Table of Content

15 December 2009, Volume 30 Issue 24
Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Collagen from Fish Scales by Papain
HUANG Huan,WANG Xin,LIU Bao-lin,ZHAO Shi-hong
2009, 30(24 ):  23-25.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924001
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In this study, the optimal condition for enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen from fish scales were investigated by orthogonal experiments. Papain was used to hydrolyze collagen and effects of four independent variables including hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, enzyme concentration and pH on degree of hydrolysis (DH) of collagen from fish scales were also evaluated. The optimal condition for obtaining the highest hydrolysis yield of collagen from fish scales was 50 ℃ of hydrolysis temperature, 6 h of hydrolysis time, 0.20 g of enzyme amount and pH 5.0.

Condensation of Porcine Hemoglobin Hydrolysates by Microfiltration-ultrafiltration Technology
YANG Wan-gen1,MA Mei-hu2,*
2009, 30(24 ):  26-29.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924002
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It was necessary to condensate porcine hemoglobin hydrolysates due to lower concentration of nutritional peptides and heme in hydrolysates. The ceramic microfiltration membrane with 0.2 μm pores and ultrafiltration membrane with 3.5× 103 cut-off were used for clarification and condensation of hemoglobin hydrolysates, respectively. Contents and characterizations of peptides and heme in hydrolysates after microfiltration and ultrafiltration were investigated. Results showed that the ceramic microfiltration membrane with 0.2 μm pores revealed a significant clarification effect on porcine hemoglobin hydrolysates and provided 76.150% recovery rate for peptides and 80.154% recovery rate for heme. In addition, an excellent regeneration for membrane was observed and the recovered membrane flux was achieved up to 97.42%. Compared to the original hydrolysates, the concentration of peptides and heme in treated hydrolysates by microfiltration and ultrafiltration was increased by 3.5 and 3 folds, respectively. Therefore, microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology could be used for the condensation of porcine hemoglobin hydrolysates to gain peptides- and heme-enriched hydrolysates.

Microwave-assisted Extraction of Resveratrol from Peanut Root
ZHANG Chu-shu1,YU Shan-lin1,LIU Yang2,ZHANG Ji-min1,ZHU Feng1,YU Li-na1,BI Jie1,YANG Qing-li1,*
2009, 30(24 ):  30-33.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924003
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In order to improve comprehensive utilization of peanut and develop new materials for resveratrol, microwaveassisted extraction technology was applied to extract resveratrol from peanut root. Effect of factor such as microwave power, microwave treatment time, extraction temperature, ethanol concentration or solid-liquid rate on extraction rate of resveratrol was investigated. The extraction condition was optimized through orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that solid-liquid ratio exhibited the largest effect on extraction rate of resveratrol and ethanol concentration revealed the smallest effect. The optimal extraction condition was 400 W of microwave output power, 4.5 min of microwave treatment time, 80 ℃ of extraction temperature, 60% ethanol and 1:14 (g/ml) of solid-liquid ratio. The extraction rate of resveratrol from peanut root was 0.367% under this optimal condition.

Extraction and Purification of Flavonoids from Rhododendoni mariae Hance
CHEN Ling1,LI Bing-hui1,ZHANG Zhi-ping1,BIE Ping-ping1,2,PU Hua-yin1,LI Xiao-xi1
2009, 30(24 ):  34-37.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924004
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In this study, the extraction of flavonoids from Rhododendoni mariae Hance was optimized by the single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment design. The optimized parameters were obtained as follows: 2 h of presoaking of medicinal materials slices, the liquid/solid of 12:1 (ml/g), extracted 3 times and 1 h of each extraction time. The membrane separation technology was applied to purify samples based on these results. The results showed that the purity of the fraction each 46.07% through relative molecular mass 105, 5×104 and 104 filters.

Protein Extraction from Rice Endosperm Using Reductant-alkali Method
LIU Chun-you,LIU Yong-le*,YU Jian,YI Cui-ping,LI Xiang-hong
2009, 30(24 ):  38-41.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924005
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In this study, a combinatorial method of reductant-alkali solution and acid precipitation was used to extract protein from rice endosperm. The optimal condition for rice protein extraction was determined through single factor and orthogonal experiments to be 0.05 mol/L sodium hydroxide, 0.50% sodium sulfite, 2.50% dithiothreitol, 1:12 (g/ml) of solid-liquid ratio, and 4 h of extraction time. Extraction rate of rice protein was 95.26% under this optimal condition.

Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of Channel Catfish through Potassium-method
ZHANG Wei-wei,LU Jian-feng*,JIAO Dao-long,LIN Lin,WENG Shi-bing,JIANG Shao-tong
2009, 30(24 ):  42-46.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924006
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Fish oil is usually extracted from the wastes during fish processing. In this paper, fish oil extraction from viscera of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, through a modified potassium hydroxide hydrolysis method, was investigated. The best extraction efficiency was obtained at the hydrolysis condition of pH 7.0, 1:1.5 of viscera-water ratio, 65 ℃ for hydrolysis temperature, 35 min for hydrolysis time, 4% potassium chloride, and 10 min for salting-out. The extraction rate of fish oil was up to 82.09% under this optimal condition. The relative content of saturated fatty acids accounted for 20.59% of total fatty acids. The relative content of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 54.48% and 15.18%, respectively. The ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids is 3.29, which was higher than that of other fresh water fish. Therefore, viscera of channel catfish provided a good resource for fish oil production.

Study on Extraction of Water Soluble Polysaccharide from Brewer s Spent Grain
ZHU Jie1,LI Lin1,HE Yuan-zhe1,FU Quan-yi1,HUANG Ling-ling1,BIE Ping-ping1,2,LI Bing1,*
2009, 30(24 ):  47-50.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924007
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Brewer s spent grain (BSG) contains about 28% (db) water soluble polysaccharide, which could be a good resource of the plant polysaccharide. The extraction of water soluble polysaccharide of BSG under ultrasonic assistance was carried out. The optimum extraction conditions were found at the ultrasonic power of 180 W, extraction temperature of around 70 ℃, 15 min of ultrasonic treatment time, and the ratio of liquid to solid of 25:1 (ml/g). Under this condition, the yield of polysaccharide was up to 5.79%. Though the preliminary purification, the water soluble polysaccharide from BSG reached 92.59%. The results revealed that the extraction of water soluble plant polysaccharide was efficiently enhanced by ultrasound assistance.

Preparation of Hydrolyzed Collagen from Cyprinoid Scales
HAN Bing1,SHI Yan-guo1,ZHANG Gen-sheng1,YANG Hui1,LI Yan-hong2
2009, 30(24 ):  51-55.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924008
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Decalcified cyprinoid scales were used as materials to prepare hydrolyzed collagen through alcalase hydrolysis. Pretreatment temperature, substrate concentration, hydrolysis temperature, enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time were optimized through evaluating extraction rate of collagen and content of hydroxyproline by single-factor and orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that optimal hydrolysis conditions were 60 ℃ of hydrolysis temperature, 12% substrate amount, 0.06 AU/g of enzyme, and 3 h of hydrolysis time. The extraction rate of collagen from cyprinoid scales was 96.24% under this optimal condition.

Optimal Processing and Volatile Flavor of Sauce Duck with Cayenne Pepper
WANG Wu,SHEN Jun-chen,SHEN Ze-juan,ZHA Fu-ben,CHEN Cong-gui
2009, 30(24 ):  56-61.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924009
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In this paper, the optimal processing of sauce duck with cayenne pepper was investigated and volatile compounds in sauce duck leg were determined through headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicated that the optimal processing of sauce duck with cayenne pepper was 2% salt (m/m) by dry-salting method for 12 h, and 1.5% Zanthoxylum bungeanum (m/m) and 2.5% chili (m/m) by cooking for 60 min. Totally 85 volatile flavor compounds including aldehydes, ketones, terpenes, sulphur and heterocyclic compounds were identified in sauce duck.

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dried Shrimps
LI Hai-bin,SI Hua-jing,MOU Hong-sheng
2009, 30(24 ):  62-64.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924010
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In this study, the optimal condition for enzymatic hydrolysis of dried shrimps was investigated based on the analysis of amino nitrogen in hydrolysates. Results indicated that the optimal condition was 4:1 of liquid-material ratio, 0.4% enzyme amount, reaction at 60 ℃ for 4 h. Amino nitrogen content in hydrolysates was up to 2.60% under this optimal hydrolysis condition. The final product exhibited attractive flavor from shrimps.

Improvement of Surimi Gel Properties
HUANG Cheng,YIN Hong
2009, 30(24 ):  65-67.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924011
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Grass crap was used as the material to study the effects of several additives on properties of surimi gel. The effect of potato starch, ovalbumin and xanthan gum on properties of surimi gel was investigated by single factor test. The optimal formula ratio of three additives was 1:2.31:0.51 through regression design experiments.

Preparation Processing of Amino Acids from Silver Carp
LIU Jin-long1,2,ZHENG Xiao-jiang1,CHENG Jia-gang2
2009, 30(24 ):  68-73.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924012
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Amino acids are important medical products and nutritional supplements. Many drugs and health products also use amino acids as raw materials. Carp is a good raw material resource for amino acids due to plentiful resource of freshwater carp in China and its high protein content. In order to resolve problems corresponding to low extraction rate using traditional acid hydrolysis, a novel design with combinatorial traditional and untraditional ideas was applied to amino acid production. Papain, acidic protease, alkaline protease, and silver carp enzyme were explored to produce amino acids through single factor and orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that extraction rate for amino acids were 27.3% by silver carp enzyme, 15.4% by papain, 13.1% by acidic protease and less than 1% by alkaline protease. All of these investigations provided important reference values to industrial production of amino acids.

Lipid Composition and Microencapsulation of Sweet Almond Oil
WANG Qing1,QIU Bin2,MA Yan1,YANG Hai-yan1,*
2009, 30(24 ):  74-76.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924013
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The lipid composition of almond oil was analyzed and the microencapsulation efficiencies of different wall material were compared. The results showed high containing of saturated fatty acids as 70.39% in almond oil contained and the polyunsaturated fatty acid accounted for 21.52% of total lipids. Large changes of POV of almond oil were observed before microencapsulation and the rate of changes were decreased smoothly by microencapsulation. Arabic gum/maltodextrin blends were found to provide the best microencapsulation efficiency of 97.28% with more symmetrical particle size (average particle size was 139.0 nm). This microencapsulated oil showed high stability with slight change of POV during storage.

Isolation and Characterization of ACE Inhibitory Peptide from Vinegar-egg
YANG Feng,MA Qian-li,HUANG Yong-chun
2009, 30(24 ):  77-79.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924014
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The isolation and stability of ACE inhibitory peptide of vinegar-egg were studied in this paper. The results showed that the fraction C with higher ACE inhibitory activity was obtained from the vinegar-egg hydrolyzates by Sephadex G-50 and Sephadex G-15 gel filtration chromatography. This fraction demonstrated high stability against different pH and temperature as well as gastrointestinal proteases.

Isolation, Purification and Identification of Polysaccharides from Fomes fomentarius
LIU Ju-xiang1,JIA Jian-bo2
2009, 30(24 ):  80-83.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924015
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The crude polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation method from the ferment liquid of fomes fomentarius. The polysaccharides were further purified with ion exchange chromatography and gel chromatography. Apart from this, the structure of polysaccharide was analyzed as well as its composition. The result showed that Fomes fomentarius polysaccharide displayed high homogeneity and was comprised of single polysaccharide, which was formed through the polymerization of galactose. The structure was analyzed by IR suggesting that the polysaccharide was in the form of pyranose containing α-glycosidic bond and C=O group.

Preparation and Quality Control of Osmund-Bacon Instant Food with Tujia Minority Flavor
ZHOU Zhi,HE Yi-fa
2009, 30(24 ):  84-87.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924016
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Osmund (Osmunda japonica Thunb), Tu bacon and cubeba (Litsea cubeba Pers) were used as raw materials to prepare osmund-bacon instant food with Tujia minority flavor. Its optimal preparation processing and quality control were investigated in the paper. Results indicated that preparation processing were optimized to be osmund blenching at 95 ℃ for 2 min in 0.2% NaHCO3 and 0.2% calcium lactate solutions, dehydrating to 60% water content, curing in 4% NaCl solution for 15 d, mixing pickled osmund: bacon: cubeba according to the ratio of 75:20:5 (weight), sterilization at 90 ℃ for 3-12 min. This instant product exhibited the characteristics of low-acid, low-salt and Tujia minority compound flavor from osmund, Tu bacon and cubeba.

