Table of Content

01 December 2009, Volume 30 Issue 23
Adsorption of Puerarin Flavonoids by Magnetic Resins in External Magnetic Field
LI Bing,ZHANG Xia,ZHAO Wei,LI Lin*
2009, 30(23 ):  13-16.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923001
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Magnetic absorption resins displays more unique characteristics than ordinary adsorption resins due to its magnetism. The absorption efficiencies of magnetic resin in external magnetic field were investigated. The static and dynamic adsorption and reuse cycles of magnetic resin and AB-8 resin were compared with the intensity of the magnetic field at 1.0 T and pH=7, The results showed no significant difference between magnetic resin and AB-8 resin during static absorption, while in dynamic absorption when the flow rate of adsorption was 2 BV/h, magnetic resin was able to adsorb 12 BV flavonoids solution. After reusing 4 times, the adsorption of magnetic adsorption resin was better than AB-8 resin.

Application of Frozen Dough Fermentation in Chinese Traditional Foods II. Effect of Ice-structural Protein on Rheofermentation Properties of Compressed Yeast and Frozen Dough
REN Shi-xian1,HUANG Wei-ning1,*,WANG Hong-zi2,DU Guo-cheng3,LIAO Xiang-ru3,JIA Chun-li1, RAYAS-DUARTE Patricia4
2009, 30(23 ):  17-21.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923002
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Effect of ice-structural protein (ISP) on rheofermentation properties of compressed yeast and frozen dough after frozen for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks were investigated using F3 rheofermentometer and dynamic rheometer, respectively. Results showed that extended frozen time resulted in decrease of maximum height of gas release curve (H'm), total volume of CO2 produced by yeast (Vtotal), maximum swelling height of dough (H'm), elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G〞) of frozen dough, specific volume of frozen dough. However, addition of ISP could effectively increase H'm, Vtotal and Hm of compressed yeast, G'and G〞of frozen dough, and specific volume of frozen dough at same frozen time. These investigations suggested that ISP could inhibit the formation of ice crystallization and prevent from recrystallization, and reduce the damage of yeast and protein texture of dough from ice crystallization.

Protein-losing Analysis of Beef Jerky during Traditional Preparation
CHENG Chuan-bo1,2,ZHU Qiu-jin1,3,*,XIA Xian-lin4,YANG Qin1
2009, 30(23 ):  22-26.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923003
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In order to investigate effects of natural thawing, microwave thawing and water thawing on protein-losing, protein content in beef was determined during traditional preparation processing such as different thawing styles, pre-cooking times, meat loaf sizes, and water-material ratios. Crude protein in beef was determined to be 20.64%. Protein loss was 1.42%, 5.95% and 7.37% during thawing, pre-cooking and preparation processes, respectively. The lowest protein loss was observed in beef through microwave thawing and 60 min of pre-cooking. Through this treatment, protein amount and solid residue in pre-cooking soup were 1.03 g/100ml and 2.08 g/100ml, respectively.

Effect of Microwave Sterilization on Texture Characteristics of Pork with Sweet Soybean Paste
YANG Jia-lei,DONG Quan*
2009, 30(23 ):  27-31.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923004
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Effect of microwave sterilization on texture characteristics of pork with sweet soybean paste was studied by texture profile analysis. Results showed that texture characteristics of products had little effect from microwave power (P > 0.05). However, different sterilization times revealed a significant effect on elasticity (P<0.05) and no obvious effect on other texture characteristics (P> 0.05). Therefore, microwave sterilization was applicable method without effect on major texture characteristics and taste of pork with sweet soybean paste.

Effects of Storage Temperature and Time on Quality of UHT Sterilized Milk
2009, 30(23 ):  32-34.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923005
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In order to examine effects of storage temperature and time on quality of ultra-high temperature (UHT) sterilized milk, contents of protein, lipid and lactose, and sensory evaluation index were determined. The prolonged storage time resulted in a reduction of protein, lipid, lactose and sensory evaluation index and an increase of titration acidity. These changes also could be accelerated due to higher temperature during storage. Sensory evaluation scores were remained 98 points or more during storage at 4 ℃, suggesting an excellent sensory quality of UHT sterilized milk; in contrast, the declining sensory quality of UHT sterilized milk was observed during storage at 22 ℃ and 37 ℃. Moreover, a faster reduction in sensory quality of UHT sterilized milk could be resulted from higher storage temperature.

PCR-DGGE Analysis of Bacterial Community during Processing of Liquid-smoked Tilapia
CAI Qiu-xing1,2,LI Lai-hao2,*,CHEN Sheng-jun2,YANG Xian-qing2,CEN Jian-wei2,WU Yan-yan2,DIAO Shi-qiang2,SHI Hong2
2009, 30(23 ):  35-40.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923006
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In order to understand the origin of bacterial contamination in liquid-smoked tilapia fillet during processing and provide evidence for controlling bacterial contamination, bacterial community and diversity were analyzed by PCR-DGGE (PCRdenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). The total bacterial DNA was extracted from samples and V6-V8 regions of bacterial 16S rDNA gene were then amplified to establish phylogenetic tree. Results indicated that the bacterial community could contain Macrococus, Micrococus, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Prosthecobacter and Buttiauxella. Pseudomonas, Micrococus, Vibrio and Enterobacter had potential to spoil liquid-smoked tilapia fillets. Therefore, PCR-DGGE used for analyzing bacterial community and diversity during processing of liquid-smoked tilapia was feasible and convenient.

Free Radical Scavenging Effects of Extracts from Various Parts of Citrus
WU Gang,PENG Mi-jun*,PENG Sheng
2009, 30(23 ):  41-43.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923007
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This study was aiming to find natural and efficient radical scavenger. Different parts of citrus (branch, leaves and skin) were extracted by water and organic solvent. The radical scavenging activities of citrus extracts were determined by methylene blue spectrophotometry. The results showed that the aqueous extract of citrus branch possessed the highest radical scavenging efficiency and the activity increased dose-dependently. In addition of 2 ml of 2 mg / ml solution to reaction system, the scavenging activity reached 78.36%, which is higher than those of the Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leave extract, chlorogenic acid and polyphenols. High correlation was observed between the scavenging effeiciency and the content of flavonoids in citrus branches.

Relationship between Pork Color and Water-holding Capacity
YU Xiao-ling,LI Xue-bin,CHEN Hui
2009, 30(23 ):  44-46.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923008
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Lean pork was used to investigate the relevance between water-holding capacity and color. One portion of lean pork was obtained from the pig carcass and another portion of pork muscles were sampled randomly from the meat market. The results showed that the water holding capacity was independent of the pork color of the same pig carcass while negative correlation between WHC and L value was observed on the samples from different pig carcasses. Within the testing range, pH value of pork was inversely related to its cooking loss while positively correlated to WHC, suggesting that higher pH value was favorable for WHC. With the extension of post-mortem aging, the WHC of the pork samples from the same pig body was enhanced while the cooking loss was decreased.

Properties of Gluten, Gliadin and Glutenin
ZHONG Xi-yang,JIANG Shao-tong,PAN Li-jun,LI Zhi-kai,JIAO Li-zhou
2009, 30(23 ):  47-51.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923009
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Functional properties of gluten, gliadin and glutenin and their relationships were investigated within pH value from 3 to 11 through the evaluation of solubility, emulsifying ability and emulsifying stability, foaming ability and foaming stability. Results indicated that solubility, emulsifying capability and emulsifying stability, foaming ability of gluten was the weakest at pH 7. Gliadin exhibited better solubility, emulsifying ability and emulsifying stability, foaming ability and foaming stability than glutenin at the same pH condition. Therefore, gliadin was the major component for improving function of wheat gluten.

Purification and Antioxidant Activity of Phenol Compounds from Rape Pollen
SUN Li-ping1,2,YANG Jia-lin1,2,XU Xiang1,2,ZHU Qing3
2009, 30(23 ):  52-56.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923010
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Rape pollen was sequentially extracted by methanol and n-butanol. Polyamide column chromatography was used to further purification of n-butanol extract. Elution fractions were analyzed using TLC and HPLC, and antioxidant activity of each extraction fractions was determined. Results indicated that contents of phenol compounds were 3.69% in methanol extract and 6.32% in n-butanol extract. After polyamide column purification, contents of phenol compounds were 15.92% and 16.87% in 80% and 100% ethanol elution fractions, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging rate of DPPH free radicals and reducing power. The reducing powers were 26, 84, 154μgVC/mg and 104μgVC/mg for methanol extract, n-butanol extract, 80% and 100% ethanol elution fractions, respectively. The scavenging rates of DPPH free radicals were 83.45%, 88.66%, 97.20% and 94.34% for ethanol extract, n-butanol extract, 80% and 100% ethanol elution fractions, respectively. The content of phenol compounds and antioxidant activity exhibited an obvious increase through purification. Therefore, phenol compounds in rape pollen were potential antioxidants.

Effect of Drying on Property of Zein
YANG Guang,YANG Bo,WU Jing
2009, 30(23 ):  57-59.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923011
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In this study, zein was used as the material to investigate effects of lyophilization, vacuum drying and hot-air drying on its properties. Results indicated that the color of the sample exhibited a little light through lyophilization. However, oilabsorption capability, emulsifying property and emulsifying stability of the sample treated with lyophilization were higher than those of samples through vacuum drying and hot-air drying. Protein content, solubility and water-holding capacity of samples through three drying methods did not exhibit obvious difference. Therefore, lyophilization treatment has less effect on properties of zein.

Effect of High-pressure Treatment on Microbiological Index and Physical Properties of Suckling Pigs
ZHANG Jian1,XIA Yang-yi1,2,CHEN Li-de1,SHANG Yong-biao1,2,*,LI Hong-jun1,2
2009, 30(23 ):  60-64.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923012
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In order to investigate the effect of high-pressure treatment on preservability and physical properties of suckling pigs, total bacterial count in suckling pigs treated with various pressures, times and temperatures was examined. Hardness, chewiness, elasticity and color of suckling pigs treated with various times were also evaluated. Results indicated that highpressure treatment at 500 MPa for 25 min exhibited a good bactericidal effect and could provide a longer storage time at low temperature. During high-pressure processing, enhanced brightness (L*), declined redness (a*) and stable yellowness (b*) were observed in suckling pigs. Meanwhile, hardness, chewiness and elasticity of suckling pigs revealed a significant increase through high-pressure treatment. Therefore, most microorganisms could be killed and sensory evaluation could be promoted under an appropriate high-pressure treatment, suggesting that high-pressure treatment was an effective method for sterilization of suckling pigs.

Study on Stability of Lac Red Pigment
ZHANG Hong1,2,FANG Gui-gan1,ZHENG Hua2,CHEN Jun2,TANG Li-ying2,GAN Jin2
2009, 30(23 ):  65-69.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923013
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Stability of lac red pigment was investigated under various conditions. Results suggested that lac red pigment had excellent stability to light and heat. Preservation rate of lac red pigment was higher than 95% at outdoor sunlight for 28 days. Excellent stability of lac red pigment was observed in the range of 4-100 ℃ and preservation rate of lac red pigment was higher than 93% after high-temperature treatment for 8 hours. High antioxidant capability of lac red pigment was also determined. Moreover, commonly used food additives had hyperchromic and color retention functions to lac red pigment. Although Fe3+, Fe2+, Ca2+ and Sn2+ damaged the stability of lac red pigment in water, other metal ions did not interrupt its stability. Lac red pigment remained higher preservation rate in acidic environment, however, pH increase resulted in a gradient loss of stability of lac red pigment.

Effect of Calcium Lactate as Sodium Chloride Substitute on Properties of Duck Jerky
ZHAN Chang-ling,CHEN Cong-gui*,ZHAI Ying-si,FANG Hong-mei,WANG Wu
2009, 30(23 ):  70-73.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923014
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The development of low-salt meat products is one of the most important topics in modern meat industry. The application of suitable salt substitutes is an effective strategy. Herein, calcium lactate was chosen to replace part of NaCl. A series of substitution ratios such as 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% according to molarity based on 1.5% total sodium were investigated. Effect of calcium lactate as NaCl substitution at various ratios on color, texture, sensory evaluation and activity of water in duck jerky were studied. Results indicated that calcium lactate resulted in a significant increase in hardness, chewiness, brightness and yellowness of duck jerky, and an obvious decrease in activity of water (P<0.05), which was beneficial to shelf life of products. However, excessive calcium lactate would result in a negative effect on sensory evaluation of duck jerky. The optimal substitution ratio was 20%-30%. Therefore, a suitable substitution ratio of calcium lactate will be helpful for developing low-salt meat products.

