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Table of Content

15 February 2013, Volume 34 Issue 3
Studies antioxidation activity of Rice bran polypeptide with different molecular weights
Min ZHANG
2013, 34(3):  1-6. 
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The ultrafiltration membranes with the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) 10 000 and 3 000 u were applied to isolate the of alkali protease in rice bran protein and obtain the polypeptide mixture components with different molecular weights,the activities of each obtained component were analyzed combining with six antioxidation indicators. As seen from the results, antioxidation capacity of rice bran protein hydrolysate relate to weight of protein. The polypeptide that MW>10KDa has the strongest radical scavenging capacity,and it belong to the reactive oxygen radical scavenging antioxidation mechanism;that 3KDa

Spectrometric Investigation of the Antioxidant Activity of Allicin and Se-Allicin Against DPPH and ABTS Free Radicals
ZHOU meiyun
2013, 34(3):  7-10. 
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Two compounds ---Alliin and Se-Allicin were prepared by chemical synthetic method. The antioxidant activity of Allicin and Se-Allicin against DPPH free radicals was evaluated and compared using spectrometric methods. The results showed that the detection wavelength and stable time for DPPH system were 517nm and 30min respectively. Se-Alliin and Allicin could effectively inhibit the formation of DPPH free radicals in a dose and time dependent manner. In the optimized systems, the IC50 values of Se-Allicin and Allicin were 15.3 and 387mmol/L, respectively, indicating the former was significantly better than the latter. Our results gave new explanation for the fact that Se-rich garlic has better bioactivity than common one.

Influence of microwave heating to the quality characteristics of freezing steamed bread
Chun-xia WANG
2013, 34(3):  11-15. 
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Abstract: The influence of microwave heating to the temperature, water content, structure characterristics and other quality characteristics of freezing steamed bread were studied. Research shows that, increaseing the power of microwave can shorten the heating time, but had less effects to temperature change trend and structure characteristics.With direct microwave heating, 60% power is more advantageous in water keeping; Microwave heating with Steamed bread surface coating some water and microwave heating with steam both can extend the heating lag phase, and also reduce the water loss, improve the quality and structure characteristics of steamed bread.Microwave heating with steam method is the most ideal. All available, the best microwave heating conditions for frozen steamed bread are: microwave heating with steam, with high fire, heating time is 120 s (steamed bread quality is about 80 g). Energy is saved and ensure the quality of steamed bread too.

Selection of Rice Varieties for Dehydrated Instant Rice
2013, 34(3):  16-20. 
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38 rice varieties which were widely cultivated nationwide were processed into dehydrated instant rice. The physiochemical properties of rice and dehydrated instant rice, sensory qualities of dehydrated instant rice and appropriateness of raw rice material were analyzed to determine the optimal rice varieties processed into dehydrated instant rice. The results showed that rice varieties, types and growing area related to qualities of dehydrated instant rice. Sensory qualities of dehydrated instant rice could be evaluated by amylase content, protein content and peak time of rice. The linear equations, regressed by physiochemical properties of rice, can describe sensory qualities of dehydrated instant rice with great fitting accuracy. Some kinds of indica rice from Guangdong and Yunnan province are perfect material for dehytrated instant rice because of better sensory qualities, such as nice mouthfeel, moderate viscoelasticity and faint odour.
The change of tasty materials of Capsicum frutescens var in Chopped Chili fermentation
2013, 34(3):  21-24. 
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Fresh Capsicum frutescens var as material, chopped chili with natural fermentation was studied in the paper. The tasty materials such as total sugar, reducing sugar, total acid and amino acid nitrogen of chopped chili were determined according to different NaCl content and different fermentation time. So did frangibility value change before and after chili process. The result indicated that the tasty materials of chopped chili presented some regular changes in different NaCl content and different fermentation time. The total sugar, total acid and amino acid nitrogen of adding 10% NaCl chopped chili were the highest when fermentation four weeks. The frangibility value reduced significantly when fresh chili was produced into chopped chili(P=0.003).However, there was no significantly difference between different NaCl content of chopped chili product(P=0.440).
Migration of Phthalates from Microwave Paper to Food Simulant Tenax under Microwave Heating
2013, 34(3):  25-28. 
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The migration of five phthalates from microwave paper to food simulant Tenax was studied under microwave heating at heating power of 250 w and 600 w respectively. It was shown that the migration was influenced by microwave heating power, heating time, molecular structure, molecular weight and polarity of migrant. Compared with conventional heating, microwave heating could accelerate migration process, indicating that the migration was also influenced by heating mode. Microwave heating can be used as a unique method to accelerate the migration of the contaminants from paper packaging.
The Study of Mechanism of 6-Hydroxykaempferol-3-O-β-glucoside for Inhibiting Oxidative Damage of Deoxyribose
2013, 34(3):  29-32. 
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The Study of Mechanism of 6-Hydroxykaempferol-3-O-β-glucoside for Inhibiting Oxidative Damage of Deoxyribose WANG Yuan-kai1,ZHI peng2,ZHANG Li-wei1,* (1. Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China; 2. School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology,Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072, China) Abstract:Objective:To study the ability of 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-β-glucoside(6-HK-3-O-G) for inhibiting Fenton reaction and scavenging hydroxyl radical , and to explore the mechanism of inhibiting the Fenton reaction . Methods: the detection model of deoxyribose oxidative damage and scavenging DPPH?was used . Results 6-HK-3-O -G not only has strong ability of scavenging hydroxyl radical, but also can protect 2-deoxyribose oxidative damage which caused by the Fenton reaction. There are two reasons for 6-HK-3-O-G protecting deoxyribose oxidative damage,one of the reasons is the strong ability of 6-HK-3-O-G scavenging hydroxyl radical, and more important reasons is the chelation of 6-HK-3-O-G with Fe2+ , which can block the Fenton reaction. Conclusions: 6-HK-3-O-G do has strong anti-oxidation activity, and the chelation of 6-HK-3-O-G with Fe2+ may play a vital role for its inhibiting Fenton chemistry under physiological conditions.
Effect of high pressure processing on the microbes of fresh cut lettuce
2013, 34(3):  33-36. 
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Changes of Amylase and Some Nutrients of Polished Rice with the Germ Left Intact During Germination
Yong-le LIU
2013, 34(3):  37-40. 
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Changes of amylase and some nutrients of polished rice with the germ left intact during germination were investigated with brown rice as the comparison. The results showed that the activities of α-amylase and β-amylase increased to the highest value then decreased gradually during germination. The α-amylase activities of polished rice with the germ left intact reached the highest value after germination for 16 h, which was shorter than that of brown rice. The activity of endoglucanase increased during germination, and that of brown rice was higher than that of polished rice with the germ left intact. The content of total and reducing sugar increased and then decreased during the germination development, and the content of reducing sugar of polished rice with the germ left intact was higher than that of brown rice during germination. The content of starch decreased during the germination development, while the content of amylose having hot-water solubility increased continuously along with germination.
Migration of benzophenone and (1-hydroxycyclohexyl) phenyl ketone from microwave paper to Tenax under microwave heating
2013, 34(3):  41-45. 
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The migration of two UV absorbents namely benzophenone (BP) and 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone (HCH) from microwave paper to Tenax in microwave oven at the heating power of 100 w, 250 w, 440 w and 600 w was investigated respectively by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). In order to study the influence of different heating modes, the migration was also conducted under constant temperature heating. The results showed that the maximum migration of BP at the heating power of 250 w and 440 w is approximate and that of HCH at the heating power of 440 w and 600 w is approximate. In addition, the maximum migration rate of microwave heating was lower than that of constant temperature heating. We can know that temperature and work were also affected on migration under microwave heating in addition to heating power. And microwave heating can better promote the migration of these two compounds, but the maximum migration rate of microwave heating was lower than that of constant temperature heating.