Extraction and Property of Glatin from BaSa Skin
ZHANG Yu-hao,MA Liang,XIE Xiang
2009, 30(24 ):  88-92.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924017
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During preparation of gelatin from BaSa fish skin, effects of H2SO4 concentration, H2SO4 treatment time, materialliquid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature on extraction rate of gelatin were investigated. The optimal gelatin extraction condition was 1% H2SO4 treatment for 8 h, 1:5 (g/ml) of material-water ratio, and extraction at 45 ℃ for 4 h. The yield of gelatin was 66.13% ± 1.27% under this optimal condition. The content of proline and hydroxyproline was 18.928% and gel strength was 234 g. Melting and gel points were 22.2 ℃ and 14.2 ℃, respectively.

Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum
HU Zhong-qiu1,WANG Li2,WANG Bao-ling1,WANG Jing1,YUE Tian-li1
2009, 30(24):  93-98.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924018
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An alkaline-ethanol extraction technique was developed to extract LBP and the extraction condition was optimized by a single factor test and orthogonal experiments. The in vitro radical scavenging activity of LBP against ·OH was also discussed. Results indicated that the yield of LBP was significantly affected by the iquid/Solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH, extraction temperature and extraction time. The optimum conditions for alkali-ethanol extraction were: liquid/solid ratio of 50:1 (ml/g), ethanol concentration of 8%, pH 10.5, 70 ℃ and 6.5 h of extraction time. Under this condition, the yield of LBP could reach the maximum of 29.19%, which was increased by 9.51% compared to the traditional water extraction technology. The radical scavenging activity of LBP samples against ·OH was up to 44.90% at 2.35 mg/ml.

Preparation and Properties of Cationic Glutinous Rice Starch
YUAN Huai-bo1,2,LIU Wen-hong3,LIU Jun1
2009, 30(24 ):  99-103.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924019
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Glutinous rice was used as the material and 3-chloro-2- hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTMA) was used as etherification agent to prepare cationic starch under alkaline condition. Results showed the optimal condition was 50 ℃ of reaction temperature, 4 h of reaction time, 100:8.00 of glutinous rice starch and etherification agent ratio and 1.00:1.94 of etherification agent and NaOH ratio. Nitrogen content of glutinous rice starch was 0.370% and degree of substitution was 0.0613. Compared with original starch, cationic starch exhibited lower viscosity, stronger coagulation property, higher transmittance and lower frozen-thaw stability. Glutinous rice starch was characterized through analyses of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Optimizing of Extraction of Polysaccharides from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi through Quadratic Regression Rotation-Orthogonal Combination Design
LIANG Ying1,HE Wen-juan1,HAN Lu-jia2
2009, 30(24):  104-107.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924020
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Three factors quadratic orthogonal rotation design was used to investigated the factors influencing the yields of the polysaccharides of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi like liquor/solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: liquor-solid ratio of 30:1, extraction temperature of 85 ℃ and 100 min of extraction time. The yield of the polysaccharides of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi was 4.92% under above conditions.

Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Ginger Flavonoids
YU Jie1,CHEN Yao-rong2,WANG Shi-xiang1,ZHENG Xiao-hui1
2009, 30(24):  108-113.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924021
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Ginger flavonoids was extracted using aqueous ethanol as solvent with the ultrasound assistance. An orthonogal test involving 3 factors (i.e., ethanol concentration, extraction time, solid-to-solvent ratio) at 4 levels was employed to optimize the extraction process. Free radical scavenging ability of the extracted ginger flavonoids was evaluated in ·OH and O2 producing solutions. Its anti-lard oxidation activity was also tested. And antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was evaluated. Results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were that ginger was extracted with 40 times of 80% ethanol and treated with ultrasound for 2 h, and the yield of flavonoids was 0.75% under such conditions. The flavonoid extract exhibited ·OH and O2· scavenging ability, and inhibited the oxidation of lard significantly. Meanwhile, ginger flavonoid extract also exhibited an antimicrobial activity on bacteria and yeast.

Separation of Oligopeptides from Deer Placenta via Ultrafiltration
PI Yu-zhen,CAO Xiao-yu,WANG Shu-qin
2009, 30(24 ):  114-117.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924022
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Active oligopeptides are the most effective ingredients in deer placenta. The oligopeptides was separated through ultrafiltration from deer placenta. The major factors such as material-liquid ratio, pressure, temperature, flow rate, condensation folds and operation time were investigated to evaluate the effect on separation efficiency. The optimal separation condition was 1.5% of material-liquid ratio, 0.06 MPa of pressure, 30 ℃ of temperature, 2.0 ml/s of flow rate, 2.5 folds for condensation degree and 3 min of operation time. Protein content in separated samples was 56.22% under this optimal condition. The contaminated membrane was cleaned using 0.2% NaOH for 2 h of soaking and 1 h of circulation first, then using HCl for 1 h of soaking and 0.5 h of circulation, and finally using water washing until neutrality. An excellent recovery rate for membrane flux was achieved and WFR value was 0.834.

Preparation of Gracilaria lemaneiformis Agarose by Modified DEAE-cellulose Method
QI Bo1,YANG Xian-qing1,*,ZHAO Yong-qiang1,2,LI Lai-hao1,CHEN Sheng-jun1,CEN Jian-wei1
2009, 30(24 ):  118-121.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924023
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Gracilaria lemaneiformis agarose was prepared through KMnO4-H2C2O4 bleaching, ethanol soaking and DEAEcellulose purification, respectively. Orthogonal experiments were used to optimize processing parameters. Physical and chemical index, and electrophoresis performance of agarose were also determined. Results showed that the optimal condition for bleaching was 0.10% KMnO4, 0.30% H2C2O4, pH 6.0, bleaching time for 5 min. After bleaching treatment, whiteness (HW value) of agar was 82.98 and gel strength was 1083 g/cm2. The optimal condition for ethanol soaking was 1:40 of solid-liquid ratio, 60% ethanol, treatment time for 6 h. After ethanol soaking, transparency of 1.0% agarose (transmittance value) was 50.2%. The ash content, gel strength and sulfate group content in agarose prepared by the optimal method were 0.25%, 1127 g/cm2 and 0.24%, respectively. Gentian violet electrophoresis, electroendosmosis and genome DNA gel electrophoresis were also performed to reveal that the agarose prepared by modified DEAE-cellulose method was suitable for biochemistry and molecular biology electrophoresis.

Preparation of Antioxidant Peptides from Swimming Crab Waste through Enzymatic Hydrolysis
FAN Jian-feng,WANG Ze-nan*,YANG Ke,GUO Jun-zhen,LI Hong-bo,TAO Xue-ming
2009, 30(24 ):  122-125.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924024
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In this study, antioxidant peptides from crab were prepared through enzymatic hydrolysis using swimming carb waste as the material. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates was evaluated using reducing power assays. Results indicated that neutral protease was suitable for the hydrolysis of swimming crab waste. The optimal hydrolysis condition was 1:6 of materialliquid ratio, 1.5 h of water-bath heating treatment, pH 7.5, 3000 U/g of enzyme amount and 4 h of hydrolysis. The highest reducing power was determined in hydrolysates obtained under the optimal hydrolysis condition and the content of polypeptides in hydrolysates was 65.66%.

Extraction and Anti-microbial Activity of Chelerythrine from Chelidonium majus
FAN Hai-yan1,XUE Guang-hou1,LU Chun-mao2,CUI Na1
2009, 30(24):  126-129.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924025
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The extraction technology of chelerythrine from Chelidonium majus L. was studied. The main factors influencing the chelerythrine extraction and their best levels were aanlyzed by the single factor analysis, and the extraction conditions were optimized by the orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimal condition was obtained with the liquid/solid ratio of 1:20 for 35 min extraction under 700 W of ultrasonic power. The chelerythrine extracts displayed a certain inhibitory effect on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Vermicularia capsici, Glomerella cingulata, Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

Inhibition of Green Change in Garlic Puree
2009, 30(24 ):  130-133.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924026
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During processing of garlic puree, crushed garlic preferred to become green so that the quality of final products was affected. In this paper, factors for green change during garlic processing were investigated. The optimal processing was achieved through orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that storage at 40 ℃ for 5 h and blanching at 80 ℃ for 2-3 min before processing could inhibit green change of garlic. Individual application of color-protection agent such as NaCl, VC or edible oil exhibited a significant color-protection effect on garlic. Moreover, combinatorial application of 0.6% VC, 0.06 g/ml edible oil and 6% NaCl provided an optimal inhibition effect on green change of garlic puree.

Preparation of Glucose Syrup from Broken Rice
LI Hong-bo,WANG Ze-nan*,ZHANG Xiao-gong,GUO Jun-zhen,FAN Jian-feng,YU Shun-huo
2009, 30(24 ):  134-136.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924027
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Liquefaction and saccharification technology for glucose syrup preparation using broken rice as the material through enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. Through single factor experiments, the optimal liquefaction conditions were 90 ℃ for liquefaction, natural pH, 15 U/g of thermostable α-amylase, 6:1 of material-liquid ratio, and 15-20 min of liquefaction. DE value of liquefaction was 17.3% under this optimal condition. Similarly, the saccharification parameters were optimized to be 60 ℃for saccharification, 24 h of saccharification time, 80 U/g of glucoamylase and pH 3.5 through orthogonal test. The final DE value of saccharification reached up to 99.5% under this optimal condition. The glucose content in syrup was 77.3% through enzymatic hydrolysis.

Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Flavoniods from Sophora flavescens
WAN Zhong-min,SHEN Ling-ling
2009, 30(24 ):  137-140.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924028
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Alcohol reflux was used to extract flavoniod components from Sophora flavescens. The optimal extraction condition was investigated through orthogonal experiments to be 80% ethanol, 1:40 of material-liquid ratio, 95 ℃ of extraction temperature and 6 h of reflux time. The antioxidant activity of the extract was determined through evaluating the change of acid value and peroxide value in lard and vegetable oil with sophora extract during their storage at 60 ℃. Lard and vegetable oil with tea polyphenols and blank samples were used as the controls. Results indicated that acid value and peroxide value of samples with sophora extract exhibited a significant lower than those of the control samples. Therefore, flavoniod components from Sophora flavescens revealed strong antioxidant activity and would be a potential effective and safe natural antioxidant.

Extraction of Dihydroquercetin in Larch
2009, 30(24):  141-143.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924029
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The effects of ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature and time on the yield of dihydroquercetins from larch were studied, and a L9(34) orthogonal test was then employed to optimize the extraction. The content of dihydroquercetins was determined by spectrometry. Results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration 30%, temperature 40 ℃, solid-liquid ratio 1:20 (g/ml) and extraction time 120 min. Under such conditions, the yield of dihydroquercetins extract was 2.14% with its purity at 11.3%.

Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Mulberroside A from Mulberry Root Cortex
XU Li,ZHOU Lin,WU Chun,LIU Jun-chi,YU Mao-de*,XIAO Wei
2009, 30(24):  144-147.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924030
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Two methods, i.e., ultrasonic assisted extraction and cold soaking extraction method, for extraction of mulberroside A from mulberry root cortex were compared, and the effects of ethanol concentration, ratio of raw material to ethanol, soak time or extraction time on the yield of mulberroside A were studied. An orthogonal test was employed to optimize the ultrasonic assisted extraction process. Results suggested that the optimum conditions were that mulberry root cortex was extracted with anhydrous ethanol for 45 min after cold soaking for 1 h, with the ratio of raw material to ethanol at 1:30 (g/ml). Under such conditions, the yield of mulberroside A was 1.734%.

Preparation of Maltose Syrup from Broken Rice
GUO Jun-zhen,WANG Ze-nan*,ZHANG Shu-guang,LI Hong-bo,FAN Jian-feng,YU Shun-huo
2009, 30(24 ):  148-151.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924031
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Liquefaction and saccharification technology for maltose syrup preparation using broken rice as the material through enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. Through single factor experiments, the optimal liquefaction conditions were 4:1 of liquidmaterial ratio, 12 U/g of thermostable α-amylase, 90 ℃ of liquefaction temperature, 10 min of liquefaction, and pH 6.5. DE value of liquefaction was 9.83% under this optimal condition. Similarly, the saccharification parameters were optimized to be 55 ℃ for saccharification, 100 U/g of glucoamylase, 30 U/g of pullulanase, pH 5.5 and 44 h of saccharification time through orthogonal experiments. The final DE value of saccharification reached up to 96.85% under this optimal condition. The maltose content in syrup was 76.8% through enzymatic hydrolysis.