Compound Preservative on Quality of Fresh Milk
PAN Zhi-li1,SUN Fu-zhen2,WANG Na1,XIE Xin-hua1,WANG Feng-qing1,AI Zhi-lu1,*
2009, 30(23 ):  74-78.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923015
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In this study, effect of a complex natural preservative containing nisin, chitosan and ascorbic acid on quality of fresh milk was investigated. Results indicated that total number of colonies in milk with the complex preservative was obvious less than milk without preservative stored at 4 ℃ for 3 days. Milk with the complex preservative containing 200 mg/kg nisin, 0.15 % chitosan and 0.2 g/kg ascorbic acid exhibited the optimal fresh-keeping effect. Therefore, an synergistic effect of nisin, chitosan and ascorbic acid on the inhibition of bacterial growth was provided.

Factors on Quality Characteristics of Duck Meatballs
ZHOU Cun-liu,LEI Guang-bo,ZHAO Ya-qun,FANG Hong-mei,WANG Wu,CAI Ke-zhou,CHEN Cong-gui
2009, 30(23 ):  79-82.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923016
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Effects of addition amount of yam powder, duck skin and κ-konjac gum, and heating style on hardness, elasticity, chewiness and brightness of duck meatballs were investigated. The effect on quality characteristics of duck meatballs from strong to weak was κ-konjac gum, duck skin, yam powder and heating style. The optimal strategy for preparing duck meatballs was 10 % duck skin, 15 % yam powder, 0.25 % κ-konjac gum and sequential heating style with an initial temperature at 70 ℃ for 25 min and a final temperature at 85 ℃ for 20 min.

Effect of Pre-treatment on Nutritional Characteristics of Chicken Soup
ZHANG Liang-zi,RONG Jian-hua,HU Jian,ZHAO Si-ming*
2009, 30(23 ):  83-87.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923017
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Chicken soup is a delicious and nutritional dish. In this paper, three different pre-treatments such as vinegar-soaked, pre-fried and combinatorial pre-treatment were used prior to the preparation of chicken soup. Effect of pre-treatment for preparing chicken soup on nutritional ingredients and protein digestibility was investigated to provide references for industrialization of chicken soup. Results indicated that an increase of water-soluble proteins was observed in raw chicken and an increase of water-soluble saccharides was observed in cooked chicken through pre-treatments. Protein digestibility, free amino acids, water-soluble saccharides, crude fat and ash content in chicken and soluble solid residue in chicken soup were promoted during pre-fried treatment. In contrast, free amino acids in chicken soup and protein digestibility of cooked chicken were enhanced through pre-treatment of vinegar. Above all, pre-fried treatment was a better choice for chicken soup preparation.

Antifungal Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Combinatorial Formula
2009, 30(23 ):  88-91.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923018
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Clove, cinnamon and kaempferol with remarkable antifungal activity were selected from 39 herbs. In order to obtain an optimal combinatorial formula, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of three kinds of plant extracts and their various combinatorial formulas to Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus nigricans and Saccharomyces were determined through double broth dilution method. Meanwhile, effects of temperature, pH value and UV irradiation on stability of combinatorial formula were also evaluated. The optimal combination ratio of clove, cinnamon and kaempferol extracts was 5:3:2 (V/V). This optimal combinatorial formula exhibited a MIC of 1.25%, which was much lower than those of cinnamon or kaempferia extract. Moreover, temperature, pH and UV irradiation had no effect on stability of combinatorial extracts.

Physical Properties of Whey Protein Based Edible Film Incorporated With Whey Protein Micron Particles
SHANG Jie-jing,REN Fa-zheng,LENG Xiao-jing*
2009, 30(23):  92-95.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923019
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Whey protein micron particles were prepared using spray drying, and 1.0%, 1.7%, 2.5% and 3.3% of the spraydried particles were added into the whey protein film-forming solution to prepare whey protein based edible film. The physical properties of the film containing micron particles were analyzed by means of texture analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Results indicated that adding micron particles in the above range exhibited no obvious effects on the mechanical properties, water vapor permeation, transparency, light transmission, the temperature of glass transition and melting point of the films, and the performance of whey protein-based film was well kept.

Inclusion Reactions of β-Cyclodextrin and Its Derivatives with Cymbopogon citratus Volatile Oil
YANG Xin,JIANG Zi-tao*,LI Rong
2009, 30(23):  96-100.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923020
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The association constant and inclusion proportion for the inclusion complex of volatile oil of Cymbopogon citratus (VOC) with cyclodextrins (β-CD, DM-β-CD, and HP-β-CD) were determined in the range of 20 - 50 ℃ by ultraviolet spectrometry. The effect of temperature on K value and other parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS had also been discussed. Good linear relationships indicated that the structures of the inclusion complex were 1:1. The association constant (Ka) of the complexes had been obtained, and the order that the capability associated with VOC was HP- β-CD >DM- β-CD >β-CD. The inclusive process was an exthermic and enthalpy-driven process accompanied with a negative entropic contribution, and the reciprocity of hydrophobic interaction and van der Waals force plays an importance role in the process.

Effect of Initial Chopping Temperature on Physical Properties of Surimi from Silver Carp
JIAO Dao-long,LU Jian-feng*,ZHANG Wei-wei,LIN Lin,WENG Shi-bing,JIANG Shao-tong
2009, 30(23 ):  101-104.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923021
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Chopping is one of the most critical procedures for surimi products. In this paper, fresh surimi and frozen surimi was used as raw materials to investigate the effect of initial chopping temperature on physical properties including gel strength, water-holding capacity (WHC), bending test and color of surimi from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Results indicated that the appropriate initial chopping temperature of fresh surimi was 5-15 ℃ to provide good gel strength and 5-20 ℃ to exhibit excellent WHC; however, the optimal initial chopping temperatures of frozen surimi were 1-15℃ and 5-20℃ to gel strength and WHC, respectively. Taken comprehensive consideration, the optimal initial chopping temperature of surimi was 5-15 ℃.

Thermal Gravimetric, Gel Texture and Water Mobility of Lotus Root Starch in Different Growth Periods
SONG Zhe1,WANG Lan2,HE Hui1,XIE Bi-xiu1,XIE Bi-jun1,SUN Zhi-da1,*
2009, 30(23):  105-109.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923022
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Starch from lotus root with different growth periods were prepared, and their thermal characters, water mobility and gel forming capacity were compared. Thermal characters of the starch were analyzed using a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and the water mobility in the starch were determined according to the relaxation time T2 in NMR analysis, while the texture of the starch gel was analyzed using a texture profile analyzer (TPA). Results showed that the thermal decomposition rate of lotus root starch increase with the growth periods of lotus root, while its rupture force and fracture energy decreased, and the gel property of lotus root starch differed, and water mobility in the starch were also different.

Antioxidant Capacity and Preliminary Active Components Study of Litchi Seed Extract
LU Zhi-ke,LI Shen
2009, 30(23):  110-113.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923023
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Total saponins, flavonoids and polysaccharides in litchi seed extract (LSE) of different cultivars were determined using vanillin-perchloric acid method, aluminum nitrate-sodium nitrite method and anthrone-sulfuric acid method, respectively, with their contents varying 1.30% - 1.40%, 5.78% - 6.80%, 2.85% - 3.34%, respectively. Superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and DPPH free radical scavenging abilities of LSE were evaluated and compared with that of rutin. Result show that superoxide anion scavenging rate was up to 92.96% (LSE concentraction 0.8mg/ml), higher than that of rutin of the same concentration, and hydroxyl radical scavenging rate was 85.56% (LSE concentraction 0.5mg/ml), and DPPH free radical scavenging rate was 52.56% (LSE concentration 0.5mg/ml). LSE inhibited lipid peroxidation with the inhibition rate up to 52.56% (LSE concentration 0.5mg/ml).

Effect of Edible Gums on Processing Characteristics of Restructured Beef
HUANG Li1,KONG Bao-hua2,*,JIANG Lian-zhou2,XU Ping3,MA Fu-jun2
2009, 30(23):  114-118.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923024
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The restructured beef was prepared by adding transglutaminase(TG) and Sodium casetnate(SC) as cold-binding agent at a ratio of 1:4 (TG: SC) and the added quantity was 1.2% of the grossary weight. In additon, carrageenan, flaxseed gel, guar gum, gellan gum and konja eglueomannan, were added at a ratio of 0.3%, repectively. Their effect on the restructured beef were studied by measuring binding strength, color (L*, a*, and b*-values), thawing loss, cooking loss, surface shrinkage, cutting force, texture with edible gums. It was found that the flaxseed gel and xanthan significantly reduced the binding strength (P < 0.05), and carrageenan could improve a*-values while GDL decreased a*-values also. Gellan gum, flaxseed gel and xanthan could reduce the thawing loss, cooking loss while the latter ones could increase tenderness of restructured beef mostly.

Physico-chemical Properties of Different Varieties of Sweet Potato Flour
DUAN Xin,XUE Wen-tong*,ZHANG Hui
2009, 30(23):  119-122.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923025
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The chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of four kinds of sweet potato flour were studied. The study showed that Jing 553 had highest water holding capacity and gelatinization while Xu 23 displayed highest oil binding capacity and Jing 6 had the lowest transparency. All the potato flour behaved as a pseudo plastic fluid. The applicability of sweet potato flour was investigated. Results showed that Xu 23 was optimum for the dehydrated product while Jing 6, due to its high amylose content, possessed good resistant ability and hence is easy to mold. High amylopectin content was observed in Jing 553, which could be used to enhance water holding capacity of food. Yi 138 displayed good freeze-thaw stability, suitable for refrigerant food processing.

Stabilizing Mechanism of Monoglyceride to Milk System
ZHAO Zheng-tao,LI Quan-yang*,YANG Qian,ZOU Ming-hui
2009, 30(23):  123-126.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923026
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In order to probe into influence mechanism of monoglyceride to the stability of milk, the change laws of sample stability, viscosity, particle size distribution,Zeta potential and surface tension were first measured after different amount of monoglycerid were added to raw milk and the effect mechanism was explored. The result showed that the stability of milk and viscosity increased, the particle size decreased gradually with the increase of adding amount. The most effective adding amount of monoglycerid was 0.085%. When adding amount of monoglycerid was less than 0.085%, monoglycerid molecules competed with protein molecules to participate in the form of milk fat membranes, which increased the Zeta potential of milk. The preliminary view suggested that when adding amount of monoglycerid was more than 0.085%, superfluous monoglycerid molecules assembled and formed micelles, Zeta potential values decreased.

Effects of Corn Starch and Sucrose Fatty Acid Ester on Water-holding Capacity of Chilled Meat
LIU Yan-xia,SUN Ling-xia,ZHAO Gai-ming*,LI Miao-yun,ZHU Chao-zhi,LI Qi
2009, 30(23 ):  127-130.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923027
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Corn starch solution with various concentrations was prepared and chilled meat was soaked in corn starch solution for different time. The water-holding capacity of fresh meat was determined to investigate the optimal concentration and soaking time. Results indicated that the optimal concentration of corn starch solution and soaking time for best water-holding capacity was 0.8 g/100ml and 60 seconds. In addition, response surface experiments revealed that optimal formula for water-holding capacity was 0.43 g/100ml corn starch and 0.80 g/100ml sucrose fatty acid ester with 270 seconds of soaking.

Isolation, Identification and Anti-oxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Pholiota adiposa Mycelium
YANG Li-hong,HUANG Qing-rong,FENG Pei-yong,CAI De-hua,DI Hui-ling
2009, 30(23 ):  131-134.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923028
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Crude polysaccharides were obtained from Pholiota adiposa Mycelium through hot-water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Crude polysaccharides after removing protein through Sevage method were purified using DEAE-cellulose column chromatography to obtain two polysaccharide ingredients, designated as PAMP-I and PAMP-II. Glucuronic acid β-D-pyranglucan was identified in both purified polysacchride components through IR spectrum analysis. Total anti-oxidant capability, scavenging capability to superoxide anion and hydroxyl free radicals, and effect of polysaccharides from Pholiota adiposa Mycelium on MDA content were evaluated using colorimetry. Results indicated that polysaccharides from Pholiota adiposa Mycelium had anti-oxidant capability such as scavenging free radicals and suppressing MDA generation in a dose-dependent mode.

Free Radical Scavenging Capability of Polysaccharides from Edible Mushrooms
TAO Ming-xuan1,WANG Feng1,LIU Jun1,CHENG Guang-yu2,3,JIN Bang-quan1
2009, 30(23 ):  135-137.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923029
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Free radical scavenging capabilities of crude polysaccharides and refined polysaccharides from three kinds of edible mushrooms such as Pleurotus citrinopileauts, Pleurotus cornucopiae and Coprinus comatus to superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH free radicals were investigated. Results indicated that scavenging rates of refined polysaccharides were higher than those of crude polysaccharides from three kinds of edible mushrooms to superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH free radicals. Compared to crude polysaccharides, scavenging rates of refined polysaccharides from three kinds of edible mushrooms were improved by 62.5%, 58.3% and 51.5% to superoxide anion free radicals; 33.1%, 42.3% and 33.2% to hydroxyl free radicals; 56.0%, 63.5% and 60.3% to DPPH free radicals, respectively. Due to the improvement of scavenging capability of refined polysaccharides to free radicals, polysaccharides are major bioactive components to free radical scavenging.

