DONG Li-ming
2010, 31(24):  300-304.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024064
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In order to establish a model to predict the retention index of volatile flavor compounds in Nanjing water boiled salted duck, quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) analysis was employed to analyze the relationship between Kovats retention index (KI) of volatile flavor compositions and their molecular structures, quantified as the molecular shape indices (mK) and electro topological state indexes (En) calculated by self-compiled program. Regression models were established on the data of 53 oxygen containing compounds, 24 hydrocarbons, 21 terpenes and heteroatom compounds, with their correlation coefficient 0.981, 0.992 and 0.941, respectively. The predicted retention index of oxygen containing compounds and hydrocarbons were in accord with the experimental ones. The three predictive models were tested using leave-one-out cross-validation method, and showed good stability and correlation coefficient. These results indicated that QSRR method could be employed to study the properties of volatile flavor compositions in Nanjing water boiled salted duck.

HPLC Determination of Polyphenols in Green Tea
HOU Dong-yan,HUI Rui-hua,LI Tie-chun,DIAO Quan-ping,WEI Wei,LIU Xiao-yuan
2010, 31(24):  305-307.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024065
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The polyphenol contents in green tea were determined by high performance liquid chromatography method, using the mobile phase consisting of acetic acid, methyl alcohol, N,N- dimethylformamide and warter (1:1:40:58, V/V). The column temperature was 30 ℃, and the detection wavelength was 280.0 nm. The regression equation obtained was Y=1×10-7X-0.0036 (r =0.9995). The coefficient of variation was less than 3.04%, and the recovery was 99.16%-100.60%. The result indicates that the proposed method is simple , accurate and feasible for determination of polyphenols in the green teas.

Extraction Methods of PCR-detectable Escherichia coli Genomic DNA in Milk
SONG Hong-xin1,ZOU Lian-zhu1,MA Dong2,XUE Hai-yan1
2010, 31(24):  308-310.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024066
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In order to obtain an appropriate sample for PCR detection, four extraction methods including saturated phenol method, CTAB method, kit method and solvent pyrolysis method for E. coli genomic DNA in milk samples were compared. Through evaluating the purity, quantitative analysis and PCR analysis of genomic DNA extracted by four methods, an effective and fast solvent-thermal pyrolysis method was suitable for the extraction of E. coli genomic DNA in milk. The genomic DNA extracted by this method used as the template is suitable for PCR amplification of E. coli DNA, which can be used for the detection of E. coli in milk.

Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationships Analysis on Aroma Compounds of Blackberry Wine
FENG Zi-ya,DU Xi-hua*
2010, 31(24):  311-313.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024067
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Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) analysis was employed to study the relationship between the structures of aroma compounds of blackberry wine and their corresponding retention time in gas chromatography. A multiple linear regression model was established that collated the retention time of 36 aroma compounds of blackberry wine to their quantitative indices, i.e., the molecular connectivity indexes (mχ) and electro topological state indexes (En). The regression equations were proposed and the correlation coefficient was 0.9904. The stability and prediction ability of the model was tested by the Jackknifed cross validation with good results(R>0.99). Hereby QSRR could be an ideal method for studying the properties of aroma compounds in blackberry wine.

Iodometric Determination of 2-Keto-D-gluconic Acid in Fermentation Broth
FENG Xiao-yan1,ZHOU Yan-zheng2,SUN Wen-jing1,2,WANG Da-ming1,YU Si-lian3,LIU Jing-ze1,*
2010, 31(24):  314-317.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024068
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Iodometric method was improved to prevent the interference of glucose in determination of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid  (2KGA) in fermentation broth. The results revealed a good linear relationship among the volumes of I2 standard solution consumed and concentrations of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid and glucose (R2>0.9999). The average recovery was 95.68% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.35% (n=5). The method developed here had good accuracy, stability and reproducibility, and was easily operated, hereby could be used for the determination of concentrations of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid in fermentation broth.

Rapid Determination of Curcumin in Preserved Vegetables by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
ZHANG Shu-fen,LU Jiang-hui,WANG Quan-lin,SHEN Jian
2010, 31(24):  318-321.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024069
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In this study, the rapid determination of curcumin in preserved vegetables by high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) was investigated. The extraction conditions, extraction methods and mobile phase selection were optimized. Results indicated that the optimal determination conditions were ZORBAX SB C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) as the chromatographic column, phosphorous acid solution (pH 2.5)-acetonitrile ratio of 50:50, and determination wavelength of 420 nm. Under the optimal determination conditions, ideal separation effect and satisfactory detection limit were achieved. This determination method is characteristics of good repeatability. Meanwhile, the detection limit and linear range of this method were 1.5 mg/kg and 1.5-2900.0 mg/kg, respectively. Recovery rate of this method was in the range of 95%-108% with relative standard deviation of 0.9% - 1.6% (n=5).

Potential use of FTIR for differentiation of fermented soy sauce and blended soy sauce
QIU Dan-dan1,LIU Jia1,YU Chun-huan1,WANG Chao1,ZHAO Guo-hua1,2,*
2010, 31(24):  322-324.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024070
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Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to discriminate fermented soy sauce and blended soy sauce with and acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein (acid-HVP). Results indicated that different samples were successfully discriminated from seven classes according to the distribution of geographical areas from principal components of PLS. By comparing the model correlation coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), the spectral region of 4000-500 cm-1 and the number of principal components was determined to be 8 and an optimal discrimination model was established. Totally 21 independent samples were successfully discriminated by the established model, which supported its availability about discriminating fermented soy sauce, HVP and blended soy sauce. The maximum deviation is less than 3.5%.