Production of ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Trypsin Hydrolyzing Whey Protein
TIAN Jun-ying1,PAN Dao-dong1,2,*
2009, 30(24):  152-157.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924032
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The effects of pH, temperature, enzyme to substrate ratio, substrate concentration and hydrolysis time on the hydrolysis degree of whey protein were studied using single factor test. In the following, a Box-Behnken experiment design involving 15 experiments of 3 factors (i.e., pH, temperature, enzyme to substrate ratio) at 3 levels coupled with response surface method was employed to optimize the hydrolysis process. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were as follows: pH 7.50, temperature 45.0 ℃, enzyme to substrate ratio 0.059 (E/S=1:16.92, m/m), substrate concentration 6% and hydrolysis time 150 min. Under such conditions, the degree of hydrolysis was 18.38%, and the ACE inhibition rate was 63.23% after hydrolysis for 8 h. The ACE peptides obtained from the hydorlysis process were further fractionated with ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-25 and Sephadex G-10, and exhibited 75.95% of ACE inhibition.

Desalting and Physico-chemical Properties of Antihypertensive Peptides from Grass Carp Protein with Macroporous Adsorption Resin
CHEN Ji-wang1,SUN Qin1,XIA Wen-shui1,2
2009, 30(24):  158-162.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924033
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A certain amount of salts were introduced into fish antihypertensive peptides during the process of fish protein hydrolysis and 10% of ash in the final products was capable of influencing its activities and quality. The desalting technology of fish antihypertensive peptides by DA201-C macroporous adsorption resin was investigated as well as its physic-chemical properties after desalting. The results indicated that the optimum condition for desalting was obtained as follows: loading sample concentration of 10 mg/ml, sampling flow rate of 1.5 BV/h and 70% alcohol as eluent. Under this condition, the ash content in fish antihypertensive peptides was decreased from 13.89% to 3.89%, and its ACE inhibitory activity increased from 64.35% to 95.00%. Molecular weight of fish antihypertensive peptides distributed from 200 to 7000D, and the content of peptides from 200 to 2000D accounted for 81.7% of total peptides. The solubility at pH 2 - 12 was over 98% and its moistureabsorption was similar with soybean peptides while the rate of absorption moisture was lower than urea and higher than glycerol.

Sonication Assisted Extraction of Rapeseed Protein from Rapeseed Meal in a Reverse Micelle System
WANG Li-feng1,2,ZHU Jun-wang1,YUAN Jian1,LI Jing1,HE Rong1,2,JU Xing-rong1,*
2009, 30(24):  163-165.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924034
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Assisted with sonication, rapeseed protein was extracted from rapeseed meal in a reverse micelle system. The effects of the W0, extraction time, pH value, K+ concentration, temperature, and the amount of OT on the extraction rate were studied. A Taguchi experimental design in JMP involving the above 6 factors at 3 levels was employed to optimize the extraction process. Results showed that the best fit regression equation is Y=0.063X1+0.017X2+ 0.024X4+0.529, and the amount of OT, pH value, W0 and extraction time were significant factors that influenced the extraction rate of rapeseed protein.

Effects of Several Additives on Shrimp Gel Strength
ZHOU Yu-ying1,YI Mei-hua1,*,XIE Fu-mei2
2009, 30(24 ):  166-169.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924035
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Gel strength of meat products is a determinant for quality of meat products because gel strength exhibits a direct effect on texture characteristics, water-holding capacity, adhesion and product yield. Shrimp is one of raw materials for frozen foods so that gel strength is an important index to evaluate the quality of shrimp meatballs. In order to optimize gel strength of shrimp and improve the quality of shrimp meatballs, several additives such as citric acid, calcium lactate, glutamine transaminase, and sodium bicarbonate were investigated to evaluate the effect on gel strength of shrimp meatballs. Results showed that 0.2% citric acid, 0.2% calcium lactate, 0.4% glutamine transaminase, and 0.8% sodium bicarbonate provided the best quality of gel in shrimp products.

Optimizing Extraction of Polysaccharides from Chondrus ocellatus Holm.
SUN Jie1,JIANG Ying-hua2,ZHANG Hua1,MIAO Jing1,YANG Xiao-qing1
2009, 30(24 ):  170-173.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924036
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In this study, polysaccharides were extracted from Chondrus ocellatus Holm. using hot water. Effects of extraction temperature, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and repeat extraction times on extraction rate were investigated by single factor experiments and extraction condition was optimized using orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that extraction temperature and extraction time exhibited a significant effect on extraction rate of polysaccharides from Chondrus ocellatus Holm. The optimal extraction condition was 80 ℃ of extraction temperature, 2.5 h of extraction time, 1:100 of material-water ratio and repeated extraction for two times. Under this optimal condition, extraction rate of polysaccharides from Chondrus ocellatus Holm. was 16.24%.

A New Evaluation Method for Formula of Compound Functional Beverage Made from Radix notoginseng
XIAO Mei1,YUAN Jian2,YANG Xiao-rong1,LI Rui1,HUANG Chen1,GUAN Jie1
2009, 30(24 ):  174-178.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924037
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A compound functional beverage was made from Radix notoginseng, kelp, longan and jujube. Its preparation processing was optimized by orthogonal design and fuzzy mathematical evaluation to obtain the best formula. Experimental results indicated that the optimal formula of this compound functional beverage was 40% clear juice of Radix notoginseng-kelplongan- jujube, 2.2% honey, 0.3% potassium citrate, 9.0% sucrose, 0.2% citric acid and 48.3% water. Moreover, the optimal stabilizer was 0.02% CMC-Na.

Comparison of Degreasing Methods for Fatty Red Fish Surimi
OUYANG Jie,CAI Shu-jun,LIN Wei,ZHANG Jing-feng,SHEN Jian*
2009, 30(24 ):  179-182.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924038
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In order to validate the degreasing effect of centrifugation on fatty red fish surimi, Pneumatophorus japonicus was used as the experiment material to compare the degreasing effect of four methods such as rinsing with 0.3% NaCl (A), rinsing with 0.4% NaHCO3 (B), rising with 1% NaCl + 0.25% NaHCO3 (C), centrifugation at the speed of 4000 r/min followed by rinsing with distilled water (D) at 20 ℃. Degreasing time in each method was for 30 min. Degreasing rate, protein loss rate, flexibility and whiteness of surimi were used to evaluate the degreasing effect. Results indicated that centrifugation was a suitable method for degreasing of Pneumatophorus japonicus surimi. Among four methods, the method D exhibited the best degreasing effect with 4.8% residual fat rate, 95.2% degreasing rate and excellent flexibility although the method C provided the highest whiteness. In addition, the method B resulted in a maximum protein loss rate with more than 50%.

Development and Characterization of Deoxidant for Dry-cured Ham
WANG Jia-mei1,JIN Guo-feng1,ZHANG Jian-hao1,*,LI Xiao-jun2
2009, 30(24 ):  183-187.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924039
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In order to decrease lipids oxidation of dry-cured ham caused by residual oxygen in package, preparation and characterization of a special compound deoxidant for dry-cured ham were investigated by orthogonal design based on the mixture of a rapid deoxidant and a slow deoxidant. Results indicated that the slow deoxidant based on iron as matrix was composed of 6.25% sodium chloride (m/mⅠ), 20% water (m/mⅠ) and 25% active carbon (m/mⅠ), which exhibited the maximum oxygen absorption efficiency. Deoxidation rate was 87.16% and residual oxygen was decreased to 2.67% in package after 1 h. The rapid deoxidant based on hyposulphite as matrix was composed of 30% calcium hydroxide (m/mⅡ), 25% water (m/mⅡ) and 6.25% active carbon (m/mⅡ), which exhibited the maximum oxygen absorption efficiency. Deoxidation rate was 98.21% and residual oxygen was reduced to 0.36% during 1 h of package. The optimal formula for compound deoxidant was 2.42 g iron, 0.073g hyposulphite, 0.33 g active carbon, 20% water (m/mⅠ), 6.25% sodium chloride (m/mⅠ), 30% calcium hydroxide (m/mⅡ) through regression analysis of orthogonal experiments based on saturated deoxidation amount. This compound deoxidant provided 92.67% oxygen absorption and residual oxygen was 1.67% after 1 h of package, which revealed a significant higher oxygen absorption than that of the slow deoxidant (P<0.05). Moreover, this compound deoxidant could provide stable oxygen absorption for 12 h. Therefore, this compound deoxidant is suitable for dry-cured ham by deoxidation package during long time storage.

Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Defatted Silkworm Pupa by Animal Proteases
ZHANG Hai-xiang1,WEI Zhao-jun1,*,ZHOU Le-chun1,LIAO Ai-mei1,2
2009, 30(24 ):  188-192.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924040
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Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted silkworm pupa protein by commercial animal proteases. Effects of hydrolysis temperature, pH, protease amount and material-liquid ratio on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were evaluated by single factor experiments. Results indicated that a linear relationship between hydrolysis temperature or protease amount and the degree of hydrolysis, a square effect of temperature, pH or material-liquid ratio on the degree of hydrolysis, cross-interaction of temperature and pH on the degree of hydrolysis were observed. The optimal hydrolysis condition for silkworm pupa protein was 45 ℃ of hydrolysis temperature, pH 7.56, 4.24% protease amount, and 1:29.7 of material-liquid ratio for 8 h of hydrolysis. The degree of hydrolysis of silkworm pupa protein was 48.24% under this optimal condition.

Effect of Spray Drying Condition on Gingerol Microencapsulation
GU Lin,SONG Ming-jun,WANG Zhi-jun
2009, 30(24 ):  193-196.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924041
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In this study, gingerol microencapsulation was prepared by spray drying technology. The optimal preparation processing was investigated through orthogonal experiments. Results indicated that the optimal preparation processing was 190 ℃ of inlet temperature, 500 L/h of flow rate and 80 ℃ of outlet temperature. The content of gingerol in final product was 0.835% and microencapsulation efficiency was 90.5% under this optimal condition.

Characterization of Apple Pectin Fractionated by Ultrafiltration
TIAN Yu-xia1,QIAO Shu-tao2,QIU Nong-xue1,*,DENG Hong1,GUO Yu-rong1
2009, 30(24):  197-201.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924042
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Five ultrafiltration membranes with different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) were applied to fractionate apple pectin, and totally 6 fractions with different viscosity-average molecular weight were obtained, among which the viscosity average molecular weight of 68.04% apple pectin was above 300 kD. Meanwhile, molecular weight of pectin was related to its physico-chemical properties, and the galacturonic acid content and degree of esterification increased with the increase of the molecular weight.

Study on Properties of Potato Pulp Pectins from Three Different Extracting Procedures
HONG Yan,GU Zheng-biao
2009, 30(24):  202-205.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924043
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The pectin from potato pulp(PPP) was extracted by using water, acidic and acidic assisted microwave procedure on the basis of single factor experiment and further precipitated by saturated aluminum sulfate. The differences between citrus peel pectin (CPP)and PPP extracted by the three different extracting procedures were studied by measuring their appearance, pH, viscosity, drying loss weight, ashes, insoluble hydrochloric acidic compound, degree of esterification, content of total galacturonic acid and gelling strength. The results showed that PPP extracted by acidic method and acidic assisted microwave method was of low-methoxyl pectin, and PPP extracted by water method was of high-methoxyl pectin. Gel strength and viscosity of PPP were lower than CPP and the molecular weight peak is about 41000 D.

Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Orange Peel
WANG Hua,REN Ting-yuan,AN Yu-hong
2009, 30(24 ):  206-212.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924044
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Ethanol was used as solvent to extract total flavonoids from fermentation solution of orange peel with the association of ultrasonic technology. The quadratic composite rotation design was used to optimize the extraction processing of total flavonoids from fermentation solution of orange peel through single-factor experiments. Response surface method was also used to evaluate the effect of solid-liquid ratio, ultrasonic treatment time, ethanol concentration, ultrasonic power on extraction rate of total flavonoids. The optimal extraction condition was obtained to be 4 min of ultrasonic treatment time, 1:40 of solid-liquid ratio, 70% ethanol and 70% ultrasonic power through quadratic regression analysis. The highest extraction rate of total flavonoids from fermentation solution of orange peel was achieved to be 95.34% under this optimal condition.