Rheological Properties of Collagens in Scale of Grass Carp
WANG Hai-bo,WANG Meng-jin,ZHANG Han-jun,XU Qun-ying
2009, 30(23 ):  138-142.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923030
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Acid-soluble collagens (ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagens (PSC) were extracted from scales of grass carp at the low temperature condition. The rheological properties of ASC and PSC were also determination. Results indicated that a non- Newtonian pseudoplastic flow behavior was observed in ASC and PSC. Under the condition of same concentration, the viscosity order of several kinds of collagens was ASC, PSC and Glutin. The rheological properties of ASC and PSC were significantly affected by concentration, temperature and pH. At the concentration of 0.6%, ASC and PSC displayed a liquid behavior without elasticity behavior of gel. However, denaturalization of collagens through heating resulted in an enhancement of elasticity behavior and reduction of viscous behavior in collagens.

Effect of Yam Addition Amount on Quality of Chub Meat Paste
GAO Xiang1,WANG Rui1,LIU Hou-xiang2
2009, 30(23 ):  143-146.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923031
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The addition of yam in fish meat paste not only can provide plenty of nutrition and but also decrease the cost of production. Moreover, yam can also improve the gel strength of fish meat paste as a substitute for starch. Effect of yam addition amount on gel strength, whiteness, folding capability and water-hold capacity of chub meat paste was investigated. Results indicated that 15%-20% yam addition to replace potato starch improved the quality of products; whereas, 2%-4% of potato starch addition in yam-chub meat paste exhibited a further improvement on product quality. Therefore, the optimal combinatorial formula was 2% starch and 15% yam or 4% starch and 10% yam, could offer the best quality of yam-chub meat paste.

Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Alkaloid Extract from Cydonia oblonga Mill Fruit
YAN Wen,Hannisa·ROZI,Patigul·MAHMUT*
2009, 30(23):  147-149.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923032
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Alkaloid in fruits of Cydonia oblonga Mill was extracted and determined, and its antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp, Penicillium sp were evaluated. Results showed that the crude alkaloid in fruits of Cydonia oblonga Mill was 1.2%. The crude alkaloid extract exhibited inhibition effect on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, but have no effect on the other 4 fugus.

Disinfection Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Combined with Ultrasonic Treatment on Egg Surface
WANG Yao-feng1,2,GONG Zhi-yong1,FANG Min1,LIU Liang-zhong1,*
2009, 30(23 ):  150-153.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923033
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In order to investigate the disinfection effect of chlorine dioxide combined with ultrasonic treatment on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis on egg surface, chlorine dioxide with various concentrations (0, 30, 40, 50 mg/L and 60 mg/L), with and without 59 kHz of ultrasound was used to treat eggs for 1, 5 min and 10 min, respectively. A synergistic effect of chlorine dioxide and 59 kHz of ultrasonic treatment on the death of bacteria on egg surface was observed. Bactericidal capacity of chlorine dioxide at the concentration of 50 mg/L assisted with 59 kHz of ultrasonic treatment for 10 min was more than 4.00 (lg(CFU/ml)) to three kinds of bacteria. Moreover, it was only required for 5 min to achieve 4.00(lg(CFU/ml)) of bactericidal capacity to E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus under the combinatorial treatment of chlorine dioxide at the concentration of 50 mg/L associated with 59 kHz of ultrasound.

Effect of High-pressure Treatment on Quality of Pork Meatballs
PAN Run-shu,MA Han-jun,LIU Qin-hua,ZHAO Peng
2009, 30(23 ):  154-156.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923034
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Effect of high-pressure treatment on quality of pork meatballs was investigated. Results indicated that a significant decrease for water content and increase for pH and elasticity were observed in pork meatballs as the increase of high pressure. L* and TBARS values reached the highest at the pressure of 300 MPa and 400 MPa, respectively. In contrast, hardness of pork meatballs exhibited a decrease as the increase of high pressure below 300 MPa; while an increase as the increase of high pressure above 300 MPa. An enhanced sensory evaluation was achieved through high-pressure treatment in the range of 200-400 MPa.

Determination of Dietary Fibers in Different Kinds of Oat and Buckwheat
HU Shan-lan,ZHU Ruo-hua*
2009, 30(23 ):  157-160.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923035
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Contents of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fibers in oat and buckwheat from different resources were determined by enzymatic-gravimetric method. Average total dietary fiber (TDF) was 12% in oat. However, TDF in oat from Heilongjiang, Shanxi and Hebei was higher than 12%, and TDF in oat from Qinghai, Ningxia were lower than 12%. The content of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in Miyanmai from Heilongjiang were the highest, and the content of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) in Xiaoyoumai from Hebei and in 73014-336 oat from Shanxi was higher. TDF, SDF and IDF in imported Bup-1809 were lower han average value. TDF in buckwheat was 7%. TDF in Eluomuerre from Sichuan province were the highest, which was 9.64%; SDF in 90-3 buckwheat from Guzhou were the highest, which was 3.45%; IDF in Eluomuerre from Sichuan and Manqiaozi from Shanxi was higher. Repeatability of this method for analyzing contents and compositions of dietary fibers in different kinds of oat and buckwheat was excellent.

Effect of Food Colloids on Mechanical Properties and Permeabilities of Sweet Potato Starch Film
WU Jia-min1,SHEN Xiao-li1,ZHAO Guo-hua1,2,3,*
2009, 30(23):  161-165.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923036
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Food colloids were incorporated to the sweet potato starch film, and their effects on the tensile strength, tensile strain at break, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability of the film were studied. Results showed that adding food colloids increased the tensile strength of the film significantly, with the maxium at 36.22MPa through adding 5% HPCMC, 1.4 times higher than the control film. Addition of CMC-Na and KGM increased significantly the water vapor permeability of the film, while other food colloids did not. At the same time, water vapor permeability was not influenced significantly by HPCMC content. Oxygen permeability increased with addition of HPCMC, xanthan and chitosan (5g/100g starch), decreased with addition of KGM, but no with addition of CMC-Na and MC. High content of HPCMC (>7 g/100g starch) decreased the oxygen permeability. When the content of HPCMC reached 10g/100g starch, the oxygen permeability of starch film decreased to 0.749 × 10-6cm3·m/(m2·d·kPa), which decreased by 67% when compared with control film.

Effects of Storage and Processing on Vitamin C of Young Leaves of Sweet Potato
LI Juan,XIA Yan-bin*,LIN Hua
2009, 30(23):  166-170.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923037
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The content of vitamin C in sweet potato tender leaves was determined under different storage conditions and processing methods by colorimetry. Generally, the nutrition value of potato leaves decreased after plucking, which could be reduced by low temperature storage including refrigeration and freezing. Vitaminc content in fresh leaves reached 26.48 mg/100g and was 15.96 mg/100g after 9 days storage at 6 ℃. Drying and pickling led to the great loss of vitamin C. The optimal drying technology, therefore, was drying at high temperature for very short time and the residual vitamin C in leaves was 16.85 mg/100g when drying at 160℃ for 50 seconds. Addition of suitable sauces like vinegar and sugar was able to reduce loss of Vitamin C during cooking process.

Effects of Water and Salt on Dielectric Properties of Minced Pork Loin
GUO Wen-chuan,GU Hong-chao,LU Jun-feng
2009, 30(23):  171-175.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923038
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The network analyzer and open-ended coaxial-line probe technology were used to study the influence of addition of water (0 - 20%) and salt (0 - 4%) on the dielectric properties of minced pork loin within the frequency range from 10 to 4500MHz at 25 ℃. The results showed that the relative dielectric constant of pork was decreased with increasing frequency, and the dielectric loss factor reached a minimum at 2500MHz. The dielectric constant and loss factor increased with increased water addition ratio. The loss factor increased linearly with the elevating salt addition over the whole frequency range. The dielectric constant decreased with increasing salt addition ratio when frequency was higher than 200MHz. Significant influences of water and salt were observed effect on the dielectric constant and loss factor Moreover, the coefficients of determination between permittivities and water addition and salt addition were higher than 0.98, respectively.

Physico-chemical Properties of Anthocyanin from Purple Potato
FANG Yan-qiang,LIU Jian-lei,LI Tian,HE Shan,ZHAO Li,SONG Xiao-qing*
2009, 30(23):  176-179.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923039
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The crude anthocyanin from purple potato was prepared by solvent extraction extracted by solvent, and the influences of pH, temperature and light was investigated as well as its stability in the terms of metal iron, oxidant, reducers, preservative, salt and sugar. The results showed that the anthocyanins are water soluble pigments and displayed a clear λmax at 536 nm. A significant effect of pH was observed that anthocyanin showed a relative stability under acidic condition. In addition, the anthocyan was comparatively stable within 70 ℃ and sunlight could accelerate the degradation of the anthocyanin. Metal ions such as Al3+、Zn2+、Na+ and Ca2+ had no marked influence on the color of anthocyan while pronounced effects of Sn2+、Fe3+ were found. Furthermore, this anthocyanin showed a poor oxidation and reduction resistance. Conventional food additives such as preservative, salt and glucose did not exert negative effects on the stability of the anthocyanin.

Effect of Dietary Fiber on Texture Properties and Color of Western-style Ham
MING Jian1,2,YUAN Yi-jia1,YANG Jing1,ZHU Jun-lu1
2009, 30(23 ):  180-184.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923040
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During the preparation process of western-style ham, different addition amounts of dietary fiber (0, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were investigated. Effect of dietary fiber amount on shear force, hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, resilience and color of western-style ham was determined by TA-XT2i texture analyzer and TC-P2A chromatic aberration analyzer. Results indicated that shear force, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience of western-style ham were significantly affected by dietary fiber. Similarly, color parameters of western-style ham including total color difference, Δa* value, Δb* value, whiteness, yellowness were also obviously changed due to the addition of dietary fiber. The optimal addition amount of dietary fiber was approximately 4% - 6%.

Anti-bacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoid Extract from Reed
YU Xiao-hong,XU Wei,SHAO Rong,CHEN Hong-xing
2009, 30(23 ):  185-188.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923041
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Anti-bacterial activity of reed extract was studied by spectrophotometry and plate culture, which revealed that reed extract had inhibition capability to both bacteria and molds. Inhibition rate of reed extract to bacteria was higher than molds. Meanwhile, antioxidant activity of reed extract on peanut oil was determined by iodimetry. Peanut oil with addition of reed extract exhibited a lower peroxide value (POV) compared to blank control, which suggested that oxidation degree of peanut oil with reed extract was smaller than that of peanut oil without reed extract. Moreover, antioxidant activity of reed extract with flavonoids was also exhibited a concentration-dependent mode.

Effect of Heating Treatment on Pork Quality
HUANG Ming1,HUANG Feng1,ZHANG Shou-yu2,CHEN Jing-yi1,CHEN Shao-ying1,XU Xing-lian1,ZHOU Guang-hong1
2009, 30(23 ):  189-192.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923042
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In order to investigate the effect of heating treatment on pork quality, weight loss through cooking, Warner-Braztler shear force (WBS), shape, color and pH of pork loins were measured after they were subjected to heating treatment at 25, 50, 60, 80 ℃ and 100 ℃, respectively. Resulted indicated that higher temperature could result in increase of weight loss through cooking, WBS and pH value, shrinkage of pork loins, color alteration from red to white or gray.

Chemical Form and Distribution of Selenium in Cordyceps
2009, 30(23 ):  193-195.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923043
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This study was aiming to investigate the combined forms and distribution of selenium in cultivated Cordyceps from Enshi city. Crude polysaccharides and protein in Cordyceps were extracted using different solvents, and the contents of selenium were analyzed by double-channel atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Resutls showed that the selenium binding with protein was the main storage form in the Cordyceps, accounting for 51.44% of total selenium. Alkali-soluble protein seemed to contain the highest amount of bound selenium, contributing to 31.18% of total selenium and 12.01% of selenium was observed to be bound to polysaccharides.

in vivo and in vitro Antioxidant Effects of Hesperidin and Chlorogenic Acid
LIU Ying1,2,WANG Zhi-sheng1,3,*,ZHOU An-guo1,3,CAI Jing-yi1,3
2009, 30(23):  196-199.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923044
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The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of hesperidin and chlorogenic acid by pyrogallol autoxidation and fenton reaction and animal studies. Piglets weaned at 14-28 days were fed basal diet of cornsoybean meal as a control and experiment diets containing 300 mg/kg of hesperidin and 300 mg/kg of chlorogenic acid, respectively for four weeks. The results showed that hesperidin and chlorogenic acid were able to scavenge the oxygen free radicals in vitro in a dose-response manner and chlorogenic acid displayed higher antioxidant activity than hesperidin. Animal studies suggested that chlorogenic acid significantly enhanced the levels of serum CAT, GSH-Px and the CIHR (P<0.05) while hesperidin was able to reduce the contents of MDA (P < 0.05).