The effect of monoglycerol on crystallization character of cottonseed oil and palm stearin interesterified product
2013, 34(3):  46-49. 
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Different contents of mono- oleoylglycerol were added to the interesterified product and the effect of mono- oleoylglycerol on interesterified blends’ crystallization properties was investigated in this paper. The results showed that mono- oleoylglycerol with 2% and 5% had no effect on solid fat content (SFC) and dropping points of the blends, while 10% mono- oleoylglycerol decreased the SFC and dropping points slowly. The crystallization temperatures of the blends were changed after adding mono- oleoylglycerol. The peak temperature of the low-melting-point components was increased with the adding content increasing, and it was contrary of the high-melting-point components. 2% mono- oleoylglycerol had no effect on the nucleation and crystallization rates of the interesterified blends. The ratio of the crystal polymorphism ?′, which is interesting for several food applications, of the blends was decreased after adding mono- oleoylglycerol and the more mono- oleoylglycerol was added, the less decreased.
Comparative study on quality characteristics of four hybrid hazelnut varieties in Shenyang and Ili
2013, 34(3):  50-54. 
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With four hybrid varieties of ripe hazel yield from Shenyang and Ili for material, Analyzed the appearance characters and the nuts nutritional quality. The results shows that:The weight and kernel rate of nuts in Ili is obviously higher than that of the Shenyang, The Kernel weight of “Liao Zhen Qi Hao ”of two production area was the highest, beyong 2.5g, but kernel rate was merely 35%, The Strain with highest kernel rate is “Liao Zhen Qi Hao” of Ili,which is 48.60%, and “Yu Zhui”is the highest one of Shenyang(44.66%). The Protein and Oleic acid content in nuts of Shenyang are higher than that of ili’s,and Linolenic Acid content is relatively low, The difference of Palm Acid、Stearic Acid and Linolenic Acid content are not big, The protein content of “Liao Zhen Qi Hao” of two area were the highest,and “Dawei” and “Yu Zhui” were lower;After introduction, The Educing sugar content in hazelnut of ili increased,Rate of increase with “Da Wei” was the highest(45.8%).VE and K contents in hazel of ili is higher than Shenyang,s 15.5% and 3.06%,and Ca and P contents in hazel was lower than Shenyang,s 16.68% and 24.33%。
Changes of grass carp muscle proteins during chilled storage period
2013, 34(3):  55-58. 
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Protein degradation is an important aspect of fish corruption. In this paper, The changes of grass carp muscle proteins with different solubility and structure during chilled storage were analyzed, and degradation profiles of total muscle proteins were studied using SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the water-soluble, salt-soluble, acid-soluble and alkali-soluble protein showed great difference in change trend during chilled storage period, after four days chilled storage, the water-soluble protein showed an increase in content, and the acid-soluble and alkali-soluble protein began to reduce in content. The myofibrillar protein, one of the three different structural proteins, showed significantly decreased after four days chilled storage, but the sarcoplasmic protein and muscle matrix protein were relatively stable because of slight content change in the whole storage progress. Besides, the total muscle proteins were constantly degraded during chilled storage period, and the degradation were accelerated at the 6 ~ 8 day, because the proteins with high molecular weight, such as the myosin heavy chain (MHC) were disappeared completely.
Purification of the bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0391
2013, 34(3):  59-63. 
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The purpose of this study is to purify the bacteriocin produced by Lb. plantarum KLDS1.0391. The bacteriocin was separated by chromatography techniques and the molecular mass of purified bacteriocin was determined by mass spectrometric analysis. The optimal method of purification was finally determined as follow: Cell-free supernatants of Lb. plantarum KLDS1.0391 was precipitated by 70% ammonium sulphate. Then the precipitates were dissolved in 1/40 volume of 0.05 M sodium acetate (pH 6.5), followed by cation exchange chromatography (using COLUMN XK 16/20 chromatographic column filled with SP Sepharose fast flow), and reverse-phase chromatography (using SOURCE 15RPC ST 4.6/100 further purify the solution for two times). The purity of the purified samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the molecular mass of samples was estimated on Tricine-SDS-PAGE, which concluded that the molecular mass was approximately 2000 kDa. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS analysis of purified bacteriocin revealed that the molecular mass was approximately 1770 kDa.
Effect of setting condition and egg white protein content on the gel properties of surimi from frozen horse-mackerel (Trachurus trachurus)
2013, 34(3):  64-69. 
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Horse-mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) is one of the major fish consumed in China, but has still not been commercialized to surimi-based products due to high lipid content, pigment and low gel-forming ability. Effect of egg white protein (EWP) on proteolysis of horse-mackerel was investigated. Effect of EWP on the gel properties of horse-mackerel surimi prepared under different heating conditions (30/90?C and 50/90?C) was studied. Regardless of heating conditions, addition of EWP resulted in the increased breaking force and deformation of surimi gels (p<0.05), compared with the control sample. The optimal gel properties was observed with 1%(w/w) EWP, setting at 30?C for 5h and then heating at 90?C for 20min. No changes in whiteness were observed with gels addition of EWP less than 1%(w/w) (p >0.05), while addition of EWP more than 5%(w/w) resulted in a lower whiteness (p <0.05). The microstructure of surimi gels generally became denser with the addition of EWP.
Study on Antibacterial Function and Mechanism of Monolaurin and Monocaprin
2013, 34(3):  70-74. 
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The aim of this work was to explore the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of monoglycerides containing monolaurin and monocaprin. Paper Disc Method was used to evaluate bacteria susceptibility of monolaurin and monocaprin. Two-Fold Dilution Method was used to test minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and Photoelectricity Turbidimetry Method was used to test antibacterial efficacy. Orescein diacetate (FDA) was used as fluorescent indicator to reflect the membrance permeability of testing bacteria after treating with monolaurin and monocaprin. Spectropbotometry Method was used to test the leak of internal substance of testing bacteria, such as: protein, nucleic acid, lipopolysaccharide, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. The change of cell surface was characterized using scanning electron microscope. Result showed that gram-positive and gram-positive bacteria were susceptive to monolaurin and monocaprin. Activity of monolaurin and monocaprin against Bacillus subtilis (G+) and Staphylococus aureus (G+) resulted from the destruction of cell wall and membrance caused by monolaurin and monocaprin. On the contrary, its antibacterial activity to Escherichia coil (G-) resulted from the leaking of lipopolysaccharide in the cell wall.
Effect of Different Gluten on Pasting Properties of wheat Starch
2013, 34(3):  75-79. 
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Pasting, as one of the most important property of starch, which happens during the cooking processing, which is closely related to the quality of boiling food and baking food. Starch pasting properties are mainly determined by characters of starch itself, also influenced by other ingredients. Wheat protein/gluten is the major component of wheat flour. But the interaction of gluten and pasting properties are not clear. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of different gluten on pasting properties of waxy- and no-waxy starch in order to provide scientific basis for further study on effect of gluten and starch pasting properties and direct quality improvement for wheat breeding. The pasting properties of slurry were analyzed using three kind of wheat starch (two no-waxy starch and one waxy-starch) mixed with five different additions(8%,10%,12%,14% and 16%) of three kinds of gluten (strong-gluten, medium-gluten and weak-gluten). The result showed that characters of starch are the determining factors of pasting properties; Gluten type and gluten concentration directly or through interacting with starch affected pasting properties significantly. Interaction of type of starch and gluten affected significantly on peak viscosity, integral area setback and pasting onset time; Interaction of starch and gluten concentration affected notably on all the pasting properties parameters except for pasting temperature and pasting onset time; The order of the negative effect of different gluten on breakdown was weak-, medium- and strong-gluten; The effect of gluten concentration was different resulted from the different of waxy and non-waxy starch. The obtained results could provide scientific basis for further study on interaction of gluten and starch and quality improvement for wheat breeding.

Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Maillard Reaction Products from L-lysine and Reducing Sugar Model System
Jing LI Baohua Kong
2013, 34(3):  80-85. 
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This study mainly investigated the effect of the type of reducing sugar and reaction time on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of MRPs, Maillard reaction products were prepared by heating mixture of L-lysine and reducing sugars (D-glucose, D-fructose, D-galactose) at molar ratio 1:1 for 0~6h, in 95℃ water bath. And the pH value, absorbance (A294nm、A420nm) , ?uorescence intensity, free amino group content, reducing power and ABTS radical scavenging activity were also determined. The results showed that, as heating time increased, the pH value of the model systems were significantly decreased (P < 0.05); non-?uorescent intermediate products (A294nm) and browning products (A420nm) were significantly increased (P < 0.05); ?uorescence intensity were sharply increased within 1h and subsequently decreased when heating time increased (P < 0.05); free amino group content were gradually decreased (P < 0.05); and the antioxidant activity of MRPs were significantly increased (P < 0.05) which indicated by reducing power and ABTS radical scavenging activity. MRPs derived from L-lysine and D-galactose model system rendered the highest intermediate and browning products, and also possessed greater reducing power and ABTS radical scavenging activity in the three systems. Because of its antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity, MRPs from L-lysine and reducing sugar model system could be a potent antioxidant in food industry.
Preparation and monosaccharide composing analysis of homogeneous polysaccharide FVP60-C2 from the fruiting bodies of Flammulina velutipes
2013, 34(3):  86-89. 
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The polysaccharide was extracted from fruiting bodies of Flammulina velutipes by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation. The crude polysaccharide was purified to obtain FVP60-C2 by Ion exchange column chromatography and Gel-filtration column chromatography. The physicochemical properties of FVP60-C2 were investigated by HPLC, UV and IR. Following the hydrolysis and acetylation of FVP60-C2, the monosaccharide composition of FVP60-C2 was analyzed by GC. The results showed a homogeneous polysaccharide FVP60-C2, with molecular weight 1.429×104 Da, was obtained, which is consist of fucose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose with the molar ratio of 0.74:0.21:1.36:1.00:1.31.
Study on Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Different Partical Size of Broccoli Powder
2013, 34(3):  90-92. 
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Abstract:The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of different partical size of broccoli powder made by freeze drying were studied in this paper. The result showed that: the smaller the distribution of granule diameter, the lower the flowability and density, but the higher the dissolvability. The content of Vc and chlorophyll from submicron powder and micro powder had no significant difference, but content of soluble protein of submicron powder was significantly higher than other powder. EC50 of DPPH· were 80~160 mesh: 1.40mg/mL; 160~240 mesh:1.32 mg/mL; 240~500 mesh:1.28 mg/mL;>500 mesh:1.20 mg/mL, respectively, amount to 2.54×10-3 mg/mL of Vc(positive control). The DPPH·scavenging activity of broccoli powder were strengthened with the decrease of partical size.
Separation, characterization, and bioactivity of polysaccharides from Sargassum cinereum
2013, 34(3):  93-96. 
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Two lightly yellow sponge polysaccharides SP1 and SP2 were extracted from Sargassum cinereum, after ultrasonic extracting in NaOH solution, deprotein through Sevage method, column separation, dialysis and lyophilization. Maximum yield of polysaccharide was obtained when the algae was ultrasonic extracted in 2 w% NaOH at 80℃ for 1 h and continuously 4 h in water bath, being 13.4%. The result of phenol-sulfuric colorimetric reaction was positive. UV and electrophoresis measurements showed that SP1 and SP2 have high purity. According to GPC, the molecular weight of SP1 and SP2 is about 36kDa and 77kDa, respectively. SP1 and SP2 both have characteristic FTIR absorbances of sulfate, carboxyl group, and α-D-galactopyranosides. SP1 and SP2 showed good antioxidant activity. The hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of SP1 and SP2 aqueous solution (10 mg/mL) was 87.2% and 61.5%, respectively. SP1 and SP2 also showed good ability to inhibit HL-60 cell proliferation. The anti-cancer activity of SP2 was higher than that of SP1.
Effect of metal ions on endogenous antioxidant activity of product malt
2013, 34(3):  97-101. 
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The barley was used as experimental material, and the metal ions (K+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Ca2+ and Cu2+) with different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) were respectively added in the steeping phase of barley. The related indexes of the resulting product malts, including the activities of the oxidoreductases SOD, CAT, POD and PPO, total phenol content, DPPH scavenging capacity, reducing power and TBA value, were determined. The objective of the above conduction was to investigate the effect of metal ions on malt endogenous oxidoreductases and antioxidant activity in vitro. The results show that the effect of each metal ion of different concentration on malt oxidoreductases is not the same. Notably, the metal ions with appropriate concentrations of are effective to enhance total phenol content, DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power and flavor stability of the corresponding malt. The related experimental results would provide reference data for rational application of these metal ions in brewing industry.
Effect of glycerol addition on properties of gelatin-pullulan-based edible films
2013, 34(3):  102-104. 
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The effect of glycerol addition on mechanical properties, color, water-vapor transmission ratio, oxygen transmission ratio, lipid transmission ratio and water solubility of gelatin-pullulan based edible film was evaluated. The results indicated that the elongation at break of gelatin-pullulan composite film was 31 times of that without glycerol, while the oxygen transmission ratio, water solubility and color were ameliorated. On the other hand, the tensile strength of the composite film was decreased and its water-vapor transmission ratio increased.
Research on Dielectric Properties of Lilium Davidii Var. in Different Brackets
2013, 34(3):  105-108. 
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With Lilium davidii var. as the research objects, the relationships between dielectric parameters and levels of Lilium davidii var. were studied with parallel-plate electrode system in the rang of 50HZ-1MHZ. The results show that the relative dielectric constant and electric conductance increase and the equivalent impedance valve decrease with the improvement of lily’s level under definite frequency. The electric conductance increase and equivalent impedance value and relative dielectric constant decrease with the increase of frequency. As a result, equivalent impedance value, relative dielectric constant and electric conductance can be used as norm parameter of lily’s level. However impedance phase angle, quality factor, loss coefficientnetc are not relevance relation with the level of Lilium davidii var.
Study on antioxidant activity of four kind of grape
2013, 34(3):  109-114. 
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In this paper,by measuring the total antioxidant capacity, scavenging DPPH ? ability,scavenging ? OH and O2-? ability to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the three extract of four grape juice in vitro. By animal experiments to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the AE extracting from the Muscat grape juice in vivo ,and by chemical qualitative and quantitative analysis the active ingredient of the AE from the Muscat grape juice. The results showed that: there were significantly difference among the same extracts of different kind of grape juice on antioxidant activity aspect in vitro. The vitro antioxidant capacity of the AE from the Muscat grape juice was strongest. The AE [800mg / (kg bw ? d) ] from the Muscat grape juice could increase serum and liver tissue SOD activity ,and reduce the MDA content in liver tissue. The AE from the Muscat grape juice contains polysaccharides, organic acids, flavonoids, polyphenols and other antioxidant substances,which have total phenolics 0.456mg/ml ,total flavonoids4.37 mg/ml.
Study on Antimicrobial Activity to Foodborne Pathogens Bacteria of Thymol
2013, 34(3):  115-118. 