Separation of Eugenol and Isoeugenol by Supercritical CO2 Fluid Chromatography
XIE Jian-chun1,HAN Hui-lan1,CHENG Jie2,XIAO Ye-lan1,SUN Bao-guo1,ZHENG Fu-ping1
2009, 30(24 ):  213-216.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924045
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Supercritical CO2 fluid chromatography (SFC) was used to separate isomers, eugenol and isoeugenol in this paper. Effects of modifier, column pressure and column temperature on separation efficiency was evaluated by resolution factor under optimal silica column or cyano column. Results indicated cyano column provided better separation efficiency due to successful separation of trans- and cis-isomers of isoeugenol. The optimal separation condition for eugenol and isoeugenol was cyano column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μm), UV detection wavelength at 283 nm, 8% modifier in methanol as mobile phase, 1.5 ml/min of flow rate for mobile phase, 40 ℃ of column temperature, 8 MPa column pressure, 10 μl of sample loading amount, and 43.7 mg/ml sample. The resolution factor was 2.41 with 7 min of running time under this optimal separation condition.

Micro-filtration of Engraulis japonicus Soup by Ceramic Membrane
ZHENG Xiao-jie1,LI Yan1,ZHANG Jing1,SU Xiu-rong2,XU Jing1,*
2009, 30(24 ):  217-220.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924046
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Engraulis japonicus soup was used as the material to explore optimal processing condition of ceramic micro-filtration membrane. Effects of membrane pore size, pressure, temperature and flow rate on filtration efficiency and membrane flux were investigated. The optimal filtration condition was 0.2 μm of membrane pore size, 0.25 MPa filtration pressure, 40 ℃ of filtration temperature, 4.5 m/s of flow rate. The polarization of concentration and contamination of micro-filtration membrane could significantly decrease under this optimal condition, which provided theoretical basis for industrialization of Engraulis japonicus soup through micro-filtration.

Analysis of Active Ingredients and Total Flavonoids in Clematis sibirica (L.) Mill.
2009, 30(24 ):  221-226.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924047
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The active ingredients from above-ground parts were prepared using aqueous extraction and solvent extraction including ethanol and petroleum ether. The performing condition for solvent extraction of flavonoids was optimized by an orthogonal experiment design and the factors influencing the yields of flavonoids were also investigated including extraction time, temperature, solvent concentration and liquid/solid ratio. The results suggested the abundance of active ingredients in aboveground part of Clematis sibirica (L.) Mill. Analyses on the contents of flavonoids in the extracts from various parts of Clematis sibirica (L.) Mill showed that all the parts were rich in flavonoids while the contents varied and the order decreased as follows: leaf >fruit> stalk.

Optimization of Technological Conditions on γ-Aminobutyric Accumulation in Germinated Soybean
MAO Jian1,2,MA Hai-le1,*
2009, 30(24):  227-231.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924048
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The effects of soak time, germination time, germination temperature and MSG on the accumulation of γ - aminobutyric acid (GABA) in germinated soybean were studied using single factor test. Subsequently, a central composite design (CCD) involving 27 tests of four variables (i.e., soak time, germinated temperature, germinated time and MSG) at three levels combined with response surface methodology were employed to optimize the γ -aminobutyric formation. The results showed that the optimum germination conditions were as follows: soak time 16 h, germination temperature 27.5 ℃, germination time 48 h and concentration of MSG solution 2.5 mg/L.Under such conditions, the content of GABA was 211.67 mg/100 g dry weight.

Effect of Gluten Enhancer on Texture Characteristics of Corn Dough and Optimization of Parameters
WANG Meng-meng,LU Fen,YANG Zhuo-jun,WU Yan-wen,LU Xiao-li*
2009, 30(24 ):  232-237.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924049
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The effects of additives on texture of corn dough were investigated with single-factor test. Addictives with higher gluten enhancing effects were screened out as gluten enhancer by using SAS software and response surface method. The formulas of composite gluten enhancers were optimized and the correlative statistical mechanical models were also established. The optimum formula of composite gluten fortifier was as follows: 3.41% of precooked corn flour content, 4.22% of wheat gluten content, 1.25% of gum arabic content and 0.08% of sodium alginate content.

Degradation Condition of Hyaluronic Acid from Squid Eyes
WANG Jing,YANG Jia-yu,JIN Miao,MA Jin-lian,LU Jia-fang,YANG Wen-ge*
2009, 30(24 ):  238-241.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924050
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Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a unique acidic mucopolysaccharide with multiple physiological functions so that it is widely applied in the fields of medicine and food due to its various molecular weights. Squid eyes were used as raw materials to study degradation condition of HA through physical and chemical methods. Molecular weight was used as the index to evaluate degradation condition. Results indicated that HA could be effectively degraded by a combinatorial method of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid. The optimal degradation condition was 3:1 of mole ratio between hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, 15 min of reaction time, 50 ℃ of reaction temperature. The molecular weight of HA could be degraded to 5433 under this optimal condition.

Microwave and Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Radix pueraria
MA Ming-you1,XIAO Zhuo-bing1,WU Xian-ming2,CHEN Shang2,HE Ze-qiang2,LIU Jian-ben2
2009, 30(24 ):  242-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924051
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Radix pueraria was used as raw material to optimize flavoniods extraction with the aid of microwave and ultrasonic technology. Effects of solid-liquid ratio, microwave power, microwave duration, microwave treatment repeat times, alcohol concentration on extraction rate of flavonoids were evaluated through orthogonal experiments. Results showed that the optimal extraction condition was 30 min of initial ultrasonic treatment, 700 W microwave power, 80 mesh of grinding degree, 40 s of microwave duration, 1:25 of solid-liquid ratio, 50% alcohol, and three times of microwave repeat treatment. Extraction rate of flavonoids from Radix pueraria was 85.69% under this optimal condition.

Determination of Nonvolatile Ultraviolet Absorption Migration in Materials for Microwave Food Package
WANG Quan-lin1,YING Lu1,DAI Shuang-yan1,LIU Zhi-hong2
2009, 30(24 ):  246-250.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924052
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In this study, using corn oil as the mimic food, nonvolatile ultraviolet absorption migration from 4 kinds of commercially available materials for microwave food package was determined according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard. Experimental results indicated that contents of nonvolatile ultraviolet absorption materials migrated into corn oil from microwave food package materials were 93.3, 134.1, 38.4 μg/in2 and 11.8 μg/in2, respectively. In this study, three kinds of home-made samples exceeded the limited standard of 20 μg/in2 issued by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of USA.

Nutritional Component Analysis and Quality Evaluation of Fast-frozen Crab Yolk Powder
LU Jian-feng,JIAO Dao-long,ZHANG Wei-wei,LIN Lin,WENG Shi-bing,JIANG Shao-tong
2009, 30(24 ):  251-255.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924053
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Compositions of crude protein, amino acids, crude fat, fatty acids and mineral elements in fast-frozen crab yolk powder were analyzed and evaluated using amino acid automatic analyzer, gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC-MS), inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP) and atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. The content of crude protein in samples was 15.61%, which contained at least 16 kinds of amino acids. Essential amino acids were determined to be 37.61% of total amino acids. Furthermore, the content of 4 delicious amino acids was 52.40%. The content of crude fat in samples was 45.09%. Unsaturated fat acids were rich in samples and reached up to 87.00%. Mineral elements especially for Ca, P, Fe, Zn and Se in samples also exhibited a higher level. Therefore, fast-frozen crab yolk powder is one of high-quality foods with higher edible and nutrition value. It is also good natural sources for healthy food, and worthy of further exploitation and utilization.

Colorimetric Assay of Glycosylated Protein in Royal Jelly by Nitroblue Tetrazolium Chloride
GAO Tie-jun1,2,DONG Jie2,ZHANG Shou-wen1,TANG Feng-pei2,ZHANG Hong-cheng2,*
2009, 30(24 ):  256-259.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924054
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In order to establish a rapid and convenient method for determining the content of glycosylated protein in royal jelly, a colorimetric assay was developed using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) chloride and 1-deoxy-1-morpholino-D-fructose (DMF) was used as the standard substance. Results indicated that the optimal reaction conditions between DMF and NBT were 57 ℃ of reaction temperature, 20 min of reaction time, 0.02% Triton, pH 10.8, and 0.5 mmol/L NBT. This method is a convenient and rapid determination method for glycosylated protein in royal jelly with high accuracy and sensitivity.

Investigation of Volatile Aroma Components of Xiangxi Natural Savory Vinegar by GC-MS
HUANG Qun1,MA Cheng-jin1,YU Ji1,GAO Yao-fu2,GE Wen-ying2
2009, 30(24 ):  260-261.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924055
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The aroma components of Xiangxi natural savory vinegar were separated and structurally identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The relative contents of the components were determined through peak-area normalization method. The results showed that 15 components were present in Xiangxi Natural Savory Vinegar and the major components are acetic acid which accounted for 40.23% of total fraction collected from distillation and 2,3-butanediol for 13.43%, 9-octadecenoic acid for 12.46%, 2-hydroxy-, ethyl ester for 7.79%, and tetracontane for 6.06%. In particular, tetramethylpyrazine accounted for 1.97% of total aroma composition, which gave the product the specific healthy values.

Fatty Acids composition of Different Walnuts by Gas Chromatography
FENG Chun-yan,RONG Rui-fen*,LI Chong-xian
2009, 30(24 ):  262-265.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924056
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For further research and utilization of walnut oil resources in China, the fatty acid composition of three walnuts (Yunnan, Shaanxi, Beijing) were analyzed and compared by capillary gas chromatography. The results showed that the fatty acid compositions of three walnuts were quite similar, which mainly comprised linoleic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid. However, the content of each fatty acid varied in different walnuts and unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 92.11% of the total fatty acids, in which the polyunsaturated fatty acids contributed to 77.41%. The ratios of saturated and monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids in different walnuts were also variable as well as the ratios of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and the walnut Shaanxi showed the best ration of (5.77:1) as well as the nutritional value. No marked difference was observed in the fatty acids composition of different walnuts oils except for fatty acids contents.

Change in Aromatic Components of Semi-dried Litchi during Drying Process
CAI Chang-he1,2,CHEN Yu-xu1,ZENG Qing-xiao1,GUO Ji1,XIAO Wei-qiang2
2009, 30(24 ):  266-271.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924057
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Aromatic components of fresh “Nuomici” litchi and semi-dried litchi during each drying stage were investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Totally 36, 45, 47 and 45 aromatic components were identified in fresh litchi, the first drying stage, the second drying stage and semi-dried litchi final products, respectively. The highest relative content of aromatic components was alkenes in four samples, which were 65.77%, 63.95%, 78.59%, and 63.00%, respectively.

Analysis of Nutritional Components of a Marine Fungus: Schizochytrium limanium
ZHU Lu-ying1,2,ZHANG Xue-cheng2,*,WANG Shu-fang1,CHANG Lin-rui1
2009, 30(24 ):  272-275.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924058
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In order to evaluate nutritional values of a marine fungus, Schizochytrium limanium, its basic nutritional components, amino acid and fatty acid compositions were analyzed. Results indicated that the contents of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and ash in Schizochytrium limanium were 9.35%, 42.83%, 5.27% and 4.85% using soybean hydrolysates as nitrogen resource and 42.51%, 18.98%, 6.38% and 5.72% using yeast as nitrogen resource, respectively. Using rotifer protein as the reference, essential amino acid index (EAAI) in Schizochytrium limanium were more than 0.90; using oyster protein as the reference, EAAI in Schizochytrium limanium were 0.78-0.79, which suggested that Schizochytrium limanium was the best quality protein material for rotifer and oyster. However, Schizochytrium limanium had limited amino acids such as Arg and Ile for rotifer. Totally 14.29% DHA was determined in Schizochytrium limanium, which also suggested it was a good DHA source. Moreover, nitrogen sources exhibited a direct effect on contents of nutritional components, amino acid and fatty acid compositions.