Changes of Compositions and Antioxidant Activity in Coix Seeds during Aspergillus Fermentation
LIU Chang1,2,YUE Wen-ming1,3,HE Cong-fen1,DONG Yin-mao1,WANG Chang-tao1,*
2009, 30(23 ):  200-203.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923045
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In this study, coix seeds were subjected to fermentation by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Monascus, respectively. The contents of polypeptides, total sugar and polyphenols were determined to evaluate the change of compositions in coix seeds during the fermentation process. Meanwhile, the scavenging rate of hydrolysates to DPPH free radicals was also determined to evaluate its anti-oxidant activity. Results showed that polypeptide content, total phenols content, degree of hydrolysis and scavenging rate to DPPH free radicals exhibited a gradient increase during the fermentation process. Polypeptide content, total phenols content, degree of hydrolysis and scavenging rate of DPPH free radicals were 6.14 mg/ml, 0.10 mg/ml, 24.9% and 10.2% during Aspergillus niger fermentation; 2.58 mg/ml, 0.089 mg/ml, 31.1% and 10.4% during Aspergillus oryzae fermentation; and 2.93 mg/ml, 0.086 mg/ml, 14.7% and 18.9% during Monascus fermentation. In addition, the content of total sugar exhibited an increase up to 84.0 mg/ml and 76.1 mg/ml, respectively, during Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae fermentation; whereas the content of total sugar was observed a significant decrease to 8.5 mg/ml during Monascus fermentation.

Screening of Pear Varieties for Juice Processing
XIA Yu-jing,WANG Wen-hui*,JIA Xiao-hui,JIANG Yun-bin,ZHANG Zhi-yun,TONG Wei,WANG Zhi-hua,DING Dan-dan
2009, 30(23):  204-208.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923046
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Totally 14 pear varieties for juicing were characterized and their suitability for juicing were evaluated. Physical and chemical indicators (total sugar, reducing sugar, titratable acid, soluble solid content, juice yield) ,degree of browning (total phenolics, PPO, OD420nm, L) and sensory evaluation (appearance, taste, smell) were determined. Results showed that the soluble solid content of pear juice ranged from 10.94% to 13.00%, and the titration acidity ranged from 0.062% to 0.76%. The total phenolics and activities of PPO exhibited uneven distribution in the pear. Total phenolics of pear skin were highest, and correlated significantly with OD420nm at 0.05 level and negatively with L at 0.01 level. Similarly, the PPO activities of skin were higher than that of flesh and core, and correlated with OD420nm of the juice. Through comprehensive evaluation of the 14 pear varieties, Jinxiang, Huangjin and Annli were the suitable varieties for juicing.

Antioxidant Activity and Structure of Flavonoids from Epicarp of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
HUANG Di-hui,HU Chong-lin,Husam M Credy,XIE Bi-jun*,HE Hui,YANG Er-ning
2009, 30(23):  209-213.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923047
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This study was aiming to study the chemical composition of flavonoids of ethanolic extract of Epicarp of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn as well as its antioxidant activity. The ethaonolic extract of lotus Epicarp was isolated using macroporous resin and Toyopearl HW-40S gel column to acquired 6 compounds (LF-F1~LF-F6). The composition and structure of LF-F2 was analyzed by HPLC and LC/MS and the antioxidant activity was measured by chemiluminescence. Results showed that total flavonoids accounts for 94.1% of the extracts (60% ethanol) of lotus Epicarp. Flavonols of LF-F2 comprised quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and so on. IC50 for LF-F2 to superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide were 420, 40, 0.6μg/ml, respectively. The existence of rutin in LF-F2 was identified for the first time. Fraction LF-F2 possessed good antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner.

Antioxidant and Anti-tumor Activities of Extracts from Lepista irina
CHEN Ying1,SUN Hong2,ZHANG Shu-bin2,WANG Li-an2,*
2009, 30(23):  214-217.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923048
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The dried powder of fruit body of Lepista irina (Fr.) Bigelow was extracted with petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), ethanol (Eth) and polysaccharides were prepared. The yield of various extracts was 7.284% (Eth-portion), 2.284% (PEportion), 0.858% (EA-portion) and 4.107% (polysaccharides), respectively. The antioxidant and antitumor properties of solvent extracts were studied by free radical scavenging assay and MTT assay. The results showed that all extracts and polysaccharides provided various antioxidant activities against radicals of DPPH and hydroxyl and EA and Eth extracts possessed the highest effect. MTT data suggest the varying antitumor activities of extracts and the EA extract showed the highest antiproliferative effect (82.7%). The polysaccharide followed the second and showed higher antitumor activity equivalent to cisplatin. In summary, the mushroom is a promising and potential source for screening natural antioxidants and antitumor agents.

Purification and Structural Characterization of Proanthocyanidin from Grape Seed
LI Chun-yang1,ZHANG Hong-cheng2,WANG Nai-fu1,LIU Wen-xu1
2009, 30(23 ):  218-223.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923049
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Macroporous resin HP-2MGL and SephadexLH-20 Gel was used to purify the proanthocyanidin from grape seed. Fraction GSPP3HP-2MGL was obtained by separation of crude grape seed extract through HP-2MGL and its proanthocyanidin content reached 96.5%. The fraction was further purified with SephadexLH-20 and two proanthocyanidin dipolymers GSPP3- SP1 and GSPP3-SP2 were resulted. HPLC analysis showed 4 peaks from GSPP3-SP1 and 7 peaks from GSPP3-SP2 were recognized. Mass spectrums revealed the abundance of the fragment ions like m/z 287, m/z 289, m/z 290, m/z 408, m/z 426, m/z 577, m/z 578 and m/z 580, suggesting this proanthocyanidin was a catechuic acid epigallocatechin--epicatechin dimer. The MW of GSP was determined to be 4.15×104 by laser light scattering combined with GPC and the coefficient of polydispersity was 1.65. The MW of GSPP3 was 4.26×103 with the average degree of polymerization of 13 and the coefficient of polydispersity of 1.56. The relative molecular weight curve showed a symmetrical distribution and this proanthocyanidin was highly polymerized. GSPP3-SP was found to lowly polymerized proanthocyanidin with the MW of 1.89×103, the average degree of polymerization of 6 and the coefficient of polydispersity of 1.45.

Thermo-physical Properties of Crisped Grass Crap Meat during Low Temperature Phase Transition
GAN Cheng-lu,GUO Shan-shan,RONG Jian-hua,XIONG Shan-bai*
2009, 30(23 ):  224-228.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923050
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In order to provide theoretical supports for storage process of crisped grass crap meat, effects of NaCl and sucrose- NaCl mixture on thermo-physical properties including freezing point, apparent specific heat, and enthalpy of crisped grass crap meat were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at low temperature phase transition area. The freezing phase transition range, thawing phase transition range, freezing point, apparent specific heat, enthalpy at freezing point of crisped grass crap meat were-12.5--11℃, -1.9-0.1 ℃,-0.2 ℃, 130.56 J/g·℃, and 305.57 J/g, respectively. As the content increase of NaCl and sucrose-NaCl mixture, phase-transition temperature shifted to the lower temperature range and both apparent specific heat and enthalpy at freezing point decreased. When NaCl content in meat was low, addition of sucrose could depress the drop of phase-transition temperature. In contrast, when NaCl content was higher than 2%, sucrose had little effect and NaCl exhibited the leading role during low temperature phase transition.

Screening and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase Source for Protein Cross-linking
WU Jin-ju1,2,GUO Xiao-ying3,CHEN Hong-bing1,2,GAO Jin-yan1,4,*
2009, 30(23 ):  229-232.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923051
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The plants and fungus with high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were selected to apply to protein cross-linking, and biochemical nature of this enzyme was characterized. PPOs from Agaricus bisporus and eggplant were observed to be the highest, 11004 U/g and 9376 U/g. The optimum temperature and pH for these two kinds of PPO were found to be 20 ℃ and 7.0, while PPO from A. bisporus showed lower heat stability than that from eggplant at high temperature. Metal ions like Zn2+, Mn2+ and Ag+ showed obvious inhibition on PPOs while Cu2+ was able to promote the PPO activity from A. bisporus (140.9%) and inhibit PPO activity from 23.4%. The Km and Vmax values of PPOs from A. bisporus and eggplant were 5.5 mmol/L and 1666.7 U, 8.75 mmol/L and 2500 U, respectively.

Recovery of Heat-injured Salmonella enteritidis
ZENG Qing-mei,ZHANG Dong-dong,HAN Shu,SI Wen-gong,LI Zhi-qiang
2009, 30(23):  233-236.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923052
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Factors involved in the recovery of heat-injured Salmonella enteritidis, including the medium, recovery temperature and time were studied. Results showed recovery of Salmonella enteritidis was significantly affected by the above factors, and the best recovery method was that the heat-injured Salmonella enteritidis was incubated in nutrient broth for 2 h at 37 ℃.

Intrinsic Fluorescence of Aspergillus ficuum Inulinases
WANG Jing1,JIN Zheng-yu2,JIANG Bo2,SUN Bao-guo1,CAO Yan-ping1,YU Hao-yang1
2009, 30(23):  237-241.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923053
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The intrinsic fluorescence of endo- and exo-inulinase from Aspergillus ficuum was studied by using Trp as the probe. The result indicated that the Trp of endo-inulinase was located in a more polar environment than exo-inulinase. The fluorescence intensity of endo-inulinase was changed more than exo-inulinase by NBS, which suggested that the Trp of endo-inulinase was more sensitive to the change of environment than that of exo-inulinase. The quenching of the Trp fluorescence of inulinase by acrylamide showed that the Trp of endo-inulinase was more accessible than that of exo-inulinase, which displayed the greater exposure of Trp in endo-inulinase than exo-inulinase. With pH value of the environment reducing from 8.0 to 3.5, the fluorescence intensity of endo-inulinase were quenched higher than that of exo-inulinase. The data suggested that the microenvironments of Trp residue in endo-inulinase was more sensitive to the change of pH value than that in exo-inulinase.

Utilization of Compound Lactobacillus in Cured Tilapia Preparation
ZHOU Wan-jun,WU Yan-yan,LI Lai-hao*,CEN Jian-wei,HAO Shu-xian
2009, 30(23 ):  242-245.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923054
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Tilapia was used as raw materials to prepare a kind of cured fish through combinatorial fermentation of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La) and Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp). The optimal fermentation condition was investigated by experimental analysis. Results indicated that tilapia was salted with seasoning and then fermented through Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum to produce different flavors. The optimal fermentation condition was acquired to be 1:1 of La/Lp ratio, 2% inoculation amount, 30 ℃ of fermentation temperature and 24 h of fermentation time.

Effect of Papain Treatment on Permeability of Cell Wall of Rape Pollen
REN Xiang-nan1,ZHANG Hong-cheng1,DONG Jie1,*,LI Hong-ran2,ZHAO Liang-liang2
2009, 30(23 ):  246-251.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923055
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Rape pollen was treated with papain in different temperature and pH conditions. Permeability of pollen pores was comprehensively evaluated by several parameters such as protein dispersion index, protein solubility index, soluble sugar content, microscopic examination and granule size analysis. Results indicated that protein solubility index, protein dispersion index, and soluble sugar content exhibited a significant increase after enzymatic hydrolysis with papain (P<0.05). The optimal conditions for hydrolysis were 60 ℃ of temperature and pH 6.0. Based on granule size analysis, fragments below 1μm and ranged in 1-2μm increased by 38.24% and 19.08%, respectively. In contrast, fragments ranged in 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10μm and 10-12μm decreased by 30.64%, 75.6%, 78.95%, 51.02% and 69.7%, respectively. Due to the declined size of pollen, pore area of pollen also increased by 21.00% through enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, the permeability of pollen is enhanced through papain hydrolysis, which will be helpful for dissolution of nutritional ingredients.

Kinetic Model for Swimming Crab Protein Hydrolysis with Alcalase
TAO Xue-ming,WANG Ze-nan*,YU Shun-huo,LI Hong-bo,FAN Jian-feng,GUO Jun-zhen,WANG Xiao-qian
2009, 30(23):  252-254.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923056
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Protein from swimming crab was hydrolyzed by alcalase, and a kinetic model for the hydrolysis was established. Results suggested that the degree of hydrolysis (DH) increased with increasing of initial enzyme concentrations, and tapered off with increasing of initial substrate concentrations at temperature 55 ℃ and pH 8.5. The hydrolysis kinetic model was expressed as DH=3.558ln[1+(2.553E0/S0+0.116)t]. The theoretical DH from the hydrolysis kinetic model is consistent with the practical DH.