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The antimicrobial activity to foodborne pathogens bacteria of Thymol was studied by means of filter paper disks,the method of Oxferd-cup tests and diffused tests. The test obtained the minimum inhibition concentrations of Thymol to the 10 kinds of foodborne pathogens bacteria,that is, Proteus Vulgaris, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococus thermophilus, Hansenula Anomala, Saccharmuces cerevisiae, Aspergillus Niger and Aspergillus flavus. The result showed that Thymol had obvious antimicrobial activity to those foodborne pathogens bacteria and the bacteristatic spectrum was wide.The minimum inhibition concentrations of Thymol to Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus Subtilis,Escherichia Coli were 10,20 and 20μg/mL.
Property and Spectral analysis On Inclusion Complex of Sinomenine to γ-Cyclodextrin
elicss
2013, 34(3):  115-118. 
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Abstract: The inclusion complex of SN with γ-CD was prepared successfully through mixed solution method, then the crystalline morphology and micromorphology of the inclusion complex was characterized and analyzed by stereomicroscope after purification and recrystallization. Other material behaviors of the inclusion complex of SN with γ-CD were characterized through X-ray diffraction(XRD), infrared spectrography(IR), differential scanning caborimetry(DSC) and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance(HNMR). The results present that the inclusion complex of SN with γ-CD show obvious characteristics compare to SN. The inclusion complex of SN with γ-CD was new material form, and γ-CD can sharply increase the solubility of SN, The molecular ratio of SN to γ-CD was 1:1, the inclusion constant was calculated as 600.3 L/mol and the Gibbs free energy of the complexation was -15.85KJ/mol.
Effect of micro-air to flavors and free amino acids in Chinese rice wine during storage
2013, 34(3):  123-127. 
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The study emphasized the effect of micro-air to flavors and free amino acids in Chinese rice wine during storage. Samples, the Chinese rice wine produced in the year of 2009, were kept in different containers sealed. Micro-air was injected into samples every 30 days with two different amounts, which were 25 mL/L and 50 mL/L respectively. Volatile flavors and free amino acids were detected every 60 days with the period of 8 months. The results showed that, compared with samples kept sealed, in the samples kept under micro-air conditions, the number and content of higher alcohols and phenols reduced significantly, those of esters increased significantly (p<0.05), the number of aldehydes and ketones increased first and then decreased, which illustrated that micro-air can promote the reactions from alcohols to aldehydes, from alcohols and aldehydes to acetals, from alcohols and acids to esters, from aldehydes to acids, and namely promote the aging of Chinese rice wine. The content of histidine, threonine, tyrosine, cysteine and methionine in samples injected micro-air decreased significantly, which indicated that this way could improve the process of Chinese rice wine aging. Judging from the results of flavors and free amino acids, 50 mL/L micro-air injected amount was the best to improve the wine aging period. This research laid a theoretical foundation for Chinese rice wine aging with micro-oxygen technology and can be applied into Chinese rice wine storage process by using stainless steel tanks to improve its quality.
Effects of Chilling and Freezing on Dynamic Viscoelasticities and Gel Properties of porcine longissimus muscle
2013, 34(3):  128-132. 
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Abstract:Study on the pH values, protein solubilities, dynamic viscoelasticities and gel properties (gel water hold capacity(WHC), gel strength, gel elastic) of fresh, chilled and frozen porcine longissimus muscle and their comparison had been made. The results showed that pH value and protein solubility of fresh meat were the highest, and the gel properties and dynamic viscoelasticities were better. The pH value and protein solubility of chilled meat were relatively low, and their gel properties and dynamic viscoelasticities were both inferior to that of fresh meat. The pH value and protein solubility of frozen meat were the lowest, WHC and dynamic viscoelasticities were the worst, but the gel strength and gel elastic of frozen meat were both lower than that of fresh meat and higher than that of chilled meat. So that, refrigerate processing damaged the functional properties of meat, and functional quality of the fresh meat was relatively the best.
Effect of Artemisia Argyi leaf powder on qualities of potato starch noodle
CHEN Cong-Gui
2013, 34(3):  133-136. 
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Artemisia argyi has unique aroma which possesses the characteristics of the food and medicine. The potato starch noodle with Artemisia argyi leaf powder (AALP) was investigated by quality evaluation indexes (cooking loss, cooked weight, firmness, color) in this paper. The results showed that the cooked weight of this Artemisia argyi noodle (AAN) was reduced significantly, compared to the noodle with free AALP (control), the cooked loss and firmness of AAN was increased significantly due to the addition of AALP (P<0.05). But the change tendency of the firmness showed increase at first and then decrease. L* and a* value of AAN gradually reduced, and b* gradually increased (P<0.05). The AAN with 3% AALP had good acceptability after considering the above indexes.
Influence of Maillard Reaction on Antioxidant Activity of Peptide from Vinegar-egg
2013, 34(3):  137-140. 
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Maillard reaction of peptide from vinegar-egg with glucose was investigated to improve antioxidant activity of peptide. The results showed that the optimum Maillard reaction conditions were peptide/glucose1/2, reaction initial pH 10, reaction temperature 100℃, and reaction time 120min. Under these reaction conditions, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of Maillard reaction products increased from 12.7% to 64.8% and the Fe3+ reducing activity increased from 0.107 to 0.718 compared with peptide from vinegar-egg. In the processing of Maillard reaction, antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products was increased with the decrease of pH, the increase of absorbance at 294nm and 420nm and the degree of substitution.
Chemical structure character of a purified polysaccharide from Leaves of Camellia chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama
2013, 34(3):  141-146. 
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Hypolipidaemic active was verified to be one of bioactive functions for crude polysaccharide from Camellia chrysantha (Hu) Tuyama, however, little is known about their chemical character. In this paper, a purified polysaccharide (Named TPS3-1) with molecular weight of 4.15×106u was obtained by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography, and the chemical character of its hairy region was studied by analysis of sugar composition, infrared spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and partially acidic hydrolysis by steps. The result of sugar composition analysis showed that the content of neutral sugar was about 2 fold to that of galacturonic acid (GalA), in which the ratio of rhamnose (Rha), alabinose (Ala) and galactose (Gal) was 1:4.2:3.0:0.4. In addition, 62.58% of GalAs existed as methyl esterified form. The result of partially acidic hydrolysis showed that approximately 73% of the neutral sugars were released to the solution of 0.01 Mol/L trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), and the molecular fragment was suggested to be consisted of branch chains including glucan, alabinan and galactan. 5% of the neutral sugars were released to the solution of 0.05 Mol/L TFA, which molecular fragment was suggested to be some oligosaccharides as branch chains, where alabinose may be alternately connected with glucose or galactose. 13% of the neutral sugars were released to the solution of 0.5 Mol/L TFA, which molecular fragment was suggested to be some oligosaccharides as branch chains, where some alabinoses may be alternately connected to galactose, and some mono alabinoses scarcely attached to the homogalacturonan bond chain.
Optimization of Fermentation Conditions of Bifidobacterium animal B04 for Bacteriocin Production by Response Surface Methodology
2013, 34(3):  147-152. 
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The fermentation condition of Bifidobacterium animal B04 isolated from centenarians’ intestine, were optimized for bacteriocin production. The bacteriocin inhibitory activity (AU/mL) was used as evaluation index and quantified against L. monocytogenes ATCC 35152. Firstly, the effects of the single factors (inoculum, initial pH, fermentation temperature and time) on bacteriocin production from strain B04 were examined. Based on these single factor tests, response surface methology with three variables of initial pH, fermentation temperature and time was employed to optimize the fermentation condition for bacteriocin production. Results showed the optimal conditions were inoculum 1%, initial pH 6.3, fermentation 29h at 36℃. Under these optimal conditions, the bacteriocin inhibitory activity was increased by 2.37 times and reached up to 3479.25AU/mL. Finally, the consistent results between the prediction and experiments indicated the established model in this study is feasible.