Determination of Enrofloxacin by Flow-injection Chemiluminescence System of Luminol and Potassium Ferricyanide
HUANG Jin-hui,GAO Xiang-yang*
2009, 30(24 ):  276-278.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924059
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In order to establish a method for rapid determination of enrofloxacin, flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) system of luminol and potassium ferricyanide was developed. Results indicated that enrofloxacin exhibited a significantly enhanced effect on chemiluminescence reaction between luminol and potassium ferricyanide. An excellent linear range for enrofloxacin determination was 6 × 10-11-6 × 10-7 mol/L under the optimal condition. The detection limit of enrofloxacin was 2.7 × 10-13 mol/L and relative standard deviation for the determination was 1.2% (n = 11). A satisfactory analytical result was obtained during enrofloxacin determination using this developed method.

Determination of Chlorogenic Acid in Sweet Potato Leaves
XIANG Chang-guo1,LI Wen-fang2,XIANG Ning3,HUANG Zhi-lan2,LEI Yong2
2009, 30(24 ):  279-282.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924060
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Effect of two different developing agents on the separation of chlorogenic acid (CA)was investigated in this paper. The results showed that the composite of ethyl acetate-formic acid-water (7:2.5:2.5, V/V) was suitable for CA separation by TLC. The content of chlorogenic acid determined by TLC, UV and HPLC were 2.67%, 3.07% and 3.31%, respectively, suggesting HPLC was most sensitive. Based on our studies, UV method showed benefits like low cost, simple operation and hence, could be used as generic laboratory tests or normal use. Analysis of stability, recovery and precision of HPLC method indicated that the stability was good and can be maintained above 30 d. The recovery was as high as 101.30% and precision was excellent with the SD less than 1.55%.

Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody of Malachite Green and Establishment of Direct Competitive ELISA
LI Xiao-li1,CHEN Xue-lan2,LIU Chun-mei3,XIONG Yong-hua1,*
2009, 30(24 ):  283-286.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924061
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Carboxyl-malachite green (CMG) was synthesized and immunogen was prepared by coupling CMG with carrier protein BSA through an ester activation method. BALB/c mice were subjected to injection of CMG-BSA and a hybridoma cell line secreting monoclonal antibody against MG was constructed after fusion, screening and cloning experiments. A direct competitive ELISA for detection MG was established with 0.2 μg/ml CMG-HRP and 1:16000 of antibody dilution ratio. This method exhibited high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detecting MG. The standard regression equation of this method was y =-20.888x +81.423 (R2= 0.9813) with a detection limit for MG at the level of 0.05 ng/ml and IC50 was 0.3 ng/ml.

Essential Oil Composition of Osmanthus fragrans by GC-MS Combined with Heuristic Evolving Latent Projection
HU Chun-di1,2,LIANG Yi-zeng1,*,LI Xiao-ru1,GUO Fang-qiu1,ZENG Mao-mao1
2009, 30(24):  287-289.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924062
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The essential oil composition of Osmanthus fragrans was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry(GC-MS) under the help of heuristic evolving latent projection(HELP). 48 components were identified accounting for 92.79% of the total area of peaks and the main compounds were α-methyl- α-[4-methyl-3-pentenyl] oxiranemethanol, β-linalool, lilac aldehyde, (E)-β-ionone, hexadecanoic acid, methyl salicylate contributing to 62.32% of total essential oil. The results show that overlapped peak clusters were resolved into pure chromatograms and pure mass spectra. Under assistance of the HELP method, the accuracy of qualitative and quantitative results was greatly improved.

Analysis of Volatile Chemical Components in Different Lac Materials and Products
ZHENG Hua,ZHANG Hong*,GAN Jin,ZHAO Hong,CHEN Zhi-yong,ZHANG Ru-guo,YU Lian-song
2009, 30(24 ):  290-293.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924063
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In order to improve the quality of lac products and avoid odor, volatile components from 5 different lac raw materials and final products were trapped by a dynamic head-space closed cycle adsorption method and analyzed by thermal cryotrapping- gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TCT-GC/MS). Results showed that benzene homologues were predominant, which were over 90% in volatile components from lac raw materials, over 90% from seed lac, over 60% from bleached shellac dried at room temperature, over 30% from lyophilized bleached shellac and over 80% from heating-crushed bleached shellac. Volatile chemical components in different raw materials and final products were also different due to various purification and drying styles. No significant change in volatile components was observed during bleaching of lac. Therefore, proper techniques will be benefited for avoiding odor during lac processing and utilization.

Use of LC-MS/MS with Internal Standard Method for Simultaneous Determination of 18 Sulfonamide Residues in Aquatic Products
SUN Wei-hong,LENG Kai-liang*,WANG Zhi-jie,NING Jin-song,ZHAI Yu-xiu,XING Li-hong,MIAO Jun-kui
2009, 30(24):  294-298.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924064
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The method for simultaneous determination of 18 sulfonamide residues (SAs) in aquatic was developed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Deuterium substituted reagents were used as internal standards and added to the sample before extraction. The sample was extracted with acidified acetonitrile, cleaned up with hexane, and concentrated with a rotary evaporator.The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ion mode using select reaction monitoring for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 18 SAs at the same time. The limits of detection for SAs were 0.5μg/kg (RSN =3) except for sulfaguanidine and sulfaphenazole,which were 1.0 μg/kg, and the limits of quantitation were 1.0 μg/kg, except sulfaguanidine and sulfaphenazole,which were 2.0 μg/kg. The correlation coeficient of linear calibration curve was over 0.99 within the SAs concentration range 5.0 - 200 μg/ml except for sulfaguanidine and sulfaphenazole.The average recoveries for 18 SAs were 70% to 120%. The method are simple operation, and it make fast analysis come true.

Rapid Test Strip for Coliform Bacteria
ZHANG Li-li1,2,LAI Wei-hua1,*,TU Zu-xin2,QU Feng1
2009, 30(24 ):  299-302.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924065
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In this study, rapid test strips with strong specificity and high sensitivity for detecting coliform bacteria were developed through optimizing medium, pH, and addition amount of bromocresol purple in medium. The sensitivity of homemade test strips exhibited a significant increase by adding beef extract at the dose of 3 mg/ml into culture medium, adjusting pH to 6.62 ± 0.2, and adding bromocresol purple at the dose of 0.064 mg/ml. This kind of strip can be used in the food safety inspection to detect coliform bacteria.

Simultaneous Determination of Eight Trace Elements in Cordyceps militaris with Microwave Digestion ICP-AES
QI Biao,DING Ling-ling,CUI Jie-hua,WANG Yan-hong*,ZHANG Hong,LI Bo
2009, 30(24):  303-306.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924066
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A method based on microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was established for simultaneous determination of eight trace elements (K, P, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn) in Cordyceps militaris. Samples were digested with HNO3 and H2O2 as digestion agent under the optimized condition. The working curves were established based on the principle of low detection limits, high sensitivity and less substrate element disturbance. Finally, the contents of above eight inorganic elements in Cordyceps militaris were simultaneously determined under the proposed condition. Good linearity of the working curves for the eight elements was obtained in this study. The recovery rates obtained by determining reference matter (pork powder) method were between 91%-106%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were lower than 3.0%. The recovery rates obtained by standard addition method were between 90%-108%, and RSD were lower than 3.0% likewise. It suggests that this method was accurate and reliable for simultaneous determining the eight trace elements existed in Cordyceps militaris. In addition, the analysis results showed that Cordyceps militaris was rich in inorganic elements such as K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, especially K and P. Furthermore, the relationship between the essential inorganic elements and its particularly medical effects were discussed in this paper.

Comparison of Potentiometric Stripping Analysis and Oscillopolarography in Determination of Trace Lead in Foodstuff
JIN Hua-li,XU Wei-he,SUN Yu-fang
2009, 30(24):  307-310.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924067
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This study was aiming at comparing the two methodologies in detecting lead in foodstuff. The instrument conditions and base solution of two methods of electric chemistry were selected through experiments. The linear regression equations of the determination of lead by potentiometric stripping method and oscillopolarography were y=6361.50x-1.227(R2=0.9999) and y = 28.836x (R2 = 0.9999), repectively. The detection limits and average recoveries were 1.95 × 10-4μg/ml and 95.65% for potentiometric stripping method and 1.11× 10-3μg/ml and 103.36% for oscillopolarography. In summary, potentiometric Stripping method seemed to more sensitive while oscillopolarography presented the benefits of simplicity and time-saving.

Change of Components in Mixed Volatile Oil of Clove and Cassia Bark
XIONG Yun-hai1,2,WANG Mei2,YU Lian-fang2,ZHANG Tai-ming2,*
2009, 30(24):  311-315.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924068
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Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with chemometric resolution upon two-dimensional data was employed as a method for the analysis of volatile components in a traditional Chinese volatile oil of flavor pair clove (ECT), cassia Bark (CCP), and mixed oil of the above two kinds of oil. Totally 23, 29 and 34 volatile components in essential oil of ECT , CCP, and ECT+CCP were respectively qualified and quantified, accounting for 99.32%,96.38%, and 97.20% of total essential oil of ECT, CCP, and ECT+CCP, respectively. The experimental results showed that the number of volatile components in ECT+CCP were mainly from those of CCP, and was almost equal to the sum of volatile components in ECT or CCP oil. However, two new components, i.e., ylangene , bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene, 2,6-dimethyl-6-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-, were found in ECT+CCP oil due to chemical reactions during the mixture process. The relative contents of volatile components from Clove were higher than those from Cassia Bark in mixed volatile oil.

Determination of Total Flavonoids in Senecio cannabifolius Less
GAO Shu-yun,CHENG Xi
2009, 30(24):  316-319.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924069
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In this study, total flavonoids was prepared from raw materials of Senecio cannabifolius Less by using soxhlet extraction and microwave extraction. A single-factor test and an orthogonal experiment were employed to investigate the effect of extraction time and the microwave power on the yields of flavonoids. The optimal extracting conditions were obtained as follows: 2 h of extraction time for soxhlet and 150 s for microwave and the microwave power of 80 W. The Senecio cannabifolius Less contained 0.543% of flavonoids by UV method and the recovery of this analysis was 92.49% and 4.744% for precision while the content of flavonids by TLCS was 0.783% and the recovery was 99.20% and 0.380% for precision test.

Determination of Coumarins in Tomentose Pummelo Peel by HPLC
XIAO Wei-qiang1,ZHANG Chao-hong2,XIE Lu-si2,DAI Hong-fen1,HUANG Bing-xiong1,WANG Xiao-rong1,*
2009, 30(24):  320-323.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924070
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A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for separating and determining 10 standard coumarins was developed, and was used to determine coumarins in Tomentose Pummelo Peel (Exocarpium Citri Grandis) collected from ten areas in Huazhou County. Ten standard coumarins were as follows: hymecromone, coumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, psoralen, 6-methylcoumarin, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, bergapten, imperatorin, isoimperatorin and bergamottin. Samples were chromated using reversed-phase Nucleosil C18 column (150 mm×4.6 mm, 3 μm), and the mobile phases A, B, C were water, methanol and acetonitrile respectively. Triple gradient elution started at 0.3 ml/min and proceeded at 0.3-1.0 ml/min. Operation conditions were set as follows: column temperature 35 ℃, detection at 315 nm. Results showed that linear calibration of ten standard samples were within 0.078-15.000 μg/ml with correlation (r) 0.999-1.000. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of retention time and peak area were both below 3.466% in five consecutive tests or repeated tests during 48 h. Except 6-methylcoumarin and 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, totally 8 coumarins were detected in all of the ten Tomentose Pummelo Peel samples with significant difference. No.7 sample was the richest in coumarins with coumarin content at 0.138% dried mass (DM) and isoimperatorin content at 0.123% DM. It indicated that coumarin and isoimperatorin were main coumarins in Tomentose Pummelo Peel.

Use of Pre-column Derivatization HPLC for Determination of Monosaccharide Compositions and Contents in Sorbus tianschanica Ruper. Polysaccharide
MENG Lei,CHANG Jun-min*,SUN Lian,XUE Zhao-yun
2009, 30(24):  324-326.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924071
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Objective: To determine the monosaccharide compositions in polysaccharide from Sorbus tianschanica Ruper.. Methods: Sorbus tianschanica Ruper. polysaccharide samples were hydrolyzed with 2 mol/L sulfuric acid solution, and derivatized with 1- phenyl-3 - methyl -5 - pyrazolone (PMP), and further separated by RP-HPLC using a equivalent elution process detected at 245 nm. Results: Polysaccharide of Sorbus tianschanica Ruper. was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucuronide acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose. Conclusion: The method was simple, fast and reproducible, and can be used in determination of polysaccharide compositions of Sorbus tianschanica Ruper..