Comparison of Volatile Flavor Components of Yak and Dzo Meat from Tibet
LUO Zhang1,2,MA Mei-hu1,*,SUN Shu-guo1,JIN Yong-guo1,FANG Jun1,HUANG Qun1,LI Yan-po1,
2010, 31(24):  325-328.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024071
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The flavor components in longissimus dorsi and gluteobiceps muscles of yak and dzo from Linzhi, Tibert were extracted using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that the varieties and content of flavor components of yak were significantly higher than those of dzo (P<0.01). There are 96 flavor compounds in the longissimus muscle of yak, and the main compounds are aldehydes, accounting for 8.2448% of the total flavor components, which could be the characteristic flavor components of the yak meat. The main flavor components in the longissimus muscle of dzo are esters, accounting for 0.3037% of the total flavor components. The main flavor components in the gluteobiceps muscles of the two bovine species are esters. There are more varieties of flavor compounds in the gluteobiceps muscles of yak, however, their relative contents were lower.

Effect of Germanium in Culture Medium on Main Active Component of Cordyceps militaris
CHEN Hong-wei,HOU Jin-hui,CHEN An-hui,QIN Jie,SHI Jia-mei
2010, 31(24):  329-333.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024072
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Cordyceps militaris was cultured in culture containing certain level of germanium dioxide, and the contents of main active components in the C. militaris mycelia, i.e., intracellular polysaccharide, organic germanium, cordycepin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein and amino acids were investigated. Results showed that 200-300μg/mL of germanium dioxide in the culture promoted the content of main active components in the mycelia of C. militaris. However, higher concentration of germanium dioxide inhibited the formation of the above active components.

Rapid Detection Methods for Anthocyanins in Blueberry Beverage
SONG Yang-cheng1,CHEN Yu-juan2,LI Hao1,CHEN Xiao-hua3,CHEN Chang-wu1,REN Bao-guo1
2010, 31(24):  334-336.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024073
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Objective: To establish a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-glucoside in blueberry beverage. Methods: The anthocyanins including delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-glucoside were determined by HPLC with ZORBAX SB-C18 (4.6 mm × 75 mm, 3.5μm) as the chromatographic column, 3% phosphoric acid-methanol as the mobile phase, diode array as the detector and detection wavelength at 525 nm. Results: The detection limits of this HPLC method for delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-Oglucoside were 0.4 ng and 2.5 ng, respectively. The standard curve determined by this method exhibited an excellent linear relationship with correlation coefficient larger than 0.9984. The recovery rate of this method was in the range of 90.2%-98.3% with relative standard deviation less than 1.79%. Conclusion: The established HPLC method is a simple, rapid and sensitive determination method, which is suitable for the rapid determination of anthocyanins in blueberry beverage.

Determination of Inorganic Elements in Preserved Eggs by ICP-AES
ZHAO Yan1,2,LI Xin2,LI Jian-ke2,XU Ming-sheng1,TU Yong-gang1,3,*
2010, 31(24):  337-340.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024074
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In the present study, the contents of twenty inorganic elements such as Pb, Cu, Mg, Zn, Ca and Fe in fresh duck eggs and lead-prepared preserved eggs by ICP-AES. The recovery rates of spiked standard samples were in the range of 84.4%-112.2% with the relative standard deviation less than 7%. The detection limits of this method for twenty elements were in the range of 0.4-10 g/L. Results showed that lead-prepared preserved eggs were rich in essential inorganic elements, and the contents of most of organic elements in yolk were higher than those in egg white. Compared with fresh duck eggs, the contents of Cu, Fe, Al, Pb and Mn were significantly increased in preserved eggs. The content of Pb was greatly improved, and the increased trend of Pb content was exhibited a gradual attenuation trend from outside to inside. Meanwhile, experimental results indicated that ICP-AES technique could be used to determine inorganic elements in lead-prepared preserved eggs, which is characteristics of easy operation, accuracy and high sensitivity.

Extraction and Determination of Vitamin B2 in Millet
DONG Yong-gang1,WANG Ling2,*,LIU Li-dan2,LI Qing1
2010, 31(24):  341-344.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024075
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Effect of the extraction method, solvent, solvent concentration, pH and time on the yield of vitamin B2 in the millet was studied through single factor test and orthogonal design test. Vitamin B2 content was determined by fluorophotometric method with excitation and emission wavelength at 471.0 nm and 528.0 nm, respectively. In the optimum extraction conditions, millet was extracted with 0.1 mol/L of aqueous H3PO4 at pH 5.0 for 45 min in a water bath backflow. Under such conditions, the recovery of VB2 was from 89.20% to 100.32%, with the coefficient of variation 1.21%.

Nutritional Compositions in Fruit of Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) Cultivated in Yunnan
DU Ping1,SHAN Yun1,SUN Hui1,SUN Xiao-dong1,QU Xu2,ZHANG Xian-jun1,*,YAO Min1
2010, 31(24):  345-347.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024076
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Nutritional compositions in fruit of maca, which were introduced from abroad to Huize county of Yunnan province, was investigated according to the national standard. Dried maca root contained protein (12.31%), crude fibre (32.57%), fat (0.92%), vitamins C (314.97 mg/kg), Ca (1818 mg/kg), Fe (81.2 mg/kg), Zn (23.8 mg/kg), K (18.7 mg/kg), P (1895 mg/kg), and other mineral elements. Fatty acids consisted of linoleic acid (38.64%), linolenic acid (26.46%), and palmitic acid (17.73%). The content of amino acids were 14.04%. The study provided a scientific basis for the research and development of maca.