Antihypertensive Peptides Preparation from Wheat Germ Protein with Immobilized Alkaline Protease
WU Ding,LIU Chang-peng,LU Gui-hong,YAO Ming-lan,JU Xing-rong
2009, 30(23):  255-258.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923057
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Wheat germ protein was hydrolyzed with immoblized alkaline protease in an effort to prepare peptides with antihypertensive effect. The alkaline proteases were immoblized through binding to hollow globular chitosan with glutaraldehyde. Then the immobilized alkaline protease were characterized and the hydrolysis condition of wheat germ protein with it were optimized. Results showed that after 1.0 mg of alkaline proteases were immobilized with 1.5% glutaraldehyde, 90% of the enzyme activity was remained, with the optimum temperature 65℃ and the optimum pH 9.5. The ratio of hydrolysis with the immobilized enzyme for 10 min was 16.5%, and antihypertensive peptides yield was 15.6% when the ratio of enzyme to wheat germ protein was 1:5.

Study on Deodorization of Silkworm Pupa Protein by Microbial Fermentation
REN Xian-e,YANG Feng,HUANG Yong-chun,XIANG Fei
2009, 30(23 ):  259-261.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923058
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The silkworm pupae protein was prepared by sequential extraction and deodorized by microbe fermentation. The results showed that fermentation of silkworm pupae protein by yeast and Lactobacillus helveticus could effectively remove the bad odor of silkworm pupae protein. Deodorization process of yeast fermentation conditions were as follows: 0.3% of inoculated yeast at 37 ℃ for 80 min so as to save raw materials and 0.3% inoculated yeast in addition of 2% glucose at 37 ℃ fermenting for 28~35 min to save time. Deodorization process of Lactobacillus helveticus fermentation conditions were as follows: 2% of inoculated Lactobacillus helveticus, 10 % usage of MRS medium, 37 ℃and 7 h of fermentation.

Extraction of Flagellin from Listeria monocytogenes
CHEN Gang,LAI Wei-hua*,DUAN Xia
2009, 30(23 ):  262-265.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923059
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In this study, the extraction of flagellin from Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Listeria monocytogenes IVb was cultured at 23 ℃ and 37 ℃, respectively. Stronger flagellin-producing capability was observed at 23 ℃ of culture condition. Flagellin was purified through ultra-centrifugation and ammonia sulfate precipitation after acid hydrolysis treatment of Listeria monocytogenes. Results from SDS-PAGE and electronic microscope revealed that ultra-centrifugation combined ammonia sulfate precipitation was an applicable method for flagellin extraction because this simple and time-saving method could provide flagellin with high purity and high yield.

Preparation, Purification and Certification of Antibody to Corticosteroids
BIAN Ai,LIU Li-qiang,YUAN Yuan,HU Yong-ming,CHEN Wei,PENG Chi-fang,XU Chuan-lai*
2009, 30(23 ):  266-269.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923060
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Three immunogens and coating-antigens were prepared by conjugating derived dexamethasone, betamethasone and flumethasone with bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin respectively. Each immunogen was applied to immunize two New Zealand rabbits to obtain anti-serums. After five immunization, the antiserum was collcted from the blood, and purified by salt fractio combined with DEAE. The indirect ELISA was adopted to determine the efficiency of the purified antiserum. Among all the antiserum samples, the better efficiency of the antiserum could be as high as 345600, 614400 and 307200 respectively, which had sufficient affinity to meet the requirements of antigen-antibody reaction kinetics.

Phylogenetic Study on Hericium erinaceus Cultivars in China
WANG Lei,SU Hong-yan*,TENG Chang-ying,HAN Li-ya,XIN Cheng-qi
2009, 30(23):  270-273.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923061
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The phylogenetic relationship of 7 Hericium erinaceuss strains was studied using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The DNA fingerprints of different strains showed that there was genetic diversity among the tested strains. The results indicated that 3 out of 14 random primers were polymorphic. These 3 random primers amplified 44 bands in total, 36 bands of which showed polymorphism and the polymorphic rate was 81.81%. Furthermore, the NTSYSpc 2.1 biology software was used to analyze the genetic similarity of the tested strains and to construct the phylogenetic tree. This study can provide the molecular evidences for variety identification and phylogenetic analysis of the Hericium erinaceus.

Preparation of Antioxidant Peptides from Buckwheat Globulin by Enzyme Hydrolysis
HOU Wen-juan1,ZHANG Mei-li1,*,FU Yuan2,DUAN Yan1
2009, 30(23):  274-280.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923062
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The antioxidant pepetides was prepared by hydrolysis of enzymolysis of buckwheat globuli by the alkaline protease, the papaya protease and the pancreatin. The operation condition for hydrolysis was optimized by analyzing the degree of hydrolysis and scavenging activity of O2·. The hydrolyzate was separated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration Chromatography and further subjected to the antioxidant activity assay the study of molecular weight distribution. The result showed that the alkaline protease hydrolyzing presented higher hydrolysis efficiency than the papaya protease and the pancreatin and the optimum conditions were as follows: enzyme concentration of 20000 U/g, 55 ℃, pH 9.0, substrate concentration 5% and 2 h of reaction time. The fraction with molecular weight less than 1000 D displayed higher antioxidant activity and the IC50 values for O2·、·OH and DPPH·were 0.75, 0.897 mg/ml and 0.38 mg/ml.

Kinetics of Fermentation on Capsella bursa-pastoris L. and Tomato Mixed Juice with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum
PAN Ming,LIU Hui-jie*,GUO Mai-xi,XU Yan-li,YU Hai-guang
2009, 30(23):  281-285.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923063
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Capsella bursa-pastoris L. and tomato mixed juice was fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. The fermentation process was optimized in a 5 L batch cylinder and the kinetic models of cell growth, lactic acid formation, and glucose consumption were established. Results showed that the theoretic values of the models and the experimental data were in good agreement. The kinetic models were helpful to practical reactor design, craft management and control of the fermentation process.

Expression of Core-Streptavidin Gene in Prokaryotic Host
PENG Fu-zhong1,CHEN Xue-lan1,*,XU Feng2,XIONG Yong-hua2
2009, 30(23 ):  286-289.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923064
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Core-streptavidin gene Stv13 (354bp) has been cloned from Streptmyces avidinii using PCR amplification. Plasmids were constructed through inserting the Stv 13 gene into pET22b+ and pGEX-4T-1 vectors for expression in E. coli. Another plasmid was also constructed through inserting the Stv13 gene into P43 vector for expression in B. subtilis. Most of core-streptavidin gene Stv13 was expressed in inclusion body as an insoluble form in E. coli expression system. In contrast, little core-streptavidin gene Stv13 was expressed in B. subtilis expression system.

Immobilization and Enzymatic Properties of Transgluminase on Nylon Net
LIU Ying,ZHANG He,SHI Yan-guo,MA Yong-qiang,ZHANG Dan
2009, 30(23 ):  290-293.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923065
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Transgluminase was immobilized on nylon net using activated dimethylsulfate as the carrier and glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent. Immobilization conditions and enzymatic properties of immobilized enzyme were also investigated. The optimal condition for immobilization was initial crosslinkage reaction of nylon net with 7% glutaraldehyde for 5 hours and final immobilization reaction using 10 ml of 1.5 mg/ml transgluminase on activated carrier for 6 hours. Activity of immobilized transgluminase was 46% under this optimal immobilization condition. Compared to free transgluminase, immobilized transgluminase exhibited better thermo-stability during storage and experimental operations.

Isolation of Preliminary Study on Endophytic Bacteria in Sabina vulgaris Ant. with Antibacterial Activity
Zulfiya YUNUS
2009, 30(23):  294-296.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923066
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Seven bacteria strains were isolated form leaves of Sabina vulgaris Ant, and antibacterial activity of their fermentation products were evaluated according to the size of their anitbacterial circles. Totally 2 endophytic bacterium exhibited antibacterial activity, which could inhibit the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Colonial morphology observation and Gram staining of the 2 endophytic bacterium showed that one bacteria was coccus shaped, gram-positive, and the other was coccus shaped and gram-negative, both without capsule and spore, and without producing acid and amylase.

Isolation, Identification and Microflora Compositions of Spoilage Bacteria in Vacuum-packaged Beef
LIU Qin-hua1,HUANG Ming2,PAN Run-shu1,LIU Dan1,LI Hai-tao1,MA Han-jun1,*
2009, 30(23 ):  297-300.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923067
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Spoilage bacteria of vacuum-packaged beef were isolated and identified. Microflora compositions of spoilage bacteria were analyzed during storage at low or room temperature conditions. Results indicated that isolated 28 special colonies from plates had 7 strains of Acinetobacter, 6 strains of Staphylococcus, 5 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, 3 strains of Brochothrix thermosphacta, 3 strains of Micrococcus, 2 strains of Lactobacillia, 1 strain of Pseudomonas and 1 strain of Bacillus. Storage temperature did not exhibited obvious effect on change of microflora compositions. Lactobacillia and Pseudomonas were major spoilage bacteria during storage.

Effects of Multi-strain Microbial Fermentation on Nutrition and Flavor of Rugao Fermented Sausage
JIANG Yun-sheng,YU Hai,WANG Zhi-jun,WANG Wei-wei
2009, 30(23 ):  301-305.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923068
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Effects of the composite starter (comprising Staphyloccus auricularis C131, Dabaryomyces hansenii Y163 and Lactobacillus sake L04) on nutrition and flavor of a new type Rugao fermented sausage were studied and sausage without fermentation served as a control. Results showed that the total amount of amino acid and the essential amino acids were significantly elevated to 103% and 54% in the optimized formula group with the respect to free fatty acid, the concents of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid were increased by 59% and 45% respectively, and the proportion of SFA: MUFA: PUFA varied from 1.0:1.1:0.4 to 1.0:1.2:0.5. Analysis of the volatile flavor compounds by adopting headspace solid phase microextraction (HSSPME) and GC-MS indicated that the relative contents of aldehydes and ketones were increased by 62.07% and 13.96% respectively. We also founded that the unique flavor, the suitable proportion fatty acid and the high contents of essential amino acid of Rugao fermented sausage were attributed to the effect of C131 as well as the optimization of composition of the three strains.

Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase in Myrica rubra Fruits
XIAO Zhuo-bing1,CHEN Shang2,MA Ming-you1,YANG Zhao-xia2,WU Xian-ming2,HE Ze-qiang2
2009, 30(23):  306-308.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923069
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The decrease of polyphenol content, in which polyphenol oxidase played an important role, were believed to related to the mildewing degree of Myrica rubra. In this paper, polyphenol oxidases in Myrica rubra were extracted and characterized. Results showed that the optimum substrate for polyphenol oxidase in Myrica rubra was 4-methylcatechol with the optimum pH 7.1 and optimum temperature 60℃, and Michaelis constant was 2.18×10- 3 mol/L with the max reaction rate (rmax) 2. 275 mg/L·min. The reaction mechanism can be described with monosubtrate reaction model.

Effect of Different Fungal Elicitors on Production of Polysaccharide and Triterpenoid in Liquid Fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum
GAO Xing-xi1,YAO Qiang2,WANG Lei1,LIU Lin-de1,WANG Wen-wen1,HAN Kai1
2009, 30(23):  309-313.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923070
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The influence of fungal elicitors on the liquid fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst was investigated. The fungal elicitors were prepared by acid hydrolysis of edible fungal pathogens including Trichoderma viride (Per.) Fries, Verticillium psalliotae Treschew, and Acremonium strictum Gams. These obtained elicitors were added to the fermentation media of G. lucidum at different concentrations and at different stages and. Addition of A. strictum elicitor at concentration of 120μg/ml to the fermentation media of G. lucidum at middle stage and initial stage resulted in 6.1 folds and 5.2 folds higher of yields of polysaccharide and triterpenoid, compared to the control. T. viride elicitor added at the concentration of 80μg/ml at late stage stimulated a moderate yields of the polysaccharide and triterpenoid whereas the V. psalliotae elicitor resulted in the lowest effect on the two kinds of bioactive products in G. lucidum among these elicitors. In addition, these tested fungal elicitors still enhanced the biomass yield, especially T. viride elictor at concentration of 80μg/ml, resulting in 2.3 folds higher of biomass yield than the control when added to the fermentation media of G. lucidum at initial stage. These results showed that effects of fungal elicitor could vary on the secondary metabolism of G. lucidum.