Purification of Deer Placenta Peptide by Reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography
WANG Shu-qin,PI Yu-zhen,LEI Bin
2009, 30(24 ):  327-330.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924072
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Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to purify deer placenta peptide in this paper. Major factors such as addition amount of trifluoroacetic acid, initial concentration of organic phase, flow rate and temperature on separation efficiency were investigated. The optimal purification condition was Hypersil ODS C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), 0.05% TFA/CAN as the mobile phase A, 0.05% TFA/water as the mobile phase B, linear gradient elution with 10%-50% mobile phase A and 90%-50% mobile phase B for 30 min, 1.0 ml/min of flow rate at 30 ℃ and detection wavelength at 214 nm.

Development of an ELISA for Detection of Dexamethasone and Screening of Polyclonal Antibody
HU Yong-ming,WANG Li-bing,YUAN Yuan,CHEN Wei,BIAN Ai,MA Wei,XU Chuan-lai*
2009, 30(24 ):  331-336.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924073
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Indirect competitive ELISA methods were developed based on the high-titer antibody and the dilution ratio of goat anti-rabbit-HRP, competition time and the pH of PBS solution were optimized. The IC50 of optimized indirect compete ELISA for dexamethasone, betamethasone and flumethasone were 2.66, 7.36, 6.12 ng/ml, respectively. The group selection of three antibodies was accessed by detecting their cross-reactivities. The results showed that the anti-dexamethasone antiboidy was the best suitable for group selection and the cross-reactivity toward flumethasone, betamethasone, riacinolone and predinisolon was up to 120%, 73%, 37%, predinisolone 21% while the cross activity towards several natural glucocorticoids was lower than 0.1%. The recoveries were detected by spiking four concentrations (0.375, 0.75, 1.5 ng/ml and 3.0 ng/ml) of DEX in chicken muscle tissue and the results indicated that the recoveries were between 61.3% and 80.3% and the coefficients of variation were lower than 15%. The ELISA method and LC-MS method were applied to analyze the real samples, and high correlation was observed between the two methods.

A Comparative Study on Two Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Fruit-flavored Beverages
WANG Xian-yang,FENG Wei,HU Yan-yan,LIU Xian-xiang
2009, 30(24):  337-339.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924074
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Objective: To choose an appropriate method to measure sodium benzoate(SB)and potassium sorbate(PS) in the fruitflavored beverages. Method: The content of SB and PS in the fruit-flavored beverages were determined by multiwavelength linear regression and iso-absorptive point double-wavelength UV spectrophotometry, and the performance of the two methods were compared. Results: Recovery of PS and SB by multiwavelength linear regression spectrophotometry was 99.75%-100.9% and 99.16%-101.1% respetively, and recovery of PS and SB by iso-absorptive point double-wavelength was 98.58%-99.38% and 98.42%-99.56% respetively. Conclusion: Multiwavelength linear regression is more suitable method to measure SB and PS in the fruit-flavored beverages.

Determination of Myoglobin and Haemoglobin in Animal Muscles by High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis
CAI Hai-ying1,MA Wang1,TAN Hua-rong2,WANG Yan-hong1,WANG Li-sheng1
2009, 30(24):  340-343.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924075
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The aim of this research is to develop a method of CE assay of myoglobin and hemoglobin in animal muscles. The P/ACETM MDQ high performance capillary electrophoresis was applied in the experiment. The electrophoresis buffer system was comprised of 50 mmol/L C6H8O7·H2O and 20 mmol/L Na3C6H5O7·2H2O with pH 2.6. The electrophoresis temperature was 25 ℃ and the voltage was 22 kV. UV detection was monitored at 196 nm. The results showed that the relative standard deviation of myoglobin and hemoglobin in animal muscle was 0.69% and 0.90% and the recoveries of retro-plus standard preparation and pro-plus standard preparation were 93.26% - 97.84%, 90.32% - 97.46% and 79.89% - 84.14%, 79.52% - 83.65%, respectively. This method proved the benefits of convenience, short-time and accuracy and will be a new method for assaying the myoglobin and hemoglobin of muscle flavor substance.

Determination of Total Arsenic and Inorganic Arsenic in Marine Algae
BAI Yan,YE Zi-ming,LIN Ze-qing,ZHU Jie-ke
2009, 30(24):  344-346.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924076
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The samples were pretreated by wet nitration and HCl extraction,and the contents of As in marine algae were determined by HG-AFS.The analytical conditions were optimized by orthogonal designing.Under optimum conditions,the detection limit of total arsenic,inorganic arsenic,trivalent arsenic were 0.05799 μg/L,0.03351 μg/L and 0.05286 μg/L, respectively. The correlative coefficient of linear regression equation was over 0.9994 and the precisions of total arsenic and norganic arsenic were 1.33% and 2.94% (RSD, n=5), respectively . The average recoveries were 102.95% and 103.40% (n=5). The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic in 11 kinds of marine algae samples varied within the range of 5.15 to 118.72 μg/g and 1.05 to 89.19 μg/g. Trivalent arsenic ranged from 0.31 to 27.11μg/g. The contents of inorganic arsenic in the 11 kinds of marine algae samples were beyond GB/T 2762 — 2005 and GB/T 19643 — 2005 standard except for amethyst algae.

Rapid Determination of Fatty Acid Content in Rice by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
FAN Wei-yan1,2,LIN Jia-yong1,*,XING Han3,DOU Fa-de4,WU Yu-kai4
2009, 30(24):  347-350.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924077
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The mathematic models for the prediction of fatty acid content of rice was established with the technique of nearinfrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The result showed that the calibration models developed by the partial least square (PLS) regression were optimum. The statistical values of calibration equation were as follows: the coefficient of correlation (RSQ) of 0.961, the standard error of calibration (SEC) of 1.9205, the determination coefficient of cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.9474, the standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 2.2511, Regression squared (r) of 0.951, square error of prediction (SEP) of 1.934. The t test value between the chemical standard methods and NIRS method was 1.403 (P<0.1), suggesting no significant difference between these two methods. The absolute average deviation was 0.27. This NIRS method could be applied to predict the fatty acid content in rice.

Simultaneous Determination of 8 HCH and DDT Residues in Soybean and Soybean Products with ASE-GPC Coupled with Gas Chromatography
WEI Dong-xu1,2,JIANG Lian-zhou1,3,* GUO Wei1,MENG Bing-bing2,HU Shao-xin1
2009, 30(24):  351-354.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924078
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A method for the determination of 8 HCH and DDT in soybean and soybean products was established with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), auto gel permeation chromatography purification (GPC) and gas chromatography quantification. The calibration curves presented good linear relationship in the range of 0.005-0.100 mg/kg, and the correlation coefficients were above 0.9990 for all compounds. Recoveries of all added were 78.3%-107.6% respectively, and relative standard deviations (RSD) were 2.1%-5.5% with spiked at 0.005, 0.020, 0.050 mg/kg of HCH and DDT in blank samples. The limit of detection of the method were 0.2 - 1.8μg/kg. The method was of good reproducibility, high sensitivity, shorter analysis time, and its performance could meet the requirements of the domestic and international legislation.

DNA Extraction from Soybeans and Detection of Genetically-Modified Components by Touchdown PCR
CHEN Yan1,2,PAN Jian1,*,WANG Ya2,HUI Ai-ling1,YANG Yi1
2009, 30(24):  355-358.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924079
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The DNA geneome were extracted from 8 species of soybeans sold in commercial markets of Anhui province by Improved CTAB method, high salt and low pH method, plant genomic DNA mini-prep kit and SDS method. Touchdown polymerase chain reaction (TD-PCR) was applied to detect the genetically modified components in soybeans for the first time. The positive amplification productions were also analyzed by endonuclease. The experiment results showed that the improved CTAB method was suitable for all kinds of molecular analysis due to its simplicity and high efficiency. The TD-PCR was able to significantly improve the specificity and efficiency of PCR products. It would provide a new method for detection of genetically modified components.

GC Determination of α-Linolenate in Nuts
YUE Qiao-yun,ZHANG Jing,LIU Gong-yuan,ZHANG Peng-jie,YANG Fang,LI Rong,ZHENG Lei-qing
2009, 30(24):  359-361.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924080
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α-Linolenate was extracted with n-hexane from nuts, and methylified with 2 mol/L KOH-methnoal solution. Then content of α-methyl linolenate, which could be translated to the content of α-linolenate, was quantified with gas chromatography using HP-Wax column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.5 μm). The retention time for α-methyl linolenate was 6.325 min. This method was appicable in a linear range of 0.02-10.00 mg/ml with the correlation coefficient at 0.99924 and the average recovery for α - linolenate at 95.4%- 102.3%.

Use of Titration and Spectrophotometry for Determination of Sulfite in Tremella
WEI Li-hong
2009, 30(24):  362-365.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924081
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Sulfites in tremella were extracted with NaOH solution or by distillation with water, respectively, and determined using titration or spectrophotometry methods. Both extraction methods and determination methods were compared. The RSD (relative standard deviation) of distillation and extraction with NaOH solution were 1.364%-4.719% and 1.037%-4.480% respecitvely, and both were applicable for the extraction of sulfite. The recovery of titration was 79.41%-82.11%, and RSD was 0.231%-0.620% with the detection limit at 0.010 g/kg and 0.015 g/kg. Compared with titration, colorimetry method was not fit for accurate determination, with the recovery 79.08%-80.80%, RSD 0.609%-0.746% and detection limit at 1.2× 10-3 g/kg and 1.5×10-3 g/kg, and suitable for batch samples as it was less time-consuming.

Determination of Bromate in Flour Products by GC
LIAO Yan-zhi,YANG Dai-ming,ZHANG Ji-hong
2009, 30(24):  366-368.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924082
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A sensitive method was developed for the determination of bromate in flour products by gas chromatography. Bromate was extracted with water from bread, noodle and flour samples in a ultrasonic bath for 30 min. After centrifugation, thesupernatant was further extracted by hexane and the upper organic layers were collected and filtered over 5 g of anhydrous Na2SO4. Recoveries of bromate from samples were in the range 80%-103%, and the limit of detection was 1.0 mg/kg. The results of the analysis can truly predict the addition of bromated in bread products and was capable of meeting the requirements for rapid and accurate detection.

Determination of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Rice Wine by HPLC
CHEN Lei,PENG Ning,HUANG Xue-song*
2009, 30(24):  369-371.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924083
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A new method for the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography in rice wine was developed. The detections of different solvent extracts and filtrate of sample were compared and the latter seemed to present the better result. The chromatography analysis was carried out using a C18 column at 284 nm and the mobile phase comprised methanol and water (7: 93, V/V). Within the linear range of 2.512~80.384 mg/L, the method was fast and accurate with the average recoveries rate and relative standard deviation of 99.95% and 1.21%, respectively. The limit of determination was 0.02512 mg/L. The contents of 5-HMF in rice wine with different aging time by 9 months and 3 years were 7.6924 mg/L and 53.5569 mg/L, respectively.

GC-MS Determination of Bupirimate in Imported and Exported Agricultural Products
YI Xiao-juan,ZHU Jia-ye,DING Ping
2009, 30(24):  372-375.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924084
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Bupirimate in agricultural products was extracted and concentrated with acetonitrile,and purified using solid phase extraction column. Then it was detected with GC-MS and quantified with external standard method. The limit of quantification was 0.01 mg/kg, and the recovery was in the range of 70.0%-89.5% with the relative standard deviation at 6.11%.

Isolation and Quantification of Main Milk Proteins in Dairy Products with Reverse-phase HPLC
WANG Hao1,ZHANG Zhi-guo2,CHANG Yan-zhong1,DUAN Xiang-lin1,ZHAO Shu-qiang1,
2009, 30(24):  376-380.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924086
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Totally seven main proteins (κ-CN, αs2-CN, αs1-CN, β-CN, α-La, β-LgB, β-LgA) in milk and dairy products were simultaneously determined with reverse-phase HPLC method. This method successfully solved the most concerned problems in traditional methods such as inaccurate quantitative analysis of degradative protein in processed dairy products and the difficulty of separatingκ-CN and αs2-CN, as well as α-La, β-LgB and β-LgA in whey protein. The chromatographic resolution of each component is more than 1. and baseline separation was achieved. The recovery rate was about 88.9%- 97.1% and the value of relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.8%-5.1%. In addition, the sample centrifuging process and the casein removal step in albumin analysis were not needed any more. Compared with previous methods, the method was sensitive, accurate and rapid and could be used for quality control and quantitative analysis of milk or dairy products.