Detection and Homologous Analysis of CRISPR in Streptococcus thermophilus
2013, 34(3):  153-157. 
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CRISPR was recently found to be an acquired immune system widespread in prokaryotes. In order to find out CRISPRs in 8 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus isolated from Inner Mongolia, the CRISPR sequences were located by PCR amplification, and homology and secondary structure of direct repeat (DR) were predicted using bioinformatics method. Results showed that all the studied strains contained three CRISPR sequences except one in S4, which was much higher than the ratio (46.4%) in bacteria published on CRISPR database, and three CRISPRs had their specialized direct repeats (DR1-DR3);The longest CRISPR was 2853 bp, and the shortest was only 101 bp. According to the prediction of secondary structure, a palindrome were detected in DR1-DR3, respectively, although the sizes of stem-loop were different; for the homology analysis, DR demonstrated high similarity with several individual species of distant relationships like those in the same genus or species, this suggested that the CRISPRs of tested strains also possess the characteristic of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), as well as the possibility of other evolutionary process.
Screening of a high lovastatin-producing Aspergillus terreus mutant by UV combined with heavy-ion beams irradiation
2013, 34(3):  158-162. 
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In the present study, heavy-ion beam combined with ultraviolet irradiation were used to mutagenize Aspergillus terreus CA99 for selecting a high yield lovastatin mutant. As a result, a mutant designated as A. terreus UV150-3 was isolated. Under submerged fermentation, the maximum lovastatin production of A. terreus UV150-3 was 966.3 ug/mL, which was 5.6 times than that of the original strain A. terreus CA99. The heredity characters of the mutant was stable after successive five generations.
Analysis on Isolation, Selection and Microflora of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Sichuan Yibin Pickled mustard vein
2013, 34(3):  163-168. 
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Abstract:Six kinds of selective medium were used to isolate lactic acid bacteria from Sichuan Yibin Pickled mustard vein. The determination of pH was lower more than 4.0 in 72h and Rf values was similar to standard sample of lactic acid bacteria were selected for follow-up test. 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP and ERIC-PCR were used to analyze the genetic diversity of strains. 16S rDNA sequence analysis was studied microflora and phylogeny of lactic acid bacteria in Yibin Pickled mustard vein.16S rDNA PCR-RFLP and ERIC-PCR analysis showed that lactic acid bacteria have rich genetic diversity. Based on the fingerprint of 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP and ERIC-PCR, representative strains were selected to construct the phylogenetic tree and the results showed the dominating lactic acid bacteria in Yibin Pickled mustard vein were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Eenterococcus durans and Eenterococcus faecium
Fermentation Performance and Resistance of Mixed-species Biofilm Formed by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus
2013, 34(3):  169-172. 
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Abstract: In this study, the mixed-species biofilm on coconut and stainless steel mesh formed by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus was observed using scanning electron microscope, then the preliminary study on fermentation performance and resistance of mixed-species biofilm on stainless steel mesh was conducted. The results showed that S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus could form typical mixed-species biofilm on coconut and stainless steel mesh, and the bacterial density change curves of broth fermented by mixed-species boifilm on stainless steel mesh was similar with S-shaped growth curve,while the lag phase and logarithmic phase was not obvious; The pH value of broth fermented by mixed-species boifilm decreased in the early stages and then stabilized in the later stages, finally pH close to 4.0. In addition, the mixed-species boifilm has stronger resistance than free bacteria,and could release high concentrations of bacteria stably in 15 days.
Optimization of Preparation Method with Microwave-assisted Enzymolysis of High F-value Corn Peptide
2013, 34(3):  173-178. 
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Microwave-assisted enzyme conditions of the preparation of high F value corn peptide were optimized. The raw material corn gluten meal was degreased by supercritical CO2 fluid,and Alcalase 2.4L and papain were used to zymolysis. When the concentration of substrate was 9%, Alcalase 2.4L enzyme amount was 3%(E/S), pH was 9.0 ,microwave power was 300 W, microwave time was 2.5 min, corn peptide yield was 23.8g/100 gCGM .When papain amount was 4%(E/S), pH was 7.5, microwave power was 100 W,microwave time was 3.0 min, the alkali expenditure were 6.22 mL/100 mL. The F value of the corn peptides made by microwave-assisted enzyme were 27.15,increased 21% compared with the traditional water bath enzyme, and shorten the enzymatic hydrolysis time.
Fermentation Condition Optimization of Nattokinase from Bacillus Subitilis Natto
2013, 34(3):  179-183. 
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The culture medium as well as the fermentation conditions of nattokinase from Bacillus Subitilis Natto preserved in our laboratory was first optimized in this paper. Then three main factors related to the nattokinase yield, tryptone, magnesium sulfate and fermentation temperature, were obtained using Plackett-Burman experiments. Based on these, the Box-Behnken design was adopted and the response surface results were as follows: tryptone 2.66%, lactose 1.0%, Na2HPO4 5.0g /L, NaH2PO4 1.0g /L, CaCl2 0.2g/L, MgSO4 1.35g/L, bacteria age of inoculation 12h, inoculum size 2%, fermentation temperature 33℃, fermentation duration 56h, liquid volume 50mL/250mL. The optimization strategy enhanced the nattokinase activity 1.5 times than before.

Preparation and Identification of Anti-idiotypic Antibody against Anti-Zearalenone Monoclonal Antibody
2013, 34(3):  184-187. 
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Abstract:Purpose:To lay the foundation for develop the toxin-free detection method for zearalenone(ZEN), an anti-idiotypic antibody(AId) against anti-zearalenone toxin monoclonal antibody(McAb) was prepared.Methods:The polyclonal anti-idiotype antibody against anti-ZEN McAb was prepared by immunizing BALB/c mouse with the conjugate McAb - KLH ,and the AId was detected by ELISA with Fab fragment as coating antigen.Results:The obtained AId against anti-ZEN McAb was identified as the“inner image”with ZEN toxin,and the correlation coefficient reached to 0.99.Conclusion:The polyclonal AId against anti-ZEN McAb was prepared successfully and could be used to replace ZEN toxin standard in ELISA. 
Accumulation Features and Immuno-stimulative Effects of β-glucans from six marine microalgae
2013, 34(3):  188-192. 
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The accumulation features of microalgal β-glucans, including accumulation phase and rate, have been characterized by monitoring the contents of β-glucans from six marine microalgae during their growth cycles, the extraction and the immuno-stimulative effects of β-glucans were also studied. The results indicated that the contents of cellular β-glucans reached maximum at stationary phase for all the microalgae, however, with large variations depending on the species. Among the six microalgae, Thalassiosira pseudonana showed outstanding features for its β-glucans with high accumulation rate, isolation yield, and significant immuno-stimulative effects. It is also showed that the immuno-stimulative effects of β-glucans were higher from microalgae than that from yeast.

The Study on Tilapia Fishbone Meal Fermented with Microorganisms
Xianqing YANG
2013, 34(3):  193-197. 
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Existing studies have revealed that the free calcium content in the supernate of fermented fishbone meal with lactic acid bacterial (LAB) significantly increases. In order to improve the fermentation technique, this paper investigated the optimum fermentation conditions for tilapia fishbone meal with a series of experiments. The results of single factor experiments indicated that the optimum LAB species was Lactobacillus casei, and the optimal ferment liquid volume was 30%, fishbone meal to liquid ratio was 1/5, optimal saccharide was glucose with natural pH value. The mixed level orthogonal test showed that the sequence of influence intensity to the supernate free calcium content of the factors were: fermentation period > glucose dosage > inoculation amount > temperature > grain size of fishbone meal, in which the fermentation period significantly affected the free calcium content in the supernate (p<0.05). The optimal fermentation conditions were: fermentation period 8 days, inoculation amount 8%, glucose amount 5%, temperature 37℃, and fishbone meal grain size < 0.075 mm.