Quantification of All-trans-lycopene and β-Carotene from Tomato and Its Products by Internal Standard Method on C30-HPLC
DING Jing,HUI Bo-di*
2010, 31(24):  348-354.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024077
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Objective: To establish a simultaneous determination method for all-trans-lycopene and β-carotene by internal standard on C30-HPLC. Methods: Stationary phase, YMCTM Carotenoid column C30 (4.6 mm×250 mm, SOD-5μm, Waters); mobile phase A, CH3CN-MeOH (3:1, V/V); mobile phase B, MTBE; both A and B with the addition of 0.05% triethylamine; elution, 30% B in 0-10 min, a linear increase of mobile phase B from 30% to 90% in 10-20 min and 90% mobile phase in 20-30 min; flow rate, 1 mL/min; PDA wavelength range, 300-600 nm; monitoring wavelength, 470 nm and 450 nm; injection volume, 20μL; column temperature, room temperature. Results: Minimum detection limit of this method was 0.01μg/mL. In the range of 0.3-0.6μg internal standard, relative correction factor of internal standard to all-trans-lycopene andβ-carotene were 1.36 and 1.22, respectively. The relative standard deviations of reproducibility experiments were 0.50% and 0.70%, respectively. The recovery rates of this method were higher than 99.00%. Conclusion: The established method is suitable for the determination for all-trans-lycopene and β-carotene in tomato and its products.

Processing Technology
Preparation of Colloidal Gold Strip for the Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7
HUANG Ling-fang1,DUAN Xia1,CHEN Yuan2,LIU Wen-juan2,WEI Hua1,LAI Wei-hua1,*
2010, 31(24):  355-359.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024078
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Anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 monoclonal antibody was labeled with colloidal gold to prepare a strip for the detection of E. coli O157: H7. Anti-E. coli O157:H7 polyclonal antibody and donkey anti-mouse IgG were dispensed on the nitrocellulose membrane as the test line and control line, respectively. The optimal conjugation was performed using 16.8μg/mL antibody at the condition of pH 8.0 and blocked with PEG20000. However, the optimal pH range for the detection was 7.0-7.5. Cross-reaction test was conducted by 26 bacteria strains. Results showed no obvious cross-reaction were observed except for the slight cross-reaction from Salmonella typhimurium ATCC13311 and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of the developed strip was up to 104 CFU/mL. Moreover, this kind of developed strip was characteristics of simple operation, rapid detection, high sensitivity and specificity.

Analysis & Detection
Discriminating the Quality of Brown Rice Stored at Different Conditions by Electronic Nose
SONG Wei1,LIU Lu1,ZHI Yong-hai2,CHEN Rui1
2010, 31(24):  360-365.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024079
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Brown rice stored at different conditions was analyzed by using an electronic nose (PEN3) from Airsense Company in Germany. Response values of PEN3 were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA). Results indicated that electronic nose could identify brown rice samples stored at different temperatures and moisture by PCA and LDA methods. In addition, brown rice samples stored in different temperatures and O2 concentrations also could be well distinguished using LDA method, but the total contribution rate of LDA was lower than that of PCA. The water content and temperature had more significant effect on the response values of electronic nose than oxygen concentration. A crossinteraction was also observed between water content and temperature. The Loadings analysis proved that sensors W5C and W1S in the electronic nose PEN3 have an important impact during the detection, which could provide the guidance to optimize and screen matrix arrangement for better performance of electronic nose.

Rapid Detection of Sulfadimidine Residue in Food by Colloidal Gold Strips
LIN Xiao-li1,RAO Hui 2,XIONG Yong-hua1,CHEN Yuan3,LIU Wen-juan3,LAI Wei-hua1,*
2010, 31(24):  366-369.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024080
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Objective: To establish a rapid and convenient detection method for sulfadimidine residue in food. Methods: The colloidal gold strip for specific sulfadimidine was developed successfully on the basis of competitive inhibition immunochromatography mechanism. Results: The detection limit of the colloidal gold strip was 10 ng/mL for sulfadimidine within less than 5 min, which also had low cross-reactivity with other sulfonamides. The colloidal gold strip could be used in rapid detection of sulfadimidine residue in many kinds of food samples with detection limit of 100 μg/kg. Conclusion: This method is characteristics of simplicity, high sensitivity and specificity to achieve the rapid detection of sulfadimidine residue in food.

Indirect ELISA for Detection and Quantification of Bovine Milk in Goat Milk
XUE Hai-yan1,HU Wei-wei1,SONG Hong-xin1,*,HAN Yan1,YANG Zhan-yue2
2010, 31(24):  370-373.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024081
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An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection and quantification of bovine milk adulteration in goat milk. The polyclonal antibodies were modified by mixed them with goat milk for the assay. The absorbance at 450 nm in indirect ELISA revealed a linear relationship with the concentration of adulterated bovine milk at the range of 4%-50%. Detection limit was 4% for mixed milk samples. The assay was characteristics of high reproducibility with intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients less than 5%. The recovery rate of spiked samples was in the range of 94%-105%. Therefore, the ELISA can successfully use to determine the adulteration of milk samples, which is suitable for developing a kit in routine inspection of milk.