Validation of Determination Capacity of Aflatoxin in Peanut: An Assessment Scheme for Peanut Export Industry
BAO Lei1,BAO Zhen-min1,LU Ning2,JIN Ying2,LIANG Cheng-zhu2,ZE Xiang-jun2,ZHANG Yi-bing2,
2009, 30(24):  381-384.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924086
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This assessment program was established by Shandong Imported and Exported Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of China (SDCIQ) to evaluate the aflatoxin-testing capacity of a cross-section of Peanut Export Industry. The assessment was performed according to ISO 13528: 2005 and the International Harmonized Protocol for Proficiency Testing. The 102 industries were involved in the study. The analytic samples for this scheme were prepared from naturally contaminated peanut butter. The contents of aflatoxin were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorometry. The Ss≤0.3σP test was used to evaluate the homogeneity of the test samples and the sample stability was confirmed with a t-test. The performance of each laboratory was designated by a z-score that was calculated using robust statistics. The robust mean of the participants results in this study was nearly coincident with the median. A modified Horwitz equation was used to analyze the standard deviation. 93 samples were observed as satisfactory, 6 as questionable and 3 as unsatisfactory. Samples reported to be questionable or unsatisfactory were further re-evaluated in a second inter-laboratory comparison.

HPLC Determination of Melamine in Milk Product
LIU Li-ping
2009, 30(24):  385-388.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924087
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Melamine in milk products was extracted by acetonitrile - trichloroacetic acid solution, and purified by mixed positive ion exchange column, followed by HPLC determination. Melamine was separated by a DBS-C8 column (4.6×150 mm, 5 μm, Thermo) using acetonitrile–cushion solution (1-pentan esulfonic acid sodium salt – citric acid monohydrate) as mobile phase with the flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, and detected at 240 nm. The limit of detection was 0.15μg/ml with the average recovery between 86.39% and 102.60%.This method has been notarized by national authentication committee.

Quality Inspection Method of Peanut Oil by Dielectric Properties during Heating and Storage
HE Chun-lei1,QIN Wen2,*,WANG Zheng2
2009, 30(24 ):  389-392.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924088
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Dielectric properties such as capacitance, inductance and impedance in peanut oil during heating or storage were measured using a parallel-plate electrode. Quality parameters such as acid value, peroxide value and carbonyl value of peanut oil were analyzed by GB methods. The correlation between quality and dielectric characteristics of peanut oil was also analyzed. Results indicated that a good linear relationship between quality and dielectric parameters of peanut oil during heating and longtime storage. The errors between actual measurements and predicted values were within the allowable range. Therefore, it is feasible to inspect the quality of peanut oils using dielectric parameters.

Identification of Volatile Flavor Components in Peanut Butter
LOU Fei1,LIU Yuan1,SUN Xiao-hong1,PAN Ying-jie1,ZHAO Jun-hong2,ZHAO Yong1,*
2009, 30(24 ):  393-396.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924089
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Electronic nose (E-nose) was employed to analyze volatile flavor compounds in peanut butter from two different brands through principal component analysis (PCA) method. Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) technique was used to extract volatile flavor compounds from peanut butter A and B. Volatile flavor components in peanut butter were isolated and identified by capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Electronic nose could successfully identify peanut butter A and B. Totally 62 and 42 volatile flavor components were identified and their contents were 94.68% and 90.98% among total determined components from peanut butter A and B, respectively. Pyrazines exhibited the highest content in both kinds of peanut butter. The contents of 19 and 13 pyrazines were 51.86% and 44.40% in total volatile components from both kinds of peanut butter, respectively. Meanwhile, 39 volatile flavor components such as pyrazines, aldehydes, furan, pyrrole, ketones and alcohols were identified to be same in both peanut butter A and B, although their contents are different. This investigation confirmed that major flavor compounds in peanut butter were pyrazines. E-nose combined with GC-MS and SPME technology provided an excellent identification method for aromatic components from different brands of peanut butter.

Chelation Rate of Zinc Amino Acid Chelate Determined by Sephadex Gel Filtration Chromatography
HU Xiao-bo1,GONG Yi1,GUO Zhi-yong1,2,NIE Shao-ping1,LI Chang1,WANG Yuan-xing1,XIE Ming-yong1,*
2009, 30(24 ):  397-400.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924090
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Chelation rates between trace elements and amino acids are usually used to evaluate chelate quality. In this paper, chelation rates of zinc methioninate and zinc threoninate were determined by Sephadex gel filtration chromatography. Results indicated that Sephadex gel filtration chromatography could be used to determine chelation rate of zinc methioninate due to the consistent result with other determination methods. However, it was not feasible to determine the chelation rate of zinc threoninate.

Use of Dual-column Gas Chromatography for The Determination of Organochlorine and Pyrethroid Pesticides Residues in Tea
LU Jian,WU Zhong-ping,GAO Wei,YU You-fen
2009, 30(24 ):  401-404.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924091
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A dual column gas chromatography method for determination of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides residues in tea was developed. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile. The extracts were purified using florisil SPE column, and then separated with DB-1701 and DB-35ms capillary columns, followed by detection with μECD. The average recoveries between 72.02% and 119.23%, relative standard deviations between 0.19% and 9.56% were obtained for spiked samples. The detection limits were 0.4~40μg/kg(except triadimenol and flutriafol).

Fatty Acid Compositions and Rheological Properties of Oil from Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus)
WANG Jun1,YU Yue-ying1,LI Lin-qiang1,ZAN Lin-sen2,REN Zheng-dong3
2009, 30(24):  405-408.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924092
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The fatty acid compositions of Andrias davidianus oil were analysed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS); meanwhile the viscosity and the shear stress of the oil and its mixture with peanut oil at various ratios (75:25, 50:50, 25:75) were measured with rheometer. GC-MS results showed that there werer totally 12 fatty acids in Andrias davidianus oil with their contents as follows: C18:1 24.55%, C16:1 16.40%, C16:0 15.64%, C18:2 8.28%, C20:5 6.74%, C18:3 5.48%, C22:6 4.27%, C14:0 3.00%, C18:0 2.87%, C17:0 2.47%, C22:5 2.64%, C20:4 2.71%. And there were 23.98% of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 76.58% of unsaturated fatty acids(UFA), in which the propotion of monounsaturated fatty acids(MFA) was 45.47%, and that of polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFA) was 31.11% with the UFA/SFA ratio at 3.19:1, and the propotion of ω-3 PUFA was 20.85%, and the propotion of ω-6 PUFA was 10.26%. Rheological analysis showed that viscosity of oil consisting of 50% Andrias davidianus oil and 50% peanut oil decreased significantly, and exhibited properties of Newtonian fluid. The results suggested that Andrias davidianus oil was a nutritional oil with probable healthy functions.

Determination of Ascorbic Acid by Ce(IV)-Ascorbic Acid-Quinine Chemiluminescence Analytical System
TANG Zhi-hua,XIONG Hai-tao
2009, 30(24 ):  409-411.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924093
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In acidic condition, oxidation of ascorbic acid by Ce (IV) resulted in a poor chemiluminescence, and the addition of quinine exhibited a significant enhancement of luminescence. Furthermore, an excellent linear range between luminescence intensity and ascorbic acid concentration was observed. Thus, a flow injection chemiluminescence analytical method for determining ascorbic acid was developed. Under the optimal condition, the liner range for ascorbic acid was 0.03-1.0 mg/ml witha detection limit of 0.012 mg/ml. The relative standard deviation was 2.5% for 0.3 mg/ml ascorbic acid solution among 11 parallel determinations. Therefore, this proposed method can successfully used to determine quinine injection and tablets.

Determination of IMP in Chicken by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis
ZHOU Mei-xian,ZHOU Ye-fei
2009, 30(24 ):  412-415.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924094
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An easy and low-cost method for determining inosine monophosphate (IMP) in chicken by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was established. The capillary zone electrophoresis was conducted in the buffer of 20 mmol/L borate (pH 9.3) at the voltage of 30 kV and detection wavelength of 254 nm. Results indicated that an excellent linear relationship between IMP concentration and peak area was observed (r = 0.9983). The relative standard deviations for migration time and peak area were less than 0.27% and 2.74%, respectively. This capillary electrophoresis method provided simple, rapid, convenient and high reproducible determination, which was suitable for the determination of IMP in chicken.

Determination of Protein Hydrophobicity by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Binding Method
GENG Wei-wei,YANG Guang*,XIE Xin-yi,YANG Bo
2009, 30(24 ):  416-418.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924095
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In this study, binding capacity between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and protein was used to evaluate protein hydrophobicity. SDS and protein were mixed in a buffer with certain concentration and pH. Followed by dialysis of the SDSprotein mixture, the bound SDS was determined through Epton s method. The optimal determination condition was achieved to be 24 h of dialysis, 30 ℃ of dialysis temperature, 40 ml of SDS solution and pH 8. Compared with fluorescence probe method, the SDS binding method exhibited a good correlation with it.

GC-MS Analysis and Determination of Fatty Acids in Bee Pollen
ZHANG Hong-cheng1,DONG Jie1,*,QU Chen2,REN Xiang-nan1
2009, 30(24 ):  419-424.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924096
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The crude fat was extracted from 8 kinds of bee pollen such as camellia pollen, poppy pollen, peach pollen, lotus flower pollen, amboyna pollen, watermelon pollen, dandelion pollen, broad beans pollen through Soxhlet extraction. The contents of crude fat and free fatty acids in bee pollen were also determined. The relative contents of fatty acids were further analyzed and determined via GC-MS after esterification of crude extracts. Results indicated that 8 kinds of bee pollen had plentiful fatty acids, which were important function factors for nutrition.

Analysis of Fatty Acids in Kalimeris indica Seeds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
JIANG Xian-guang,HOU Dong-yan,HUI Rui-hua,LI Tie-chun,LIU Xiao-yuan,LI Xiu-ming
2009, 30(24 ):  425-427.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924097
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Kalimeris indica seed oil was extracted by Soxhlet extraction from Kalimeris indica seeds with two different granule sizes. Fatty acids in Kalimeris indica oil were esterified and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Components and relative contents of fatty acids were compared. Results indicated that 16 fatty acids were identified in Kalimeris indica seeds with granule size larger than 1 mm and 14 fatty acids were identified in Kalimeris indica seeds with granule size less than 1 mm. Contents of total fatty acids were 98.66% and 96.84% in both kinds of Kalimeris indica seed oil, respectively. The major fatty acids in Kalimeris indica seeds were octadecadienoic acid, octadecenoic acid and hexadecanoic acid.

Effect of Pre-harvest Oligochitosan Treatment on Storage Quality of Citrus Fruits
DENG Li-li1,HUANG Yan1,ZHOU Yu-xiang2,ZENG Kai-fang1,3,*
2009, 30(24 ):  428-432.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924098
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The effects of pre-harvest oligochitosan treatment on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz and the storage quality of citrus fruit were studied in this paper. The results indicated that pre-harvest oligochitosans treatment was capable of increasing the fruit weight and reducing the fruit rotten ratio and drop rate while no marked effect was observed on decreasing the incidence of latent infection. The results also suggested that oligochitosans had obvious effects on storage qualities such as water loss, firmness, the content of soluble protein, soluble solids and titratable acid. Our findings would provide some theoretical basis for the application of oligochitosan in the citrus fruit storage.

Quality Change of Grass Carp during Chilled Storage
LIN Lin,GAO Yan-yan,LU Shun,LU Jian-feng*,WENG Shi-bing
2009, 30(24 ):  433-435.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924099
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Quality change and freshness of grass carp during storage at 4 ℃ were studied by measuring Ca2+-ATPase activity, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and total bacteria counts. Results indicated that Ca2+-ATPase activity in grass carp exhibited a declined trend during the storage and 67.74% reduction after storage for 9 days. In contrast, pH, TVB-N and total bacteria counts in grass carp revealed an increase trend during chilled storage.

Effect of Cold Shock Treatment on Quality of Yizhou Papaya during Storage
ZHENG Ya-qin
2009, 30(24 ):  436-438.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924100
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Yizhou papaya was used to investigate the effect of cold shock treatment (CST) on soluble solids, vitamin C, titratable acids, hardness and weight loss rate. Results showed that the cold treatment using ice and water mixture for 1 hour obviously delayed the decrease of hardness of papaya, reduced the degradation of vitamin C, inhibited the decline of titratable acids and decreased the weight loss rate, which resulted in an effect on attenuating maturation and senescence for fruits.