Preliminary Study on Lipoxygenase Acitivity of Fresh Corn
2013, 34(3):  198-201. 
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The affecting factors of fresh corn lipoxygenase(LOX) were studied using spectrophotometric assay. With linoleic acid as substrate, and fresh sweet corn and waxy corn as samples, we determined the LOX activity changes in the reaction system with different extraction positions, enzymatic reaction pH values and temperatures, and substrate concentrations. The results indicate that LOX activity in the germ is significantly higher than in the whole kernel, and the enzyme has the optimal temperature of 55℃, the optimal pH of 6.0, and the optimal substrate concentration of 10.0mmol/L. The thermal stability tests demonstrate that LOX activity is effectively inhibited by increasing temperature and prolonging heat treatment.
Optimization of Medium Components for Two-step Fermentation of Vitamin C Using Response Surface Methodology
2013, 34(3):  202-206. 
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In order to improve the 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production of the conversion process from L-sorbose to 2-keto-L-gulonic acid in vitamin C two-step fermentation. An efficient companion strain of Bacillus subtilis A9, which facilitating the growth of Gluconobacter oxydans and its acid production, was screened from fresh milk. Based on single factor experiments, the nutrient conditions of fermentation medium were optimized by response surface methodology. The results showed that the three factors of L-sorbose, corn steep liquor, urea affected 2-KGA production significantly. The optimal conditions were as follows(g/L): 90 L-sorbose, 14.2 corn steep liquor, 12.2 urea, 4.1 CaCO3, 0.2 MgSO4, and the yield of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production was 69.74 g/L,with the theoretical 70.33 g/L for the relative error of -0.59 g/L. The established regression equation for 2-KGA production has a preferable goodness of fit. Therefore it is credible and can be used for practical prediction. The yield of 2-KGA increased by 17.4% under the optimized culture medium conditions comparing with the original medium.
Study on Preparation of Peanut Antioxidant Peptides with Two Enzymes
2013, 34(3):  207-211. 
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Alcalase and Flavourzyme enzyme were used to hydrolyze peanut meal by step to prepare antioxidative peanut peptide, and the process conditions were studied. The results showed that the enzyme added was 0.048AU/g, and the best substrate concentration was 4%, pH 8.0, enzymolysis time was 180min, temperature was 60℃. Flavourzyme was added to the hydrolysate of alcalase, enzyme added 15LAPU/g, pH 7.0, temperature 50℃, enzymolysis time 180min. Based on it, the yield reached to 90.28%, and the DH of the system reached to 23.40%, the amount of peanut peptide which ≤5000D was 96.92%. and the antioxidant activity of peanut peptide was significant.
Screening and Identification of High Butanol Tolerance Lactic Acid Bacteria
2013, 34(3):  212-216. 
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Micro-organisms was to isolated and screened from different samples which could grow at a high butanol concentration,through repeated the determination of the relative growth rate in the medium what was increased the adding amount of butanol continuously, After repeatedly, Chose strains with higher relatively growth rate and drew the resistance curve, analysis the butanol concentration of strains can tolerate. The strains were identified by physiological and biochemical experiments and 16 S rDNA series analysis, combined with the bacteria and bacterial colonies characteristics, establish the species of the strains.The concentration of butanol that two bacterial strains toleranced were all in 3% (v/v). The 16S rDNA sequences analysis and biochemical Properties test result of two strains was consistent, which revealed that A37 and A50 was Enterococcus faecalis and Lactobacillus fermentum, respectively. Results showed that two bacterial strains has high butanol tolerability, for the next step to the strains of metabolic engineering transformation production butanol laid a foundation.
Study on the inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase from banana pulp by high-pressure carbon dioxide
2013, 34(3):  217-221. 
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In this paper, effects of high-pressure carbon dioxide on inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from banana pulp were studied, and the inactivation kinetics of PPO were analyzed by using a two-fraction model. Results showed inactivation of PPO by high-pressure carbon dioxide can be significantly impacted by the pressure of carbon dioxide, processing temperature, processing time and sample pH; The inactivation kinetics of PPO was adequately described by using a two-fraction model ;High pressure carbon dioxide treatment was a effectively way to inactivate the PPO from banana pulp, and the enzyme inactivation rate can be significantly increased by raising the carbon dioxide pressure and treatment time, and decreasing the pH of sample; The reduction of residual activity of PPO exposed to high-pressure carbon dioxide(20 MPa,55oC) is 83.5% for 40 min , and only 4.2% of enzyme activity was residual when treated with high-pressure carbon dioxide(20 MPa,60oC) for 20 min.
Strains of high protein hydrolysis screened from Air-dried duck and the application to sausage
WANG xiaolan
2013, 34(3):  222-227. 
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This study selected strains C94 which had high protein hydrolysis from the traditional Air-dried duck and applied to the duck sausage. Determinated the physical and chemical indicators of the sausage in the process of maturation.Compared the natural fermented group (CK) with the Saprophytic staphylococcus fermented duck sausages,the results showed that the Aw value, pH value of the experimental group decreased rapidly ,to better protect the safety of fermented sausages, however the amount of the aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, lysine and other content of the experimental group increased to some extent , in which the amount of lysine was 135.82mg/100g, and CK group was only 37.32 mg/100g. The technique used to analyze kind and amount of volatile compounds in Saprophytic staphylococcus fermented duck sausages was solid-phase microwextraction/gas chromatography(SPME/GC-MS), detected 72 kinds of flavor substancesfrom the experimental group, which had 21 kinds of aldehydes species, 16 kinds of hydrocarbons,9 kinds of alcohols species, three kinds of acids, 7 kinds of esters species, four kinds of ketones and other species, there were rich flavor, while C94 also inhibited the generation of acids, to further verified the C94 can be used as an excellent leaven fermented sausages。

Preparation Antihypertensive Peptides from Rapeseed Protein by Double Enzymes
2013, 34(3):  228-232. 
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In this paper,rapeseed proteins were hydrolyzed by two different enzymes to prepare antihypertensive peptides. Alcalase and Neutral protease were selected to prepare antihypertensive peptides. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity (ACEIA) is analyzed by UV spectrophotometer. The effects of three crucial factors on the ACEIA of rapeseed proteins were analyzed by single-factor method, Subsequently, Box-Behnken experimental design combining with response surface methodology and quadratic programming was employed for maximizing the Alcalase-catalyzed hydrolysis of rapeseed proteins and a quadratic regression model was obtained using the Design-Expert software. the determination of optimum conditions of the rapeseed protein hydrolization was performed and the results listed as follows: substrate concentration 5.65 %, ratio of enzyme to substrate ([E]/ [S]) 6.5%,temperature 54.9 ℃, The theoretical value of ACEIA is 50.303%,and the actual value is 50.12%.
Optimization of Double Strains Koji-Making of Aspergillus-Type Douchi by Response Surface Methodology
2013, 34(3):  233-238. 
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In order to improve the protease activity of the douchiqu, response surface methodology was employed to optimize the double strains koji-making of aspergillus-type douchi based on Box-Benhnken experimental design . The optimal koji-making conditions were koji-making temperature 29.9 ℃, koji-making time 65.9 h,amount of strains 0.24 % and strains matching (Aspergillus oryzae:Aspergillus niger)1.4 . In the optimum conditions,the activity of neutral protease can reach to 358.6 U/g, and the activity of acid protease can reach to 105.5 U/g, which coincided with actual values with in the 95 % confidence interval. Predictive method is feasible in practice.