Determination of Four Metal Elements in Vineyard Soil and the Effect on Grape and Grape Wine
ZHANG Yun-feng1,LI Yan1,2,YAN Bin3,PANG Jian3,MOU De-hua1,*
2010, 31(24):  374-379.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024082
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In this study, the wet digestion method was used to treat soil samples from five vineyards in Hebei Changli grape-producing area. The contents of four metal elements such as copper, iron, zinc and manganese in grape, grape wine and vineyard soil samples were detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that the contents of four metals were significantly different in soil samples and grape samples with different varieties, age and postures from different vineyard locations and microenvironments. The contents of iron, zinc and manganese in soil of vineyards reveal a correlation with the contents of three metal elements in grape. There was a similar trend in the contents of copper, iron, zinc except manganese between the soil and grape wine from three kinds of grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Syrah.

Analysis of Volatile Components in Shanxi Overmature Vinegar with Different Aging Periods
MIAO Zhi-wei,LIU Yu-ping*,CHEN Hai-tao,HUANG Ming-quan,SUN Bao-guo
2010, 31(24):  380-384.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024083
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Volatile compounds in two kinds of Shanxi overmature vinegar during different aging periods were extracted through simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-nine volatile compounds were identified to be acids, ketones, esters and herterocylic compounds. Among them, the contents of acetic acid, furfural, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2,3-butanedione and tetramethylpyrazine were approximately 90%. The aging period had a significant effect on the number of volatile components. Therefore, a significant difference in aroma characteristics between 5-year-old vinegar and 8-year-old vinegar was observed. By formulating experiments, the major flavor compounds contributing to aroma characteristics of Shanxi overmature vinegar were confirmed.

Determination of Aflatoxins in Food by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
ZHENG Yan,WANG Yuan-xing*,LI Jin-jin
2010, 31(24):  385-388.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024084
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In order to improve detection sensitivity of aflatoxions, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the simultaneously qualitative and quantitative analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. Samples were sequentially extracted by acetonitrile-water at a ratio of 84:16 (V/V), cleaned up with multifunctional cleaning column. After injection, the chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using a mobile phase composed of a mixture of 0.1% formic acid and methanol through gradient elution. The analysis was realized by multiple reaction-monitoring modes. Under above conditions, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 could be completely separated in 5 min with an excellent linear relationship. The determination limits for 4 kinds of aflatoxins were 0.012, 0.009, 0.013μg/kg and 0.007μg/kg, respectively. The recovery rate of spiked samples was in the range of 80%-95% with a relative standard deviation less than 5%. This method can provide a rapid, sensitive, accurate and reproducible detection for aflatoxins and its detection limit is sensitive enough to meet the European regulation for aflatoxins.

SPME-GC Analysis of Aromatic Components in Red Wine by Response Surface Methodology
YU Jing1,WANG Hong-lei1,HUO Jiang-lian2,LI Jing-ming3,GE Yi-qiang4,*
2010, 31(24):  389-394.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024085
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Major aromatic components in red wine were analyzed by solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Effects of extraction time, extraction temperature and NaCl concentration on major aromatic components in red wine were explored by single-factor and response surface experiments. Results indicated that the optimal parameters of SPMEGC analysis were extraction time of 30.50 min, extraction temperature of 45 ℃ and NaCl concentration of 0.29 g/mL. Under the optimal conditions, total aroma value was increased by 6.1 folds.

Determination of Sulfite in Aquatic Products by Nitrogen Distillation-Pararosaniline Hydrochloride Spectrophotometric Method
CEN Jian-wei,LI Lai-hao*,YANG Xian-qing,HAO Shu-xian,XIN Shao-ping,
2010, 31(24):  395-401.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024086
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In this study, the determination of sulfite content in aquatic products was investigated. A nitrogen distillationformaldehyde solution absorption-pararosaniline hydrochloride spectrophotometric method was established through comparing different extraction and determination methods to determine sulfite content in aquatic products. The established method exhibited an excellent linear relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.9993 for sulfur dioxide at the concentration range of 0.1-2.0μg/mL. The recovery rate of this established method was 80%-100% with relative standard deviation of less than 10%. The detection limit of this method was 0.30 mg/kg. Therefore, this developed method is characteristics of good repeatability, less pollution and high recovery rate, which is suitable for the determination of sulfite in aquatic products.

Nondestructive Identification of Olive Oil by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
WANG Chuan-xian1,CHU Qing-hua1,NI Xin-lu1,HAN Li1,WENG Xin-xin2,LU Feng2
2010, 31(24):  402-404.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024087
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Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used to rapidly and economically identify the authentication of olive oil. NIR coupled with clustering analysis (CA) could use to identify many kinds of edible oils. Results indicated that CA revealed an obvious difference between olive oil and other edible oils. Meanwhile, a slight difference between olive oil and other edible oils was observed in principal component analysis (PCA). In this paper, NIR method played a good role in discrimination, which offered a new approach to rapid identification of pure and adulterated olive oil.

Change in Volatile Flavor Components in Qiaoqi Ham During Fermentation
LI Cheng,ZHANG Jing,FU Gang
2010, 31(24):  405-409.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024088
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In order to explore the mechanism of flavor formation in Qiaoqi ham, biceps femoris from ham fermented 1, 45, 90,135, 180 days and 225 days was used as the experimental subject to analyze volatile flavor compounds by gas chromatographymassspectrometry and solid phase micro-extraction with 75μm CAR/PDMS as the fiber probe. Results indicated that 71 volatile flavor compounds including aldehydes, alcohols, acids, hydroearbons, ketones, esters and phenols were identified in Qiaoqi ham. Aldehydes exhibited the highest content in all volatile flavor compounds. During the fermentation processing, the relative contents of acids, aldehydes, hydroearbons, esters and phenols exhibited an increased trend, whereas alcohols and ketones exhibited a decreased trend. The characteristic flavor of Qiaoqi ham is engendered by the integration of aldehydes, alcohols, acids, hydroearbons, ketones, esters, phenols and other compounds.