Effect of Ice-temperature Controlled Atmosphere Storage on Quality of Tilapia Fillets
LI Lai-hao1,PENG Cheng-yu1,2,CEN Jian-wei1,YANG Xian-qing1,MA Hai-xia1,DIAO Shi-qiang1,HAO Shu-xian1,SHI Hong1
2009, 30(24 ):  439-443.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924101
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Fresh tilapia fillets packaged under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, CO2:N2 = 70:30) were stored at temperature of controlled freezing-point (CF, -0.7 ℃). Changes in odor, elasticity, chromatic aberration, total bacterial counts, psychrotrophic counts, pH, TVB-N and drip loss of tilapia fillets were monitored during storage of 24 days. Results showed that MAP and CF storage exhibited a significant fresh-keeping effect on tilapia fillets. After storage for 21 days, the tilapia fillets still remained intact odor, elasticity and color; total bacterial counts and TVB-N were 3.09×105 CFU/g and 17.74 mg/100 g, respectively, which were still in the acceptable range. In contrast, samples in other preservation groups were spoiled. Therefore, a synergistic effect of MAP and CF storage on tilapia fillets preservation was achieved. Compared to individual MAP or CF storage method, the shelf life of tilapia fillets using the combinatorial MAP and CF storage was extended by 3 days and 6 days, respectively. Moreover, the combinatorial MAP and CF storage can provide 4-fold shelf life for tilapia fillets treated with ordinary preservation methods.

Effect of Bleached Shellac on Quality of Apple at Room Temperature Storage
GAN Jin,ZHANG Hong,MA Li-yi,ZHENG Hua,CHEN Zhi-yong,SHI Lei,CHEN Xiao-ming
2009, 30(24 ):  444-447.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924102
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Bleached shellac with different concentrations was used for film-coating preservation of apples during room temperature storage. Results indicated that bleached shellac revealed obvious effects on reduction of respiration intensity, inhibition of water loss and slow decay of fruits. Meanwhile, the quality of fruits was well maintained. The best fresh-keeping effect was observed using 10% bleached shellac. During the storage for 90 days at room temperature, apples coated with 10% bleached shellac exhibited 31.92% and 72.43% of reduction in water loss and decay index, respectively. The hardness, content of soluble solids and titratable acids in apples coated with 10% bleached shellac increased by 12.78%, 19.14%, 31.82%, respectively.

Study on Browning Inhibition of Pear Juice by Liquid Nitrogen Injection
JIANG Long-bo,WEN Sheng-nan,LI Yan-jie,YANG Gong-ming*
2009, 30(24):  448-451.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924103
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Browning often occurs during pear beating. This study was aimed to investigate the browning inhibition of pear juice by injecting liquid nitrogen during beating. The color of pear juice, browning index, PPO activity as well as VC content were compared under two different beating methods of liquid nitrogen beating and common beating. The results showed that the PPO activity of pear juice beaten together with liquid nitrogen was reduced and hence the browning could be inhibited. Liquid nitrogen injection was capable of preserving more VC and improving the quality of product as welll.

Effect of Tea Polyphenols in Preservative Coating on Quality of Chilled Meat
LIU Guo-qing1,ZHANG Li-li1,ZONG Kai1,QIAN Xiao-yong1,ZHANG Xiao2
2009, 30(24 ):  452-456.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924104
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In order to explore the feasibility of using cheaper preservative coating mixed with natural antibacterial or antioxidant materials for fresh-keeping of chilled pork, a cheaper preservative coating with tea polyphenols were prepared to use for the fresh-keeping of chilled pork. pH, color, cooking loss, tenderness, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value for fat oxidation degree, peroxidase activity and total bacterial counts in treated chilled pork were determined. Results indicated that tea polyphenols could improve the fresh-keeping function of the cheaper preservative coating. Meanwhile, 0.2% tea polyphenols in the coating of soybean protein isolate and ferulic acid exhibited the best fresh-keeping effect on chilled pork.

Effect of High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Quality of Fresh-cut Lettuce
CHEN Xue-hong,QIN Wei-dong,MA Li-hua,HUANG Shen-yang
2009, 30(24):  457-459.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924105
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of fresh-cut lettuce during storage. The lettuce slices were packaged in boxes filled with 60% O2 + 20% CO2 + 20% N2 and 100% O2 at 4 ℃ for 14 days, in contrast to that of air treatment. The results showed that the qualities of fresh-cut lettuce were significantly affected by high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging. Packaging with 60% O2 + 20% CO2 + 20% N2 and 100% O2 inhibited the loss of weight, formation of cellulose and the loss of vitamin C as well as chlorophyll. In addtion, the qualities of fresh-cut lettuce were kept better under 100% O2.

Preservation of Chilled Meat Coated with Polymethoxyl Flavonoid Extract
YAO Xiao-lin1,PAN Si-yi1,ZHANG Xiao-wei1,DUAN Chun-hong2,WANG Lu-feng1,ZHU Xin-rong1,XU Xiao-yun1,*
2009, 30(24 ):  460-463.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924106
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The preservation effect on chilled meat coated with polymethoxyl flavonoid extract (PMF) was studied. The color, pH, TVB-N, total bacteria counts and Pseudomonas amount of chilled meat was used to evaluate its preservation effect. Results indicated that chilled meat coated with PMF exhibited an obvious fresh-keeping effect and the chilled meat treated by PMF exhibited an attenuated alteration of pH, TVB-N, total bacteria counts and Pseudomonas amount. Moreover, PMF had no effect on color of chilled meat. The shelf life of chilled meat treated with PMF was extended to 8 days.

Effect of MAP on Mutton Preservation during Storage
LI Huan-rong,BA Tu-er,PANG Huan-ming,WU Yun*
2009, 30(24 ):  464-468.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924107
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Fresh mutton was used as the raw material and PA/CPP as package materials, effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with various gas components on color, total bacteria amount and TVB-N of mutton during storage. CO2 alone with more than 40% of total amount exhibited the satisfactory inhibition effect on bacteria. O2 alone with more than 50% provided satisfactory requirements on color. Either CO2 or O2 in package could remain stable pH in certain range. Therefore, modified atmosphere packaging with 40% CO2, 50% O2 and 0.06 MPa pressure exhibited the best fresh-keeping effect on inhibiting bacteria growth, stabilizing pH, and remaining excellent color of mutton.

Effect of Ozone Treatment on Quality of Crisped Grass Carp Fillets Stored at Ice Temperature
GUO Shan-shan1,2,RONG Jian-hua1,2,ZHAO Si-ming1,2,GAN Cheng-lu1,2,SONG Xin-xin1,XIONG Shan-bai1,2,*
2009, 30(24 ):  469-473.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924108
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In this study, crisped grass carp fillets were used as the materials to investigate the effect of the treatment using ozone or chlorine dioxide on quality of crisped grass carp fillets stored at ice temperature. Crisped grass carp fillets were washed by water as the control. Results indicated that the optimal ozone treatment condition was leaching of the fillets using water containing 2 mg/L ozone at the flow rate of 150 ml/min for 10 min. The optimal chlorine dioxide treatment condition was leaching of the fillets using water containing 100 mg/L chlorine dioxide at the flow rate of 100 ml/min for 6 min. Under their optimal treatment conditions, ozone treatment was superior to chlorine dioxide treatment based on the residual bacteria rate, total volatility basis nitrogen, rigidity, chewiness and sensory quality of the treated fillets. The shelf life of crisped grass carp fillets treated by ozone was 14 days during storage at ice temperature, which was 9 days more than that of the control group. Therefore, this investigation provided a theoretical basis for pre-treatment of crisped grass carp fillets during storage.

Change of Solvent Retention Capacity of Wheat Flour During Storage
YUAN Jian,SONG Jia,JIA Ji-rong,YANG Xiao-rong,JU Xing-rong,JIANG Tian-yan
2009, 30(24):  474-479.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924109
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The change of solvent retention capacity (SRC) of wheat flour was studied by simulated storage experiments, in which wheat flour was stored at different temperatures and relative humidity. The results showed that SRC of wheat flour to 3 solvents decreased during the storage. At 55% and 70% relative humidity, effects of storage temperature and time on sodium carbonate SRC were discussed by means of ANOVA, which presented a significant binary linear dependence with sodium carbonate SRC (Y=a+bX1+cX2). Effects of storage temperature, humidity and time on lactic acid SRC and sucrose SRC were discussed by means of ANOVA, which all presented a significant ternary linear dependence with sodium carbonate SRC (Y=a+bX1+cX2+dX3). Finally, compared with cooking quality, SRC presented a good correlativity with it, and critical SRC of wheat flour during storage was discussed.

Preparation of Quail Egg Fermented Milk Beverage
MA Cheng-jin1,HUANG Qun1,YAO Mao-jun1,SUN Shu-guo1,XIE Gui-ping1,MA Mei-hu2
2009, 30(24 ):  480-483.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924110
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Quail eggs and skim milk powder were used as materials to study the preparation processing of quail egg fermented milk beverage. The preparation processing was optimized through single factor and orthogonal experiments to be 8% sugar, 9% quail egg fluid, 10% skim milk powder, and 43 ℃ of lactic acid fermentation for 6 h. Optimal formula of compound stabilizer was 0.04% xanthan gum, 0.14% gelatin, 0.20% CMC-Na, 0.13% agar. The final products obtained under the optimal condition exhibited excellent quality and special flavor.

Preparation Processing and Stability of Functional Hawthorn Beverage with Live Lactobacillus
LU Chang-xin,ZHAO Da-jun,SONG Li,TANG Yue
2009, 30(24 ):  484-487.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924111
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Hawthorns and milk were used as major materials to optimize the formula for preparing functional hawthorn beverage with live Lactobacillus. The optimal formula and preparation processing was achieved through orthogonal experiments based on the evaluation of stabilizer screening, precipitation rate, acidity adjustment, sterilization style and sugar-acid ratio.

Study on Processing Technology of Burdock Nutritional Bar
SONG Hui,LI Yong,LIU Quan-de,ZHOU Wei-dong,XIE Bin
2009, 30(24 ):  488-490.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924112
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This study was aimed at developing the processing technology of burdock nutritional bar. A procedure of secondary baking was adopted and the factors influencing the quality of nutritional bar was investigated though a single factor test and orthogonal experiment design. The results showed that the baking condition under 18% of burhock useage at 180 ℃ for 22 min gave a best sensory and textual quality. The product tasted fine and the quality is good. Chemical analysis was performed on the contents of soluble dietary fiber, fat, protein, ash, water of nutritional bar.

Processing Technology of Cherry Tomato Preserves with Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation
XIAO Chun-ling1,WANG Xiong-yan1,ZHAO Ya-ya1,2,WU Jin-hai1,WANG Xiao-yong1,DU Wen-yan1
2009, 30(24):  491-493.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924113
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The effects of inoculation amount of lactic acid bacteria, fermentation temperature and time on the sensory quality, including apperance, color and taste in the final products, were studied by conducting single factor test. Subsequently, a L9(34) orthogonal test involving the above 3 factors at 3 levels were employed to optimize the fermentation process. Results showed that the optimum conditions were that cherry tomatoes were inoculated with 2% (106 CFU/ml) of lactic acid bacteria and fermented at 40 ℃ for 15 h. Then, the cherry tomatoes were cooked in water containing 0.3% CMC, 1.1% citric acid and 45% sugar for 30 min, followed by dipping in it for another 5 h, and dried at 55 ℃ for 24 h in a electric blastdrying oven.

Preparation of Liquid Flavor Seasoning of Acetes
XU Jing1,ZHANG Jing1,ZHENG Xiao-jie1,LI Lai-hao2,XUE Chang-hu3
2009, 30(24 ):  494-496.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6630-200924114
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The preparation processing of liquid flavor seasoning using by-products of Acetes as raw materials was introduced in this study. Results indicated that the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis condition was initial pH 8.0, 8 h of hydrolysis time, and 0.6% enzyme amount. The degree of hydrolysis was 39.2% under the optimal condition. The final products exhibited strong delicious flavor. Moreover, microorganism, physical and chemical index was met the requirements of national standard. Therefore, it is suitable for flavor seasoning.