Antibacterial Property of Marine Streptomlyces sp. LY-1
LIU Shu1,FANG Yao-wei1,XU Wei-feng2,LU Ming-sheng1,WANG Shu-jun1,CHEN Li1
2009, 30(23):  314-317.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923071
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Marine Streptomyces sp.LY-1 solated from marine samples collected in the intel tidal zone of Lianyungang, was found to produce antibacterial substance which exhibited significant inhibitory effects on 5 Gram-positive bacteria and 6 Gramnegative bacteria. The results of stability studies of the antibacterial substance showed that it had very good stability at pH1 and pH12 under 121 ℃ or under ultraviolet treatment. Sensibility and inhibition effect of antibacterial substance produced by strain LY-1 to Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli were studied. The results showed that Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli were very sensitive to antibacterial substance. Antibacterial substance could strongly inhibit their growth-breeding. The potential use of substance produced by strain LY-1 in bio-control, marine products, food and medical application was predicted.

Microbial Transformation of Vanillin to Vanillic Acid with Recombinant Strain E.coli DH5α/pZJF1
ZHAO Jian-fen1,WEI Shou-lian1,ZHANG Guang2,*
2009, 30(23):  318-321.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923072
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Optimum fermentaion conditions for transformation of vanillin to vanillic acid with recombinant E.coli DH5α/ pZJF1, including inoculum age, inoculation volume, substrate concentration and the fermentation time, were studied. Vanillin and vanillic acid in the fermentation broth were determined with HPLC. Results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: inoculum age 8 h to10 h, inoculation volume 1%, vanillin concentration 2.0 mg/ml and fermentation time 28 h. Under such conditions, the molar conversion yield of vanillic acid was up to 97.78%.

Optimal Fermentation during Low-salt Fish Sauce Preparation Using By-products from Fresh Fish Processing
HOU Wen-fu,HUANG Ze-yuan,WANG Xiu-wen,HU Ye
2009, 30(23 ):  322-325.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923073
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An accelerated fermentation technology was investigated to prepare low-salt fish sauce through by-products from fresh water fish processing as materials. The fermentation condition for preparing low-salt fish sauce was optimized through orthogonal experiments to be 8% salt, 0.25% enzyme, 1:0.75 of solid-liquid ratio and 45 ℃ of fermentation temperature. The prepared salt-low fish sauce under this optimal condition was 19.43% solid residue and 0.73 g/100ml of free amino acids. In addition, orange and transparent, no suspension, no precipitate, natural fragrance and excellent taste were the major characteristics of the fish sauce prepared at optimal fermentation condition.

Production of c9, t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Yogurt
LI Su-bo1,JIN Xiao-pan1,ZHENG Yu-mei2,GAO Hong-wei1,CHAN Ying-xia1,YU Cheng-yu1,CHEN Bing-qing3,WANG Xuan-lin1,*
2009, 30(23):  326-330.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923074
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The research wsa aimed to increase the yield of conjugated-linoleic acid (CLA) in yogurt. The fermentation conditions for production of CLA were optimized and the factors including substrates and the mixing proportion of the Lactobacillus straims were investigated. The results showed that the nutriton composition significantly affected the enzumecatalyzed reaction and the lactobacillus growth as well as the CLA yield. Additionally, other CLA isomers besides c9, t11- CLA were identified by improved GC in the culture medium. The method provided novel insights in developing the milk products abundant in CLA.

Fermentation and Antioxidant Activity of Wheat Peptides Wine
XU Huai-de,LIU Li-fang
2009, 30(23):  331-334.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923075
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In order to obtain the wheat peptides wine, wheat gluten was hydrolyzed by neutral protease and alcoholic fermentation in this experiment. Antioxidant of the wheat peptides wine was investigated. The result showed that the optimum conditions for the fermentation of wheat peptides wine were as follows: 0.5% of peptide content, 17% sugar, 0.9‰ yeast quantity, 25℃ for 9 days. The wheat peptides wine through centrifugation at 3500r/min for 10min were primrose yellow, shiny and transparent without significant precipitation and suspended solids. Transmittance, peptide content of the wheat peptides wine was 95.45% and 5.20mg/ml, respectively. The radical scavenging rates were 30.63% for ·OH, 64.47% for DPPH· and 42.13% O2·, separately. The reducing power and hemolytic inhibition rate were 1.35 and 49.92%.

Optimization of Cellulase Production by Aspergillus niger Using Response Surface Methodology
FENG Pei-yong,ZHAO Yan-hong,ZHANG Li
2009, 30(23):  335-339.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923076
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Response Surface Methodology was applied to optimize the fermentation of Aspergillus niger for cellulose. In the first step, two level factorial design of Plackett-Burman was used to evaluate the influence of seven related factors. The results showed that the effects of temperature, time and packing volume on the activities of cellulase were significant among the seven factors. In the follow step, the optimal conditions of the three factors were assessed by the RSA. The ptimal conditions of the three factors were as follows: fermentation temperature of 31.02 ℃, 73.17 h of fermentation and 100.4 ml of packing volume. Under the optimal condition, the enzyme activity was increased by 34.4 %, from 267.81 to 360.02 U/ml.

Fermentation Properties of Corn Starch Syrup in Beer Brewing
YI Hai-long1,2,GUO De-jun1,*,LIU Wen-zhi1,HE Jing-long1
2009, 30(23):  340-342.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923077
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The fermentation properties of corn starch syrup in beer brewing were studied, and the key physicochemical properties of the fermentation broth were determined. Results showed that beer yeast grew well in wort/corn starch syrup (50/50, V/V), and the quality of the beer produced fit the national standard of GB/T 4927—2001.

Isolation and Purification of Oligosaccharides from Soybean Molasses through Fermentation
CUI Xi-qing1,2,LIU Chang1,2,DONG Yin-mao2,HE Cong-fen2,WANG Chang-tao2,*
2009, 30(23 ):  343-346.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923078
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One strain of yeast that has the function of high consumption to sucrose, and high retention rate to stachyose and raffinose was screened from three stains of yeast, one strain of Lactobacillus, one strain of Aspergillus. The optimal condition for the fermentation of soybean molasses was initial pH 5, 2% inoculation amount, 1:8 of dilution for soybean molasses, 180 r/min shaking and fermentation at 28 ℃ for 12 h. The retention rates in hydrolysates of soybean molasses were 8.76% for sucrose, 99.61% for raffinose and 95.72% for stachyose under this optimal fermentation condition.

Preparation of Alkaline Protease by Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis
YAO Gang,CHENG Jian-jun*,SUN Peng,LI Ni-wei
2009, 30(23 ):  347-351.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923079
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Medium compositions and fermentation conditions for producing alkaline protease through the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis were optimized by orthogonal design based on single factor experiments. Results indicated that optimal medium compositions were 2% yeast powder, 1.0% sugar, 0.5% Tween 80, and 0.02% MgSO4. The optimal fermentation condition was 4% inoculation amount in 25 ml of medium filled in 150 ml Erlenmeyer flasks at the initial pH 9 for 36 h of fermentation. The activity of alkaline protease obtained at this optimal fermentation condition was 1670 U/ml.

Antimicrobial Activity of Nisin against Lactic Acid Bacteria
HE Song,GONG Fang-hong,ZHANG De-chun*,GUO Ya-nan
2009, 30(23):  352-355.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923080
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Nisin is a bacteriocin used against food spoilage bacteria. The effect of these important antibacterial agents on the growth of lactic acid bacteria was investigated. nisin MIC values were measured by test-tube dilution and disc diffusion methods. The growth curve of lactic acid bacteria was obtained based on its OD600nm absorptions. The results showed that nisin possessed strong and persistent antimicrobial effect on common lactic acid bacteria in dairy industry except for some Lactococcus lactis strains. This study provided the theoretical basis for investigating the MIC and inhibiting time of Nisin to select food-grade recombinant Lactobacillus.

Effect of Exogenous Enzyme on the Cooking Property of Brown Rice
ZHANG Chen,WEN Huan,LIU Zhi-wei*
2009, 30(23):  356-360.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923081
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Brown rice was treated with cellulase and pectinase to eliminate crude fiber and pectins, in an effort to improve its cooking quality, which was expressed with water absorption ratio, dissolved solid content and iodine blue value of cooking water. Effects of main enzymolysis conditions, i.e., enzymolysis temperature, time and enzyme addition amount, were studied and the enzymolysis process was optimized through conducting an orthogonal test. Results showed that the optimum conditions for cellulase were as follows: with cellulase of 10ml, enzymolysis at 50℃ for 120min, and the optimum conditions for pectinase were as follows: with cellulase 10ml, enzymolysis at 55℃ for 120min. Sensory evaluation indicated that eating quality of brown rice treated with cellulase and pectinase was significantly improved, compared to the control.

Screening and Identification of 1- Deoxynojirimycin-Producing Bacteria Strain
ZHOU Le-chun,WEI Zhao-jun*,ZHANG Hai-xiang,JIANG Lei
2009, 30(23 ):  361-364.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923082
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In present research, 1-deoxynojirimycin-producing bacteria strain was isolated from the soil of mulberry field and screened by glucoamylase agar plate. Seven strains indicating blue in the plate were isolated from the total 263 microorganisms. A new 1-deoxynojirimycin-producing strain of SL-429 was obtained by using the RP-HPLC coupled with UV detection (UVRP- HPLC. The yield of 1-deoxynojirimycin was over 0.017mg/ml under the normal fermentation at 27℃ with the medium comprising 0.05% KCl, 0.05%MgSO4·7 H2O, 0.2%NaNO3, 0.5%NaCl, 0.35%CaCO3, 4% soluble starch, 1% soybean meal and 1% tryptose. This 1-deoxynojirimycin-producing strain was identified as Streptomyces lavendulae based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical characters.

Absorption Characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum F22 to Aflatoxin B1
ZENG Dong1,2,TANG Yu-rui1,NI Xue-qin1,2,*,ZHANG Zhuo-li1,RAN Jun1
2009, 30(23 ):  365-369.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923083
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In order to study absorption characteristics and mechanisms of Lactobacillus plantarum to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 14 strains with absorption capability to AFB1 were screened in vitro. Lactobacillus plantarum F22 exhibited the highest absorption to AFB1. Effects of F22 under various incubation times, heating-treatment, mimic gastric intestinal environment treatment, and lyophilization processing on absorption rate to AFB1 were also investigated. Incubation of F22 and AFB1 for 30 min showed the highest absorption (P<0.01). Heating-treatment promoted absorption capability to AFB1 (P<0.01). In contrast, mimic gastric intestinal environment caused a significant decrease in absorption to AFB1 (P<0.05) and no significant effect on absorption to AFB1 was observed during lyophilization processing (P>0.05). Absorption capability of Lactobacillus plantarum to AFB1 was strain-dependent due to the composition and structure of cell wall.

Study on Growth and Transcriptome Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on DNA-Microarray Data
LI Jia-peng,REN Lin,TIAN Han-you,QIAO Xiao-ling*
2009, 30(23 ):  370-376.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923084
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A local MySQL database of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was built through integrating genome data and chip data from gene expression profile used perl program written by our laboratory. The local database was used to investigate transcriptome properties of LAB in different growth phases or stress environments such as the presence of bile salts, hydrogen peroxide and starvation. Meanwhile, MEME software was also used for searching the common motif located in upstream of transcription starting point in co-expression genes under certain stress environments. Results indicated that no obvious difference was observed in transcriptome properties of LAB under the stress from bile and ammonium oxalate. However, a significant difference was observed in transcriptome properties of LAB under the stress from other factors. These responses to stress exhibited specific induced or inhibition gene expression. In addition, gene expression associated with translation (J), lipid transport and metabolism (I), intracellular transport and secretion (U) revealed a high level, especially for translation-related genes, which indicating that modulation of cell metabolism was mainly achieved through regulating the expression of translation-related genes.

Optimization of Submerged Fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum
MAO Jian1,2,MA Hai-le1,*
2009, 30(23):  377-382.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923085
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Effects of fermentation temperature and initial pH on the mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharides of Ganoderm lucidum GL0811 in flask culture were studied, and in the following batch fermentation, effects of pH and dissolved oxygen control during the fermentation process on the mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharides of Ganoderm lucidum GL0811 were further studied. The optimum flask culture conditions were as follows: temperature 30℃, initial pH 6.0. The strategy of pH and dissolved oxygen control were as follows: pH 5.5 druing 0-40h, pH 5.0 during 40-48h and pH 4.5 during 48-96h with the agitation rate 160 r/min and aeration rate 0.75vvm. Under the optimum condition, the maximum mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharides reached up to 19.7 g/L and 3.23g/L respectively, which were 53.9% and 35.1% higher than those in the uncontrolled fermentation.

Production of Linoleic Acid Isomerase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus
2009, 30(23 ):  383-387.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923086
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Linoleic acid isomerase capable of converting linoleic acid (LA) to conjugatede linoleic acid (CLA), was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus. The production condition for linoleic acid isomerase with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus were investigated through UV and GC-MS. The result showed that the highest yield was obtained when 1.5‰ of LA (V/V) was added to the medium. The Optimum condition for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus culture was shown as follows: temperature was 36 ℃and time was 36 h. Addition of 0.1% (m/V)of Lactose or 0.1%(m/V) of NaCl alone to medium was favorable for linoleic acid isomerase to produce CLA. The direct addition of LA to medium led to higher production efficiency than addition after 3-12 h of culturation. GC-MS data suggested that linoleic acid isomerase was able to convert LA to CLA,which contained cis-9, trans-11 isomer.