Analysis of Volatile Components in Ostrea rivularis Hydrolysates by SPME-GC-MS
LIU Xiao-li,XIE Wan-cui,YANG Xi-hong*,ZHANG Chao-hua
2010, 31(24):  410-414.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024089
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In order to obtain a good flavor oyster hydrolysate, fresh oyster (Crassostrea rivularis Crould) was hydrolyzed by papain and neutral protease. Volatile components in raw material and hydrolysates were analyzed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to explore the effect of hydrolysis processing on flavor compounds. A total of 57, 60, and 62 kinds of volatile compounds in three samples were identified by comparing their mass spectra with NIST mass spectral database. Among these compounds, most of them were hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, kotones, and sulfuric compounds. The cooperation of these compounds provided a specific flavor of oyster and its hydrolysates. Kotones were the major components in raw material, whereas, aldehydes and esters were the major components in hydrolysates of oyster. Meanwhile, alcohols exhibited higher contents in three samples, and the contents of alcohols in three samples were 40.24%, 41.20% and 43.28%, respectively. Moreover, the hydrolysates obtained from neutral protease exhibited better flavor than the hydrolysates from papain digestion. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis reaction can improve the flavor of oyster and the prepared hydrolysates of oyster have promising application potential.

Total Alkaloids in Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Cultivated in Yunnan
GAN Jin,FENG Ying*,HE Zhao,XU Long-feng,ZHANG Hong,CHEN Xiao-ming
2010, 31(24):  415-419.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024090
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In this syudy, a determination method was established to analyze the contents of total alkaloids in Maca (Lepidium meyenii) cultivated in Yunnan with 3 kinds of different color. Total alkaloids in 3 color types of Maca were analyzed by acidic dye colorimetry and titration, respectively. Results indicated that acidic dye colorimetry was sensitive with less relative standard deviation (RSD). This method is more appropriate for the determination of total alkaloids in Maca cultivated in Yunnan; The contents of total alkaloids in purple Maca, white Maca and yellow Maca cultivated in Yunnan were 4.4078, 2.9193 and 2.2241 mg/g, respectively, with a significant difference (P< 0.01). The content of total alkaloids in purple Maca is the highest, which is close to the content of total alkaloids in Maca grown in Peru.

Comparison of Volatile Components in Fermented Douchi by Aspergillus oryzae and Natural Method
JIANG Li-wen1,2,3,LIAO Lu-yan1,2, FU Zhen-hua2,3,HU Xin-xin1,2,3
2010, 31(24):  420-423.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024091
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Volatile components in Douchi produced by natural fermentation and pure Aspergillus oryzae fermentation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 51 volatile compounds were identified from two kinds of fermented Douchi samples. Among 51 volatile compounds, 11 classes of compounds were identified, which included esters, pyrazines, ketones, alcohols, alkane, olefin, acids, furans and aldehydes. The volatile components with high contents in pure fermented Douchin by Aspergillus oryzae were esters (58.53%), acids (23.98%), olefin (10.07%) and ketones (5.56%); the volatile components with high contents in naturally fermented Douchin were acids (62.4%), esters (31.46%), aldhydes (3.07%) and amines (1.98%).

Effect of Frying on Nutritional Compositions of Walnuts
SHAO Liang-liang,XU Jia-jie,ZHANG Liang,XU Cai-yun,HOU Fu-jing,SU Xiu-rong*
2010, 31(24):  424-426.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024092
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In order to explore the change of nutritional components in walnuts before and after frying processing, the contents of nutritional components in walnuts were analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Results showed that water content, total amino acids and essential amino acids in raw walnuts before frying processing was 48.57%, 111.43 mg/g and 32.32 mg/g. However, after frying, water content, total amino acids and essential amino acids were less than 10%, 74.74 mg/g and 20.26 mg/g, respectively. Meanwhile, the frying processing resulted in a decrease in the contents of amino acids in walnuts, especially for Glu, Ser, Arg, Tyr, Lue and Ile, and an obvious increase in saturated fatty acids. A significant difference between raw walnuts and fried walnuts was observed in infrared spectroscopy, which exhibited more absorption peaks in fried walnuts and the characteristic absorption peak was 3287 cm-1 for the raw walnuts and 3270 cm-1 and 1650 cm-1 for the fried walnuts.

Comparison of Nutritional Compositions in Muscle of Cambaroides dauricus and Procambarus clarkii
DING Jian-ying,KANG Jing,XU Jian-rong
2010, 31(24):  427-431.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024093
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In order to evaluate the nutritional value, nutritional components in muscle of Cambaroides dauricus and Procambarus clarkii were determined and analyzed using routine methods. The contents of general nutritional compositions, fatty acids and amino acids were compared between Cambaroides dauricus and Procambarus clarkii. Results showed that the contents of crude protein and crude fat in Cambaroides dauricus were slightly higher than those in Procambarus clarkii. Seventeen kinds of amino acids were detected in both species. The content of total amino acids was similar in two species, 15.18% for Cambaroides dauricus and 17.13% for Procambarus clarkii. The content of essential amino acids in Cambaroides dauricus was 6.25%, whereas 6.46% in Procambarus clarkii. Both species were rich in EPA and DHA. The proportions of EPA+DHA in Cambaroides dauricus and Procambarus clarkii were 7.24% and 3.69%, respectively. Therefore, Cambaroides dauricus and Procambarus clarkii are freshwater shrimps with high nutritional value. Based on the analysis of amino acid compositions, Procambarus clarkii exhibited higher nutritional value than Cambaroides dauricus. However, on the basis of the analysis of EPA and DHA in total fatty acids, Cambaroides dauricus and Procambarus clarkii had the equal nutritional value.