Selection of Cryoprotectants for Enterococcus faecium in freeze-drying and Storage Stability
2013, 34(3):  239-242. 
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Enterococcus faecium is one part of normal microflora of human and animal intestinal tract, the bacteria colony has the regulative function to the intestines. The application effect of Enterococcus faecium used in probiotics is largely influenced by the number of vial bacteria and storage stability. In this study, the optimal cryoprotectant formula for Enterococcus faecium was determined using orthogonal array design and storage stability test at 4℃ and 37℃ to be composed of 5% skim milk,1% sucrose and 5% maltodextrin. The survival rate of Enterococcus faecium was 97.90% after 4 weeks, which was protected in sealed aluminum foil bag, under the condition of 37℃ and relative humidity 75%.
Study on cholesterol-lowering ability of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum NDC 75017
2013, 34(3):  243-247. 
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The bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum NDC 75017 was isolated from traditional dairy products in Inner Mongolia of China. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the environment tolerance ability and the in vitro cholesterol removal ability of L. plantarum NDC 75017. Viable count was firstly used in this research to detect the tolerance characteristics under simulated gastrointestinal tract environment pH 2.0-3.0. Additionally, bacteria growth was evaluated with levels of bile salt of 0.3% (w/v) and sodium chloride of 0-7g/100mL. O-phthalaldehyde was used to detect the effect of its cholesterol-lowering levels. The results showed that L. plantarum NDC 75017 have tolerance characteristics against the situation of pH 3.0 and 0.3% (w/v) bile salt concentration. The viable can be 108 CFU/ml under 7 g/100ml sodium chloride. L. plantarum NDC 75017 kept vitality through the stomach into intestines. After 8 h incubation in artificial intestinal fluid, the strain revealed a survival rate of 58.73%. Effect of its cholesterol-lowering levels in bacteria fermentation supernatant, cleaning solution of bacteria and cell disruption solution was evaluated in vitro test. The degradation rate of cholesterol was 16.43%, 26.35% and 32.87% respectively. These results indicated that Lactobacillus plantarum NDC 75017 have tolerance characteristics against the environment and could be effective as a probiotic with cholesterol-lowering activities.
Comparative Nutrient Composition in Various Populations of Anadara uropygimelana
2013, 34(3):  248-252. 
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The research aimed to analyze and evaluate the nutrients of Anadara uropygimelana collected from Shandong, Liaoning and Jiangsu provinces. Analysis methods of nutrient components were based on the standards of GB 5009-2010 and AOAC 996.06. Evaluation standards of the nutritive quality were based on the FAO/WHO’s standard mode. The general nutrient compositions were determined with routine methods. Amino acid compositions were determined with amino acid analyzer. Fatty acid compositions were inspected with GC. The results showed that the protein contents and energy value of Jiangsu population were higher than those of other populations. There was the maximal content of carbohydrate 31 mg/g in wet weight in Liaoning population. All kinds of amino acids were found in Anadara uropygimelana. The total levels of amino acids in various populations were arranged in a descending order as the following: Shandong (719.75 mg/g) > Jiangsu (703.54 mg/g) > Liaoning (685.16 mg/g). The ratio of EAA/ TAA varied between 36.72 % - 34.91 % and the essential amino acid index of Shandong population was 61.21, which was the maximum one. The content of delicious amino acids was abundant varying between 276.92-293.21 mg/g. The content of ω-3 PUFA in fatty acids was high and also the content of vitamin and Ca, Fe, Zn, Se etc. were rich. Although the nutritive composition were different in edible part of Anadara uropygimelana from three provinces, Anadara uropygimelana is a seafood with high nutritional value and is good for health comparing with other marine bivalves.
The Nutritional Value Assessment of Protein from Mycelia and Fruit Bodies of Boletus edulis
GANG Jie
2013, 34(3):  253-256. 
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The international adopted nutrient value assessment method was applied to the overall assessment of the protein nutrient value of the submerged cultivated mycelium and fruit bodies of Boletus edulis. The mycelium protein content of Boletus edulis is 28.40% and the fruit body is 25.10%, respectively. The first and second limiting amino acids of Boletus edulis mycelium are the sulfur-containing amino acids ( methionine and cystine ) and lysine, and the first and second limiting amino acids of the fruiting bodies are sulfur-containing amino acids and isoleucine.The amino acid score (AAS), chemical score (CS), essential amino acid index (EAAI), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI) and score of ratio coefficient of amino acid (SRCAA) of the submerged cultivated mycelium protein of Boletus edulis are 31.43, 39.5, 44.55, 36.86, 12.65 and 24.47, compared with corresponding values for fruit bodies are 71.43, 67.02, 63.86, 57.91, 16.03 and 68.55, respectively, higher than that of mycelium protein of Boletus edulis.
Effects Sulfated of Polysaccharides Extracted from Laminaria Japonica on Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by BFGF
2013, 34(3):  257-260. 
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Objective: To investigate the inhibitory effects of sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica on rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Methods: Rat VSMCs were obtained from the aorta of adult Sprague Dawley rats by attached explant method and identified by immunohistochemistry assay. VSMCs proliferation was induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The inhibitory effects of crude sulfated polysaccharide and its fractions on VSMCs proliferation were evaluated by MTT assay. Superoxide anion-scavenging activities of sulfated polysaccharides were investigated by xanthine /xanthine oxidase method. Results: At the concentration of 0.1-1 mg/mL, all sulfated polysaccharides dose-dependently inhibited bFGF-induced VSMCs proliferation except WPS-2. Similarly, all sulfated polysaccharides showed good superoxide radical scavenging capabilities except WPS-2. Conclusion: All sulfated polysaccharides can dramatically inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs induced by bFGF except WPS-2. The functional mechanism may be related to their antioxidant activities.
Protective Effect of Black Rice Anthocyanin Compound Capsule on Experimental Hepatic Injury
2013, 34(3):  261-263. 
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Abstract: Establishments pathology model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)–induced hepatic injury in mice and cured by poured the black rice anthocyanin compound capsule in low concentration and high concentration into stomach, distilled water for the normal group, and plant oil for the suspending agents group. The content of SOD, MDA, GSH and the levels of TNF-α in liver homogenate were measured after 5wk. Hepatic pathological examination was observed.The result show that the black rice anthocyanin compound capsule can increase SOD activity obviously, clear MDA content directly in hepatic tissue, improve GSH content and reduce TNF-α level. The pathology analysis suggested that black rice anthocyanin compound capsule improve hepatic fibrosis in mice. Suspension agents basically have no influence on drug effect. Therefore the black rice anthocyanin compound capsule has a particular treatment effect on CCl4 hepatic injury
Experimental Observe of Co-safflor Yellow on Antithrombotic
2013, 34(3):  264-266. 
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Objective To study the antithrombotic mechanism of double the acid, safflor yellow and compatibility preparation with different ratio. Methods To observe the effect of double the acid, safflor yellow and compatibility preparation on mouse's blood clots piece of dissolving rate. ELISA was used to measure the rats’ plasmic TXB2、6-K-PGF1a、PGE2 of each group. Results The blood clots piece of dissolving rate increased in treated group. The plasmic level of TXB2、PGE2 of treated group was distinctively reduced, 6-K-PGF1a increased. And compatibility groups' effect better than double the acid and of safflower yellow pigment grain themselves.Conclusion Double the acid, safflor yellow and compatibility preparation play a role of antithrombotic, and the action after compatibility higher than its role alone.