Effect of Water Capacity on Cell Activity and Storage Stability of Lactobacillus plantarum Starter Cultures
REN Lin,LI Jia-peng,TIAN Han-you,QIAO Xiao-ling*
2009, 30(23 ):  388-392.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923087
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Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures were freeze-dried under vacuum, and the effect of water capacity on cell survival rate and viability of Lactobacillus plantarum during storage were studied. Results showed that there was no significant difference among the cell survival rates of Lactobacillus plantarum of different water capacity, but with the decrease of water capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum, the time of Lactobacillus plantarum logarithmic growth phase was postponed and the cell viability declined. The cell survival rate of Lactobacillus plantarum increased during storage under -20℃ and up to 91.46% on day of 515th, while the cell survival increased under 4℃ before 28d, and drop to 53.16% on day of 515th. In conclusion, the early stage of secondary drying phase was the ideal terminal point of freeze-drying. 4℃ was good for short time storage for Lactobacillus plantarum, while -20℃ was a better choice for longer time storage.

Hypolipidemic Effect of Bioactive Components from Sea Cucumber in Rats
HU Xiao-qian,WANG Yu-ming,REN Bing-xing,CHANG Yao-guang,WANG Jing-feng,XUE Chang-hu*
2009, 30(23):  393-396.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923088
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sea cucumber and its main bioactive components on lipid metabolism in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with six rats per group. Group fed with basal diet served as a control group and other groups were fed the basal diets incorporated with whole sea cucumber, saponin, polysaccharide, polypeptide, dreg and no-saponin residue, respectively. After 28 days'feeding, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), hepatic lipid concentrations (TG, TC and phospholipids) were measured. The inhibitory effects of saponin and polysaccharide on activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) were also determined. Sea cucumber significantly reduced the accumulation of perirenal adipose tissue in rats. The TC and TG concentrations in serum and liver were significantly decreased by whole sea cucumber, especially by saponin and polysaccharide. The activities of FAS were suppressed by both saponin and polysaccharide, and saponin showed significantly higher FAS inhibitory effects than that of polysaccharide. In summary, saponin and polysaccharide were the major active components in sea cucumber, and saponin was more efficacious than polysaccharide in lowering lipid in rat.

Acute Toxicity of Ammonia and Nitrite to Adult Siniperca chuatsi
GUO Feng-hong,WANG Zhi-he*,CHEN Bi-wen,ZHU Kong-hui
2009, 30(23 ):  397-400.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923089
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During keep-alive transportation of aquatic products, higher-level molecular ammonia and nitrite were often accumulated in water. In order to explore the safe concentration of molecular ammonia and nitrite in water for adult Siniperca chuatsi, an acute toxicity test was conducted to examine the effect of molecular ammonia and nitrite on adult Siniperca chuatsi under the environment of 18-20 ℃ for water temperature, 3‰-4‰ of salinity, pH 7.31-7.57, and 8.2-8.5 mg/L of dissolved oxygen (DO). Results indicated that median lethal concentrations (LC50) of molecular ammonia were 0.389, 0.295 mg/L and 0.193 mg/L at the time point of 24, 48h and 96 h, respectively. Thus, the safe concentration of molecular ammonia in water for Siniperca chuatsi was 0.0193 mg/L. Similarly, median lethal concentration (LC50) of nitrite were determined to be 196.32, 91.69mg/L and 75.4 mg/L so that its safe concentration was 7.54 mg/L. Based on above investigations, molecular ammonia in water exhibited obvious toxicity to adult Siniperca chuatsi, and resulted in the death of fish although adult Siniperca chuatsi revealed resistance to nitrite toxicity to some extent. Therefore, quality monitoring of water to control the contents of ammonia, nitrogen and nitrite during keep-alive transportation of aquatic products is an effective strategy to improve the survival rate of fish.

Immune Regulation Function of Selenium-enriched Barley Seedling in Mice
XIAO Yan-yan1,WANG Xiao-jie1,*,DAI Xiao-man1,LIU Xin-sheng2,QU Yan-qing2,DU Rong1,LI Qin-yu1,ZHANG Long1
2009, 30(23 ):  401-405.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923090
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Objective: To observe immune regulation function of selenium-enriched barley seedling (SEBS) in mice by detecting cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity. Methods: Experimental mice were orally administered with SEBS at doses of 1, 0.5 g/ml and 0.1 g/ml. Meanwhile, two groups were also orally administered with saline water at the same volume and regular barley seedling at the dose of 1 g/ml as the controls. Total number of white blood cell (WBC), phagocytosis test of macrophage on abdominal cavity, titer of antibody, number of antibody-producing cells and weight of immune organs in mice were determined. Results: Compared to saline water group, SEBS could significantly improve phagocytic function of macrophages (P<0.01), obviously increase the titer of anti-CRBC antibody (P<0.05), spleen index (P<0.05), and total number of WBC (P<0.05). Conclusion: SEBS can promote cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity in mice in a dosedependent manner.

Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tartary Buckwheat Seed (TSE) and Its Acute Toxicity
HU Yi-bing,ZHAO Gang,PENG Lian-xin,YANG Jing-dong,ZOU Liang,GOU Qiu-fen
2009, 30(23):  406-409.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923091
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The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and acute toxicity of extract from Tartary Buckwheat seed (TSE). The animal models were established through dimethylbenzene-induced mice and rat inflammatory models with egg white injection under the aponeurosis. The pain models were obtained by hot plate and acetic acid in mice.The maximum administration dosage of TSE were determined via i.g. route in mice. TSE was able to significantly inhibit the mice ear edema induced by dimethylbenzene and the rat hind paw edema induced by egg white. The pain in mice caused by acetic acid and hot plate were evidently suppressed by TSE. The maximum administration dosage was 374.5g of TSE given to mice per kilogram, equivalent to 1498 times of the daily administration dosage of human body. TSE has obvious anti-inflammation and analgesia effect and no apparent toxicity.

Effect of Fibrinolytic Compound on Fibrinolysis in Rats
QU Jia-hua1,TIAN Hong2,WU Wen-hui1,HAO Fei1,BAO Bin1,*
2009, 30(23 ):  410-414.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923092
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The effect of compound MTP on induced clotlysis and its possible mechanism were investigated on the experimental model of pulmonary thrombosis in rat with fibrin labeled with FITC. The histological specimens of rat lung tissue were prepared and the degradation of FITC-labeled fibrin was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that MTP was able to enhance fibrinolysis in vivo. It was speculated that compound MTP could enhance intrinsic activity of prourokinase as a plasminogen activator in a rat pulmonary embolism model.

Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Free Radicals in Different Fiber Types of Rat Quadriceps by Electron Spin Resonance
LI Wen-jian1,2,YANG Ze-yi3,CAO Yuan-lin4,CHEN Zong-dao1,*
2009, 30(23):  415-418.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923093
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This study was aiming to investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on free radicals of different fibre types of quadriceps in rats by electron spin resonance (ESR). Results showed that GBE suspension was able to significantly enhance the intensities of free radical signals (gQ=2.0050) in white muscle of exercise rats (P<0.05) while the decrease was observed in red muscles decreased (P=0.06). However, the intensity was decreased by 74.48% in white muscle (P<0.005) and by 46.25% in whole quadriceps (P<0.005) at instant while it was elevated remarkably in red muscle (P<0.05) and whole quadriceps (P<0.05) after 24h of strenuous exhaustive exercise. The results showed that GBE could accelerate clearance of free radicals in red muscle and enhance the anti-oxidant activity and exercise tolerance of white muscles.

Immunoregulation Functions of Pupa Polypeptides in Mice
QI Ying-xin1,MENG Jun2,CAO Bai-ying1,FEI Bao-liang1,WEN Qi-long1
2009, 30(23 ):  419-421.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923094
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In order to investigate immunoregulation functions of pupa polypeptides, mice were randomly divided 3 groups and conducted to oral administration of pupa polypeptides at the doses of 5.0, 1.7 g/kg·d and 0.6 g/kg·d for 40 days, respectively. Changes in immune organ index, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), number of antibody-producing cells and carbon clearance capability were examined to evaluate immune functions. Results indicated that pupa polypeptides could significantly improve thymus index, promote plantar swelling, increase the generation of antibody-producing cells and enhance capability of monocyte-macrophage phagocytosis. Therefore, pupa polypeptides exhibited a significant effect on improvement of immune functions in mice.

Comparative Study of Cytoprotective Effects of Three Flavonols on Human Hepatocytes Injury Induced by H2O2 or CCl4 in vitro
ZHAO Xin-huai,ZHANG Xin
2009, 30(23):  422-427.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923095
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Flavonols are a group of naturally occurring polyphenols in plants and exhibit a broad variety of biological effects that have potential applications in foods. With some biochemical assays, the cytoprotective effects of three flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin) on human hepatocytes (HL-7702 cell line) oxidative injury induced by H2O2 or CCl4 were evaluated in vitro. The relationship between chemical structure of three flavonols and cytoprotective effect was investigated. Pretreatment of hepatocytes with three flavonols at concentrations of 20, 40, 60 μmol/L for 30 min could improve cell viability or the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in cells, and reduce the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage into culture medium or the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in cells. Cytoprotective effect of three flavonols was in the order of quercetin> myricetin > kaempferol, which didn't show a clear structure-activity relationship between the numbers of hydroxyl group in ring B of flavonols and their cytoprotective effect.

Extraction and Modulation on Mouse Normal Intestinal Microflora of Burdock Polysaccharide
XU Yong-jie1,ZHANG Bo2,*,ZHANG Yi-teng2
2009, 30(23):  428-431.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923096
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Extraction conditions of burdock polysaccharide (BPS) were optimized by conducting single factor experiments and the following orthogonal test, and modulation effects of BPS on normal intestinal microflora of ICR mice were studied. The optimum conditions were as that burdock were extracted with hot water at 80℃ with the ratio of solid-liquid 1:10 for 60 min and extracted twice. The amounts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in mice of BPS treated groups significantly increased as compared with those in the blank group (P< 0.05) , but the number of E.coli, Enterococcus was not significantly changed (P> 0.05).

Total Antioxidant Capacity and Protective Effect of Extract from Hairy Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch on CCl4-induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice
XIE Li-qiong1,LI Hai-fang2,Deliluer2
2009, 30(23 ):  432-435.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923097
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Total antioxidant capacity and protective effect of extract from hairy roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch (EHRG) on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice were evaluated, using extract from decoction pieces of G.uralensis F (EDPG) as positive control. Results showed that SOD, MDA and T-AOC level in EHRG-treated were significantly better than those in the model group, and similar to those in positive control group. EHRG treatment exhibited little effect on AST, ALT level, while EDPG did. EHRG reduced the LDH level, as the EDPG did, compared to the model group. Pathological section showed that both EHRG and EDPG exhibited protective effect on the injury of live.

Mutagenicity and Virulence Evaluation of Lactobacillus plantarum GUO
GUO Xiang1,AI Lian-zhong2,WU Yan2,3,ZHANG Hao1,CHEN Wei1,GUO Ben-heng2,*
2009, 30(23 ):  436-438.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923098
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Mutagenicity and virulence of Lactobacillus plantarum GUO, a cholesterol-reducing bacterium, were evaluated by conducting Ames test and animal test, respectively. There were no statistical significances of revertant colony number between Lactobacillus plantarum GUO treated groups and the control group, with or without S9 presence, and in a group between different Lactobacillus plantarum GUO dosages, while significance were found between control and positive control group in the Ames test (P < 0.05). This indicated that Lactobacillus plantarum GUO was probably of no mutagenicity. No tested SD rats had virulence reaction or died, and no statistically significant body weight changing was observed.

Effect of Superfine-Grinded Eggshell Powder on Bone Calcium of Rats
PAN Xu-lin,CAO Long-kui,ZHOU Rui
2009, 30(23):  439-442.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923099
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Superfine-grinded eggshell powder was prepared using planetary ball mill under low temperature, and its effects as a source of calcium on minor minerals in blood serum and calcium in bone of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were studied. Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels in blood serum were determined using a biochemical analyzer with conventional methods, and calcium level in bone was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that calcium levels in blood serum and bone of rats treated with superfine-grinded eggshell powder were significantly higher than those of the control group, with significant weight gain at the same time.