Detection of Ochratoxin A in Food by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay
QIU Yun-qing,WANG Wei,LI Feng-qin*
2010, 31(24 ):  432-435.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024094
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Objective: To establish a sensitive, specific and rapid chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) method for the detection of ochratoxin A (OA) in food. Methods: The optimal conditions of CLIA for OA detection including the concentration of OA-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate, the volume of OA-BSA solution for immobilization, the working concentrations of both antibodies against OA and a horseradish peroxidase-labeled anti-antibody, were explored by chessboard titration experiments. The linear range and the limit of detection (LOD) were studied as well. Certified reference material (CRM) of corn samples containing OA obtained from Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) were analyzed by the developed CLIA method. Results: The optimal CLIA conditions for OA detection were 0.06μg/mL coating concentration of OA-BSA, 100μL/well of coating volume and 1:400 of working titer of the antibody against OA. The linear range of the developed CLIA was 6-400 ng/mL. The half inhibitory concentration was 145 ng/mL and the LOD was 0.04μg/kg for OA in food samples. The recovery rate was in the range of 66%-124% with the spiked sample level of 0.1-2μg/kg. CRM corn samples were analyzed and the results were consistent with the real values. Conclusion: The developed CLIA method was simple, fast, sensitive and can be employed in the screening of OA in foods.

Packaging & Storage
Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Chitosan Treatments on Physiological Changes of Fresh-cut Taro during Storage
HU Wei-rong,LIU Shun-zhi,HUANG Hui-juan,JIANG Yue-ling
2010, 31(24):  436-439.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024095
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The effects of ascorbic acid (0, 1.0, 5.0 g/L and 10.0 g/L) combined with 15.0 g/L chitosan coating on quality and browning of fresh-cut taros (Colocasia esculenta(L) Schott) during storage at 15 ℃ were evaluated. The results showed that chitosan coating alleviated the weight loss, the decline of starch content and browning process, and inhibited the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and amylase. The treatment of 5.0 g/L ascorbic acid combined with chitosan coating was particularly effective in inhibiting enzymatic browning and maintaining the quality of fresh-cut taro.

Effect of Shellac Coating Treatment on Volatile Components of Ponkan during the Storage at Room Temperature
ZHENG Hua1,GAN Jin1,ZHANG Hong1,*,MA Li-yi1,ZHANG Wen-wen1,LI Kai1,2
2010, 31(24):  440-444.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024096
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In order to investigate the effect of shellac coating treatment on volatile components in fruits stored at room temperature, the volatile components was harvested by dynamic head-space absorption trapping method from the intact fruits of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) with shellac coating during the storage period of 10-40 days, and analyzed by thermal cryo-trappinggas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TCT-GC/MS). Results indicated that terpenes and their derivatives were the predominantly typical compounds among all volatile samples. Limonene, as the major component, was determined at low content of (10 ± 3)% in the control samples, which was probably due to a pre-experimental releasing peak during the storage period; however, the fruits with treatment of 6% and 12% bleached shellac coating exhibited a decrease in limonene content from 34.67% to 14.64% at the 10th day or from 40.83% to 11.69% at the 40th day. Therefore, shellac coating treatment was beneficial to the maintenance of characteristic aroma in citrus fruits. The slow-releasing effect of aroma components could be strengthened by increasing concentration of coating agent, and the membrane uniform could also be improved by adding auxiliaries such as nano-SiOx. On the other hand, there was a late peak of for the release of limonene, which demonstrated that the content of limonene was increased from 12.41% to 19.29% at the 10th day and from 10.30% to 35.16% at the 40th day.

Analysis & Detection
Antioxidant Effect of BHT in Prepared Chicken Liver During Storage
SUN Ling-xia,ZHAO Gai-ming*,LIU Yan-xia,GAO Xiao-ping,LIU Yong-an
2010, 31(24):  445-448.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024097
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In order to explore lipid oxidation and the antioxidant effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the prepared chicken livers adding BHT with various concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.15 g/kg and 0.20 g/kg) were used as experimental subjects to determine acid value (AV), peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) during the different storage periods for evaluating the lipid oxidation and antioxidant effect of BHT. Results indicated that except for the group with the addition of 0.20 g/kg BHT, the lipid oxidation began at the first 15 day in other groups during storage, and then lipid oxidized products started to decompose. BHT at the concentration of 0.20 g/kg can effectively inhibit lipid peroxidation and BHT at the concentration of 0.15 g/kg can effectively decrease the degradation of lipid. Therefore, BHT has excellent antioxidant effect.

Packaging & Storage
Preservative Effect of MAP and Near Freezing Point Storage on Housui Pear
WANG Zhi-hua,JIANG Yun-bin,WANG Wen-hui,DING Dan-dan,SHEN Chun-miao,
2010, 31(24):  449-452.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024098
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Housui pears were used as the raw materials to investigate the preservative effects of modified atmosphere package (MAP) bags coupled with 1-MCP treatment at different concentrations and near-freezing point storage. Results indicated fruits could maintain excellent quality in 0.02 mm PE and 0.04 mm PVC bags coupled with 0.5 μL/L 1-MCP treatment. In addition, Housui pears exhibited high CO2-resistant capability and no harm was observed under the condition of 3.0%-4.0% CO2. Fresh firmness was negatively correlated with polygalacturonase (PG) activity (P ≤ 0.05). Housui pear could maintain excellent quality and flavor for 150 days at - 1 ℃, and approximately 120 days at 0 ℃.