Study on Anti-tumor Activity of Whey Protein Treated at Different Tempreture from Small Black Soybean
2013, 34(3):  267-270. 
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In this paper, the effect of small black soybean whey protein, which was treated at different tempreture, on S180 animal model was studied. The results indicated that there was no tumefaction of the pancreas of 75℃ treated whey protein at 3 g/kg and 10 g/kg intake doses, and the inhibition effect on S180 tumor and tumor index of whey protein treated at 75℃ were better than 65℃(P<0.05) significantly. The thymus index of mice in 75℃whey protein group,which was at the same level as the basic group ,was significantly higher than those of mice in other groups(P<0.05). The white blood cell, the ear swelling degree and HC50 of mice in 75℃ whey protein group were significantly higher than those of mice in the model group(P<0.01) and the 65℃ whey protein group (P<0.01).Therefore, the antitumor ability on S180 tumor can be significantly improved by small black soybean whey protein treated at 75℃.
Effects of dietary fiber from okara and superfine okara on intestinal microflora of mice
2013, 34(3):  271-275. 
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In order to study the effects of dietary fiber from okara and superfine okara on intestinal microflora of mice, BALB/c mice were divided into groups for gavage. The control group were given gavages with normal saline, the experimental groups were given gavages with Soluble Dietary Fiber(SDF)、Insoluble Dietary Fiber(IDF)、Superfine Pulverization Okara(SPO) and Extrusion-Superfine Pulverization Okara(ESPO) respectively at low dose(0.5g/kg) and high dose(2.5g/kg). During the experiment, the selective medium was used to detect the quantity of lactobacillus、Bifidobacterium、Enterobacter and Enterococcus in the fecal of mice at the same time every week. The results showed that each treatment group was susceptible to intestinal microflora after dietary fiber from okara and superfine okara being given perfusion in every stage. The opsonization of high-dose IDF group、low-dose SDF group and low-dose ESPO group were better, lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were added, however, Enterobacter and Enterococcus were suppressed partly.
Meta Analysis for Effects of Green Tea Consumption on Risk of Breast Cancer
2013, 34(3):  276-279. 
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To study the association between green tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer by conducting Meta analysis. Using the key words, tea polyphenol, tea, in combination with breast cancer, databases of the Medline, Pubmed, Embase, CNKI and WANFANG from January 1996 to December 2011 were searched. The analysis of merging effect value and homogeneity were performed by using RevMan software, and the funnel plot and the Egger’s test were adopted to examine the potential publication bias. A total of ten studies met the inclusion criteria and were included, with breast cancer cases number of 12144. Compared the highest consumption group with the lowest consumption group, green tea consumption significantly reduced the breast cancer risk by 18% (pooled OR=0.82, 95%CI: 0.68-0.99; I2=74%, P<0.001), the result also had statistical significance (pooled OR=0.76, 95%CI: 0.59-0.96; I2=80%, P<0.001) when data from case-control studies were pooled, but there was no significance association when cohort studies were pooled (pooled OR=0.97, 95%CI: 0.80-1.18; I2=18%, P=0.30). Therefore, green tea consumption may reduce the risk of breast cancer in women, and the related research evidence is limited to some extent now yet.
Foundation & Application on BDI-GS Novel Assessment System of Food Functions and Safety
2013, 34(3):  280-284. 
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Objective In this paper, functions and safety of casein were study through mice trial, so as to establish a new BDI-GS comprehensive assessment system and method for nutrition, health-promotion and safety of foods. Method ICR mice during growth were fed for 12 days with the low-nutrient maize diet and casein blending diets. Observe body weight, organ weights, organ indexes andits effects benefit-damage Index (BDI) of mice to assess nutrition, health promotion and safety of casein. Results The present study manifests that casein possesses significant comprehensive nutrition effects, and better health-promotion and prevention effects for declining immune function and Type II diabetic mellitus. Conclusion The present study establishes an easy, intuitive and comprehensive new system to assess food nutrition, health-promotion and safety. This method can also be utilized to assess functions and safety of various other foods.
Research progress on the influence of protein oxidation in meat aging
2013, 34(3):  285-289. 
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Oxidative reactions is common during the post-mortem aging process, which have significant negative impacts on meat quality. This paper is devoted to review the current findings concerning protein oxidation in meat systems, mainly concentrating on the oxidation mechanisms and its consequences on meat aging, including influence on meat color, tenderness, water-hold capacity and nutritional value. In addition, it also aims to provide a reference for the relevant investigation and encourage meat researchers to achieve further progress in the field.
Research advances about nonoxidation ethanol metabolic products----Fatty acid ethyl esters
2013, 34(3):  290-293. 
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Abstract:Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), the products of ethanol nonoxidation metabolic pathways, play an important role in ethanol-induced organ damage and can serve as the long-term markers of ethanol intake. The toxicity of FAEEs in vivo, the extract of enzymes associated with FAEEs and the detection of FAEEs are summarized. Additionally, the evidence of FAEEs as alcohol intake markers is provided as well.
Properties of the Nanobody and Its Applications on the Food Industry
2013, 34(3):  294-297. 
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Compared with IgG antibodies, nanobodies possess properties like smaller size, easier manufacture, high stability and excellent affinity. At present, nanobodies are studied and applicated in the fields of medical and food science etc and the positive effects are shown in those fields. Structure, property and application of nanobodies are reviewed and summarized in this paper. Especially in food detection and food industry field, potential application and prospect of nanobodies are analyzed.
Advances in Enzymatic Production of Human Milk Fat Substitutes
2013, 34(3):  298-302. 
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Human milk fat substitutes having a fatty acid profile and triacylglycerols structure resembling those of human milk fat have good development prospect. Based on introducing specificity of triacylglycerols structure, composition and content in human milk fat and the characteristics of the absorption of fats in infants, this paper summarizes the selection of substrates, lipases, reaction system, test methods of human milk fat substitutes by enzymatic modification, the research progress in recent years and prospect of further development.
Development in Detection of Quinolones Residues in Animal Tissues by HPLC
2013, 34(3):  303-307. 
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Quinolones is a kind of antibacterial agents with efficiently broad-spectrum and is widely applied in animal and aquaculture. The residues of quinolones in animal derived food can endanger the humanˊs health. HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography) is the main method among many analytical methods for detection of quinolones residues. The general steps of HPLC method for quinolones detection include sample extraction, purification, concentration and quantitative detection using HPLC. This article reviewed HPLC method for the detection of quinolones in domestic about those several steps.
Multi-start culture for Traditional Chinese ferment food processes
2013, 34(3):  308-311. 
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Chinese traditional ferment foods with great variety and special flavor, constitute a major part in food industry. The industrialization process and the standardization of traditional fermented foods may be significantly improved through the use of multi-starter cultures. The paper reviews the research of fermentation with multi-start cultures, and the problems that raised in the production of fermented food with multi-starter cultures were also discussed. The corresponding solutions to these problems were also pointed out, which aimed to provide reference for the traditional food ferment industry.

Study on Mechanism of Monitoring of Public Opinion on Internet toward Agricultural Products Quality and Safety
2013, 34(3):  312-316. 
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With the rapid development of new media, the quantity and influence of internet public opinions on agricultural products quality and safety has been increasing rapidly in recent years, which has posed great challenges to government’s ability to deal with the emerging pressure from the public. Thus, it is urgent to conduct researches on the monitoring and management of the internet public opinions to adapt to the new situation. Based on the perspective of public management of government, this article analyzed the definition, characteristics, forming reasons and influence of internet public opinions, and proposed a series of measures, such as improving the current monitoring system, upgrading guiding mechanism, beefing up human recourses development and scientific research as well as financial input, to enhance the ability and elevate the level of monitoring and management.