Research Advances in Oxidation of Milk Fat
LIU Qing-sheng1,2,WANG Jia-qi1,*,BU Deng-pan1,Khas-Erdene1,LIU Kai-lang1,ZHEN-Chen1,WEI Hong-yang1,ZHOU Ling-yun1,ZHAO Guo-qi2
2009, 30(23):  443-446.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923100
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Milk is a complex biological system, which is rich in fatty acids and prone to get lipid oxidation. Influential factors of oxidizing and anti-oxidizing in milk fat are summarized in the paper. More attention should be paid to study on the investigation of improving the quality and prolonging storage period of milk and milk products.

Recent Advances in Extraction and Analysis of Volatile Components in Fish
LIU Yu-ping,CHEN Hai-tao,SUN Bao-guo*
2009, 30(23 ):  447-451.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923101
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Volatile components in fish play important roles in flavor of fish. This paper summarized major studies on extraction and analysis of volatile components in fish through dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, distillation extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the recent decade. Aromatic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen were listed as the common volatile compounds or characteristic flavor compounds in fish.

Food Recall Systems in China and Abroad
LIU Fa-hui1,2,CHEN Hong-bing1,3,GAO Jin-yan2,*
2009, 30(23 ):  452-455.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923102
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The food recall system plays an important role in the maintenance of public safety and health. In this paper, we compared the regulatory, legal supports, recall procedures and other aspects of food recall systems between our country and some developed countries, and analyzed some similar characteristics of the more comprehensive food recall systems in the United States, Canada and other countries. There is still a gap between China's food recall system and developed countries.

Review on Utilization of Egg White
YANG Wan-gen1,2,WANG Zhang2,*,XU Yu-juan1,XIAO Geng-sheng1,MA Mei-hu3,TANG Dao-bang1
2009, 30(23):  456-459.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923103
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In some food industries, the demand for egg yolk was large, and egg white was often discarded as waste, which not only causes environmental pollution, but also wastes this valuable protein resource. Therefore, the comprehensive utilization of egg white is urgent. The research at home and abroad is currently focused on lysozyme extraction methods, egg white cold sterilization technology, the functional properties and the biological activities of egg white hydrolysates, and recent progress on the 4 aspects were reviewed in this article.

Review on Determination of Bromate in Drinking Water
WANG Yu1,2,QIU Jun3,ZHAO Guo-hua1,2,*
2009, 30(23):  460-464.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923104
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Bromate is one of the disinfection by-products produced by the ozonation of drinking water, which is considered as a potential 2B-level carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. Therefore, the research on determination methods of bromate is very vital to the control of this pollutant in drinking water. On the investigative basis of the recent published articles on this topic, principle, operating parameters, advantage and disadvantage of spectrophotometric, ionchromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis and electrochemical methods were introduced in a comparative way in this paper. In addition, the ready-to-solve problems on determination and control of bromate in drinking water were proposed.

Safety of Aquatic Products in China: A Review on Status Quo, Improvement and Control Measures
2009, 30(23 ):  465-469.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923105
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With the development of fisheries and the aquatic product processing industry in China, the safety issue of aquatic products is more concerned in China. This article was aiming to give a review of the current situation, development and improvement methods of aquatic product safety in China. It also pointed out that aquatic product safety risks can arise at any point from the aquatic product chain from fishing farm to mouth. In order to improve aquatic product safety in China, the control measures were proposed by controlling aquatic product safety, enforcing standard and system, intensifying management, inspection and supervision from fishing farm to aquatic product supplier, manufacturer, retailer, product service provider, consumer, media and government.

Application of Marine Biological Resources in Development of Military Functional Foods
LI Ying,WANG Hong-yu
2009, 30(23 ):  470-472.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923106
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As we all know, there are abundant biological resources in ocean. Marine biological resources have gained tremendous attention in the development of military functional foods. In this paper, military functional foods for anti-radiation, anti-fatigue and cerebral-promoting function from marine biological resources have been reviewed, which will provide reference for future research and development.

Research Progress of Fast Food in China
YANG Ming-duo,ZHANG Liang-yin
2009, 30(23 ):  473-478.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923107
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Fast food is the product of social development to a certain stage, and it plays a more and more important role in people's dietary life. In this paper, the research progress of fast food in China were reviewed from 6 aspects, including the basic theory, fast food products, mechanical equipments, business management, marketing, and business design .

Research Progress and Bioinformatics Analysis of Tomato MAPKs
ZHAO Rui-rui1,DING Yang1,SHEN Lin1,2,ZHAO Heng1,SHENG Ji-ping1,*
2009, 30(23 ):  479-483.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923108
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The plant mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathwaqys transduce a large variety of external signals, leading to a wide range of cellular responses, including growth, differentiation, stress reactions. In this review, we emphasized recent findings on the MAPK involvement related to stress tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MAPK, LeMAPK). According to the conservation of the MAPK sequences in different plants, we blasted the candidate LeMAPKs with the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MAPK (AtMAPK, AtMPK) sequences and got 18 LeMAPKs with two new sequences. The sequences of LeMAPKs and AtMAPKs were alignmented. In addition, the potential LeMAPKs were primarily documented by informatic analysis, which were divided into five groups based on the phylogenetic analysis.

Preparation, Properties and Applications of Fish Gelatin
WANG Wei-dong,LI Chao,SUN Yue-e*
2009, 30(23 ):  484-488.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923109
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Due to the potential spread of infectious diseases and special consumption requirements from Muslin and Jewish, fish gelatin has been gained tremendous attentions. In this paper, preparation of fish gelatin was introduced. Moreover, based on structural analysis of fish gelatin, its properties and film-forming capability and sensory evaluation characteristics were also reviewed here. Furthermore, its application prospects in food were proposed.

Application of ELISA Method in Food Detection
WANG Shou-fa1,KAN Chun-yue2,XU Xue-shu3
2009, 30(23):  489-492.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923110
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The principle and types of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were introduced, and the applications of ELISA in analysis of food investigation progress were reviewed, including the determination of anaphylactogen, pharmaceuticals residue, food toxins, pathogenic micro organisms and the compositions of genetically modified foods, etc. Some of the ELISA kits available in the market were listed. And the trends in the development of ELISA and its prospect in the food safety determination were also forward commented.

Review on Separation and Preparation Methods of Four Theaflavin Monomers
ZHANG Jian-yong1,JIANG He-yuan1,*,CUI Hong-chun1,2,YAO Yu1,2
2009, 30(23):  493-497.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923111
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Theaflavins are a class of tea natural product with broad development prospects. Separation and preparation method of theaflavin monomers were reviewed, including cellulose chromatography, dextran gel chromatography, silica gel chromatography, polyamide adsorption resin chromatography and high speed counter current chromatograph, with their advantages and disadvantages compared. Polyamide adsorption resin chromatography was more satisfactory for separation and preparation of theaflavin monomer than others.

Effect of Ultra-high Pressure Sterilization on Quality of Food Stuff
HAO Qin-feng,XU Hong-gao,GAO Yan-xiang*
2009, 30(23):  498-503.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923112
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Ultra-high pressure sterilization, a new non-heating technique, was developed for the sterilization of food stuff. This review focused on recent literatures on the developments of principle and kinetic study of ultra-high pressure sterilization, including the quality change of nutrition, color, aroma and structure of the food during processing. In addition, the existing problems and the trend for development of UHP in foodstuff were also summarized.

Research Progress in Health Care Function of Camel Milk
2009, 30(23 ):  504-507.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923113
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Treatments of inflammation, nephropathy, adjuvant therapy of diabetes and inhibition of tumor cell growth using camel milk were reviewed in this paper. The developing prospect of camel milk on health care was also proposed.

Determination of Chelating Rate in Organic Trace Element Complexes
HU Xiao-bo,XIE Ming-yong*
2009, 30(23 ):  508-511.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923114
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In this paper, the significance of chelating rate in organic trace element complexes has been demonstrated from three points such as balancing product quality, modulating process conditions and exploring product mechanisms. Determination methods for chelating rate were reviewed here. Based on comparison, organic solvent extraction method exhibited more applicable than gel filtration chromatography.

Food Safety Law and Related Systems
ZHAO Zeng-lian1,CHEN Zhi-feng2,LIN Xiang-mei2
2009, 30(23 ):  512-515.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923115
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China's Food Security Act has been put into effect in 2009. Food Safety Act covers a wide range and lasts a long time and there are many contents and highlights. This paper analyses the contents of food safety law and summarizes the previous and present related systems and supporting measures, which will provide valuable references for better understanding and implement of the law.

Diversity and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Chinese Traditional Foods
LI Qing-qing,CHEN Qi-he,HE Guo-qing*,ZHU Dong-sheng,MU Lin,YE Xue-fei
2009, 30(23):  516-520.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923116
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This review deals with recent research advances on the biodiversity of Chinese traditional foods lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Traditional foods like yoghourt, kumiss, kefir and fermented camel milk are abundant in LAB. The distribution of LAB taxa is highly variable from one traditional food to another. Isolation of LAB taxa mainly depends on the sample plating methods, incubation media and conditions. It is therefore difficult to define associations between population composition and either the type of traditional food or the geographic location. Identification of isolated strains needs a ployphasic approach, including a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods, among which the latter often based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and encompassing 16S rRNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. The main obstacle in current identification approach of LAB strains is the lack of a robust and exchangeable identification system for all LAB species. Some proposal are come up in this paper : 1) to establish a reliable and scientific system in sample collection, strain isolation and identification. 2) to isolate new characteristic strains. 3) to explore and develop new products contained LAB. 4) to intensify the research on the function and mechanism of isolated strains.

Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Hops: A Review
LIU Yu-mei
2009, 30(23):  521-527.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923117
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The hop plant (Humulus lupulus), commonly used in brewing, is a vigorous climbing herbaceous perennial, usually grown up strings in Hopfield and hop garden. Some members of this family are well-known for their content of pharmacologically active resins, polyphenols (such as xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol) and the essential oil. In addition to brewing, recent studies have shown biological activities of hops extract against cancer, antivirus and in inhibiting bone resorption as well as lipid peroxidation. Hops have also been used as a traditional herb with sedative, hypnotic, antispasmodic, stomachic, tonic, diuretic and topical bactericidal properties. The chemical composition in hops and their pharmacological effects are reviewed in this paper so as to present some sights for further application research and development.

Recent Progress in Studies of Chemical and Functional Properties of Ovomucin
SHAN Yuan-yuan,MA Mei-hu*
2009, 30(23):  528-532.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923118
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Ovomucin is a sulphated egg white glycoprotein responsible for the gel structure of egg thick white, which has a lot of biological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral and anti-coagulant activity. Ovomucin has not only important bioresearch meaning, but also has other various medical, nutritional and sanitarian values. This paper is aiming to summarize the research progress in Ovomucin, including the distribution, structural and physicochemical property as well as its biological activities. The separation and purification technologies of Ovomucin were also reviewed. The article will provide a scientific basis for the application and development of Ovomucin as an effective ingredient and for the exploitation and utilization of poultry eggs resource.

Review on Formation Mechanism, Analysis and Removal Technologies of Fishy Off-odor
YANG Yu-ping1,2,XIONG Guang-quan1,CHENG Wei1,QIAO Yu1,LIAO Tao1,*,LIN Ruo-tai1,LI Xiao-ding2,WU Wen-jin2
2009, 30(23):  533-538.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923119
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The formation mechanism, characteristic ingredients, analytical method of fishy off-odor and their removal technologies were reviewed. This review provided reference to further research in the formation mechanism of fishy off-odor, and development direction for the removal technologies of fishy off-odor in aquaculture products.

Research Advances in Drying Technology of Banana
LI Bao-yu1,2, BI Jin-feng2,*, ZHONG Geng1
2009, 30(23):  539-543.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923120
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Bananas are rich in vitamin B6 and are a good source of fiber, vitamin C, magnesium and potassium. The nutritional value of banana contributes to many health benefits for many diseases like constipation, bowel problems, anemia, blood pressure, heart problems, ulcers, brain stimulation, depression, nervous disorders, stress, morning sickness and menstruation. Banana drying process is one kind of technique used to enlarge its lifetime for consumption, reducing packing and transportation costs. This paper mainly introduces the category and of banana drying techniques. The development course is included and the existing problems and development trends as well as application prospects are also raised so as to present some insights for development of banana industries.

Comparative Study on Quality Safety Prevention and Control System of Fresh-cut Vegetables at Home and Abroad
CAI Jing1,FANG-Yong2,3,FU Jin2,YANG Yan-ting2,HU Qiu-hui2,3,*
2009, 30(23 ):  544-547.  doi:10.7506/spkx1002-6300-200923121
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Freesh-cut vegetable has many better characters such as freshness, convenient, nutrition, free pollution and so on, which has been accepted by more and more consumers. However, fresh-cut vegetables are easy to deteriorate, due to enzymatic browning, microbiological contamination, and consequently have short shelf life. Therefore, the present work describes the detailed comparison of the measures taken at home and abroad to control the quality and safety of fresh-cut vegetables.