Effect of Chitosan-coating on Egg Quality
CHEN Chang-xiu
2010, 31(24):  453-456.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024099
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A total of 300 fresh eggs were randomly allocated into 6 treatment groups, and coated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 g/100 mL and 2.5 g/100 mL of chitosan. Then the eggs were stored at 25 ℃ for 5 weeks. Ten eggs were chosen from every treatment per week for determination of the weight loss ratio, Haugh unit, yolk index and albumen pH. The result showed that after 5 weeks storage, the weight loss ratio and albumen pH were significantly increased (P<0.05), meanwhile, the Haugh unit and yolk index of the eggs significantly decreased (P<0.05) in non-chitosan coated egg group. At 5 wk, compared with the eggs nocoated with chitosan, the weight loss ratio of all the eggs coated with chitosan was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and yolk index was significantly increased (P<0.05). The Haugh unit of the eggs coated with 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 g/100 mL and 2.5 g/100 mL chitosan was significantly increased (P<0.05) and albumen pH was significantly decreased (P<0.05). It had no significant difference on the weight loss ratio, Haugh unit, yolk index and albumen pH among the eggs coated with 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of chitosan(P>0.05). The grade of the eggs coated with 0.5 g/100 mL chitosan at 5 wk was C , which was equal to the grade of the eggs nocoated at 3 wk. The grade of the eggs coated with 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 g/100 mL and 2.5 g/100 mL chitosan at 5 wk was B , which was equal to the grade of the eggs nocoated at 2 wk. The shelf life of eggs were prolonged significantly by coating of chitosan.

Effect of Biological Preservative on Postharvest Physiology of Baifeng Peach and Ju feng Grape
ZENG Shun-de,ZHANG Chao,YIN Xu-min,DIAO Yuan
2010, 31(24):  457-460.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024100
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Microorganisms and secondary metabolites can be used for the preservation of post-harvest fruits and vegetables to reduce the pollution of chemical pesticides. In this paper, our home-made biological preservative was used to test the postharvest physiology of Baifeng peach and Jufeng grape during storage. Results indicated that the biological preservative treatment effectively decreased the accumulation of alcohol and malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, the biological preservative treatment also significantly increased the activity of peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL). Therefore, biological preservative treatment can reduce the decay rate of Baifeng peach and Jufeng grape fruits.

Effect of Chitosan and 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatments on Quality of Mango during Storage
BAI Huan,ZHU Mei-yun*
2010, 31(24):  461-464.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024101
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Fresh Datainong mango was treated with chitosan and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) during storage. The weight loss rate, hardness, soluble solid content, respiration rate, titratable acid content and chlorophyll content of mango during shelfstorage period were explored. Results indicated that the combinatorial treatment of chitosan and 1-MCP exhibited the highest respiration peak on the 10th day. Compared with CK, there was a delay for 4 days, and the content of titratable acids exhibited an increase of 4.4 folds. Chitosan and 1-MCP could also significantly reduce the softening degree of mango, decrease weight loss rate and chlorophyll content, attenuate the increase of soluble solids and maturity. Combinatorial treatments of chitosan and 1-MCP exhibited a better effect than chitosan or 1-MCP treatment alone, which will provide a significant improvement of mango quality during shelf-storage period.

Preservative Effect of Ozone Water Treatment on Catfish Meat
YAN Shi-jie1,2,LIANG Li-ya1,2,SONG Zhen-mei1,CAO Bai-hui1
2010, 31(24):  465-468.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024102
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Sensory evaluation, total bacterial count, TVB-N value and pH were used as the freshness index to evaluate the quality change of catfish meat treated with ozone water during storage. Results indicated that ozone water at the concentration of 5 mg/L and 7 mg/L could effectively inhibit the growth of bacteria, the rise of TVB-N value and pH, the decrease of L value and a value as well as the increase of b value in catfish meat. Therefore, the ozone water treatment can maintain better sensory quality of catfish meat, especially the ozone water treatment at the concentration of 5 mg/L.

Change of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Fruit Body Development Process of Panus giganteus
DONG Hong-xin1,2,CHENG Xian-hao2,ZHU Lin2,CAI De-hua2,LI Yu1
2010, 31(24):  469-472.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024103
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In this stady, the change in the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in fruit body of Panus giganteus during its development process were investigated. Results indicated that MDA content exhibited a gradual accumulation and the membrane lipid peroxidation was increased; meanwhile, the activities of SOD and CAT exhibited an initial increase and a final decrease trend; the highest activity of SOD and CAT was observed in the cup stage and pin-head stage. However, POD activity was stable during the stage of growth and senescence. Therefore, the metabolic disorder induced by the accumulation of active oxygen species was one of important factors for the senescence of Panus giganteus.

Characteristic Index and Dynamic Model of Chilled Pork under Different Package Conditions
HE Fan,XU Xing-lian*,ZHOU Guang-hong
2010, 31(24):  473-478.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024104
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In order to explore the quality change and establish prediction model of microorganisms in chilled pork under different package conditions, the values of L*, pH, TVBN value and total microorganism counts of chiller pork under pallet, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging were determined during the storage at 4, 7 ℃and 10 ℃. Results showed that the value of L* and pH exhibited an initial decrease and a final increase; however, the TVBN value and microorganism counts exhibited a gradual increase. In addition, an obvious difference of these characteristics was observed in different package conditions. Based on Gompertz equation and experimental data, a growth equation for microorganisms was established to be lgN=lgN0+Aexp{-exp [-B(t-M)]} with the aid of Matlab software. Through the verification using the secondary model and confidence of tested data, the establish model could precisely describe the growth of microorganisms with higher reliability and versatility. Finally, a prediction model of shelf-life have also been established to be shelf-life (d) = {[lg(MSL)-lg(N0)]×ln10}/(U×24)+LPD.

Technology Application
Preparation of Starch Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate
YAN Huai-yi,GUO Jun-jun
2010, 31(24):  479-483.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024105
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In order to extend the application of cornstarch, cornstarch was used as the raw material and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate was used as the esterification agent to prepare starch dodecylbenzene sulfonate. Its structure was characterized by using IR. Meanwhile, the degree of substitution (DS), viscosity and thermal stability of starch dodecylbenzene sulfonate was evaluated by different mole ratios between cornstarch and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, reaction time and pH. Results indicated that sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate-cornstarch ratio of 0.06, reaction time of 4 h and reaction pH of 14 resulted in the appropriate DS, the highest viscosity and thermal stability of prepared starch dodecylbenzene sulfonate.

Brewing Processing of Kiwifruit Dry Wine
WANG Li-zhi,JIANG He-ti*
2010, 31(24):  484-487.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024106
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Wild kiwifruits were used as the raw materials to explore the optimal brewing processing parameters for preparing kiwifruit dry wine. Results indicated that the optimal fermentation parameters were SO2 addition amount of 50 mg/L, yeast inoculation amount of 8%, fermentation temperature of 18-22 ℃. The optimal deacidfication agent was 11 g/L chitosan coupled with 6 g/L K2C4H4O6. The optimal clarification processing parameters were 0.1% pectinase and 3 g/L bentonite for clarifying 48h. Transmittance of prepared kiwifruit dry wine was 94.5% at 680 nm. Meanwhile, the prepared kiwifruit dry wine exhibited the best color and flavor.

Optimization of Preparation Processing of Soft Candy with Kudzu Powder
GU Ren-yong,LI Hao,YIN Yong-zhong
2010, 31(24):  488-490.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024107
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Kudzu powder was used as the major raw material to develop soft candy with kudzu powder. The optimal preparation processing of soft candy with kudzu powder was explored by orthogonal experiments through comparing gelling agents. Results indicated that the best gelling agent was composed of konjac gum-carrageenan gum-xanthan gum at the ratio of 1:1:1. The compound gelling agent exhibited an excellent comprehensive handing characteristics, appearance and flavor. Meanwhile, the optimal formula and processing parameters of soft candy were kudzu emulsion of 450 mL, 0.7 g/100 mL compound gelling agent, 6.0 g/100 mL sucrose, 0.3 g/100 mL citric acid, drying temperature of 55-60 ℃ and drying time of 8-9 h.

Preparation Processing for Freeze-dried Chips of Codonopsis lanceolata
YIN Chun-mei1,WANG Li-fang2,GAO Yuan2
2010, 31(24):  491-493.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024108
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Objective: To produce freeze-dried chips using Codonopsis lanceolata as raw material. Methods: The preparation processing of freeze-dried chips of Codonopsis lanceolata includes pretreatment with cleaning, cutting, thermal peeling and filling, pre-freeze and final sublimation-drying. Results: The optimal thermal peeling parameters were treatment temperature of 100 ℃ and treatment time of 20 min; the optimal drying parameters were material amount of 9.4 kg/m2, heating temperature of 80-65- 45 ℃ and vacuum pressure of 25-100 Pa. Conclusion: The prepared Codonopsis lanceolata chips under these optimal processing conditions have crisp taste, strong aroma and abundant nutrition.

Development of GABA-rich Fermented Beverage with Blood-pressure-lowering Function
LI Ruo-kun1,GAO Yan2,LU Tian-cheng1,WANG Xin1,*
2010, 31(24):  494-497.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024109
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Objective: To develop gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rich beverage by Monascus fermentation with bloodpressure- lowering function. Methods: Orthogonal experiments were performed to determine the optimal processing parameters for the fermented functional beverage. Results: The optimal formula of raw materials was composed of 50% green tea juice, 8% chrysanthemum extract and 14% lotus leaf-hawthorn-corn extract. Meanwhile, the optimal accessory materials for taste adjustment were 70 g white sugar, 0.4 mL of essential oil, 3 mLof anti-oxidant and 350 mL of tea juice in 1000 mL of fermented beverage. Conclusion: The prepared beverage contains GABA up to 0.26 g/L and achieved the excellent level in color, smelling and taste.

Fermentation Processing of Banana Yogurt
ZHENG Ya-qin
2010, 31(24):  498-501.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201024110
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The mixture of banana and milk was inoculated with lactic acid bacteria to prepare banana yogurt. The effects of different processing conditions, stabilizers and formula on the quality of banana yogurt were explored. The optimal fermentation processing conditions were 4% fermentation agent, 4% whole fat milk, 6% sucrose, microwave treatment of banana for 30 seconds, 10% banana pulp, 0.5% critic acid-VC ratio of 2:1, 0.1% gelatin, 0.1% CMC, sterilization at 95 ℃ for 5 min and fermentation at 43 ℃ for 5 h.